Belgorod Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Belgorod. Population: 1,532,526. At the turn of the 17th century, a solid line of military fortifications was built in the area, stretching for 800 kilometers. Ukrainian Cossacks, who moved here because of the nobility and the tax burden, were in charge of the line defenses. More Cossacks moved to the area during the Khmelnytsky Uprising and the internecine wars in the Cossack Hetmanate. Belgorod became the military and administrative center, after originating as an outpost on the southern borders of Russia. Following the Battle of Poltava, Peter I granted to soldiers of Greater Belgorod the regiment flag. From 1708 to 1727, the territory of the modern Belgorod Oblast was part of Kiev and Azov Governorates. In 1727, Belgorod Governorate was established from parts of Kiev Governorate; the governorate lasted until 1779. This territory was much greater than that of today, the governorate incorporated territories of modern Kursk and parts of Bryansk and Kharkiv Oblasts.
The coat of arms of the then-Governorate is still used by the modern Belgorod Oblast. In 1775–1779, the territory of Belgorod Governorate was abolished and divided between the newly formed governorates and vice-royalties; the city of Belgorod and the area around it became a part of Kursk Vice-Royalty, while the southeastern uyezds became a part of Voronezh Governorate. During the 19th century and up until 1928 the territory of modern Belgorod Oblast remained part of Kursk and Voronezh Governorates. After the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in April 1918, in January 1919 the territory was incorporated into the Ukrainian State under hetman Pavlo Skoropadskyi; the current administrative-territorial boundaries of Belgorod Oblast were formed by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on 6 January 1954. The oblast was formed from several districts of Voronezh Oblasts. For the courage and resilience shown by the people of Belgorod Oblast in defense of the Motherland during the Great Patriotic War, for progress in reconstruction and development of national economy.
On 4 January 1967, Belgorod Oblast was awarded the Order of Lenin, in 1980 the city of Belgorod was awarded the Order of the Patriotic War, first degree. In 2007, the city of Belgorod received the honorary title of the City of Military Glory. Belgorod Oblast is part of the Central Federal District, it borders with Luhansk and Sumy Oblasts of Ukraine in the south and west, Kursk Oblast in the north and northwest, Voronezh Oblast in the east. The total length of its borders is about 1,150 kilometers, of which 540 kilometers are on the border with Ukraine; the area of the oblast is 27,100 square kilometers. The oblast is located in the southwestern and southern slopes of the Russian Upland in the Dnieper and Don River basins, in the steppe zone of elevated hilly plain with an average height of 200 meters above the sea level; the highest point is 277 meters above sea level, in Prokhorovsky District. The lowest point is located at the bottom of the Seversky Donets River valleys; the climate of Belgorod Oblast is temperate continental with a mild winter with some snowfall and long summers.
Average annual air temperature varies from +5.4 °C to +6.7 °C, being warmer on average in the southeast than the north. The coldest month is January and the frost-free period is 155–160 days, with an average of 1800 hours of sunshine. Rainfall is uneven by year and season, with an average of 540–550 mm although rainfall can differ between the western and northern areas and the warmer, drier eastern and southeast where some years lows of around 400 millimeters has been recorded. Over 40% of known iron ore reserves of Russia are concentrated in the oblast. Deposits are confined to the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly area. Among them are Korobkovsky, Lebedinskoye and prospective Prioskolskoye iron ore deposits in Stary Oskol District, Bolshetroitskoye in Shebekinsky District, as well as Yakovlevskoye and Pogremetskoye fields. Identified and explored in varying degrees are the large deposits of bauxites, underground mineral waters, numerous deposits of construction materials such as chalk, sand and more.
There are known occurrences of gold and other rare metals. Geographical features make the oblast to have deposits of platinum and other minerals. Rivers and marshes occupy about 1% of the oblast's territory. There are streams; the largest of them are in the northwest — the Seversky Donets, Vorsklitsa, in the eastern regions — the Oskol, Tikhaya Sosna, Chyornaya Kalitva, Valuy. The total length of the river network is 5,000 kilometers, in addition, there are 1,100 ponds and four artificial reservoirs; the fauna of Belgorod Oblast is predominantly of the meadow-steppe variety and comprises, by various estimates, from ten to fifteen thousand species. About 10% of the animal species are in need of special protection. Fifty species are included in the IUCN Red List. There are about 279 species including 152 which breed in the oblast; the richest bird populations include sparrows. The richest bird populations include sparrows.
Pskov is a city and the administrative center of Pskov Oblast, located about 20 kilometers east from the Estonian border, on the Velikaya River. Population: 203,279 . Pskov is one of the oldest cities in Russia; the name of the city Pleskov, may be loosely translated as " of purling waters". It was known in English as Plescow, its earliest mention comes in 903, which records that Igor of Kiev married St. Olga. Pskovians sometimes take this year as the city's foundation date, in 2003 a great jubilee took place to celebrate Pskov's 1,100th anniversary; the first prince of Pskov was Vladimir the Great's youngest son Sudislav. Once imprisoned by his brother Yaroslav, he was not released until the latter's death several decades later. In the 12th and 13th centuries, the town adhered politically to the Novgorod Republic. In 1241, it was taken by the Teutonic Knights, but Alexander Nevsky recaptured it several months during a legendary campaign dramatized in Sergei Eisenstein's 1938 movie Alexander Nevsky.
In order to secure their independence from the knights, the Pskovians elected a Lithuanian prince, named Daumantas, a Roman Catholic converted to Orthodox faith and known in Russia as Dovmont, as their military leader and prince in 1266. Having fortified the town, Daumantas routed the Teutonic Knights at Rakvere and overran much of Estonia, his remains and sword are preserved in the local kremlin, the core of the citadel, erected by him, still bears the name of "Dovmont's town". By the 14th century, the town functioned as the capital of a de facto sovereign republic, its most powerful force was the merchants. Pskov's independence was formally recognized by Novgorod in 1348. Several years the veche promulgated a law code, one of the principal sources of the all-Russian law code issued in 1497. For Russia, the Pskov Republic was a bridge towards Europe. In the 13th century German merchants were present in Zapskovye area of Pskov and the Hanseatic League had a trading post in the same area in the first half of 16th century which moved to Zavelichye after a fire in 1562.
The wars with Livonian Order, Poland-Lithuania and Sweden interrupted the trade but it was maintained until the 17th century, with Swedish merchants gaining the upper hand eventually. The importance of the city made it the subject of numerous sieges throughout its history; the Pskov Krom withstood twenty-six sieges in the 15th century alone. At one point, five stone walls ringed it, making the city impregnable. A local school of icon-painting flourished, the local masons were considered the best in Russia. Many peculiar features of Russian architecture were first introduced in Pskov. In 1510, the city fell to Muscovite forces; the deportation of noble families to Moscow under Ivan IV in 1570 is a subject of Rimsky-Korsakov's opera Pskovityanka. As the second largest city of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, Pskov still attracted enemy armies. Most famously, it withstood a prolonged siege by a 50,000-strong Polish army during the final stage of the Livonian War; the king of Poland Stephen Báthory undertook some thirty-one attacks to storm the city, defended by civilians.
After one of the city walls was broken, the Pskovians managed to fill the gap and repel the attack. "It's amazing how the city reminds me of Paris", wrote one of the Frenchmen present at Báthory's siege. Peter the Great's conquest of Estonia and Latvia during the Great Northern War in the early 18th century spelled the end of Pskov's traditional role as a vital border fortress and a key to Russia's interior; as a consequence, the city's importance and well-being declined although it has served as a seat of separate Pskov Governorate since 1777. During World War I, Pskov became the center of much activity behind the lines, it was at a railroad siding in Pskov, aboard the imperial train, that Tsar Nicholas II signed the manifesto announcing his abdication in March 1917, after the Russo-German Brest-Litovsk Peace Conference, the Imperial German Army invaded the area. Pskov was occupied by the Estonian army between 25 May 1919 and 28 August 1919 during the Estonian War of Independence when Bułak-Bałachowicz became the military administrator of Pskov.
He ceded most of his responsibilities to a democratically elected municipal duma and focused on both cultural and economical recovery of the war-impoverished city. He put an end to censorship of press and allowed for creation of several socialist associations and newspapers. Under the Soviet government, large parts of the city were rebuilt, many ancient buildings churches, were demolished to give space for new constructions. During World War II, the medieval citadel provided little protection against modern artillery of Wehrmacht, Pskov suffered substantial damage during the German occupation from July 9, 1941 until July 23, 1944. A huge portion of the population died during the war, Pskov has since struggled to regain its traditional position as a major industrial and cultural center of Western Russia. Pskov is the administrative center of the oblast and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it serves as the administrative center of Pskovsky District though it is not a part of it.
As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the City of Pskov—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As
Smolensk Oblast (Russian: Смоле́нская о́бласть, Smolenskaya oblast. Its administrative center is the city of Smolensk; as of the 2010 Census, its population was 985,537. The oblast was founded on September 27, 1937, it borders Pskov Oblast in the north, Tver Oblast in the northeast, Moscow Oblast in the east, Kaluga Oblast in south, Bryansk Oblast in the southwest, Mogilev and Vitebsk Oblasts of Belarus, in the west and northwest, as part of the Belarus–Russia border. The main river of the region is the Dnieper River and its tributaries, Vop, Vyazma. By the rivers of the Volga basin and its tributary Vazuza Gzhat and tributary of the Oka river, Ugra. To the north-west flows a short section of the Western Dvina River and its tributary river Kasplya. Among the major reservoirs supplying water are Moscow Vazuzssky Yauza and reservoirs in the north-east, as well as cooling power plants - Smolensk reservoir in the north near the village of Lake and Desnogorsk Reservoir in the south area of the city near the Desnogorsk.
The climate of Smolensk Oblast is humid continental, similar to the climate of Moscow Oblast, but warmer in winter due to being located further west. Summers are short and rainy, while winters are long and snowy. Average temperatures range from −9 °C in January to 17 °C in July. Annual precipitation varies from 630 to 730 millimeters per year. During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Smolensk CPSU Committee, the chairman of the oblast Soviet, the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee. Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, the head of the Oblast administration, the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament; the Charter of Smolensk Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Smolensk is the province's standing legislative body; the Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it.
The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor, the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia. Smolensk Oblast is divided into 25 districts and 2 cities, which are further divided into 15 towns, 12 urban-type settlements, 302 rural okrugs. Population: 985,537 . 2012Births: 10 289 Deaths: 16 318 Total fertility rate:2009 - 1.40 | 2010 - 1.38 | 2011 - 1.40 | 2012 - 1.43 | 2013 - 1.48 | 2014 - 1.53 | 2015 - 1.52 | 2016 - 1.52 According to the 2010 Census, the ethnic composition of the oblast was as follows: Russians: 94.6% Ukrainians: 1.3% Belarusians: 1.3% Armenians: 0.5% Others: 2.3% 41,457 people were registered from administrative databases, could not declare an ethnicity.
It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group. According to a 2012 survey 19.5% of the population of Smolensk Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 7% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 3% are Orthodox Christian believers who do not belong to church or belong to other Orthodox churches, 2% are Old Believers, 1% are adherents of the Slavic native faith movement, 0.4% are members of the Catholic Church. In addition, 45% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 13% is atheist, 9.1% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question. Isaac Asimov, born in Petrovichi Yuri Gagarin, born in Klushino Shmuel Schneersohn, born in Lyubavichi Ivan Sidorenko Andrey Nikolayevich Tikhonov born in Gagarin Mikhail Tukhachevsky 2010 Polish presidential airplane crash Katyn massacre List of Chairmen of the Smolensk Oblast Duma Смоленская областная Дума. Областной закон №37-з от 15 мая 2001 г. «Устав Смоленской области», в ред.
Областного закона №162-з от 26 ноября 2015 г. «О поправке к уставу Смоленской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Рабочий путь", №116–117, 24 мая 2001 г.. Official website of Smolensk Oblast Official website of Smolensk Oblast News of Smolensk Oblast
The Volga is the longest river in Europe with a catchment area of 1,350,000 square kilometres. It is Europe's largest river in terms of discharge and drainage basin; the river flows through central Russia and into the Caspian Sea, is regarded as the national river of Russia. Eleven of the twenty largest cities of Russia, including the capital, are located in the Volga's drainage basin; some of the largest reservoirs in the world are located along the Volga. The river has a symbolic meaning in Russian culture and is referred to as Волга-матушка Volga-Matushka in Russian literature and folklore; the Russian hydronym Volga derives from Proto-Slavic *vòlga "wetness, moisture", preserved in many Slavic languages, including Ukrainian volóha "moisture", Russian vlaga "moisture", Bulgarian vlaga "moisture", Czech vláha "dampness", Serbian vlaga "moisture", Croatian vlaga "moisture" and Slovene vlaga "moisture" among others. The Slavic name is a loan translation of earlier Scythian Rā "Volga" "wetness", cognate with Avestan Raŋhā "mythical stream" and Vedic Sanskrit rasā́ "dew, juice.
The Scythian name survives in modern Mordvin Rav "Volga". The Turkic peoples living along the river referred to it as Itil or Atil "big river". In modern Turkic languages, the Volga is known as İdel in Tatar, Атăл in Chuvash, Idhel in Bashkir, Edil in Kazakh, İdil in Turkish; the Turkic peoples associated the Itil's origin with the Kama. Thus, a left tributary to the Kama was named the Aq Itil "White Itil" which unites with the Kara Itil "Black Itil" at the modern city of Ufa; the name Indyl is used in Adyge language. Among Asians, the river was known by its other Turkic name Sarı-su "yellow water", but the Oirats used their own name, Ijil mörön or "adaptation river". Presently the Mari, another Uralic group, call the river Jul, they called the river Volgydo, a borrowing from Old East Slavic. The Volga is the longest river in Europe, its catchment area is entirely inside Russia, though the longest river in Russia is the Ob–Irtysh river system, it belongs to the closed basin of the Caspian Sea, being the longest river to flow into a closed basin.
Rising in the Valdai Hills 225 meters above sea level northwest of Moscow and about 320 kilometers southeast of Saint Petersburg, the Volga heads east past Lake Sterzh, Dubna, Yaroslavl, Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan. From there it turns south, flows past Ulyanovsk, Samara and Volgograd, discharges into the Caspian Sea below Astrakhan at 28 meters below sea level. At its most strategic point, it bends toward the Don. Volgograd Stalingrad, is located there; the Volga has many tributaries, most the rivers Kama, the Oka, the Vetluga, the Sura. The Volga and its tributaries form the Volga river system, which flows through an area of about 1,350,000 square kilometres in the most populated part of Russia; the Volga Delta has a length of about 160 kilometres and includes as many as 500 channels and smaller rivers. The largest estuary in Europe, it is the only place in Russia where pelicans and lotuses may be found; the Volga freezes for most of its length for three months each year. The Volga drains most of Western Russia.
Its many large reservoirs provide hydroelectric power. The Moscow Canal, the Volga–Don Canal, the Volga–Baltic Waterway form navigable waterways connecting Moscow to the White Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Caspian Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea. High levels of chemical pollution have adversely affected its habitats; the fertile river valley provides large quantities of wheat, has many mineral riches. A substantial petroleum industry centers on the Volga valley. Other resources include natural gas and potash; the Volga Delta and the nearby Caspian Sea offer superb fishing grounds. Astrakhan, at the delta, is the center of the caviar industry. A number of large hydroelectric reservoirs were constructed on the Volga during the Soviet era, they are: Volgograd Reservoir Saratov Reservoir Kuybyshev Reservoir – the largest in Europe by surface Cheboksary Reservoir Gorky Reservoir Rybinsk Reservoir Uglich Reservoir Ivankovo Reservoir Volgograd Nizhny Novgorod Kazan Samara Saratov Tolyatti Yaroslavl Astrakhan Ulyanovsk Cheboksary Tver The area downstream of the Volga believed to have been a cradle of the Proto-Indo-European civilization, was settled by Slavs and other Turkic peoples in the first millennium AD, replacing the Scythians.
The ancient scholar Ptolemy of Alexandria mentions the lower Volga in his Geography. He calls it the Rha, the Scythian name for the river. Ptolemy believed the Don and the Volga shared the same upper branch, which flowed from the Hyperborean Mountains; the Russian ethnicity in Western Russia and around the Volga river evolved among other tribes, out of the East Slavic tribe of the Buzhans. Several localities in Russia are connected to the Buzhans, like for example Sredniy Buzhan in the Orenburg Oblast and the Buzan river in the Astrakhan Oblast. Buzhan is a village in Nishapur, Iran. Subsequently, the river basin played an important role in the movements of peoples from Asia to Europe. A powerful polity of Volga Bulgaria once flourished where the Kama jo
Ryazan Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Ryazan, the oblast's largest city. Population: 1,154,114. Ryazan Oblast borders Vladimir Oblast, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, the Republic of Mordovia, Penza Oblast, Tambov Oblast, Lipetsk Oblast, Tula Oblast, Moscow Oblast. In terms of physical geography, Ryazan Oblast lies in the central part of the Russian Plain between the Central Russian and Volga uplands; the terrain is flat, with a highest point of no more than 300 m above sea level. Soils are podzolic and boggy on the left bank of the Oka, changing southward to more fertile podzolic and leached black-earths. Most of the Ryazan Oblast lies within the Volga basin, with the Oka the principal river of the area. Human occupation of the area of the Ryazan Oblast dates from at least the Upper Paleolithic period. East Slavs, Volga Finnic, Tatar tribes inhabited the area and merged into a ethnos, a process completed by the 13th century CE. In 830 the Ryazan area became part of Rus' Khaganate.
The Ryazan area became part of the Kievan Rus' political system, came under the domination of the Principality of Chernigov. The Principality of Ryazan operated as a separate entity from 1097 to 1521, when the area became part of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, though with the Qasim Khanate district retaining some autonomy until the 1550s; the Ryazan Governorate became separate from the Moscow Governorate in 1796. The present-day Ryazan Oblast, formed out of the Moscow and Voronezh oblasts, dates from 1937. Ryazan Oblast is a part of the Central economic region; the oblast is in an economically favorable geographical location owing to the water and land routes that pass through it and provide stable domestic and foreign economic ties. It is considered both an agrarian Oblast; the foundations of agriculture in the oblast are livestock plant cultivation. Livestock farming specializes in raising and fattening cattle and breeding pigs and poultry. Beekeeping is well developed in the oblast. Solotchinskoye peat narrow gauge railway is located in Ryazansky District Mesherskoye peat narrow gauge railway is located in Klepikovsky District Population: 1,154,114 .
2012Births: 12 351 Deaths: 18 723 Total fertility rate: 2009 - 1.42 | 2010 - 1.44 | 2011 - 1.45 | 2012 - 1.54 | 2013 - 1.55 | 2014 - 1.60 | 2015 - 1.64 | 2016 - 1.70Ethnic composition: Russians - 95.1% Ukrainians - 0.8% Armenians - 0.5% Mordvins - 0.5% Tatars - 0.5% Azeris - 0.4% Uzbeks - 0.3% Others - 1.9% 74,419 people were registered from administrative databases, could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group. According to a 2012 survey 63% of the population of Ryazan Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 3% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% are Orthodox Christian believers without belonging to church or belonging to non-Russian Orthodox churches, 1% are Muslims, 1% are adherents of the Rodnovery movement. In addition, 15% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 9% is atheist, 7% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question. Ryazan miracle 2005 Moscow power blackouts Рязанская областная Дума.
№115-ОЗ 18 ноября 2005 г. «Устав Рязанской области», в ред. Закона №102-ОЗ от 28 декабря 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Устав Рязанской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Рязанские ведомости", №251–252, 22 ноября 2005 г.. Центральный исполнительный комитет СССР. Постановление от 26 сентября 1937 г. «О разделении Московской области на Тульскую, Рязанскую и Московскую области»
Siberia is an extensive geographical region spanning much of Eurasia and North Asia. Siberia has been a part of modern Russia since the 17th century; the territory of Siberia extends eastwards from the Ural Mountains to the watershed between the Pacific and Arctic drainage basins. The Yenisei River conditionally divides Siberia into two parts and Eastern. Siberia stretches southwards from the Arctic Ocean to the hills of north-central Kazakhstan and to the national borders of Mongolia and China. With an area of 13.1 million square kilometres, Siberia accounts for 77% of Russia's land area, but it is home to 36 million people—27% of the country's population. This is equivalent to an average population density of about 3 inhabitants per square kilometre, making Siberia one of the most sparsely populated regions on Earth. If it were a country by itself, it would still be the largest country in area, but in population it would be the world's 35th-largest and Asia's 14th-largest. Worldwide, Siberia is well known for its long, harsh winters, with a January average of −25 °C, as well as its extensive history of use by Russian and Soviet administrations as a place for prisons, labor camps, exile.
The origin of the name is unknown. Some sources say that "Siberia" originates from the Siberian Tatar word for "sleeping land". Another account sees the name as the ancient tribal ethnonym of the Sirtya, an ethnic group which spoke a Paleosiberian language; the Sirtya people were assimilated into the Siberian Tatars. The modern usage of the name was recorded in the Russian language after the Empire's conquest of the Siberian Khanate. A further variant claims; the Polish historian Chyliczkowski has proposed that the name derives from the proto-Slavic word for "north", but Anatole Baikaloff has dismissed this explanation. He said that the neighbouring Chinese and Mongolians, who have similar names for the region, would not have known Russian, he suggests that the name might be a combination of two words with Turkic origin, "su" and "bir". The region has paleontological significance, as it contains bodies of prehistoric animals from the Pleistocene Epoch, preserved in ice or in permafrost. Specimens of Goldfuss cave lion cubs and another woolly mammoth from Oymyakon, a woolly rhinoceros from the Kolyma River, bison and horses from Yukagir have been found.
The Siberian Traps were formed by one of the largest-known volcanic events of the last 500 million years of Earth's geological history. Their activity continued for a million years and some scientists consider it a possible cause of the "Great Dying" about 250 million years ago, – estimated to have killed 90% of species existing at the time. At least three species of human lived in Southern Siberia around 40,000 years ago: H. sapiens, H. neanderthalensis, the Denisovans. In 2010 DNA evidence identified the last as a separate species. Siberia was inhabited by different groups of nomads such as the Enets, the Nenets, the Huns, the Scythians and the Uyghurs; the Khan of Sibir in the vicinity of modern Tobolsk was known as a prominent figure who endorsed Kubrat as Khagan of Old Great Bulgaria in 630. The Mongols conquered a large part of this area early in the 13th century. With the breakup of the Golden Horde, the autonomous Khanate of Sibir was established in the late 15th century. Turkic-speaking Yakut migrated north from the Lake Baikal region under pressure from the Mongol tribes during the 13th to 15th century.
Siberia remained a sparsely populated area. Historian John F. Richards wrote: "... it is doubtful that the total early modern Siberian population exceeded 300,000 persons."The growing power of Russia in the West began to undermine the Siberian Khanate in the 16th century. First, groups of traders and Cossacks began to enter the area; the Russian Army was directed to establish forts farther and farther east to protect new settlers from European Russia. Towns such as Mangazeya, Tara and Tobolsk were developed, the last being declared the capital of Siberia. At this time, Sibir was the name of a fortress at Qashlik, near Tobolsk. Gerardus Mercator, in a map published in 1595, marks Sibier both as the name of a settlement and of the surrounding territory along a left tributary of the Ob. Other sources contend that the Xibe, an indigenous Tungusic people, offered fierce resistance to Russian expansion beyond the Urals; some suggest. By the mid-17th century, Russia had established areas of control; some 230,000 Russians had settled in Siberia by 1709.
Siberia was a destination for sending exiles. The first great modern change in Siberia was the Trans-Siberian Railway, constructed during 1891–1916, it linked Siberia more to the industrialising Russia of Nicholas II. Around seven million people moved to Siberia from European Russia between 1801 and 1914. From 1859 to 1917, more than half a million people migrated to the Russian Far East. Siberia has extensive natural resources. During the 20th century, large-scale exploitation of these was developed, industrial towns cropped up throughout the region. At 7:15 a.m. on 30 June 1908, millions of trees were felled near the Podkamennaya Tunguska River in central Siberia in the Tunguska Event. Most scientists believe this resulted from the air burst of a comet. Though no crater has been found, the landscape in the area still bears the scars of this event. In the early decades of the Soviet Union (
Kaluga Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Kaluga. Population: 1,010,930. Kaluga Oblast lies in the central part of the East European Plain; the oblast's territory is located between the Central Russian Upland, the Smolensk–Moscow Upland and the Dnepr-Desna province. Most of the oblast is occupied by plains and forests with diverse flora and fauna; the administrative center is located on the Baryatino-Sukhinichy plain. The western part of the oblast - located within the drift plain - is dominated by the Spas-Demensk ridge. To the south is an outwash plain, part of the Bryansk-Zhizdra woodlands, with average elevation up to 200 m. From north to south, Kaluga Oblast extends for more than 220 km, from 53°30' to 55°30' northern altitude, east to west – for 220 km, its area is 29,800 km². The oblast's territory is crossed by major international motor and railways, linking Kaluga with Moscow, Kiev and Warsaw. Kaluga Oblast borders on: Bryansk Oblast to the south-west Oryol Oblast to the south Tula Oblast to the east Moscow Oblast to the north-east Smolensk Oblast to the north-west the federal city of Moscow The climate of Kaluga Oblast is moderately continental with distinct seasons: warm and humid summers, cold winters with stable snow-cover.
The average temperature in July is +18 °C in north and +20 °C in south, in January −11 °C in northeast and −8 °C in southwest. The duration of the warm period is 215–220 days; the territory of the oblast is exposed to a substantial amount of solar radiation— around 115 Kcal per cm². The average annual air temperature varies from 3.5 - 4.0 °C in the north and the north-east to up to 4.0 - 4.6 °C in the west and the east of the oblast. The duration of the frost-free season is 113 to 127 days; the northern part of the oblast is the coldest. In the south, in the zone of forest steppes, the climate is warm. Precipitation is distributed unevenly, varying from 780 to 826 mm in the north and the west and up to 690 – 760 mm in the south; the Oka is the main river in the oblast's river system. Others include the Ugra, the Zhizdra, the Protva, the Vorya. Lakes include Lakes Svyatoye; the total area occupied by forests is around 1,380,000 ha. As of the beginning of 2005, agricultural lands occupied an area of 1,350,000 ha.
The main crops grown include forage cereals, potatoes and feed grains, fiber-flax. Mammals include typical forest animals: brown bear, elk, polar hare, squirrel; the south of the oblast is sometimes visited by bison that were released into the Orlovskoye Polesye national park. Aquatic fauna includes 41 species of bony fish; the diversity of fish is explained by the variety of habitats. Among 11 kinds of amphibians, the most common are crested and common newts, red-bellied and green toads, various lake, pool and grass frogs. Reptiles are represented by 7 species, including snakes: the venomous adder and the harmless water snake and smooth snake. There are 267 types of birds registered as visiting the oblast, including 177 to nest, 58 to migrate and 32 to transit; the most significant bird-of-prey habitats are located in the Kaluzhskiye Zaseki reserve and the interfluve of the Bytebet and the Resseta. The largest populations are: waterfowl - mallard. According to the governmental report “On the Status of the Environment and Its Conservation in the Russian Federation” published by the Russian Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Kaluga Oblast is one of the most ecologically pure regions of the Central Federal District.
There are several successful eco-settlements: the nature reserve Kaluzhskiye Zaseki, the Ugra National Park, the Tarusa natural reserve, the Kaluzhski Bor natural sanctuary. The accident in Chernobyl resulted in radioactive contamination in the oblast's southwest. Radiation monitoring is conducted in nine districts; the radiation background complies with the established radiation situation. ==History== The territory of Kaluga Oblast has been inhabited since ancient times. The oldest human sites discovered by archeologists date back to the Mesolithic period; the first mentions of Kaluga's towns are associated with events in the 12th century the feudal war between the Olegovichi and the Monomakhovichi. In the 14th century, Kaluga lands were the place for constant confrontations between Lithuania and Moscow. Traditionally, it is considered that Kaluga was established as a frontier to protect the Moscow principality from Lithuania's attacks. In 1480-1481, Kaluga's territory was the place of the great stand on the Ugra river, resulting in the liberation of Russian lands from the Tatar Yoke and Moscow's transformation into a sovereign state.
In the 16th and 17th centuries, with active development of trade and crafts, the city was advanced in the arts of wood carving and jewelry. After the reunification of Russia and the Ukraine in 1654, Kaluga's role as a trade intermediary between Moscow and the Ukraine contributed to its economic development. On August 24, 1776, Catherine II issued a decree establishing Kaluga Viceroyalty to unite Ka