The Russo-Kazan Wars was a series of wars fought between the Khanate of Kazan and Muscovite Russia from 1438, until Kazan was captured by Ivan the Terrible and absorbed into Russia in 1552. Before it separated from the Golden Horde the Kazan region was part of Volga Bulgaria and the Bulgar Ulus of the Golden Horde, they adopted Islam in 921. The boundary between Muscovy and Kazan was near Nizhny Novgorod, about half way between the two cities; the land east of Nizhny Novgorod was difficult. When the Tatars attacked they would first hit Nizhny Novgorod and move on Murom and other places, only twice approaching Moscow; when the Russians attacked they would send two armies, one down the Volga and one over land. As Muscovy grew stronger, fighting shifted eastward. Before 1552 the Russians made no attempt to conquer Kazan and contented themselves with maintaining a pro-Russian khan. A pro-Russian khan meant an anti-Russian khan meant independence and war. Kazan never established a stable dynasty. Pro-Russian khans came from the Qasim Khanate while anti-Russian khans were brought in from Crimea and other khanates.
There were pro- and anti-Russian factions, but they seem to have been temporary and unstable. In 1438, a year after the khanate's foundation, the first khan of Kazan, Olug Moxammat, advanced on Moscow with a large army. Vasily II of Moscow fled from his capital across the Volga River, but the Tatars refused to pursue the campaign and turned back to Kazan after devastating Kolomna and the locality; the campaign of 1445 had major repercussions in Russian politics. Hostilities broke out when Khan Maxmut took the strategic fortress of Nizhny Novgorod and invaded Muscovy. Vasily II defeated the Tatars near Murom and Gorokhovets. Thinking the war over, he disbanded his forces and returned to Moscow in triumph, only to learn that the Tatars had besieged Nizhny Novgorod again. A new army was mustered and marched towards Suzdal, where they met the Russian generals who had surrendered Nizhny to the enemy after setting the fortress on fire. On 6 June 1445 the Russians and the Tatars clashed in the Battle of the Kamenka River near the walls of St. Euphemius Monastery.
The battle was a resounding success for the Tatars. It took an enormous ransom to salvage the monarch from captivity. A fragile peace was broken in 1467, when Ibrahim of Kazan came to the throne and Ivan III of Russia supported the claims of his ally or vassal Qasim Khan. Ivan's army sailed down the Volga, with their eyes fixed on Kazan, but autumn rains and rasputitsa hindered the progress of Russian forces; when frosty winter came, the Russian generals launched an invasion of the northern Vyatka Region. The campaign fell apart for lack of unity of purpose and military capability; the following year, the Russians set out from Kotelnich in the Vyatka woods. They sailed down the Vyatka River and the Kama towards the Volga, pillaging merchant vessels on their way. In response, Ibrahim mounted a counter-offensive, overran Vyatka, forced local inhabitants into slavery for the duration of the campaign. In 1469, a much stronger army was raised and, sailing down the Volga and the Oka, linked up in Nizhny Novgorod.
The Russians marched downstream and ravaged the neighbourhood of Kazan but did not dare to lay siege to the Tatar capital, because Qasim's widow had pledged to negotiate an advantageous peace with Ibrahim. In the meantime, the units from Yaroslavl and Veliky Ustyug vainly attempted to win Vyatka to the Russian side. After negotiations were broken, the Tatars clashed with the Russians in two bloody but indecisive battles. In autumn 1469 Ivan III launched a third invasion of the khanate; the Russian commander, Prince Daniil Kholmsky, besieged Kazan, cut off water supplies and compelled Ibrahim to surrender. Under the terms of the peace settlement, the Tatars set free all the ethnic Christian Russians they had enslaved in the forty previous years; the Vyatka Region remained the principal bone of contention between Kazan and Moscow for decades to come. In 1478, shortly before his death, Ibrahim devastated the region. In revenge, Ivan III sent his generals to sack the neighbourhood of Kazan. At that time Ibrahim died and was succeeded by Ilham, whilst his half-brother Moxammat Amin fled to Moscow.
Ivan III allowed him to settle in Kashira and pledged his support for Moxammat's claims to the Tatar throne. In 1484 Russia placed Moxammat Amin on the throne. In 1487 that Ivan again found it prudent to intervene into Kazan affairs and to replace Ilham with Moxammat Amin. Prince Kholmsky laid siege to Kazan on 18 May; the city fell to the Russians on 9 June. Ilham was sent in chains to Moscow before being imprisoned in Vologda, while Moxammat Amin was proclaimed the new khan. In reference to this victorious campaign, Ivan III proclaimed himself "Lord of Volga Bulgaria"; the last war of Ivan's reign was instigated by Ilham's widow, who married Moxammat Amin and persuaded him to assert his independence from Moscow in 1505. The rebellion broke out into the open on Saint John's Day, when the Tatars massacred Russian merchants and envoys present at the annual Kazan Fair. A huge army of the Kazan and Nogai Tatars advanced towards Nizhny Novgorod and besieged the city; the affair was decided by 300 Lithuanian archers, captured by Russians in the Battle of Vedrosha and lived in Nizhny in captivity.
They managed to put the Tatar vanguard into disarray: the khan's brother-in-law was killed in action and the horde retreated. Ivan's death prevented hostilities from being renewed un
Mariupol is a city of regional significance in south eastern Ukraine, situated on the north coast of the Sea of Azov at the mouth of the Kalmius river, in the Pryazovia region. It is the tenth-largest city in Ukraine, the second largest in the Donetsk Oblast with a population of 449,498 ; the city is and traditionally Russophone, while ethnically the population is divided about evenly between Russians and Ukrainians. Mariupol was founded on the site of a former Cossack encampment named Kalmius and granted city rights in 1778, it has been a centre for the grain trade and heavy engineering, including the Illich Steel & Iron Works and Azovstal. Mariupol has played a key role in the industrialization of Ukraine. Due to the Soviet authorities renaming cities after Communist leaders, the city was known as Zhdanov, after the Soviet functionary Andrei Zhdanov, between 1948 and 1989. Today, Mariupol remains a centre for industry, as well as business. Following the Russian intervention in Ukraine and the capture of Donetsk city by pro-Russian insurgents associated with the Donetsk People's Republic in 2014, Mariupol was made the provisional administrative centre of the Donetsk Oblast.
The city was secured on June 13, 2014 by Ukrainian troops, has come under attack several times since. During the late Middle Ages through the early modern period, here taken from the 12th through the 16th century, Mariupol lay within a broader region, devastated and depopulated by the intense conflict among the surrounding peoples, including the Crimean Tatars, the Nogai Horde, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Muscovy. By the middle of the 15th century much of the region north of the Black Sea and Azov Sea was annexed to the Crimean Khanate and became a dependency of the Ottoman Empire. East of the Dnieper river marked a desolate steppe, stretching to the sea of Azov, where the lack of water made early settlement precarious. Moreover, lying near the Kalmius trail, the region was subject to frequent raids and plundering by the Tatar tribes which prevented the area's permanent settlement, keeping it sparsely populated or an uninhabited no-man's land under Tatar rule. Hence it was known as the Wild Fields or the'Deserted Plains'.
In this region of the Eurasian steppes, the Cossacks emerged as a distinct people in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. Below the Dnieper Rapids were the Zaporozhian Cossacks, composed of freebooters organized into small, loosely-knit, mobile groups that practised both pastoral and nomadic living; the Cossacks would penetrate the steppe for fishing and hunting, as well as for migratory farming and herding of livestock. Their independence from governmental and landowner authority attracted and enlisted large numbers of fugitive peasants and serfs fleeing the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Muscovy; the isolation of the region was increased further by the Treaty of Constantinople, which provided that there should be no settlements or fortifications on the coast of the Azov Sea to the mouth of the Mius River. Moreover, in 1709 in response to a Cossack alliance with Sweden against Russia, Tsar Peter the Great ordered the destruction of the Zaporozhian central stockade and their complete expulsion from the area, without allowance for their return.
In 1733, Russia was preparing for a new military campaign against the Ottoman Empire so it allowed the return of the Zaporozhians, although the territory belonged to Turkey. Under the terms of the Agreement of Lubny of 1734, the Zaporozhians regained all their former lands and, in return, they were to serve in the Russian army during wartime, they were permitted to build a new stockade on the Dnieper River, though the terms prohibited them from erecting fortifications, allowing only for living quarters. Upon their return, the Zaporozhian population in these lands was sparse, in an effort to establish a measure of control, they introduced a structure of districts; the nearest to modern Mariupol was the Kalmiusskya district, but its border did not extend to the mouth of the Kalmius River, although this area had been part of its migratory territory. After 1736, the Zaporozhian and the Don Cossacks came into conflict over the area, resulting in Tsarina Elizabeth issuing a decree in 1746 marking the Kalmius River as the divide between the two Cossack hosts.
Sometime after 1738, the treaties of Belgrade, Niš, the Russian-Turkish convention of 1741, concurrent or following the land survey of 1743–1746, the Zaporzhian Cassocks established a military outpost on "the high promontory right bank of the Kalmius river." Though the details of its construction and history are obscure, excavations revealed Cossack and other artifacts within the enclosure of 120m by 120m. The outpost was a modest structure in that it lay within the territory of the Ottoman Empire, the constructions of fortifications on the Sea of Azov were prohibited by the Treaty of Niš; the last Tatar raid, launched in 1769, covered a vast area, overrunning the New Russia province with a huge army in severe winter weather. It destroyed the Kalmius burned all the Cassock winter lodgings. In 1770, the Russian government, not waiting for the end of the war with Turkey, moved its border with the Crimean Khanate southwest by more than two hundred kilometres, initiating the Dnieper fortified line (running fr
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin was a Georgian revolutionary and Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from the mid–1920s until 1953 as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and Premier. While presiding over a collective leadership as first among equals, he consolidated enough power to become the country's de facto dictator by the 1930s. A communist ideologically committed to the Leninist interpretation of Marxism, Stalin helped to formalise these ideas as Marxism–Leninism, while his own policies became known as Stalinism. Born to a poor family in Gori, Russian Empire, Stalin joined the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party as a youth, he edited the party's newspaper and raised funds for Vladimir Lenin's Bolshevik faction via robberies and protection rackets. Arrested, he underwent several internal exiles. After the Bolsheviks seized power during the 1917 October Revolution and created a one-party state under Lenin's newly renamed Communist Party, Stalin joined its governing Politburo.
Serving in the Russian Civil War before overseeing the Soviet Union's establishment in 1922, Stalin assumed leadership over the country following Lenin's 1924 death. During Stalin's rule, "Socialism in One Country" became a central tenet of the party's dogma. Under the Five-Year Plans, the country underwent agricultural collectivisation and rapid industrialization, creating a centralized command economy; this led to significant disruptions in food production that contributed to the famine of 1932–33. To eradicate accused "enemies of the working class", Stalin instituted the "Great Purge", in which over a million were imprisoned and at least 700,000 executed between 1934 and 1939. By 1937, he had complete personal control over the state. Stalin's government promoted Marxism–Leninism abroad through the Communist International and supported anti-fascist movements throughout Europe during the 1930s in the Spanish Civil War. In 1939, it signed a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany, resulting in the Soviet invasion of Poland.
Germany ended the pact by invading the Soviet Union in 1941. Despite initial setbacks, the Soviet Red Army repelled the German incursion and captured Berlin in 1945, ending World War II in Europe; the Soviets annexed the Baltic states and helped establish Soviet-aligned governments throughout Central and Eastern Europe and North Korea. The Soviet Union and the United States emerged from the war as the two world superpowers. Tensions arose between the Soviet-backed Eastern Bloc and U. S.-backed Western Bloc which became known as the Cold War. Stalin led his country through its post-war reconstruction, during which it developed a nuclear weapon in 1949. In these years, the country experienced another major famine and an anti-semitic campaign peaking in the Doctors' plot. Stalin died in 1953. Considered one of the 20th century's most significant figures, Stalin was the subject of a pervasive personality cult within the international Marxist–Leninist movement which revered him as a champion of the working class and socialism.
Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Stalin has retained popularity in Russia and Georgia as a victorious wartime leader who established the Soviet Union as a major world power. Conversely, his totalitarian government has been condemned for overseeing mass repressions, ethnic cleansing, hundreds of thousands of executions, famines which killed millions. Stalin was born in the Georgian town of Gori on 18 December 1878, he was the son of Besarion "Beso" Jughashvili and Ekaterine "Keke" Geladze, who had married in May 1872, had lost two sons in infancy prior to Stalin's birth. They were ethnically Georgian, Stalin grew up speaking the Georgian language. Gori was part of the Russian Empire, was home to a population of 20,000, the majority of whom were Georgian but with Armenian and Jewish minorities. Stalin was baptised on 29 December, he was nicknamed "Soso", a diminutive of "Ioseb". Besarion owned his own workshop; the family found themselves living in poverty, moving through nine different rented rooms in ten years.
Besarion became an alcoholic, drunkenly beat his wife and son. To escape the abusive relationship, Keke took Stalin and moved into the house of a family friend, Fr. Christopher Charkviani, she worked as launderer for local families sympathetic to her plight. Keke was determined to send her son to school, something that none of the family had achieved. In late 1888, aged 10 Stalin enrolled at the Gori Church School; this was reserved for the children of clergy, although Charkviani ensured that the boy received a place. Stalin excelled academically, displaying talent in painting and drama classes, writing his own poetry, singing as a choirboy, he got into many fights, a childhood friend noted that Stalin "was the best but the naughtiest pupil" in the class. Stalin faced several severe health problems. Aged 12, he was injured after being hit by a phaeton, the cause of a lifelong disability to his left arm. At his teachers' recommendation, Stalin proceeded to the Spiritual Seminary in Tiflis, he enrolled at the school in August 1894, enabled by a scholarship that allowed him to study at a reduced rate.
Here he joined 600 trainee priests who boarded at the semina
Tiraspol is internationally recognised as the second largest city in Moldova, but is the capital and administrative centre of the unrecognised Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. The city is located on the eastern bank of the Dniester River. Tiraspol is a regional hub such as furniture and electrical goods production; the modern city of Tiraspol was founded by the Russian generalissimo Alexander Suvorov in 1792, although the area had been inhabited for thousands of years by varying ethnic groups. The city celebrates its anniversary every year on October 14; the toponym consists of two ancient Greek words: Τύρας, the Ancient name for the Dniester River, polis, i.e. a city. Tyras spelled Tiras, was a colony of the Greek city Miletus founded about 600 BC, situated some 10 kilometres from the mouth of the Tiras River. Of no great importance in early times, in the 2nd century BC it fell under the dominion of indigenous kings whose names appear on its coins, it was destroyed by the Thracian Getae about 50 BC.
In 56 AD the Romans made it part of the colonial province of Lower Moesia. A series of its coins exist. Soon after the time of the latter, the city was destroyed again, this time by the invasion of the Goths, its government was in the hands of a senate, a popular assembly and a registrar. The images on its coins from this period suggest a trade in wheat and fish; the few inscriptions extant are concerned with trade. Such ancient archeological remains are scanty, as the city site was built over by the great medieval fortress of Monocastro or Akkerman. During the Middle Ages, the area around Tiraspol was a buffer zone between the Tatars and the Moldavians, inhabited by both ethnic groups; the Russian Empire conquered its way to the Dniester River, taking territory from the Ottoman Empire. In 1792 the Russian army built fortifications to guard the western border near a Moldavian village named Sucleia. Field Marshal Alexander Suvorov is considered the founder of modern Tiraspol; the city took its name from the Greek name of the Dniester River on which it stands.
In 1828 the Russian government established a customs house in Tiraspol to try to suppress smuggling. The customs house was subordinated to the chief of the Odessa customs region, it began operations with 14 employees. They inspected shipments of bread, oil, sugar and other goods. After the Russian Revolution, the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was created in Ukraine in 1924, with Balta as its capital; the republic had Romanian and Russian as its official languages. Its capital was moved in 1929 to Tiraspol, which remained the capital of the Moldavian ASSR until 1940. In 1940, following the secret provisions of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, the USSR forced Romania to cede Bessarabia, it integrated Tiraspol, until part of the Ukrainian SSR, into the newly formed Moldavian SSR. On August 7, 1941, following the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, the city was taken over by Romanian troops. During the occupation, Tiraspol was under Romanian administration. During that period all of its Jewish population died: they were slain in situ or deported to German Nazi death camps, where they were murdered.
In 1941 before the occupation, the newspaper Dnestrovskaya Pravda was founded by the Tiraspol City Council of popular deputies. This is the oldest periodical publication in the region. On April 12, 1944, the city was retaken by the Red Army and became again part of Moldavian SSR. On January 27, 1990, the citizens in Tiraspol passed a referendum declaring the city as an independent territory; the nearby city of Bendery declared its independence from Moldova. As the Russian-speaking independence movement gained momentum, some local governments banded together to resist pressure from the Moldovan government for nationalization. On September 2, 1990, Tiraspol was proclaimed the capital of the new Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic; the new republic was not recognized by Soviet authorities. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the territory east of the Dniester River declared independence as the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, with Tiraspol as its capital, it was not recognized by the international community.
On July 1, 2005, the Lucian Blaga Lyceum, a high school with Romanian as its language of instruction, was registered as a Transnistrian non-governmental establishment. The registration of six Romanian language schools has been the subject of negotiations with the government since 2000; the tension increased in the summer of 2004, when the Transnistrian authorities forcibly closed the schools that used the Moldovan language in the Latin script. According to the official PMR view, this is considered as Romanian. Moldovan, written in the Cyrillic script, is one of the three official languages in the PMR; some economic measures and counter-measures were taken on both banks of the Dniester. Tensions have been expressed in terrorist incidents. On July 6, 2006, an explosion, believed to be caused by a bomb, killed at least eight people in a minibus. On August 13, 2006, a grenade explosion in a trolleybus injured ten. Tiraspol features a humid continental climate that borders an oceanic climate and has transitional features of the humid subtropical climate due to its warm summers.
Summers are mild, with average monthly temperatures at around 21 °C in July a
Chersonesus, in medieval Greek contracted to Cherson is an ancient Greek colony founded 2,500 years ago in the southwestern part of the Crimean Peninsula. The colony was established in the 6th century BC by settlers from Heraclea Pontica; the ancient city is located on the shore of the Black Sea at the outskirts of Sevastopol on the Crimean Peninsula, where it is referred to as Khersones. It has been nicknamed the "Ukrainian Pompeii"; the site is now part of the National Preserve of Tauric Chersonesos. The name Chersonesos in Greek means "peninsula", aptly describes the site on which the colony was established, it should not be confused with the Tauric Chersonese, the name applied to the whole of the southern Crimea. During much of the classical period Chersonesus was a democracy ruled by a group of elected Archons and a council called the Demiurgoi; as time passed the government grew more oligarchic, with power concentrated in the hands of the archons. A form of oath sworn by all the citizens since the 3rd century BC has survived to the present day.
In 2013, Chersonesus was listed as a World Heritage Site. In the late 2nd century BC Chersonesus became a dependency of the Bosporan Kingdom, it was subject to Rome from the middle of the 1st century BC until the 370s AD, when it was captured by the Huns. It became a Byzantine possession during the Early Middle Ages and withstood a siege by the Göktürks in 581. Byzantine rule was slight: there was a small imperial garrison more for the town's protection than for its control, it was useful to Byzantium in two ways: as an observation point to watch the barbarian tribes, its isolation made it a popular place of exile for those who angered the Roman and Byzantine governments. Among its more famous "inmates" were Pope Clement I and Pope Martin I, the deposed Byzantine Emperor Justinian II. According to Theophanes the Confessor and others, Chersonesus was the residence of a Khazar governor in the late 7th century. Between 705 and 840, the city's affairs were managed by elected officials called babaghuq, meaning "father of the city.
In 833 Emperor Theophilus sent the nobleman Petronas Kamateros, who had overseen the construction of the Khazar fortress of Sarkel, to take direct control over the city and its environs, establishing the theme of Klimata/Cherson. It remained in Byzantine hands until the 980s, when it fell to Kiev. Vladimir the Great agreed to evacuate the fortress only if Basil II's sister Anna Porphyrogeneta would be given him in marriage; the demand caused a scandal in Constantinople. As a pre-condition for the marriage settlement, Vladimir was baptized here in 988, thus paving the way to the Baptism of Kievan Rus'. Thereafter Korsun' was evacuated. Since this campaign is not recorded in Greek sources, historians have suggested that this account refers to the events of the Rus'-Byzantine War and to a different Vladimir. In fact, most valuables looted by the Slavs in Korsun' made their way to Novgorod, where they were preserved in the Cathedral of Holy Wisdom until the 20th century. One of the most interesting items from this "Korsun Treasure" is the copper Korsun Gate captured by the Novgorodians in Korsun' and now part of the St. Sophia Cathedral.
After the Fourth Crusade, Chersonesus became dependent on the Byzantine Empire of Trebizond as the Principality of Theodoro. After the Siege of Trebizond the Principality of Theodoro became independent; the city fell under Genoese control in the early 13th century. In 1299, the town was sacked by the Mongol armies of Nogai Khan's Golden Horde. Chersonesus had been a Roman pre-Great Schism Greek/Orthodox, episcopal see for centuries, elevated early to the rank of archbishopric, since it is mentioned as such in the Notitiae Episcopatuum. In the late 19th century, the grand Russian Orthodox St Vladimir's Cathedral was built on a small hill overlooking the site. In 1333 a Latin Church diocese of Chersonesus was established, but it appears that it had only a bishop, a Dominican called Richard the Englishman. No longer a residential diocese, Chersonesus in Zechia is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular archbishopric, since the early 20th century called Cherson or Chersonesus, since 1933 Chersonesus in Zechia, avoiding confusion with other sees called Chersonesus by specifying it is Crimean.
It is vacant for decades, having had the following incumbents, all of the intermediary rank: Donald Louis Mackintosh Alexis-Armand Charost as Coadjutor Archbishop of Rennes, succeeding as Metropolitan Archbishop of Rennes, created Cardinal-Priest of S. Maria della Vittoria. A. M. (1971.03.03 – 19
Feodosia called Theodosia, is a port and resort, a town of regional significance in Crimea on the Black Sea coast. Feodosia serves as the administrative center of Feodosia Municipality, one of the regions into which Crimea is divided. During much of its history the city was known as Kaffa. Population: 69,145; the city was founded as Theodosia by Greek colonists from Miletos in the 6th century BC. Noted for its rich agricultural lands, on which its trade depended, it was destroyed by the Huns in the 4th century AD. Theodosia remained a minor village for much of the next nine hundred years, it was of the Byzantine Empire. Like the rest of Crimea, this place fell under the domination of the Kipchaks and was conquered by the Mongols in the 1230s. In the late 13th century, traders from the Republic of Genoa arrived and purchased the city from the ruling Golden Horde, they established a flourishing trading settlement called Kaffa, which monopolized trade in the Black Sea region and served as a major port and administrative center for the Genoese settlements around the Sea.
It came to house one of Europe's biggest slave markets. From 1266 and on, Kaffa was governed by a Genoese consul, who since 1316 was in charge of all Genoese Black Sea colonies. Between 1204–1261 and again in 1296–1307, the city of Kaffa was ruled by Republic of Genoa's chief rival, the Republic of Venice. Ibn Battuta visited the city, noting it was a "great city along the sea coast inhabited by Christians, most of them Genoese." He further stated, "We went down to its port, where we saw a wonderful harbor with about two hundred vessels in it, both ships of war and trading vessels and large, for it is one of the world's celebrated ports."In early 1318 Pope John XXII established a Latin Church diocese of Kaffa, as a suffragan of Genoa. The papal bull of appointment of the first bishop attributed to him a vast territory: "a villa de Varna in Bulgaria usque Sarey inclusive in longitudinem et a mari Pontico usque ad terram Ruthenorum in latitudinem"; the first bishop was Fra' Gerolamo, consecrated seven years before as a missionary bishop ad partes Tartarorum.
The diocese ended as a residential bishopric with the capture of the city by the Ottomans in 1475. Accordingly, Kaffa is today listed by the Catholic Church, it is believed that the devastating pandemic the Black Death entered Europe for the first time via Kaffa in 1347, through the movements of the Golden Horde. After a protracted siege during which the Mongol army under Janibeg was withering from the disease, they catapulted the infected corpses over the city walls, infecting the inhabitants, in one of the first cases of biological warfare. Fleeing inhabitants may have carried the disease back to Italy. However, the plague appears to have spread in a stepwise fashion, taking over a year to reach Europe from Crimea. There were a number of Crimean ports under Mongol control, so it is unlikely that Kaffa was the only source of plague-infested ships heading to Europe. Additionally, there were overland caravan routes from the East that would have been carrying the disease into Europe as well. Kaffa recovered.
The thriving, culturally diverse city and its thronged slave market have been described by the Spanish traveler Pedro Tafur, there in the 1430s. In 1462 Caffa placed itself under the protection of King Casimir IV of Poland. However, Poland did not offer significant help due to reinforcements sent being massacred in Bar fortress by Duke Czartoryski after quarrel with locals. Following the fall of Constantinople and lastly Trebizond, the position of Caffa had become untenable and attracted the attention of Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II, he was at no loss for a pretext to extinguish this last Genoese colony on the Black sea. In 1473, the tudun of the Crimean Khanate died and a fight developed over the appointment of his successor; the Genoese involved themselves in the dispute, the Tatar notables who favored the losing candidate asked Mehmed to settle the dispute. Mehmed dispatched a fleet under the Ottoman commander Gedik Ahmet Pasha, which left Constantinople 19 May 1475, it anchored before the walls of the city on 1 June, started the bombardment the next day, on 6 June the inhabitants capitulated.
Over the next few days the Ottomans proceeded to extract the wealth of the inhabitants, abduct 1,500 youths for service in the Sultan's palace. On 8 July the final blow was struck when all inhabitants of Latin origin were ordered to relocate to Istanbul, where they founded a quarter, named after the town they had been forced to leave. Renamed Kefe, Caffa became one of the most important Turkish ports on the Black Sea. In 1615 Zaporozhian Cossacks under the leadership of Petro Konashevych-Sahaidachny destroyed the Turkish fleet and captured Caffa. Having conquered the city, the cossacks released the men and children who were slaves. Ottoman control ceased when the expanding Russian Empire took over Crimea between 1774 and 1783, it was renamed Feodosiya, after the traditional Russian reading of the ancient Greek name. In 1900 Zibold constructed the first air well on mount Tepe-Oba near Feodosiya; the city was occupied by the forces of Nazi Germany during World
Odessa is the third most populous city of Ukraine and a major tourism center and transportation hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea. It is the administrative center of the Odessa Oblast and a multiethnic cultural center. Odessa is sometimes called the "pearl of the Black Sea", the "South Capital", "Southern Palmyra". Before the Tsarist establishment of Odessa, an ancient Greek settlement existed at its location as elsewhere along the northwestern Black Sea coast. A more recent Tatar settlement was founded at the location by Hacı I Giray, the Khan of Crimea in 1440, named after him as "Hacıbey". After a period of Lithuanian Grand Duchy control and surroundings became part of the domain of the Ottomans in 1529 and remained there until the empire's defeat in the Russo-Turkish War of 1792. In 1794, the city of Odessa was founded by a decree of the Russian empress Catherine the Great. From 1819 to 1858, Odessa was a free port. During the Soviet period it was the most important port of trade in the Soviet Union and a Soviet naval base.
On 1 January 2000, the Quarantine Pier at Odessa Commercial Sea Port was declared a free port and free economic zone for a period of 25 years. During the 19th century, Odessa was the fourth largest city of Imperial Russia, after Moscow, Saint Petersburg and Warsaw, its historical architecture has a style more Mediterranean than Russian, having been influenced by French and Italian styles. Some buildings are built in a mixture of different styles, including Art Nouveau and Classicist. Odessa is a warm-water port; the city of Odessa hosts both the Port of Odessa and Port Yuzhne, a significant oil terminal situated in the city's suburbs. Another notable port, Chornomorsk, is located to the south-west of Odessa. Together they represent a major transport hub integrating with railways. Odessa's oil and chemical processing facilities are connected to Russian and European networks by strategic pipelines; the city was named in compliance with the Greek Plan of Catherine the Great. It was named after the ancient Greek city of Odessos, mistakenly believed to have been located here.
Odessa is located in between the ancient Greek cities of Tyras and Olbia, different from the ancient Odessos's location further west along the coast, at present day Varna, Bulgaria. Catherine's secretary of state Adrian Gribovsky claimed in his memoirs that the name was his suggestion; some expressed doubts about this claim, while others noted the reputation of Gribovsky as an honest and modest man. Odessa was the site of a large Greek settlement no than the middle of the 6th century BC; some scholars believe it to have been a trade settlement established by the Greek city of Histria. Whether the Bay of Odessa is the ancient "Port of the Histrians" cannot yet be considered a settled question based on the available evidence. Archaeological artifacts confirm extensive links between the Odessa area and the eastern Mediterranean. In the Middle Ages successive rulers of the Odessa region included various nomadic tribes, the Golden Horde, the Crimean Khanate, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Ottoman Empire.
Yedisan Crimean Tatars traded there in the 14th century. During the reign of Khan Hacı I Giray of Crimea, the Khanate was endangered by the Golden Horde and the Ottoman Turks and, in search of allies, the khan agreed to cede the area to Lithuania; the site of present-day Odessa was a fortress known as Khadjibey. It was part of the Dykra region. However, most of the rest of the area remained uninhabited in this period. Khadjibey came under direct control of the Ottoman Empire after 1529 as part of a region known as Yedisan, was administered in the Ottoman Silistra Province. In the mid-18th century, the Ottomans rebuilt the fortress at Khadjibey, named Yeni Dünya. Hocabey was a sanjak centre of Silistre Province; the sleepy fishing village that Odessa had been saw a step-change in its fortunes when the wealthy magnate and future Voivode of Kiev, Antoni Protazy Potocki, set up trade routes through the port for the Polish Black Sea Trading Company and set up the infrastructure in the 1780s. During the Russian-Turkish War of 1787–1792, on 25 September 1789, a detachment of the Russian forces including Zaporozhian Cossacks under Alexander Suvorov and Ivan Gudovich took Khadjibey and Yeni Dünya for the Russian Empire.
One part of the troops came under command of a Spaniard in Russian service, Major General José de Ribas, the main street in Odessa today, Deribasivska Street, is named after him. Russia formally gained possession of the area as a result of the Treaty of Jassy in 1792 and it became a part of Novorossiya; the city of Odessa, founded by Catherine the Great, Russian Empress, centers on the site of the Turkish fortress Khadzhibei, occupied by Russian Army in 1789. Flemish engineer working for the empress, Franz de Volan recommended the area of Khadzhibei fortress as the site for the region's basic port: it had an ice-free harbor, breakwaters could be cheaply constructed and would render the harbor safe and it would have the capacity to accommodate large fleets; the Governor General of Novorossiya, Platon Zubov supported this proposal, in 1794 Catherine approved the foundi