The Southern League known as the BetVictor Southern League under the terms of a sponsorship agreement with BetVictor, is a men's football competition featuring semi-professional clubs from the South West,'South Central' and Midlands of England and South Wales. Together with the Isthmian League and the Northern Premier League it forms levels seven and eight of the English football league system; the structure of the Southern League has changed several times since its formation in 1894, there are 84 clubs which are divided into four divisions. The Central and South Divisions are at step 3 of the National League System, are feeder divisions to the National League South but to the National League North. Feeding the Premier Divisions are two regional divisions, Division One Central and Division One South, which are at step 4 of the NLS; these divisions are in turn fed by various regional leagues. Professional football developed more in Southern England than in Northern England. Professionalism was sanctioned by The Football Association as early as 1885, but when The Football League was founded in 1888 it was based in the north and midlands with the County Football Associations in the South being opposed to professionalism.
Woolwich Arsenal were the first club in London to turn professional in 1891 and were one of the prime motivators behind an attempt to set up a Southern League to mirror the existing Northern and Midlands based Football League. However, this venture failed in the face of opposition from the London Football Association and Woolwich Arsenal instead joined the Football League as its only representative south of Birmingham in 1893. Additionally, an amateur league, the Southern Alliance was founded in 1892, with seven clubs from the region, but that folded after one incomplete season. Nonetheless, another attempt was made to form the Southern League, this time it was successful. A competition for both professional and amateur clubs was founded in 1894 under the initiative of Millwall Athletic. Only one division was envisaged, but such was the enthusiasm, that two divisions were formed; the sixteen founder members were: 2nd Scots Guards withdrew before the first season started and were replaced by Southampton St Mary's.
Woolwich Arsenal attempted to add their reserve side to the second division but this application was refused. The Southern League soon became the dominant competition below The Football League in Southern and Central England. By the turn of the century a few of the Southern League sides began to rival the Football League in the FA Cup. A preview of the 1900–01 season in the Daily News described the league as "now, without a doubt, second only in importance and the strength of its clubs to the Football League itself. With the exception of Woolwich Arsenal, who prefer to remain members of the Second Division of the Football League, all the best professional teams in the South are now enrolled in the ranks of the Southern League". Two Southern League clubs and Tottenham Hotspur reached the final of the FA Cup around the turn of the twentieth century. Tottenham Hotspur are the only club from outside the Football League to have won the FA Cup. Several of the best players in England moved from the Football League to the Southern League around this time, due to the restrictions on their freedom of movement and wages implemented by the Football League between 1893 and 1901, the failed efforts of the Association Footballers' Union to relax the restrictions.
The champions of the two leagues during this period met in the annual Charity Shield. Out of the six meetings the respective league champions had in the Shield, only one was won by the Southern League champions – Brighton & Hove Albion, in 1910, this remains their only top level national honour. In 1907, it accepted Bradford Park Avenue, a northern club, as a member, reflecting its senior position at the time. Up until World War I, the league organised several representative'inter-league' matches, against the Football League XI and the Scottish Football League XI. In 1920 the entire top division of the Southern League was absorbed by the Football League to become that league's new Third Division. A year the Third Division was expanded and regionalised; the Third Division clubs from the previous season became the Third Division South, with the addition of the Third Division North. Of the original founder members, six – Gillingham, Luton Town, Reading and Swindon Town – are now Premier or Football League clubs.
For the next six decades, the Football League and Southern League would exchange a limited number of clubs as a result of the older league's re-election process. From 1920 onward, the Southern League's status as a semi-professional league was established. With its clubs seeking a more regular means of advancing to the Football League, in 1979 the Southern League became a feeder to the new Alliance Premier League along with the Isthmian League and the Northern Premier League, the top Southern clubs of the day joined the new league. In turn, the APL would succeed in becoming a feeder to the Football League; the league lost more of its top clubs in 2004 when the Conference added two regional divisions below the existing National League, the Conference South and Conference North. In May 2017, the FA chose the Southern League to add an additional division at step 3 as part of another restructuring in the NLS; the new Ce
Electron-beam freeform fabrication is an additive manufacturing process that builds near-net-shape parts requiring less raw material and finish machining than traditional manufacturing methods. It uses a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment to create a molten pool on a metallic substrate; the use of electron beam welding for additive manufacturing was first developed by Vivek Davé in 1995 as part of his PhD thesis at MIT. The process was referred as electron beam solid freeform fabrication. NASA Langley Research Center developed the process further calling it electron beam freeform fabrication; the additive manufacturing process was developed and engineered by Karen Taminger, material research engineer for NASA LaRC. EBF3 is a NASA-patented additive manufacturing process designed to build near-net-shape parts requiring less raw material and finish machining than traditional manufacturing methods. EBF3 is a process; the process efficiencies of the electron beam and the feedstock make the EBF3 process appropriate for in-space use.
Since 2000, a team of researchers at the NASA LaRC have led the fundamental research and development of this technique for additive manufacturing for metallic aerospace structures. Additive manufacturing encompasses processes in which parts are built by successively adding material rather than by cutting or grinding it away as in conventional machining. Additive manufacturing is an outgrowth of rapid-prototyping techniques such as stereolithography, first developed for non-structural plastic parts over 30 years ago; the operational concept of EBF3 is to build a near-net-shape metal part directly from a computer-aided design file. Current computer-aided machining practices start with a CAD model and use a post-processor to write the machining instructions defining the cutting tool paths needed to make the part. EBF3 uses a similar process, starting with a CAD model, numerically slicing it into layers using a post-processor to write the G-code defining the deposition path and process parameters for the EBF3 equipment.
It uses a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment to create a molten pool on a metallic substrate. The beam is translated with respect to the surface of the substrate while metal wire is fed into the molten pool; the deposit solidifies after the electron beam has passed, having sufficient structural strength to support itself. The sequence is repeated in a layer-additive manner to produce a near-net-shape part needing only finish machining; the EBF3 process is scalable for components from fractions of an inch to tens of feet in size, limited by the size of the vacuum chamber and amount of wire feedstock available. Electron-beam additive manufacturing Video: EBF3 – Electron Beam Free Form Fabrication Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication for Cost Effective Near-Net Shape From Nothing, Something: One Layer at a Time Electron-Beam Free-Form Fabrication System Device like ‘Star Trek’ replicator is in the works
Abu Simbel is a village in the Egyptian part of Nubia, about 240 kilometers southwest of Aswan and near the border with Sudan. As of 2012, it has about 2600 inhabitants, it is best known as the site of the Abu Simbel temples, which were built by King Ramses II. The name Abu Simbel is a cacography of the Arabic Abu Sunbul, due in part to assimilation. Abu Sunbul is itself a derivative of the ancient place name Ipsambul. In the New Kingdom period, the region in which the temple was built may have been called Meha, but this is not certain. About 20 km southwest of Abu Simbel was the small village of Ibshek, somewhat north of the Second Cataract of the Nile, in present-day Sudan flooded by Lake Nubia, near the border with Egypt. Abu Simbel is in southern Egypt, not far from the border with Sudan, it is administratively part of the Aswan Governorate. The Sudanese border is only about 20 kilometers away to the southwest. However, the course of the border is disputed; the nearest city, Wadi Halfa, is located 65 kilometers southwest of Abu Simbel in Sudanese territory, on the east bank of Lake Nubia, the Sudanese name of Lake Nasser.
The city was, like the Temple of Abu Simbel, relocated onto higher ground due to the flooding caused by the filling of the reservoir. Abu Simbel is linked to the governorate capital of Aswan by a road that passes west of Lake Nasser, through the Libyan Desert, it is used predominantly by tour buses bringing visitors to the Abu Simbel temples, but it has importance for the irrigation projects in the parts of the desert situated near the reservoir. Lake Nasser is navigable, so Abu Simbel is reachable from the lakeside. A few cruise ships navigate the lake upstream of the Aswan Dam; the village is reachable by air via the Abu Simbel Airport. Abu Simbel is located in one of the driest regions of Egypt. In the summer months, the high temperatures are 40 °C on average. Despite the great temperature differences between day and night, temperatures in summer fall below 20 °C. Winters are mild with highs around 25 °C. Precipitation is so rare here. In the past, Abu Simbel was located on the west bank of the Nile between the first and second Cataracts of the Nile.
Cataracts are rapids caused by boulders or rock sills. Today both cataracts near Aswan and Wadi Halfa are covered by Lake Nasser, named after Gamal Abdel Nasser, Egyptian president from 1954 to 1970. At the time of Ramses II, the southern border of the realm of the Pharaohs was located near the two cataracts; the construction of the Abu Simbel temple compound there was meant to demonstrate the power and eternal supremacy of Egypt with respect to the tributary Nubia. The new dam flooded all of Lower Nubia, the inhabitants became homeless and were resettled in the areas of Aswan and Kom Ombo. Only in Abu Simbel was a new village developed with a airport. Due to a lack of agricultural land the entire population now depends on tourism. Since the turn of the millennium, various projects are underway with the goal of making the elevated desert regions fertile using water from the lake. Abu Simbel Airport Aboccis