United States Penitentiary, Marion
The United States Penitentiary, Marion is a medium-security United States federal prison for male inmates in Illinois. It is operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons, a division of the United States Department of Justice; the facility has an adjacent satellite prison camp that houses minimum security male offenders. USP Marion in Southern Illinois is 9 miles south of the city of Marion, Illinois, 300 miles south of Chicago, 120 miles southeast of St. Louis, Missouri. USP Marion was built and opened in 1963 to replace the maximum security federal prison on Alcatraz Island in San Francisco, which closed the same year; the facility became the first control unit in the United States, when violence forced a long-term lockdown in 1983. USP Marion was constructed to hold 500 of the most dangerous federal inmates transfers from Alcatraz. Prison administrators aimed to maintain a safe and orderly environment and rehabilitate the inmates while avoiding the high-profile abuses that occurred at Alcatraz.
They implemented a behavior modification program named Control and Rehabilitation Effort in 1968. Inmates in the program spent most of their time in solitary confinement or in "group therapy" sessions where they were berated for their deviant behavior and urged to change. In 1973, the first blocks of "control unit" cells were created. Inmates assigned to the control-unit would spend 23 to 24 hours a day in one-man cells that were designed to limit or eliminate the inmate's contact with other people inside the prison and the outside world; the first escape from USP Marion occurred on October 10, 1975, when five inmates used a homemade electronic device to open the front gates of the prison. One of them had been an electrician and was assigned to work on the lock mechanisms of all of the doors in the main corridors, he converted a radio into a remote control, with which he opened all of the doors. The five escapees were all captured and returned to prison, the last one being apprehended in Canada on October 31, 1975.
Two escape attempts occurred in 1978 involving Garrett Brock Trapnell. On May 24, 1978, Trapnell's friend, 43-year-old Barbara Ann Oswald, hijacked a St. Louis based charter helicopter and ordered the pilot, Allen Barklage, to fly to USP Marion. Barklage complied, but he wrestled the gun away from Oswald and fatally shot her while he was landing in the prison yard, thwarting the escape. On December 21, 1978, Oswald's 17-year-old daughter, Robin Oswald, hijacked TWA Flight 541, en route from Louisville International Airport to Kansas City International Airport and threatened to detonate dynamite strapped to her body if the pilot did not fly to Williamson County Regional Airport, located only miles from USP Marion; when the pilot landed at the airport in Marion, hundreds of law enforcement officers had responded. Robin Oswald surrendered to FBI negotiators at the Williamson airport without incident about ten hours later; the dynamite was found to be fake. The last escape from the maximum security prison area was on February 14, 1979 when Albert Garza and Howard Zumberge climbed both exterior fences in a dense fog.
Both Garza and Zumberge were apprehended three days near Cypress, hiding in a church basement. In the act of capturing the escapees, Garza shot Johnson County Sheriff Elry Faulkner in the chest at point-blank range. Garza survived and returned to Marion two months later; the events of October 22, 1983, were the most publicized and significant in the history of USP Marion and of the federal prison system as a whole. Correctional officers Clutts and Hoffmann were killed in separate incidents only hours apart, both at the hands of members of the Aryan Brotherhood, a white-supremacist prison gang. Officer Clutts was stabbed to death by Thomas Silverstein; that same morning, Officer Hoffmann was stabbed to death by Clayton Fountain, after Hoffmann had pulled Fountain off another officer, being attacked. Despite being known as the most secure federal prison in the system, two inmates were able independently to kill their accompanying guards. Lax security procedures allowed a prisoner, while walking down a hall, to turn to the side and approach a particular cell.
The prisoner in that cell subsequently unlocked Silverstein's handcuffs with a stolen key and provided him with a knife. As a result of the murders of Clutts and Hoffmann, USP Marion went into "permanent lockdown" for the next 23 years, which meant that all inmates were locked in their cells for the majority of the day. All of USP Marion was transformed into a "control unit" or supermax, meaning "super-maximum" security, prison; this method of prison construction and operation involves the keeping of inmates in solitary confinement for 22 to 23 hours a day, does not allow communal dining, exercising, or religious services. These practices were used to keep prisoners under control and prevent prisoners from assaulting other prisoners or prison staff by limiting their contact with other people. Years Norman Carlson, director of the Bureau of Prisons at the time of the Marion incident, said that ordering the permanent lockdown was the only way to deal with "a small subset of the inmate population who show no concern for human life."
He pointed out that the two inmates who killed the guards were serving multiple life sentences, so adding another would have had no effect. The "control unit" model at Marion was the basis for ADX Florence, which
Creal Springs, Illinois
Creal Springs is a city in Williamson County, United States. The population was 543 at the 2010 census. Creal Springs is located at 37°37′11″N 88°50′16″W. According to the 2010 census, Creal Springs has a total area of 0.996 square miles, of which 0.99 square miles is land and 0.006 square miles is water. Creal Springs is located on the north slope of the Shawnee Hills. In the early 19th century, Lusk's Ferry Road was an important road that connected Fort Kaskaskia with Lusk's Ferry on the Ohio River; the original survey maps of Illinois show a short segment of this road south of Creal Springs, in Johnson County. This old road most ran from Marion through Creal Springs before ascending to the summit of the Shawnee Hills; the modern road running toward the southeast into Creal Springs may be the old road. The road leading south out of Creal Springs toward Lake of Egypt links into the Wagon Creek Road, which leads to the segment mapped in the original survey. Modern maps show traces of an older road that ran south out of Creal Springs along a less direct line.
The route south out of Creal Springs lead to a difficult passage over the Shawnee Summit. There was an easier, though longer, zigzag route east to New Burnside, southwest along modern U. S. Highway 45, back east to Reynoldsburg. Creal Springs may at one time have served as the junction of these alternative routes. From 1884 to 1916, Creal Springs was the home of the Creal Springs Seminary the Creal Springs College and Conservatory of Music, which provided education at the preparatory and master's levels; as of the census of 2000, there were 702 people, 292 households, 186 families residing in the city. The population density was 709.1 people per square mile. There were 318 housing units at an average density of 321.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.29% White, 0.14% African American, 0.57% Native American, 0.28% Asian, 0.28% from other races, 1.42% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.71% of the population. There were 292 households out of which 25.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.9% were married couples living together, 13.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.3% were non-families.
32.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.94. In the city the population was spread out with 23.4% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 25.2% from 25 to 44, 23.8% from 45 to 64, 18.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $25,272, the median income for a family was $29,583. Males had a median income of $26,250 versus $17,125 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,483. About 18.8% of families and 23.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 37.6% of those under age 18 and 12.0% of those age 65 or over
Crab Orchard, Illinois
Crab Orchard is an unincorporated census-designated place east of Marion in Williamson County, located along an old route of Illinois Route 13 now designated Crab Orchard Road. The upper branches of Crab Orchard Creek which feed into Crab Orchard Lake flow nearby and gave the community its name. For a brief time during the Civil War, it was known as Erwinsville, the name in the original plat of the village. In its early days, it had the nickname "Steal-Easy." The Crab Orchard post office was established 18 August 1853 and discontinued operations 15 May 1924. It's now served by the Marion post office; as of the 2010 census, Crab Orchard has a population of 333. Crab Orchard has an area of 1.430 square miles. Crab Orchard Community Unit School District # 3 serves surrounding area; the district provides classes from Kindergarten to 12th grade. The schools teams have been known as the "Trojans." The high school is an outgrowth of the old private Crab Orchard Academy begun by Professor James W. Turner in 1890 that operated until 1913.
A two-year high school began in 1915, a junior year was added in the 1920s, it became a four-year high school in 1938. School district consolidation led to the creation of the unit district in 1952; the current grade school building dates to about 1974, the 7-12 grade building opened in October 2004. In 2017, U. S. News & World Report recognized Crab Orchard High School in its National Rankings and awarded it a bronze medal; the Crab Orchard Public Library District serves the area with its main library in Crab Orchard and satellite services at Pittsburg and Creal Springs. Fire protection is provided by Fireman Jon Stephens along with the Williamson County Fire Protection District. Station #3 is located on the north edge of the community. Treated water is provided by the private Coal Valley Water District. Cory Bailey, professional baseball player, attended school in Crab Orchard
Marion is a city in and the county seat of Williamson County, United States. The population was 17,193 at the 2010 census, it is part of a dispersed urban area. Today Marion serves as the largest retail trade center in Southern Illinois with its central location along Interstate 57 and Illinois Route 13, it is home to the Southern Illinois Miners baseball team. The city is part of the Marion-Herrin Micropolitan Area and is a part of the Carbondale-Marion-Herrin, Illinois Combined Statistical Area with 123,272 residents, the sixth most populous Combined statistical area in Illinois. Following the creation of Williamson County out of the south half of Franklin County by the Illinois General Assembly, three commissioners appointed by the lawmakers met at Bainbridge, Illinois, on August 19, 1839, for the purpose of locating a new county seat as close to the center of the county as possible; the next day, August 20, they laid out a town of 20 acres with a public square about one-quarter of a mile east of the county's center, but a point on top of a slight hill of 448 feet above sea level.
The site sat in a small open grassland known as Poor Prairie. For a name, they chose Marion to honor American Revolutionary War hero General Francis "Swamp Fox" Marion. William and Bethany Benson had entered the quarter-quarter section of land that contained the future site of Marion just the previous year on September 8, 1838, he had lived in the county at least since 1817, was the first settler to enter land in Poor Prairie. At the time the commissioners platted Marion, he had a small crop of corn and wheat growing over what became the public square; the Williamson County Court organized in Marion on October 1839, at the Benson log cabin. Overflow crowds had to use pumpkins for stools; the federal government established a post office at Marion on January 30, 1840, the legislature incorporated the community as a city on February 24, 1841. On May 29, 1982, one of the larger tornadoes in Illinois history, an F-4, hit the city of Marion and Williamson County. Ten people died and 200 people were injured after this tornado ripped across a 17-mile stretch.
The Shawnee Village apartment complex was destroyed, the Marion Ford-Mercury dealership sustained heavy damage. This tornado caused between $85 million and $100 million in damages. A memorial to the ten people who perished that day was erected on the Tower Square. Marion is in central Williamson County, with a narrow strip of city limits extending south beyond Creal Springs to the valley of Sugar Creek in Johnson County. Marion is 44 miles south of Mount Vernon, 57 miles north of Paducah, Kentucky. Carbondale is 17 miles to the west, Harrisburg is 22 miles to the east. According to the 2010 census, Marion has a total area of 16.217 square miles, of which 15.99 square miles is land and 0.227 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 16,035 people, 6,902 households, 4,341 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,250.2 people per square mile. There are 7,555 housing units at an average density of 589.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.89% White, 4.34% African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.83% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.44% from other races, 1.21% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.60% of the population. There were 6,902 households out of which 28.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.0% were married couples living together, 12.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.1% were non-families. 33.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.86. In the city the population was spread out with 22.8% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 22.5% from 45 to 64, 20.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,364, the median income for a family was $39,275. Males had a median income of $31,520 versus $22,609 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,073. About 11.2% of families and 14.9% of the population were living below the poverty line, including 22.9% of those under the age of 18 and 10.6% of those 65 and older.
The recent Great Recession impacted Marion in lower sales tax revenues for the city as well as the loss of a Circuit City distribution center, a proposed second distribution center for another major big box retailer that had never formally been named. Retail sales suffered as the recession dragged out. Collected sales tax grew 2.9 percent in 2008 compared with the year before, but growth slowed in 2009 with only a 0.7 percent increase. By 2010 the forward momentum ceased and sales tax collections dropped 1/10th of a percent. So far in 2011, January collections grew by 3/10ths of a percent and February improved by 2.4 percent. New building permits show evidence for an economic recovery. So far in 2011 builders have started four new homes, three triplex apartments, a $500,000 expansion at Timberline Fisheries, $600,000 for the new Speakeasy Liquors, a $560,000 new office and mechanical building for Clearwave Communications and the $4.7 million Holiday Inn Express. In addition, a new 4-story, 65-unit Comfort Inn broke ground in September.
Marion's location, at the crossroads of Illinois Route 13 and Interstate 57 make it a p
A ghost town is an abandoned village, town, or city one that contains substantial visible remains. A town becomes a ghost town because the economic activity that supported it has failed, or due to natural or human-caused disasters such as floods, prolonged droughts, government actions, uncontrolled lawlessness, pollution, or nuclear disasters; the term can sometimes refer to cities and neighbourhoods that are still populated, but less so than in past years. Some ghost towns those that preserve period-specific architecture, have become tourist attractions; some examples are Bannack, Centralia and South Pass City in the United States, Barkerville in Canada, Craco in Italy, Elizabeth Bay and Kolmanskop in Namibia, Pripyat in Ukraine, Danushkodi in India. The town of Plymouth on the Caribbean island of Montserrat is a ghost town, the de jure capital of Montserrat, it was rendered uninhabitable by volcanic ash from an eruption. The definition of a ghost town varies between individuals, between cultures.
Some writers discount settlements that were abandoned as a result of a natural or human-made disaster or other causes using the term only to describe settlements that were deserted because they were no longer economically viable. Some believe. Whether or not the settlement must be deserted, or may contain a small population, is a matter for debate. Though, the term is used in a looser sense, encompassing any and all of these definitions; the American author Lambert Florin's preferred definition of a ghost town was "a shadowy semblance of a former self". Factors leading to abandonment of towns include depleted natural resources, economic activity shifting elsewhere and roads bypassing or no longer accessing the town, human intervention, massacres and the shifting of politics or fall of empires. A town can be abandoned when it is part of an exclusion zone due to natural or man-made causes. Ghost towns may result when the single activity or resource that created a boomtown is depleted or the resource economy undergoes a "bust".
Boomtowns can decrease in size as fast as they grew. Sometimes, all or nearly the entire population can desert the town; the dismantling of a boomtown can occur on a planned basis. Mining companies nowadays will create a temporary community to service a mine site, building all the accommodation and services required, remove them once the resource has been extracted. Modular buildings can be used to facilitate the process. A gold rush would bring intensive but short-lived economic activity to a remote village, only to leave a ghost town once the resource was depleted. In some cases, multiple factors may remove the economic basis for a community. S. Route 66 suffered both mine closures when the resources were depleted and loss of highway traffic as US 66 was diverted away from places like Oatman, Arizona onto a more direct path. Mine and pulp mill closures have led to many ghost towns in British Columbia, Canada including several recent ones: Ocean Falls which closed in 1973 after the pulp mill was decommissioned, Kitsault B.
C. whose molybdenum mine shut after only 18 months in 1982 and Cassiar whose asbestos mine operated from 1952 to 1992. In other cases, the reason for abandonment can arise from a town's intended economic function shifting to another, nearby place; this happened to Collingwood, Queensland in Outback Australia when nearby Winton outperformed Collingwood as a regional centre for the livestock-raising industry. The railway reached Winton in 1899, linking it with the rest of Queensland, Collingwood was a ghost town by the following year; the Middle East has many ghost towns that were created when the shifting of politics or the fall of empires caused capital cities to be or economically unviable, such as Ctesiphon. The rise of condominium investment caused for real estate bubbles leads to a ghost town, as real estate prices rise and affordable housing becomes less available; such examples include China and Canada, where housing is used as an investment rather than for habitation. Railroads and roads bypassing or no longer reaching a town can create a ghost town.
This was the case in many of the ghost towns along Ontario's historic Opeongo Line, along U. S. Route 66 after motorists bypassed the latter on the faster moving highways I-44 and I-40; some ghost towns were founded along railways where steam trains would stop at periodic intervals to take on water. Amboy, California was part of one such series of villages along the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad across the Mojave Desert. River re-routing is one example being the towns along the Aral Sea. Ghost towns may be created when land is expropriated by a government, residents are required to relocate. One example is the village of Tyneham in Dorset, acquired during World War II to build an artillery range. A similar situation occurred in the U. S. when NASA acquired land to construct the John C. Stennis Space Center, a rocket testing facility in Hancock County, Mississippi; this required NASA to acquire a large (approximately 34-square-mile (88
Stonefort is a village in Saline and Williamson counties, United States. The population was 297 at the 2010 census. Stonefort is named for an ancient rock fortification that stood in the vicinity when the first settlers started arriving in the area in the early 1800s; the village of Stonefort was established in the late 1850s, was located about a mile to the southeast, near the edge of the bluff. When the Cairo and Vincennes Railroad was completed through the area in the 1870s, Stonefort's public buildings were dismantled and moved to the village's present location, adjacent to the railroad tracks; the former site of the village is now listed as "Oldtown" on maps. Stonefort is located at 37°37′0″N 88°42′26″W; the village is situated atop a ridge that rises above the South Fork Saline River valley to the north and the Little Saline River valley to the south. U. S. Route 45 connects Stonefort with Carrier Mills to the northeast and New Burnside to the southwest; the Tunnel Hill State Trail, a 45-mile rail trail, traverses Stonefort.
According to the 2010 census, Stonefort has a total area of 1.456 square miles, of which 1.45 square miles is land and 0.006 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 297 people, 131 households, 89 families residing in the village; the population density was 199.9 people per square mile. There were 144 housing units at an average density of 98.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 97.60% White, 1.03% African American, 1.03% from other races, 0.34% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.71% of the population. There were 131 households out of which 24.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.4% were married couples living together, 9.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.3% were non-families. 30.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.70. In the village, the population was spread out with 19.2% under the age of 18, 4.5% from 18 to 24, 22.9% from 25 to 44, 29.5% from 45 to 64, 24.0% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 47 years. For every 100 females, there were 82.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.4 males. The median income for a household in the village was $28,654, the median income for a family was $31,442. Males had a median income of $38,125 versus $22,083 for females; the per capita income for the village was $16,937. About 6.0% of families and 16.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.3% of those under the age of eighteen and 18.0% of those sixty five or over. Media related to Stonefort, Illinois at Wikimedia Commons
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However