Carbondale is a city in Jackson County, United States, within the Southern Illinois region informally known as Little Egypt. The city developed from 1853 because of the stimulation of railroad construction into the area, today the major roadways of Illinois Route 13 and U. S. Route 51 intersect in the city. The city is 96 miles southeast of St. Louis, Carbondale is the home of the main campus of Southern Illinois University. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 25,902, the CSA has 126,575 residents, the sixth-most-populous Combined statistical area in Illinois. In August 1853, Daniel Harmon Brush, John Asgill Conner, Brush named Carbondale for the large deposit of coal in the area. The first train through Carbondale arrived on Independence Day 1854, traveling north on the line from Cairo. By the time of the American Civil War, Carbondale had developed as a center for transportation and business. This part of Illinois was known as Little Egypt because of the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, the city has had a college since 1856 beginning with the Presbyterian founded Carbondale College which was converted to an elementary school.
Carbondale won the bid for the new teacher training school for the region. This gave the new industry, new citizens, and a supplement to public schools. In 1947, the name was changed to Southern Illinois University and it has become the flagship of the Southern Illinois University system. This institution, now recognized as a research university, has nearly 18,000 students enrolled. On April 29,1866, one of the first formal Memorial Day observations following the Civil War was held at the citys Woodlawn Cemetery, local resident, General John A. Logan, gave the principal address. In the early 20th century, Carbondale was known as the Athens of Egypt, due to the expansion of the college and university, the phrase dates to at least 1903, when it appeared in a local paper. By 1922, the Carbondale Free Press was using the phrase on its flag, Carbondale is located at 37°44′N 89°13′W. It is in the watershed of the Big Muddy River, at 415 feet above sea level. According to the 2010 census, Carbondale has an area of 17.519 square miles.
Carbondale lies in the limits of a humid subtropical climate
Northern Illinois University
Northern Illinois University is a public research university in DeKalb, United States, with satellite centers in Chicago, Hoffman Estates, Naperville and Oregon. It was founded as Northern Illinois State Normal School on May 22,1895, douglas Baker was named the universitys twelfth president in May 2013. The university is composed of seven degree-granting colleges and has a student body of 25,000 with over 225,000 alumni. NIU is one of two public universities in Illinois that compete in the National Collegiate Athletic Association at the highest levels of all sports. The Universitys athletic teams are known as the NIU Huskies and compete in the Mid-American Conference, Northern Illinois University was founded as part of the expansion of the normal school program established in 1857 in Normal, Illinois. In 1895, the legislature created a Board of Trustees for the governance of the Northern Illinois State Normal School. In July 1917, the Illinois Senate consolidated the boards of trustees for the five state normal schools into one state Normal School Board, over the next fifty-eight years, the school and the governing board changed their names several times.
In 1921, the legislature gave the institution the name Northern Illinois State Teachers College, in 1941, the Normal School Board changed its name to the Teachers College Board. In 1951 the Teachers College Board authorized the college to grant the degree Master of Science in Education, the Teachers College Board granted permission for the college to add curricula leading to the degrees Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science. On July 1,1957, the Seventieth General Assembly renamed Northern Illinois State College as Northern Illinois University in recognition of its status as a liberal arts university. In 1967 authority for Northern Illinois University, Illinois State University, the Board of Regents and the Chancellor governed the three Regency universities until the end of 1995. On January 1,1996, authority for each of the three regency universities was transferred to three independent Boards of Trustees, each concerned solely with one university,12 presidents have served at the university.
New interdisciplinary academic programs in Environmental Studies and Community Leadership and Civic Engagement were established in FY2012, in the most recent 2014 edition, NIU was ranked number 177 out of 206 ranked National Universities. Washington Monthly ranks NIU as the 135th National University in the United States, NIU is a member of the Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities. Carnegie categorizes Northern as, RU/H, Research Universities, the Department of Geology and Environmental Geosciences is known for programs in hydrogeology and polar science. NIU has been awarded the Title VI Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships since 1974, NIU is the next major research university outside of Chicagoland. The NIU School of Theatre and Dance has a relationship with the Moscow Art Theatre School, Graduate students spend a month training in Moscow, while the undergraduates participate in a semester-long program. The NIU Rehabilitation Counseling program is noted nationwide, in the 2010-2011 academic year, the program graduated seven students, whose average GPA was 3.90
The Arizona Cardinals are a professional American football franchise based in the Phoenix metropolitan area. The Cardinals compete in the National Football League as a member of the leagues National Football Conference West division, the Cardinals were founded as the Morgan Athletic Club in 1898, and are the oldest continuously run professional football team in the United States. The Cardinals play their games at the University of Phoenix Stadium. The team was established in Chicago in 1898 and was a member of the NFL in 1920. Along with the Chicago Bears, the club is one of two NFL charter member franchises still in operation since the leagues founding, the club moved to St. Louis in 1960 and played in that city through 1987. Before the 1988 season, the team moved west to Tempe, Arizona, a suburb east of Phoenix. In 2006, the club playing all home games at the newly constructed University of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale. The franchise has won two NFL championships, both while it was based in Chicago, the first occurred in 1925, but is the subject of controversy, with supporters of the Pottsville Maroons believing that Pottsville should have won the title.
Their second title, and the first to be won in a game, came in 1947. They returned to the game to defend in 1948. In 2012 the Cardinals became the first NFL franchise to lose 700 games since its inception, the franchises all-time win-loss record at the conclusion of the 2016 season is 549–741–40. They have been to the ten times and have won seven playoff games. During that season, they won their only NFC Championship Game since the 1970 AFL–NFL merger, the team has won five division titles since their 1947–1948 NFL championship game appearances. From 1988 through 2012, the Cardinals conducted their summer training camp at Northern Arizona University in Flagstaff. The Cardinals moved their camp to University of Phoenix Stadium in 2013. The stadium was the site of the 2015 Pro Bowl, unlike in past years, the stadium played host to Super Bowls XLII and XLIX. The franchises inception dates back to 1898, when a group gathered to play in the Chicago South Side. Chicago painting and building contractor Chris OBrien acquired the team, which he relocated to Normal Field on Racine Avenue, the team was known as Racine Normals until 1901, when OBrien bought used jerseys from the University of Chicago
The Jacksonville Jaguars are an American professional football franchise based in Jacksonville, Florida. The Jaguars compete in the National Football League as a club of the American Football Conference South division. The team plays its games at EverBank Field. The Jaguars and the Carolina Panthers joined the NFL as expansion teams for the 1995 season, since their inception, the Jaguars have won division championships in 1998 and 1999 and have qualified for the playoffs six times, most recently in 2007. From their inception until 2011, the Jacksonville Jaguars majority owner was Wayne Weaver, the team was purchased by Pakistani-born businessman Shahid Khan for an estimated $770 million. In 2015, Forbes estimated the value at $1.48 billion. In 1989, the ownership group Touchdown Jacksonville. The group initially included future Florida Governor Jeb Bush and Jacksonville developer Tom Petway, in 1991, the NFL announced plans to add two expansion teams in 1994, its first expansion since the 1976 addition of the Seattle Seahawks and the Tampa Bay Buccaneers.
Announced its bid for a team, and Jacksonville was ultimately chosen as one of five finalists, along with Charlotte, St. Louis, Jacksonville was considered the least likely expansion candidate for several reasons. The Jacksonville metropolitan area and television market were smaller than those of every team in the league. There were 635,000 people in Jacksonville proper according to the 1990 census, the Gator Bowl was outdated, and the ownership group struggled to negotiate a lease with the city. The troubled negotiations over the Gator Bowl lease led the group to withdraw from the NFL expansion bidding in July 1993. Charlotte was awarded the first franchise – the Carolina Panthers – in October 1993, the naming of the second expansion city was delayed a month. Most pundits speculated that the delay was made to allow St. Louis to shore up its bid, at the time, St. Louis was considered the favorite for the second franchise, with Baltimores three bids considered strong. However, in a move, the NFL owners voted 26–2 in favor of awarding the 30th franchise to Jacksonville.
After the Gator Bowl game on December 31,1993, the old stadium was demolished and replaced with a reinforced concrete superstructure. All that remained of the old stadium was the west upper concourse, in January 1994 Wayne Weaver chose Tom Coughlin as the first-ever head coach of the Jaguars. While he had previously had success with Boston College, many at the time believed his hiring was a risky move
Brandon Christopher Jacobs is a former American football running back, who spent the majority of his career with the New York Giants of the National Football League. He was drafted by the Giants in the round of the 2005 NFL Draft. He won two Super Bowl rings with the Giants, both against the New England Patriots and he played one season for the San Francisco 49ers before returning to New York for his final season. He played college football at Coffeyville and Southern Illinois, Jacobs is larger and heavier than most NFL running backs, standing 64 tall and weighing over 264 pounds. He runs the 100 meters in 10.82 seconds and he won two Super Bowls in seven seasons with the New York Giants, and holds the franchise record for most career rushing touchdowns. Brandon Jacobs grew up in Napoleonville, the eldest son of a single mother Janice Jacobs, he has a brother, Michael Jacobs. He was raised by his mother and her sisters and his aunt and uncle and Phil Cheavious, became his legal guardians. He never had a relationship with his father and he ran for more than 3,000 yards and scored 38 touchdowns in that senior campaign.
Jacobss college career started at Coffeyville Community College in Coffeyville, under the direction of head coach Jeff Leiker, Coffeyville is a member school of the Kansas Jayhawk Community College Conference. In 2001, his year at Coffeyville, he ran for 1,349 yards and 17 touchdowns. He was named the team MVP for CCC, in his sophomore season for the Red Ravens he racked up 1,896 yards and 20 touchdowns on 267 carries for a 7.1 yard-per-carry average. In light of these efforts Jacobs was named a JUCO All-American and he once again garnered the Team MVP trophy and was named the recipient of the Reb Russell Memorial Football Scholarship Award. The statistic of 1,896 yards rushing ranks second all-time on the Ravens individual season rushing yardage record, Jacobs continued his college career at Auburn University, along with first-round draft picks Carnell Williams, Ronnie Brown, and Jason Campbell. Jacobs was the running back behind Williams and Brown. Jacobs gained 446 yards on 72 carries and 2 touchdowns in 2003 for the Tigers, after the completion of the 2003 college football season, Jacobs transferred to Division 1-AA Southern Illinois.
Jacobs one year at Southern Illinois was another solid one and he led the team with 150 carries for 992 yards and 19 touchdowns, one less than the schools all-time leader, Muhammad Abdulqaadir, like Jacobs, played at Coffeyville Community College. Jacobs was an All-American first-team selection by The NFL Draft Report and he led the conference and ranked tenth in the nation in scoring, averaging 9.5 points per game. Jacobs had eight receptions for 83 yards, returned six kickoffs for 140 yards and had five 100-yard rushing games including the playoffs, Jacobs was graded the 11th best running back available in the 2005 NFL Draft by Sports Illustrated
Seating capacity is the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, in terms of both the physical space available, and limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats hundreds of thousands of people. The International Fire Code, portions of which have adopted by many jurisdictions, is directed more towards the use of a facility than the construction. It specifies, For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms and it requires that every public venue submit a detailed site plan to the local fire code official, including details of the means of egress, seating capacity, arrangement of the seating. Once safety considerations have been satisfied, determinations of seating capacity turn on the size of the venue. For sports venues, the decision on maximum seating capacity is determined by several factors, chief among these are the primary sports program and the size of the market area.
Seating capacity of venues plays a role in what media they are able to provide, in contracting to permit performers to use a theatre or other performing space, the seating capacity of the performance facility must be disclosed. Seating capacity may influence the kind of contract to be used, the seating capacity must be disclosed to the copyright owner in seeking a license for the copyrighted work to be performed in that venue. Venues that may be leased for private functions such as ballrooms and auditoriums generally advertise their seating capacity, seating capacity is an important consideration in the construction and use of sports venues such as stadiums and arenas. The seating capacity for restaurants is reported as covers, a restaurant that can seat 99 is said to have 99 covers, seating capacity differs from total capacity, which describes the total number of people who can fit in a venue or in a vehicle either sitting or standing. Use of the term public capacity indicates that a venue is allowed to more people than it can actually seat.
Again, the total number of people can refer to either the physical space available or limitations set by law
The Dallas Cowboys are a professional American football team based in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. The Cowboys compete in the National Football League as a club of the leagues National Football Conference East division. The team is headquartered in Frisco and plays its games at AT&T Stadium in Arlington, Texas. The stadium took its current name prior to the 2013 season, the Cowboys joined the NFL as an expansion team in 1960. The teams national following might best be represented by its NFL record of consecutive sell-outs, the Cowboys streak of 190 consecutive sold-out regular and post-season games began in 2002. This has corresponded to eight NFC championships, most in the NFC, the Cowboys are the only NFL team to record 20 straight winning seasons, in which they only missed the playoffs twice, an NFL record that remains unchallenged. In 2015, the Dallas Cowboys became the first sports team to be valued at $4 billion, making it the most valuable team in the world. The Cowboys generated $620 million in revenue in 2014, a record for a U. S. sports team.
Prior to the formation of the Dallas Cowboys, there had not been an NFL team south of Washington, D. C. since the Dallas Texans folded in 1952. Oilman Clint Murchison Jr. had been trying to get an NFL expansion team in Dallas, Murchison had tried to purchase the Washington Redskins from Marshall in 1958. An agreement was struck, but as the deal was about to be finalized and this infuriated Murchison and he called off the deal. Marshall opposed any franchise for Murchison in Dallas, since NFL expansion needed unanimous approval from team owners at that time, Marshalls position would prevent Murchison from joining the league. Marshall had an out with the Redskins band leader Barnee Breeskin. Breeskin had written the music to the Redskins fight song Hail to the Redskins, Breeskin owned the rights to the song and was aware of Murchisons plight to get an NFL franchise. Angry with Marshall, Breeskin approached Murchisons attorney to him the rights to the song before the expansion vote in 1959. Murchison purchased Hail to the Redskins for $2,500, before the vote to award franchises in 1959, Murchison revealed to Marshall that he owned the song and Marshall could not play it during games.
After a few Marshall expletives, Murchison gave the rights to Hail to the Redskins to Marshall for his vote, the one against Murchison getting a franchise at that time. From 1970 through 1979, the Cowboys won 105 regular season games, in addition, they appeared in 5 and won two Super Bowls, at the end of the 1971 and 1977 regular seasons
History of the San Diego Chargers
The Los Angeles Chargers franchise was founded in 1959 as a charter member of the American Football League. The team played the 1960 season in Los Angeles, moving to San Diego in 1961, the Chargers played in San Diego for 56 years. In 2017, the Chargers owner announced a move to Los Angeles, effective with the 2017 season, the Chargers original owner was hotel heir Barron Hilton, son of Hilton Hotels founder Conrad Hilton. Frank Leahy, a former Notre Dame University football coach, was named the teams first general manager, the Chargers initially considered playing at the Rose Bowl, but instead signed a lease to play at the Los Angeles Coliseum. There is a theory about a man named Gerald Courtney of Hollywood who won an all-expenses-paid trip to Mexico City. They played ten years in the AFL before the merging of the league into the older NFL and their only coach for the ten-year life of the AFL was Sid Gillman, former coach of the NFLs Los Angeles Rams, who originally signed a three-year contract as head coach.
Gillman, who was voted to the Hall of Fame, was widely recognized as a great offensive innovator. He took on the role of coach and general manager after Frank Leahy resigned because of poor health. The early AFL years of the San Diego Chargers were highlighted by the play of wide receiver Lance Alworth with 543 receptions for 10,266 yards in his 11-AFL/NFL-season career. In addition, he set the pro football record of games with a reception during his career. With players such as Alworth, Paul Lowe, Keith Lincoln and John Hadl, the high-scoring Chargers reached the AFL Championship Game five times winning once during that ten-year span. The Chargers spent only one season in L. A. before moving in 1961, on that season, the defense recorded 49 pass interceptions as the AFL played an exciting brand of football featuring strong passing attacks. The Chargers were the originators of the term Fearsome Foursome to describe their all-star defensive line, anchored by Earl Faison, the phrase was appropriated by various NFL teams.
Houston defeated the Chargers 10–3 before 29,556 persons in Balboa Stadium to win the second AFL championship. The next year, the Chargers stumbled to a 4-10 record, as of 2016, this was the last professional sports championship for the city of San Diego. In 1964, the AFL teams signed a television contract with National Broadcasting Company for a record $36 million. The Chargers and New York Jets tied 17-17 before a record AFL crowd of 50,222 fans,46,828 paid in New Yorks Shea Stadium, a Balboa Stadium attendance record of 34,865 was set as Buffalo defeated San Diego 27-24 on Thanksgiving Day. The Chargers defeated the Jets 38-3 before 25,753 persons in Balboa Stadium to clinch their fourth AFL West title in five years, in 1965, San Diego won their fifth AFL West title in six years by defeating Houston on December 12 by the score of 37-26
NCAA Division I
Division I is the highest level of intercollegiate athletics sanctioned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association in the United States. This level was called the University Division of the NCAA, in contrast to the lower level College Division. For football only, Division I was further subdivided in 1978 into Division I-A, Division I-AA, in 2006, Division I-A and I-AA were renamed Football Bowl Subdivision and Football Championship Subdivision, respectively. FCS teams are allowed to award scholarships, a practice technically allowed. FBS teams have to meet attendance requirements, while FCS teams do not need to meet minimum attendance requirements. Another difference is post season play, starting with the 2014 postseason, a four-team playoff called the College Football Playoff, replaced the previous one game championship format. Even so, Division I FBS football is still the only NCAA sport in which a champion is not determined by an NCAA-sanctioned championship event. All D-I schools must field teams in at least seven sports for men and seven for women or six for men and eight for women, with at least two team sports for each gender.
Division I schools must meet minimum financial aid awards for their athletics program, Several other NCAA sanctioned minimums and differences that distinguish Division I from Divisions II and III. Each playing season has to be represented by each gender as well, there are contest and participant minimums for each sport, as well as scheduling criteria. Mens and womens teams have to play all but two games against Division I teams, for men, they must play one-third of all their contests in the home arena. The NCAA has limits on the financial aid each Division I member may award in each sport that the school sponsors. Equivalency sports, in which the NCAA limits the total financial aid that a school can offer in a sport to the equivalent of a set number of full scholarships. Roster limitations may or may not apply, depending on the sport, the term counter is key to this concept. The NCAA defines a counter as an individual who is receiving financial aid that is countable against the aid limitations in a sport.
The number of scholarships that Division I members may award in sport is listed below. In this table, scholarship numbers for head-count sports are indicated without a point, for equivalency sports, they are listed with a decimal point. An exception exists for players at non-scholarship FCS programs who receive aid in another sport, participants in basketball are counted in that sport, unless they play football
2008 NCAA Division I FCS football season
The penalty for kicking the ball out of bounds on the kickoff is increased, placing the ball at the 40-yard line, similar to the NFL. All face-mask penalties result in a 15-yard penalty, incidental contact with the face mask is no longer penalized. All horse-collar tackles are now subject to a 15-yard penalty, in addition to the rules changes, this was the first season in which a standard provision of NCAA rules allowed FCS teams to schedule 12 regular-season games. In years when the period starting with the Thursday before Labor Day and ending with the final Saturday in November contains 14 Saturdays, the Gateway Football Conference changed its name to its now-current name, Missouri Valley Football Conference. Following the 2007 season, the Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference was forced to drop its sponsorship after La Salle dropped its program. The two remaining teams and Marist, were forced to become independents, Iona would eventually drop its own program at the end of the 2008 season. Standings are from The Sports Network final 2008 poll
Bartholomew Edward Bart Scott is a former American football player who was a linebacker in the National Football League for eleven seasons. After playing college football for Southern Illinois University, he was signed by the NFLs Baltimore Ravens as a free agent in 2002. Scott was selected to the Pro Bowl in 2006, after playing his first 7 years with Ravens, Scott signed with New York Jets in 2009. He would play his final 4 seasons for the Jets and he is employed as an NFL analyst for CBS television. Scott attended Southeastern High School in Detroit where he played running back, Scotts assistant coach, Reinard Davis, recalled that went 110 percent on every snap and never came off the field. During his senior year, Scott recorded 76 tackles and led the team in rushing with 635 yards, more than one hundred colleges sent recruiting letters, low SAT scores made colleges wary of offering Scott a scholarship. Scott improved his test scores to ensure eligibility, during July workouts for a Michigan high school all-star game, Scott was impressive on the field, catching the interest of coach Bryan Masi.
Masi contacted Dan Enos, a friend and an assistant coach at Southern Illinois, Scott continues to return to Southeastern High School nearly every year to speak with students. Additionally, Scott paid for new uniforms and equipment in 2005, Scott paid to have a new set of bleachers installed at the school after vandals stole the schools former bleachers. In honor of Scotts accomplishments on and off the field, Southeastern retired his jersey in 2008, at Southern Illinois University, Scott played linebacker and safety for the Southern Illinois Salukis football team. At the end of the year, the entire coaching staff was fired. Kill had been warned by a staff members about Scotts behavior. However, Kill was impressed by Scott, calling him a captain, during his senior year, Scott led the team with 127 tackles and 5.5 sacks, earning first-team All-Gateway conference honors. Kill touted Scotts abilities to several NFL teams but only the Baltimore Ravens sent out a scout to assess Scott, the scout was impressed by Scott and three days following the 2002 NFL Draft, after going undrafted, Scott signed a contract with the Ravens.
Scott returned to Southern Illinois in 2005 to finish his academic studies, Scott became a first-ballot member of the Southern Illinois Hall of Fame. During Scotts first three years with Baltimore, he was a special teams standout, however, he saw little time in the defensive rotation. He made his NFL debut at the Carolina Panthers on September 8,2002, the following season, he again played in all 16 games and one post-season game, recording nine tackles and one fumble recovery on defense. His 19 special teams tackles, a high, ranked second on the team
Missouri Valley Conference
The Missouri Valley Conference is the second-oldest collegiate athletic conference in the United States. Currently, its members are located in the midwestern United States, the conference participates in the NCAAs Division I. The MVC was founded in 1907 as the Missouri Valley Intercollegiate Athletic Association,12 years after the Big Ten, some consider the MVC to have been formed from a split of the MVIAA in 1928. Most of the schools formed a conference that retained the MVIAA name. The smaller schools, plus Oklahoma A&M, formed the MVC, during the Big Eights existence, both conferences claimed 1907 as their founding date, as well as the same history through 1927. During the 2006–07 college basketball season, MVC teams held a 74–27 non-conference record, including a record of 44–1 at home. The Valley finished in the top six of the RPI and ahead of a BCS conference for the second year, while garnering multiple NCAA bids for the ninth straight year. The MVC has not sponsored football since 1985, when it was a hybrid I-A/I-AA, five members have football programs in the Missouri Valley Football Conference of Division I FCS, and a sixth competes in another FCS conference, the Pioneer Football League.
The Missouri Valley Conference shares its name with the Missouri Valley Football Conference, the two are separate administratively. It has been reported that Wichita State will likely be leaving the conference to join the American Athletic Conference as soon as 2017–18 season, Bradley returned to the MVC for non-football sports in the 1955–56 school year, with Drake doing the same a year later. However, Bradley never returned to MVC football, dropping the sport in 1970, note, In the case of spring sports, the year of joining is the calendar year before the start of competition. Notes Notes Full members Assoc. members Assoc. member C. E. McClung Arthur E. Eilers Norvell Neve DeWitt T. Weaver Mickey Holmes David Price Richard D. Martin James A. Haney Doug Elgin The Missouri Valley Conference sponsors championship competition in eight mens, Central Arkansas and SIU Edwardsville are Affiliate members for mens soccer, Dallas Baptist is an Affiliate member for baseball, and Little Rock is an Affiliate member for swimming and diving.
* = Baseball associate Dallas Baptist ** = Soccer associates Central Arkansas and SIU Edwardsville *** = Tennis associates Stony Brook, mens varsity sports not sponsored by the Missouri Valley Conference which are played by Valley schools, * = Affiliate Little Rock. † = To be added in 2017–18, NB, Missouri State was known as Southwest Missouri State until August 2005. One member sold out every game for the 2006–07 season. In 2010–11, 2011–12, and 2012–13, the Valley maintained its position as the eighth ranked conference in average attendance. The Valley made history in March 2007 with record attendance for four days at St. Louis Scottrade Center as 85,074 fans turned out to watch the five sessions of the tournament, Missouri Valley Conference Hall of Fame Official website