ADL/ADC class diesel multiple unit
The ADL class is a class of diesel multiple units operated by Transdev Auckland on the suburban rail network in Auckland, New Zealand. Built in the early 1980s by A Goninan & Co for Westrail of Western Australia, they were sold in 1993 by Westrail's successor, Transperth, to Tranz Rail; the units are owned by Auckland Transport. Between 1982 and 1985, ten two-carriage stainless steel sets were manufactured for Transperth by A Goninan & Co, Newcastle. Following the electrification of the Perth rail network they were rendered surplus and in 1993 all were sold, along with the older ADK/ADB class, to New Zealand Rail to replace locomotive-hauled 56-foot carriages on suburban trains in Auckland; the units arrived in Auckland from Perth in April 1993. One unit went to Hutt Workshops in the winter of 1993 for staff familiarisation, while the other units were prepared for New Zealand service at Westfield locomotive depot; as a result of the units introduction, station platforms in Auckland needed to be raised.
In October 1993, prior to New Zealand Rail being privatised, the company sold the class to the Auckland Regional Council. In 2002, the Auckland Regional Council funded an upgrade of the class, which included refurbishment of the interiors and painting in the new MAXX blue colour scheme; the first refurbished unit entered service in December 2002, the last in November 2003. In 2011, Auckland Transport indicated four two-car sets would be retained after the Auckland rail electrification project is completed. Due to the introduction of the AM class electric multiple unit on all lines, the ADL/ADC units are now only used between Pukekohe and Papakura station as a shuttle service; this is due to that portion of the NIMT not being electrified. ADL class Auckland 1993 - New Zealand Railways Rollingstock List Media related to ADL/ADC class at Wikimedia Commons
Newmarket railway station, Auckland
Newmarket railway station is a station in the inner-city suburb of Newmarket in Auckland, New Zealand. It serves the Southern and Western Lines of the Auckland railway network, is the second-busiest station in Auckland, after Britomart; the station opened in 1873. It was rebuilt between 2008 and 2010 and now consists of two island platforms serving three tracks with a concourse above the southern end of the station; the redeveloped station opened on 14 January 2010. The station was opened in 1873 and in its historical configuration it consisted of a single island, accessed by a ramp from Remuera Road and by a pedestrian overbridge which led to Broadway and Joseph Banks Terrace; the original station building was one of four island platform station buildings in Auckland designed and built by George Troup, Chief Engineer for the New Zealand Railways Department. It was built at the time of the installation of double track; the signal box at the northern end of the platform was built at the same time and was one of the few of that era on its original site and still in operation in the late 20th century, being the last full-sized lever frame box on the national network.
Newmarket was the site of Newmarket Workshops, which opened in 1878, closed in 1927, when Otahuhu Workshops opened. The historical configuration of the station, near Newmarket Junction, forced some unusual movements. Trains from the city had to run past the junction to call at the station. There were two platforms in an island configuration, all city-bound trains stopped at one platform, outbound trains stopping at the other; this was confusing as the outward-bound platform served both the Western Lines. This problem was solved by'splitting' the platform into two: Southern Line trains stopped at the southern end of the platform, Western Line at the northern end; however the platform was short. The above practice became less prevalent following the higher frequency of the July 2007 timetable. From trains used whichever platform was free, could arrive without any indication of destination. Off-peak operations followed the traditional practice, but during the peak this was not practical; this led to passengers' confusion as to.
During peak times Veolia staff were present with megaphones to inform passengers of train destinations. The signal box was attended 24 hours per day and had control of all trains within the station and Junction. BackshuntFor many years outbound Western Line trains reversed into a special siding, which allowed them to enter the Western Line. In July 2007 this reversing procedure ceased to be necessary, with the start of rebuilding as part of Project DART. Historic station buildingThe fate of the and architecturally significant old station building was controversial, with various proposals being put forward to demolish, refurbish, or relocate the building. Following the announcement on 14 March 2007 of the budget for the station's upgrade, Minister of Finance Michael Cullen announced that $5 million would be put towards moving the building to a proposed new station at Parnell where it would serve as a station for the Auckland War Memorial Museum in the Auckland Domain; the signal box was closed in early 2008, it and the station building were removed from the site on 3 March 2008 to an undisclosed storage location, as ONTRACK feared they would be vandalised.
The station building was moved to Parnell station in time for the start of services on 12 March 2017 and the official opening of the station on 13 March 2017. Newmarket station was rebuilt for NZ$35 million between January 2008 and January 2010 as part of ONTRACK's Project DART, it was necessary to close the station for the rebuild and two temporary stations were built: Newmarket South 200m south on the Southern Line, Newmarket West on the Western Line. Both stations were demolished later; as well as modernising the facilities and appearance, the redevelopment improved connections between the station and the surrounding commercial and residential areas. The station now has a concourse level above the platforms, entrances from a new square off Broadway, a 65m long covered bridge off Remuera Road, a pedestrian bridge from Joseph Banks Terrace, from the Remuera side; the station retains the option of extending the concourse, with pedestrian entry off Broadway further north possible in the future.
The current entrance off Broadway may be widened, with Auckland Council considering demolishing two shops to widen the passage. Some criticism was made at the time of opening about the high step up into trains, considered necessary by the designers to allow freight trains to pass the platforms. Authorities noted that this was the same height as at other stations throughout the Auckland system with the exception of Britomart, which does not have freight trains passing. Authorities confirmed the vertical distance to step up to some train carriages would be up to 374 mm, but this would be reduced with the introduction of the new carriages designed for the electrification of the Auckland network. New track layout Integral to the redevelopment was the requirement to reorganise the track layout; the new station has three tracks. Each island has two platforms, although Platform Two is not in use for passenger services. Platform One serves westbound services on the Western Line. Platform Three serves Britomart bound services on all three lines, while Platform Four serves southbound servic
The Parnell Tunnel is a railway tunnel under Parnell, New Zealand. It is 344.5 metres long, is on the Newmarket Line. The tunnel allows the Western and Onehunga lines coming from the Newmarket Train Station to Britomart Transport Centre to pass under the Parnell Ridge before dropping to harbour level. There are two Parnell Tunnels, an older now unused single-track tunnel and a newer double-track tunnel which superseded it; the older tunnel has not been in use for most of the last century. The older tunnel intended in part to provide a connection to Drury for the New Zealand land wars, has been lauded as having enabled the first public railway line in Auckland, opening the city up to the wider New Zealand; the first tunnel shaft was constructed as part of the initial construction of the line. However, works took a long time - 9 years - having started in 1864; this was due to funding issues, but due to a massive land slip which occurred at the northern end, with investigation of the causes and removal of the slip holding up the works for a long time.
After the tunnel was pierced through in June 1872, work speeded up and it was finished in February 1873. The first tunnel and its approach were steep requiring double engines to pull the trains and there are records of the "inconvenient habit" of some "well-loaded" passenger trains coming to a standstill on the gradient in the tunnel; the tunnel was apparently known for forcing large amounts of steam locomotive fumes into the passenger coaches. During events like Cup Day at Ellerslie Racecourse, when extra trains needed to be provided for the large numbers of travellers the sparks thrown by the locomotives tended to rebound into open carriages causing burn holes in passengers' clothing; the newspapers of the time commented on this in sarcastic form. Due to these drawbacks, after construction of the second tunnel, the old tunnel was demoted to only serve for shunting and non-passenger traffic and was closed fully. In World War II, it was temporarily converted into an air-raid shelter for Parnell residents, with baffle gates across the entries to protect against blasts.
There is a proposal to re-open this old tunnel to pedestrians and cyclists, as part of cycleway projects in the area. CampaignIn the 1900s it became clear that the single-track tunnel, despite having a double-track line at the northern end, was creating significant'delay and danger'; when in 1905 the government declared that the line on the southern side would be duplicated to Penrose, many Aucklanders reacted angrily when it was clarified that this would not include a tunnel duplication. The Minister of Railways, Joseph Ward, argued that his staff had convinced him that it was not essential to duplicate the tunnel to remediate the delays. However, in a strange twist, he moved at the end of a meeting with a 200-strong citizens deputation that if "ten representative men", selected by the Mayor of Auckland, would traverse the section with him, ask for the tunnel duplication, he would be willing to proceed with it. At the time, it seems that Aucklanders agreed that, with the duplication from Newmarket to Penrose Train Station still pending, duplication of the tunnel via this scheme would not be seemly.
In 1910, with Ward having become New Zealand's 17th Prime Minister - and with the Newmarket-Penrose side of the tunnel now duplicated - Clr Mackay of Auckland City Council resurrected the old pledge made by Ward. Newspapers of the time noted that while the duplication was necessary, it remained unseemly to bring about the second tunnel in this way, with a "stacked" body of men asking for it, despite the definite way in which Ward had phrased his pledge - leaving him no honourable alternative to now decline it; the 10-man committee was indeed formed in 1910, investigated in detail, in the face of continuing government resistance. In the end, in 1911, only 7 of them recommended duplication, with 3 opposed; the opposition was caused by the concern that the tunnel duplication would prevent a goods shed expansion, because it had been advised that timetabling could work around the limitations of the single-track tunnel. Government had argued that up to 240 trains daily could be run through the single-track tunnel, thus, the cost of £35,000-£40,000 for the duplication was not merited when other projects were of greater importance.
Due to the lack of unanimous agreement - and because the Railways Department argued the tunnel could take twice the traffic using it at the time - duplication was again declined. However, there was considerable discontent in Auckland during the 1900s and 1910s that the government was proceeding with major tunneling works in the South Island, such as at Arthur's Pass, while arguing that there was no funding available for the Parnell Tunnel. Groups like the Auckland Chamber of Commerce lobbied strenuously for the duplication. At the same time, proposals to either take a new line up Grafton Gully, or build a new line via Orakei, thus avoiding the 1:50 gradient up to the Parnell Tunnel, may have contributed to doubts as to whether the tunnel should be duplicated. There was a perception by the minister of the day that additional freight traffic generated by the North Auckland Line would not be worth considering as an argument for the tunnel, as it would be limited. While duplication was noted as'definitely agreed' in 1912, funding was not found.
However, the impending move of the engine sheds for the railway from Auckland Railway St
Auckland is a city in the North Island of New Zealand. Auckland is the largest urban area in the country, with an urban population of around 1,628,900, it is located in the Auckland Region—the area governed by Auckland Council—which includes outlying rural areas and the islands of the Hauraki Gulf, resulting in a total population of 1,695,900. A diverse and multicultural city, Auckland is home to the largest Polynesian population in the world; the Māori-language name for Auckland is Tāmaki or Tāmaki-makau-rau, meaning "Tāmaki with a hundred lovers", in reference to the desirability of its fertile land at the hub of waterways in all directions. The Auckland urban area ranges to Waiwera in the north, Kumeu in the north-west, Runciman in the south. Auckland lies between the Hauraki Gulf of the Pacific Ocean to the east, the low Hunua Ranges to the south-east, the Manukau Harbour to the south-west, the Waitakere Ranges and smaller ranges to the west and north-west; the surrounding hills are covered in rainforest and the landscape is dotted with dozens of dormant volcanic cones.
The central part of the urban area occupies a narrow isthmus between the Manukau Harbour on the Tasman Sea and the Waitematā Harbour on the Pacific Ocean. Auckland is one of the few cities in the world to have a harbour on each of two separate major bodies of water; the isthmus on which Auckland resides was first settled around 1350 and was valued for its rich and fertile land. The Māori population in the area is estimated to have peaked at 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. After a British colony was established in 1840, William Hobson Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand, chose the area as his new capital, he named the area for Earl of Auckland, British First Lord of the Admiralty. It was replaced as the capital in 1865 by Wellington, but immigration to Auckland stayed strong, it has remained the country's most populous city. Today, Auckland's central business district is the major financial centre of New Zealand. Auckland is classified as a Beta + World City because of its importance in commerce, the arts, education.
The University of Auckland, established in 1883, is the largest university in New Zealand. Landmarks such as the Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki, the Harbour Bridge, the Sky Tower, many museums, parks and theatres are among the city's significant tourist attractions. Auckland Airport handles around one million international passengers a month. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, Auckland is ranked third on the 2016 Mercer Quality of Living Survey, making it one of the most liveable cities; the isthmus was settled by Māori circa 1350, was valued for its rich and fertile land. Many pā were created on the volcanic peaks; the Māori population in the area is estimated to have been about 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. The introduction of firearms at the end of the eighteenth century, which began in Northland, upset the balance of power and led to devastating intertribal warfare beginning in 1807, causing iwi who lacked the new weapons to seek refuge in areas less exposed to coastal raids.
As a result, the region had low numbers of Māori when European settlement of New Zealand began. On 27 January 1832, Joseph Brooks Weller, eldest of the Weller brothers of Otago and Sydney, bought land including the site of the modern city of Auckland, the North Shore, part of Rodney District for "one large cask of powder" from "Cohi Rangatira". After the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in February 1840, the new Governor of New Zealand, William Hobson, chose the area as his new capital and named it for George Eden, Earl of Auckland Viceroy of India; the land that Auckland was established on was given to the Governor by a local iwi, Ngāti Whātua, as a sign of goodwill and in the hope that the building of a city would attract commercial and political opportunities for iwi. Auckland was declared New Zealand's capital in 1841, the transfer of the administration from Russell in the Bay of Islands was completed in 1842; however in 1840 Port Nicholson was seen as a better choice for an administrative capital because of its proximity to the South Island, Wellington became the capital in 1865.
After losing its status as capital, Auckland remained the principal city of the Auckland Province until the provincial system was abolished in 1876. In response to the ongoing rebellion by Hone Heke in the mid-1840s, the government encouraged retired but fit British soldiers and their families to migrate to Auckland to form a defence line around the port settlement as garrison soldiers. By the time the first Fencibles arrived in 1848, the rebels in the north had been defeated. Outlying defensive towns were constructed to the south, stretching in a line from the port village of Onehunga in the west to Howick in the east; each of the four settlements had about 800 settlers. In the early 1860s, Auckland became a base against the Māori King Movement, the 12,000 Imperial soldiers stationed there led to a strong boost to local commerce. This, continued road building towards the south into the Waikato, enabled Pākehā influence to spread from Auckland; the city's population grew rapidly, from 1,500 in 1841 to 3,635 in 1845 to 12,423 by 1864.
The growth occurred to other mercantile-dominated cities around the port and with problems of overcrowding and pollution. Auckland's population of ex-soldiers was far greater than that of other settlements: about 50 percent of the popula
The Newmarket Viaduct, sometimes considered'one of the most distinctive engineering features' of New Zealand, is a seven-lane state highway viaduct in Auckland, the country's largest city. Carrying the Southern Motorway over the Newmarket suburb area southeast of the CBD of the city, the 700 m long viaduct is up to 20 m high in places; the viaduct was opened on 3 September 1966 at a cost of NZ$2.26 million, was constructed as New Zealand's first pair of balanced cantilever bridges. With its long spans, the s-curvature and the varying superelevation of the motorway, it is a complex structure today, at the time was a ground-breaking design for New Zealand. While considered a successful design, it was built to far lower earthquake standards than those which other New Zealand structures now fulfill, being built to survive only a 1 in 500 year return period earthquake, it could have received significant damage in an earthquake as common as once in 200 years. This made the structure the weakest strategic transport infrastructure link in the Auckland area, with a potential collapse cutting off all motorway transport to the south.
During design, temperature stresses were not yet understood to a sufficient degree, leading to increased wear on structural elements. The limited earthquake stability, together with increasing traffic demands, led to the planning for a new viaduct structure, which would be able to withstand an earthquake with a 2,500 year return period. Other factors were the low safety barriers, which were insufficient to prevent debris from falling onto the properties beneath, the fact that the viaduct was a prohibited route for overweight vehicles, forcing more trucks through the city streets. Major repair of the structure was considered as an option. However, its structural elements did not lend themselves to easy strengthening, a reconditioned viaduct would only have provided an estimated life expectancy of 40-50 more years. With a new structure costing only around 15% more than a repair, expected to last for over 100 years, it was decided to go for a full replacement; the new Transit New Zealand structure was estimated to cost NZ$150 million, cleared planning hurdles quicker than expected, leading to hopes that it would be possible to build it in time for the 2011 Rugby World Cup.
The three-year duration project was expected to start in 2009/2010. Factors that influenced the quick decision process were the lack of any archeological evidence in the construction area, as well as the lack of substantial numbers of residential properties affected by the new structure; the new structure was to be constructed in a way to minimally affect the traffic flow on this crucial motorway link, by first constructing a new viaduct of four southbound lanes to the north-east of the existing structure demolishing the existing three southbound lanes, before constructing the three new northbound lanes in the gap and demolishing the three old northbound lanes. It was considered whether to build a'steel box' or a'concrete box' structure, though both would look similar to the existing viaduct structure, it was decided to construct a segmented structure built from 468 pre-cast concrete sections constructed off-site in East Tamaki, moved into place with a lifting gantry truss. Tonkin + Taylor and URS New Zealand, as part of the Northern Gateway Alliance, were assigned to develop the new bridge, one of their design targets included full recycling of all material during the project.
The consultant team was to use the experience gained at the Waiwera Viaduct in this new project. However, estimated costs in June 2008 had risen to NZ$187 million, it was unclear whether the funds would be made accessible enough to achieve the ambitious schedule of finishing the bridge in time for the 2011 World Cup. In October 2008, funding was confirmed, but the estimated price increased to NZ$195 million, with rising prices for fuel, construction materials and labour cited as the reasons. While still ahead of schedule, only part of the viaduct replacement was completed in time for the Rugby World cup in 2011; the new viaduct features better noise protection for the surrounding communities, thanks to noise-absorbing asphalt, solid concrete crash barriers, partial noise walls. Some further urban design improvements were part of the project, such as a volcanic-themed walkway from Gillies Avenue down towards Newmarket. Construction began in earnest in April 2007, with the first foundations for the up to 18m high piers of the southbound part of the new viaduct.
A bracing structure under the section carrying over the railway line was established over Easter 2009, a 140m long, 800 ton heavy launching gantry was erected above the Newmarket skyline, which moved into place new sections and stabilised parts to be demolished. The southbound addition was to be finished by the end of 2010, while the northbound section was expected to take at least until March 2012. During construction, sight screens reduced visual distractions of passing drivers, though the construction still required narrowing of the traffic lanes and reduction of the maximum speed on the viaduct to 70 km/h. A number of temporary support girders around the structure were required to safely cater for the stresses put on the structure while parts of it were demolished and rebuilt. Construction involved building the new southbound viaduct first demolition of the old southbound viaduct, followed by the con
KiwiRail Holdings Limited is a New Zealand state-owned enterprise responsible for rail operations in New Zealand. Trading as KiwiRail and headquartered in Wellington, New Zealand, KiwiRail is the largest rail transport operator in New Zealand. KiwiRail has business units of KiwiRail Freight, The Great Journeys of New Zealand and Interislander. KiwiRail released a 10-Year Turn-around Plan in 2010 and has received significant government investment in support of this in an effort to make KiwiRail a viable long-term transport operator. Prior to the establishment of KiwiRail, rail transport in New Zealand has been under both public and private ownership. Government operators included the Public Works Department, New Zealand Railways Department, the New Zealand Railways Corporation. New Zealand Rail Limited was split off from the Railways Corporation in 1990, privatised in 1993 and renamed in 1995 to Tranz Rail. In 2004 Tranz Rail's rail and trucking operations were acquired by Toll Holdings and renamed Toll NZ, with the central government buying back the rail network under the New Zealand Railways Corporation.
As part of this acquisition, Toll agreed to pay ONTRACK Track Access Charges in exchange for exclusive network access for 66 years, subject to a "use it or lose it clause": if freight and passenger volumes fell below their 2002-2004 average for three or more years, Toll would lose its exclusive access. The agreement set a base track access fee but left future track access fees open to negotiation between ONTRACK and Toll. After several years of negotiations, the two parties could not come to an agreement on the amount that Toll should pay; this stifled the ability of rail in New Zealand to recover from the prior years of under-investment and threatened the ability of New Zealand to get its key primary products to market. In July 2008, the government announced the purchase for $690 million of Toll Rail, renaming it KiwiRail; the Railways Corporation owned both KiwiRail and ONTRACK, with both companies merging in October 2008 to create one company that controls both rail and ferry operations and rail infrastructure.
In 2011, KiwiRail proposed splitting its land and rail corridor assets from its rail operation assets. On 27 June 2012 it was announced by the company that the value of the land and rail operations would be written down from NZ$7.8 billion to $1.3 billion, KiwiRail would continue as the rail and ferry operator, while the New Zealand Railways Corporation would manage KiwiRail's land. The de-merger took effect on 31 December 2012. Under the years of private ownership prior to the government's re-nationalisation and establishment of KiwiRail in 2008, infrastructure investment in rail outside of Wellington dropped to an average of just over $25m a year. A significant capital injection along with a clear long-term strategic plan was required if rail was to survive as a viable transport operator in NZ; the result was the release by KiwiRail in 2010 of a 10-year turnaround plan and significant government investment in support of this in the years following. In support of the turn-around plan, from July 2008 to December 2016 KiwiRail received over $2.1 billion of Crown investment, spent on infrastructure and new rolling stock.
The focus of the Plan is to increase rail traffic volumes and productivity, modernise assets and separate out the commercial elements of the business from the non-commercial. The plan included the following points: "Step change" on the Auckland – Wellington – Christchurch trunk route: Reduce transit time and improve reliability along the route by easing curves, removing speed restrictions, greater investment in renewal of bridges and sleepers and passing loops. An express freight train journey between Auckland and Wellington took a half hours. KiwiRail aimed to reduce transit times to 11 hours. Improve exit and entry from Auckland and Wellington with improvements at terminals and on main lines to reduce transit times and conflicts with commuter services Increase ferry rail-freight capacity by extending the length of the Aratere and make the Kaitaki rail–capable Improve reliability and enabling investment: Increased renewals on "other key routes", including investment in sleeper replacement, bridge strengthening and track formation refurbishment.
Improved IT systems and processes and facilities at terminals New locomotives and 3,000 new wagons. Review of minor lines: North Auckland Line Stratford–Okahukura Line Napier – Gisborne Line North Wairarapa line. Clarify and assign costs associated with Auckland and Wellington metro services (resulting in Tranz Metro assets being transferred to the Greater Wellington Regional Council and contracts for running services being made "contestable", as in Auckland. Two of KiwiRail's major customers and Fonterra, invested in rail-related infrastructure in line with the Turnaround Plan. Mainfreight has allocated $60 million for investment in new railhead depots, while Fonterra has invested $130 million in a new rail hub complex in Hamilton and another in Mosgiel; the plan has had mixed success, with company Chairman John Spencer stating in 2013 that for its first three years, rail freight revenue had increased by over 25%. Similar progress in attaining new customers and increasing freight volumes has been made over the life of the Plan to date.
Steady and at times rapid progress has been made on t
In rail transport, track gauge or track gage is the spacing of the rails on a railway track and is measured between the inner faces of the load-bearing rails. All vehicles on a rail network must have running gear, compatible with the track gauge, in the earliest days of railways the selection of a proposed railway's gauge was a key issue; as the dominant parameter determining interoperability, it is still used as a descriptor of a route or network. In some places there is a distinction between the nominal gauge and the actual gauge, due to divergence of track components from the nominal. Railway engineers use a device, like a caliper, to measure the actual gauge, this device is referred to as a track gauge; the terms structure gauge and loading gauge, both used, have little connection with track gauge. Both refer to two-dimensional cross-section profiles, surrounding the track and vehicles running on it; the structure gauge specifies the outline into which altered structures must not encroach.
The loading gauge is the corresponding envelope within which rail vehicles and their loads must be contained. If an exceptional load or a new type of vehicle is being assessed to run, it is required to conform to the route's loading gauge. Conformance ensures. In the earliest days of railways, single wagons were manhandled on timber rails always in connection with mineral extraction, within a mine or quarry leading from it. Guidance was not at first provided except by human muscle power, but a number of methods of guiding the wagons were employed; the spacing between the rails had to be compatible with that of the wagon wheels. The timber rails wore rapidly. In some localities, the plates were made L-shaped, with the vertical part of the L guiding the wheels; as the guidance of the wagons was improved, short strings of wagons could be connected and pulled by horses, the track could be extended from the immediate vicinity of the mine or quarry to a navigable waterway. The wagons were built to a consistent pattern and the track would be made to suit the wagons: the gauge was more critical.
The Penydarren Tramroad of 1802 in South Wales, a plateway, spaced these at 4 ft 4 in over the outside of the upstands. The Penydarren Tramroad carried the first journey by a locomotive, in 1804, it was successful for the locomotive, but unsuccessful for the track: the plates were not strong enough to carry its weight. A considerable progressive step was made. Edge rails required a close match between rail spacing and the configuration of the wheelsets, the importance of the gauge was reinforced. Railways were still seen as local concerns: there was no appreciation of a future connection to other lines, selection of the track gauge was still a pragmatic decision based on local requirements and prejudices, determined by existing local designs of vehicles. Thus, the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway in the West of Scotland used 4 ft 6 in; the Arbroath and Forfar Railway opened in 1838 with a gauge of 5 ft 6 in, the Ulster Railway of 1839 used 6 ft 2 in Locomotives were being developed in the first decades of the 19th century.
His designs were so successful that they became the standard, when the Stockton and Darlington Railway was opened in 1825, it used his locomotives, with the same gauge as the Killingworth line, 4 ft 8 in. The Stockton and Darlington line was immensely successful, when the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the first intercity line, was built, it used the same gauge, it was hugely successful, the gauge, became the automatic choice: "standard gauge". The Liverpool and Manchester was followed by other trunk railways, with the Grand Junction Railway and the London and Birmingham Railway forming a huge critical mass of standard gauge; when Bristol promoters planned a line from London, they employed the innovative engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. He decided on a wider gauge, to give greater stability, the Great Western Railway adopted a gauge of 7 ft eased to 7 ft 1⁄4 in; this became known as broad gauge. The Great Western Railway was successful and was expanded and through friendly associated companies, widening the scope of broad gauge.
At the same time, other parts of Britain built railways to standard gauge, British technology was exported to European countries and parts of North America using standard gauge. Britain polarised into two areas: those that used standard gauge. In this context, standard gauge was referred to as "narrow gauge" to indicate the contrast; some smaller concerns selected other non-standard gauges: the Eastern Counties Railway adopted 5 ft. Most of them converted to standard gauge at an early date, but the GWR's broad gauge continued to grow; the larger railway companies wished to expand geographically, large areas were considered to be under their control. When a new