Botswana the Republic of Botswana, is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. The British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name after becoming independent within the Commonwealth on 30 September 1966. Since it has maintained a tradition of stable representative republic, with a consistent record of uninterrupted democratic elections and the best perceived corruption ranking in Africa since at least 1998, it is Africa's oldest continuous democracy. Botswana is topographically flat, with up to 70 percent of its territory being the Kalahari Desert, it is bordered by South Africa to the south and southeast, Namibia to the west and north, Zimbabwe to the northeast. Its border with Zambia to the north near Kazungula is poorly defined but is, at most, a few hundred metres long. A mid-sized country of just over 2 million people, Botswana is one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world. Around 10 percent of the population lives in the capital and largest city, Gaborone.
One of the poorest countries in the world—with a GDP per capita of about US$70 per year in the late 1960s—Botswana has since transformed itself into one of the world's fastest-growing economies. The economy is dominated by mining and tourism. Botswana boasts a GDP per capita of about $18,825 per year as of 2015, one of the highest in Africa, its high gross national income gives the country a high standard of living and the highest Human Development Index of continental Sub-Saharan Africa. Botswana is a member of the African Union, the Southern African Development Community, the Commonwealth of Nations, the United Nations; the country has been among the hardest hit by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Despite the success in programmes to make treatments available to those infected, to educate the populace in general about how to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS, the number of people with AIDS rose from 290,000 in 2005 to 320,000 in 2013; as of 2014, Botswana has the third-highest prevalence rate for HIV/AIDS, with 20% of the population infected.
The country's name means "land of the tswana", referring to the dominant ethnic group in Botswana. The term Batswana was applied to the Tswana, still the case. However, it has come to be used as a demonym for all citizens of Botswana. Many English dictionaries recommend the term Botswanan to refer to people of Botswana. Archaeological digs have shown. Stone tools and fauna remains have shown that all areas of the country were inhabited at least 400,000 years ago. Evidence left by modern humans such as cave paintings are about 73,000 years old; the original inhabitants of southern Africa were the Khoi peoples. Both speak Khoisan languages and hunted and traded over long distances; when cattle were first introduced about 2000 years ago into southern Africa, pastoralism became a major feature of the economy, since the region had large grasslands free of tsetse fly. It is unclear when Bantu-speaking peoples first moved into the country from the north, although AD 600 seems to be a consensus estimate.
In that era, the ancestors of the modern-day Kalanga moved into what is now the north-eastern areas of the country. These proto-Kalanga were connected to states in Zimbabwe as well as to the Mapungubwe state; these states, located outside of current Botswana's borders, appear to have kept massive cattle herds in what is now the Central District—apparently at numbers approaching modern cattle density. This massive cattle-raising complex prospered until 1300 AD or so, seems to have regressed following the collapse of Mapungubwe. During this era, the first Tswana-speaking groups, the Bakgalagadi, moved into the southern areas of the Kalahari. All these various peoples were connected to trade routes that ran via the Limpopo River to the Indian Ocean, trade goods from Asia such as beads made their way to Botswana most in exchange for ivory and rhinoceros horn; the arrival of the ancestors of the Tswana-speakers who came to control the region has yet to be dated precisely. Members of the Bakwena, a chieftaincy under a legendary leader named Kgabo II, made their way into the southern Kalahari by AD 1500, at the latest, his people drove the Bakgalagadi inhabitants west into the desert.
Over the years, several offshoots of the Bakwena moved into adjoining territories. The Bangwaketse occupied areas to the west, while the Bangwato moved northeast into Kalanga areas. Not long afterwards, a Bangwato offshoot known as the Batawana migrated into the Okavango Delta in the 1790s; the first written records relating to modern-day Botswana appear in 1824. What these records show is that the Bangwaketse had become the predominant power in the region. Under the rule of Makaba II, the Bangwaketse kept vast herds of cattle in well-protected desert areas, used their military prowess to raid their neighbors. Other chiefdoms in the area, by this time, had capitals of 10,000 or so and were prosperous; this equilibrium came to end during the Mfecane period, 1823–1843, when a succession of invading peoples from South Africa entered the country. Although the Bangwaketse were able to defeat the invading Bakololo in 1826, over time all the major chiefdoms in Botswana were attacked and impoverished.
The Bakololo and Amandebele raided and took large numbers of cattle and children from the Batswana—most of whom were driven into the desert or sanctuary areas such as hilltops and caves. Only after 1843, when the Amandebele moved into western Zimbabwe, did this threat subside. During th
Scramble for Africa
The Scramble for Africa was the occupation and colonisation of African territory by Western European powers during the period of the New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914. In 1870, only 10 percent of Africa was under formal European control. With the Italian occupation of Ethiopia in 1936, only Liberia remained independent. There were multiple motivations for European colonizers, including the quest for national prestige, tensions between pairs of European powers, religious missionary zeal and internal African native politics; the Berlin Conference of 1884, which regulated European colonisation and trade in Africa, is referred to as the ultimate point of the Scramble for Africa. Consequent to the political and economic rivalries among the European empires in the last quarter of the 19th century, the partitioning, or splitting up of Africa was how the Europeans avoided warring amongst themselves over Africa; the years of the 19th century saw the transition from "informal imperialism" by military influence and economic dominance, to direct rule, bringing about colonial imperialism.
By 1840, European powers had established small trading posts along the coast, but they moved inland. In the middle decades of the 19th century, European explorers had mapped areas of East Africa and Central Africa; as late as the 1870s, Western European states controlled only ten percent of the African continent, with all their territories located near the coast. The most important holdings were Mozambique, held by Portugal. By 1914, only Ethiopia and Liberia remained independent of European control. Technological advances facilitated European expansion overseas. Industrialisation brought about rapid advancements in transportation and communication in the forms of steamships and telegraphs. Medical advances played an important role medicines for tropical diseases; the development of quinine, an effective treatment for malaria, made vast expanses of the tropics more accessible for Europeans. Sub-Saharan Africa, one of the last regions of the world untouched by "informal imperialism", was attractive to Europe's ruling elites for economic and social reasons.
During a time when Britain's balance of trade showed a growing deficit, with shrinking and protectionist continental markets due to the Long Depression, Africa offered Britain, Germany and other countries an open market that would garner them a trade surplus: a market that bought more from the colonial power than it sold overall. Surplus capital was more profitably invested overseas, where cheap materials, limited competition, abundant raw materials made a greater premium possible. Another inducement for imperialism arose from the demand for raw materials copper, rubber, palm oil, diamonds and tin, to which European consumers had grown accustomed and upon which European industry had grown dependent. Additionally, Britain wanted the southern and eastern coasts of Africa for stopover ports on the route to Asia and its empire in India. However, in Africa – excluding the area which became the Union of South Africa in 1910 – the amount of capital investment by Europeans was small, compared to other continents.
The companies involved in tropical African commerce were small, apart from Cecil Rhodes's De Beers Mining Company. Rhodes had carved out Rhodesia for himself; these events might detract from the pro-imperialist arguments of colonial lobbyists such as the Alldeutscher Verband, Francesco Crispi and Jules Ferry, who argued that sheltered overseas markets in Africa would solve the problems of low prices and overproduction caused by shrinking continental markets. John A. Hobson argued in Imperialism that this shrinking of continental markets was a key factor of the global "New Imperialism" period. William Easterly, disagrees with the link made between capitalism and imperialism, arguing that colonialism is used to promote state-led development rather than "corporate" development, he has stated that "imperialism is not so linked to capitalism and the free markets... there has been a closer link between colonialism/imperialism and state-led approaches to development." The rivalry between Britain, France and the other Western European powers accounts for a large part of the colonization.
While tropical Africa was not a large zone of investment, other overseas regions were. The vast interior between Egypt and the gold and diamond-rich southern Africa had strategic value in securing the flow of overseas trade. Britain was under political pressure to secure lucrative markets against encroaching rivals in China and its eastern colonies, most notably India, Malaya and New Zealand. Thus, it was crucial to secure the key waterway between West -- the Suez Canal. However, a theory that Britain sought to annex East Africa during the 1880 onwards, out of geostrategic concerns connected to Egypt, has been challenged by historians such as John Darwin and Jonas F. Gjersø; the scramble for African territory reflected concern for the acquisition of military and naval bases, for strategic purposes and the exercise of power. The growing navies, new ships driven by steam power, required coaling stations and ports for maintenance. Defense bases were needed for the protection of sea routes and communication lines of expensive and vital internatio
South-East District (Botswana)
South-East is one of the districts of Botswana. The capital city of Botswana, Gaborone, is surrounded by this district; the administrative capital for the South-East district is the village of Ramotswa. In the southeast, South-East borders the North West Province of South Africa. Domestically, it borders Kweneng in northwest, Southern in southwest; as of 2011, the total population of the district was 85,014 compared to 60,623 in 2001. The growth rate of population during the decade was 3.44. The total number of workers constituted 21,810 with 11,927 males and 9,883 females, with a majority of them involved in agriculture; the district is administered by a district administration and district council which are responsible for local administration. In the southeast, South-East borders the North West Province of South Africa. Domestically, it borders Kweneng in northwest, Southern in southwest. Most part of Botswana has tableland slopes sliding from east to west; the region has an average elevation of around 915 m above the mean sea level.
The vegetation type is Savannah, with tall grasses and trees. The annual precipitation is around 65 cm, most of, received during the summer season from November to May. Most of the rivers in the region are seasonal, with Limpopo River, which are prone to flash floods, being the most prominent. Mokolodi Nature Reserve, Gaborone Game Reserve and Manyelanong Game Reserve are the major tourist places in the district; as of 2011, the total population of the district was 85,014 compared to 60,623 in 2001. The growth rate of population during the decade was 3.44. The population in the district was 4.20 per cent of the total population in the country. The sex ratio stood at 91.83 for every 100 males, compared to 92.49 in 2001. The average house hold size was 2.51 in 2011 compared to 4.05 in 2001. There were 4,309 craft and related workers, 2,505 clerks, 5,115 people working in elementary occupation 884 Legislators, Administrators & managers 1,650 Plant & machine operators and assemblers, 1,215 professionals, 2,438 service workers, shop & market sales workers, 464 skilled agricultural & related workers 1,708 technicians and associated professionals, making the total work force to 20,481.
As of 2011, there were a total of 67 schools in the district, with 31.70 per cent private schools. The total number of students in the Council schools was 28,479, while it was 8,383 in private schools; the total number of students enrolled in the district was 36,862: 18,387 girls and 18,475 boys. The total number of qualified teachers was 1,603, 1,303 female and 300 male. There were around 4 temporary teachers, 1 male and 5 female. There were 13 untrained teachers in the district; as of 2006, 4,819 were involved in agriculture, 1,091 in construction, 3,182 in education, 304 in electricity and water, 356 in finance, 446 in health, 470 in hotels and restaurants, 2,674 in manufacturing, 164 in mining and quarrying, 567 in other community services, 461 in private households, 1,922 in public administration, 1,501 in real estate, 992 in transport and communications, 2,861 in wholesale and retail trade. The total number of workers was 21,810, 11,927 male and 9,883 female. Botswana gained independence from the British in 1966 and adapted the colonial administration framework to form its district administration.
The policies were modified during 1970-74 to address some of the basic issues. The district is administered by a district administration and district council which are responsible for local administration; the policies for the administration are framed by the Ministry of Local Government. The major activities of the council are Tribal Administration, Remote Area Development and Local Governance; the executive powers of the council are vested on a commissioner appointed by the central government. Technical services wing of the Department of Local Government is responsible for developing roads, infrastructure in villages like water supply and recreational facilities. All the staff of the local administration expect District Administration are selected via Unified Local Government Services and the Ministry of Local Government is responsible for their training and career development; the sub-districts of South-East District created as a part of National Development Park of the district are Ramotswa and Tlokweng.
In the 2011 Census the following villages were listed under each sub-district: Ramotswa sub-district: Mogobane, Ramotswa Station/Taung Tlokweng sub-district: Otse, Tlokweng Sub-districts of Botswana
Kgomokasitwa is a small village in the Southern District of Botswana, located some few kilometers north of Lobatse. To reach the village you travel by the A2 road between Lobatse and Kanye branch to the right at the Molapowabojang ward called Tshweneyagae. Kgomokasitwa has a population of about 1423; the village falls under the administration of the Southern District Council, headquartered in Kanye, Botswana. For civil administration it falls under Moshupa Sub District. Kgomokasitwa gets its name from a hill, located 6 km from the village. There can be seen mist at the top of the hill indicating that it may be cold up there, hence the name Kgomokasitwa or loosely translated, Freezing Cow. and. The majority of people in the village are of Bangwaketse tribe though it is multi tribal; the local councilor is Mr. Normam Lekoba of Botswana Democratic Party; the village Chief or Headman of records is Mr. Sam Tshetlhe Radimpa from May 2013. Kgomokasitwa is located in hilly area. To the central east there is lentswe la Kgomokasitwa.
To the north there is Lentswe la diphala. There are seasonal rivers, Kwelepane River to the south and Chawe River to the north and far western parts of the village. Kgomokasitwa has one primary school for pupils aged from 5 year to 13 years; the pupils complete a 7-year curriculum, finished by seating for PSLE Students attend intermediate junior high in either Molapowabojang or Lobatse. For High school there is Lobatse Secondary School in Lobatse. Kgomokasitwa is serviced by Kgomokasitwa Health Post for primary care, for hospital the community depends on Athlone Hospital in Lobatse. Electricity: Serviced by Botswana Power Cooperation under the national grid as from 2003. Water: Until 2008, Kgomokasitwa was supplied by Water Affairs, but now the services are provided by Water Utilities Cooperation. Accessible from Tshweneyagae Junction, from A2- Lobatse- Windhoek highway or from B105 from Magotlhwane. B105 runs from Mogobane to Ranaka
Kanye Omari West is an American rapper, songwriter, record producer and fashion designer. His musical career has been marked by dramatic changes in styles, incorporating an eclectic range of influences including soul, baroque pop, indie rock, synth-pop and gospel. Over the course of his career, West has been responsible for cultural movements and progressions within mainstream hip hop and popular music at large. Born in Atlanta and raised in Chicago, West first became known as a producer for Roc-A-Fella Records in the early 2000s, producing hit singles for recording artists such as Jay-Z, Ludacris and Alicia Keys. Intent on pursuing a solo career as a rapper, West released his debut album The College Dropout in 2004 to widespread critical and commercial success, founded the record label GOOD Music, he went on to experiment with a variety of musical genres on subsequent acclaimed studio albums, including Late Registration and the polarizing but influential 808s & Heartbreak. He released his fifth album My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy in 2010 to further rave reviews, has since succeeded it with Yeezus, The Life of Pablo and Ye, as well as full-length collaborations Watch the Throne and Kids See Ghosts with Jay-Z and Kid Cudi respectively.
West's outspoken views and life outside of music have received significant media attention. He has been a frequent source of controversy for his conduct at award shows, on social media, in other public settings, as well as his comments on the music and fashion industries, U. S. politics, race. His marriage to television personality Kim Kardashian has been a source of substantial media attention; as a fashion designer, he has collaborated with Nike, Louis Vuitton, A. P. C. on both clothing and footwear, have most prominently resulted in the Yeezy collaboration with Adidas beginning in 2013. He is the founder and head of the creative content company DONDA. West is among the most critically acclaimed musicians of the 21st century and one of the best-selling music artists of all time with over 135 million records sold worldwide, he has won a total of 21 Grammy Awards, making him one of the most awarded artists of all time and the most Grammy-awarded artist of his generation. Three of his albums have been included and ranked on Rolling Stone's 2012 update of the "500 Greatest Albums of All Time" list and he ties with Bob Dylan for having topped the annual Pazz & Jop critic poll the most number of times with four number-one albums each.
Time magazine named him one of the 100 most influential people in the world in 2005 and 2015. Kanye Omari West was born on June 1977, in Atlanta, Georgia. After his parents divorced when he was three years old he moved with his mother to Chicago, Illinois, his father, Ray West, is a former Black Panther and was one of the first black photojournalists at The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Ray West was a Christian counselor, in 2006, opened the Good Water Store and Café in Lexington Park, Maryland with startup capital from his son. West's mother, Dr. Donda C. West, was a professor of English at Clark Atlanta University, the Chair of the English Department at Chicago State University, before retiring to serve as his manager. West was raised in a middle-class background, attending Polaris High School in suburban Oak Lawn, after living in Chicago. At the age of 10, West moved with his mother to Nanjing, where she was teaching at Nanjing University as part of an exchange program. According to his mother, West was the only foreigner in his class, but settled in well and picked up the language, although he has since forgotten most of it.
When asked about his grades in high school, West replied, "I got B's. And I'm not frontin'."West demonstrated an affinity for the arts at an early age. His mother recalled that she first took notice of West's passion for drawing and music when he was in the third grade. West started rapping in the third grade and began making musical compositions in the seventh grade selling them to other artists. At age thirteen, West wrote a rap song called "Green Eggs and Ham" and persuaded his mother to pay for time in a recording studio. Accompanying him to the studio and despite discovering it being "a little basement studio" where a microphone hung from the ceiling by a wire clothes hanger, West's mother nonetheless supported and encouraged him. West crossed paths with producer/DJ No I. D. with whom he formed a close friendship. No I. D. soon became West's mentor, it was from him that West learned how to sample and program beats after he received his first sampler at age 15. After graduating from high school, West received a scholarship to attend Chicago's American Academy of Art in 1997 and began taking painting classes, but shortly after transferred to Chicago State University to study English.
He soon realized that his busy class schedule was detrimental to his musical work, at 20 he dropped out of college to pursue his musical dreams. This action displeased his mother, a professor at the university, she commented, "It was drummed into my head that college is the ticket to a good life... but some career goals don't require college. For Kanye to make an album called College Dropout it was more about having the guts to embrace who you are, rather than following the path society has carved out for you." Kanye West began his early production career in the mid-1990s, creating beats for burgeoning local artists developing a style that involved speeding up vocal samples from classic soul records. His first official production credits came at the age of nineteen
Human Development Index
The Human Development Index is a statistic composite index of life expectancy and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores a higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, the GNI per capita is higher, it was developed by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq, with help from Gustav Ranis of Yale University and Meghnad Desai of the London School of Economics, was further used to measure a country's development by the United Nations Development Program's Human Development Report Office. The 2010 Human Development Report introduced an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index. While the simple HDI remains useful, it stated that "the IHDI is the actual level of human development", "the HDI can be viewed as an index of'potential' human development"; the index does not take into account several factors, such as the net wealth per capita or the relative quality of goods in a country. This situation tends to lower the ranking for some of the most advanced countries, such as the G7 members and others.
The index is based on the human development approach, developed by ul Haq framed in terms of whether people are able to "be" and "do" desirable things in life. Examples include—Being: well fed, healthy; the freedom of choice is central—someone choosing to be hungry is quite different from someone, hungry because they cannot afford to buy food, or because the country is in a famine. The origins of the HDI are found in the annual Human Development Reports produced by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme; these were devised and launched by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq in 1990, had the explicit purpose "to shift the focus of development economics from national income accounting to people-centered policies". To produce the Human Development Reports, Mahbub ul Haq formed a group of development economists including Paul Streeten, Frances Stewart, Gustav Ranis, Keith Griffin, Sudhir Anand, Meghnad Desai. Nobel laureate Amartya Sen utilized Haq's work in his own work on human capabilities.
Haq believed that a simple composite measure of human development was needed to convince the public and politicians that they can and should evaluate development not only by economic advances but improvements in human well-being. Published on 4 November 2010, the 2010 Human Development Report calculated the HDI combining three dimensions: A long and healthy life: Life expectancy at birth Education index: Mean years of schooling and Expected years of schooling A decent standard of living: GNI per capita In its 2010 Human Development Report, the UNDP began using a new method of calculating the HDI; the following three indices are used: 1. Life Expectancy Index = LE − 20 85 − 20 LEI is 1 when Life expectancy at birth is 85 and 0 when Life expectancy at birth is 20.2. Education Index = MYSI + EYSI 2 2.1 Mean Years of Schooling Index = MYS 15 Fifteen is the projected maximum of this indicator for 2025. 2.2 Expected Years of Schooling Index = EYS 18 Eighteen is equivalent to achieving a master's degree in most countries.3.
Income Index = ln − ln ln − ln II is 1 when GNI per capita is $75,000 and 0 when GNI per capita is $100. The HDI is the geometric mean of the previous three normalized indices: HDI = LEI ⋅ EI ⋅ II 3. LE: Life expectancy at birth MYS: Mean years of schooling EYS: Expected years of schooling GNIpc: Gross national income at purchasing power parity per capita The HDI combined three dimensions last used in its 2009 Report: Life expectancy at birth, as an index of population health and longevity to HDI Knowledge and education, as measured by the adult literacy rate and the combined primary and tertiary gross enrollment ratio. Standard of living, as indicated by the natural logarithm of gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity; this methodology was used by the UNDP until their 2011 report. The formula defining the HDI is promulgated by the United Nations Development Programme. In general, to transform a raw variable, say x, into a unit-free index between 0 and 1 (which allo
A flash flood is a rapid flooding of low-lying areas: washes, dry lakes and basins. It may be caused by heavy rain associated with a severe thunderstorm, tropical storm, or meltwater from ice or snow flowing over ice sheets or snowfields. Flash floods may occur after the collapse of a natural ice or debris dam, or a human structure such as a man-made dam, as occurred before the Johnstown Flood of 1889. Flash floods are distinguished from regular floods by having a timescale of fewer than six hours between rainfall and the onset of flooding; the water, temporarily available is used by plants with rapid germination and short growth cycles and by specially adapted animal life. Flash floods can occur under several types of conditions. Flash flooding occurs when it rains on saturated soil or dry soil that has poor absorption ability; the runoff collects in gullies and streams and, as they join to form larger volumes forms a fast flowing front of water and debris. Flash floods most occur in dry areas that have received precipitation, but they may be seen anywhere downstream from the source of the precipitation many miles from the source.
In areas on or near volcanoes, flash floods have occurred after eruptions, when glaciers have been melted by the intense heat. Flash floods are known to occur in the highest mountain ranges of the United States and are common in the arid plains of the Southwestern United States. Flash flooding can be caused by extensive rainfall released by hurricanes and other tropical storms, as well as the sudden thawing effect of ice dams. Human activities can cause flash floods to occur; when dams fail, a large quantity of water can destroy everything in its path. The United States National Weather Service gives the advice "Turn Around, Don't Drown" for flash floods. Many people tend to underestimate the dangers of flash floods. What makes flash floods most dangerous is their sudden nature and fast-moving water. A vehicle provides little to no protection against being swept away. More than half of the fatalities attributed to flash floods are people swept away in vehicles when trying to cross flooded intersections.
As little as 2 feet of water is enough to carry away most SUV-sized vehicles. The U. S. National Weather Service reported in 2005 that, using a national 30-year average, more people die yearly in floods, 127 on average, than by lightning, tornadoes, or hurricanes. In deserts, flash floods can be deadly for several reasons. First, storms in arid regions are infrequent, but they can deliver an enormous amount of water in a short time. Second, these rains fall on poorly absorbent and clay-like soil, which increases the amount of runoff that rivers and other water channels have to handle; these regions tend not to have the infrastructure that wetter regions have to divert water from structures and roads, such as storm drains and retention basins, either because of sparse population or poverty, or because residents believe the risk of flash floods is not high enough to justify the expense. In fact, in some areas, desert roads cross a dry river and creek beds without bridges. From the driver's perspective, there may be clear weather, when a river unexpectedly forms ahead of or around the vehicle in a matter of seconds.
The lack of regular rain to clear water channels may cause flash floods in deserts to be headed by large amounts of debris, such as rocks and logs. Deep slot canyons can be dangerous to hikers as they may be flooded by a storm that occurs on a mesa miles away; the flood sweeps through the canyon. 1889: Johnstown Flood, Pennsylvania, U. S.: more than 2,200 people dead 1903: Heppner Flood of 1903. S.: 115 dead 1938: Kopuawhara flash flood of 1938, Mahia Peninsula, New Zealand: 21 dead 1952: Lynmouth disaster, England: 34 dead 1963: Petra Flash Flood, Jordan: 23 dead 1963: Vajont dam disaster, Italy: 1910 dead 1967: Flash flood in Lisbon, Portugal: 464 dead 1969: Nelson County, Virginia, US: 123 dead 1971: Kuala Lumpur floods, Malaysia: 32 dead 1972: The Black Hills flood, South Dakota, U. S.: 238 dead 1976: The Big Thompson River flood, Colorado, U. S.: 143 dead 1997: Antelope Canyon, a popular tourist attraction north of Page, Arizona:11 dead 2003: Bukit Lawang in Indonesia 239 people were killed 2006: Jember Regency in Indonesia 59 people dead 2007: Sudan floods, 64 dead.
2009: September 26 in Metro Manila Marikina city, Taguig City, Pasig City. It submerged several municipalities under feet of deep water for several weeks. 2009: October 1, Messina, 37 dead. See 2009 Messina floods and mudslides. 2010: Madeira archipelago, 42 dead 2011: Lockyer Valley, Australia. 21 dead in the town of Grantham. 2011: Philippines, Cagayan de Oro and Iligan City, 17 December 2011. At least 1200 dead 2012: May 5, Nearly three weeks of damming left 72 dead in the Seti Gorge in Upper Seti Basin. Rock and avalanche fall from the western part of Annapurna IV mountain in Nepal. 2012: Krasnodarskiy Kray, Russia. 172 dead following a flash flood that struck at 2 A. M. local time on 7 July. Main cities that were hit are Gelendzhik. 2013: Uttarakhand, India: 822 dead 2013: Novemb