Mount Wellington (Tasmania)
Mount Wellington kunanyi / Mount Wellington, incorporating its Palawa kani name, is a mountain in the southeast coastal region of Tasmania, Australia. It is within the Wellington Park reserve. Located at the foothills of the mountain is much of Tasmania's capital city, Hobart; the mountain rises to 1,271 metres above sea level and is covered by snow, sometimes in summer, the lower slopes are thickly forested, but crisscrossed by many walking tracks and a few fire trails. There is a sealed narrow road to the summit, about 22 kilometres from Hobart central business district. An enclosed lookout near the summit has views of the city below and to the east, the Derwent estuary, glimpses of the World Heritage Area nearly 100 kilometres west. From Hobart, the most distinctive feature of Mount Wellington is the cliff of dolerite columns known as the Organ Pipes; the low-lying areas and foothills of Mount Wellington were formed by slow geological upsurge when the whole Hobart area was a low-lying cold shallow seabed.
The upper reaches of the mountain were formed more violently, as a Sill with a tabular mass of igneous rock, intruded laterally between layers of older rock pushing upwards by upsurges of molten rock as the Australian continental shelf tore away from Antarctica, separated from Gondwana over 40 million years ago. It is incorrectly considered to be a dormant volcano. Mount Wellington was referred by the original Tasmanian nations of the area as Unghbanyahletta, Poorawetter, or kunanyi to the indigenous people of Tasmania; the Palawa, the surviving descendants of the original indigenous Tasmanians, tend to prefer the latter name. In 2013, a Tasmanian dual naming policy was announced and "kunanyi / Mount Wellington" was named as one of the inaugural dual named geographic features; the first recorded European in the area Abel Tasman did not see the mountain in 1642, as his ship was quite a distance out to sea as he sailed up the South East coast of the island – coming closer in near present-day North and Marion Bays.
No other Europeans visited Tasmania until the late eighteenth century, when several visited southern Tasmania including Frenchman Marion du Fresne, Englishmen Tobias Furneaux, James Cook and William Bligh, Frenchman Bruni d'Entrecasteaux. In 1793 Commodore John Hayes arrived at the Derwent River, naming the mountain Skiddaw, after the mountain in the Lake District, although this name never gained popularity. In 1798 Matthew Flinders and George Bass circumnavigated the island. Whilst they were resting in the area Flinders named the river the Derwent River, Flinders referred to the mountain as ‘Table Mountain’ for its similarity in appearance to Table Mountain in South Africa. Bruni d'Entrecasteaux's men were the first European to chart it. Nicholas Baudin led another French expedition in 1802, whilst sheltering in the Derwent River Baudin referred to the mountain as ‘Montagne du Plateau’. However, the British first settled in the Hobart area in 1804, resulting in Flinders’ name of ‘Table Mountain’ becoming more popular.
Table Mountain remained its common name until in 1832 it was decided to rename the mountain in honour of the Duke of Wellington who, with Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in present-day Belgium on 18 June 1815. In February 1836, Charles Darwin climbed Mount Wellington. In his book "The Voyage of the Beagle", Darwin described the mountain thus. In many parts the Eucalypti grew to a great size, composed a noble forest. In some of the dampest ravines, tree-ferns flourished in an extraordinary manner; the fronds forming the most elegant parasols, produced a gloomy shade, like that of the first hour of the night. The summit of the mountain is broad and flat, is composed of huge angular masses of naked greenstone, its elevation is 3,100 feet above the level of the sea. The day was splendidly clear, we enjoyed a most extensive view; the first weather station was set up on Mount Wellington in 1895 by Clement Lindley Wragge. Mount Wellington has played host to some notorious characters over time the bushranger'Rocky' Whelan, who murdered several travelers in the middle of the 19th century.
The cave where he lived is known appropriately as'Rocky Whelan's Cave', is an easy walk from the Springs. Throughout the 19th and into the 20th centuries, the Mountain was a popular day-resort for residents of Hobart. To that end, many excursion huts were built over the lower slopes of the mountain. However, none of these early huts survive as they were all destroyed during the disastrous bushfires of 1967, though modern huts are open to the public at the Springs, the Pinnacle, the Chalet – a picnic spot about halfway between the Springs and the Pinnacle – and elsewhere. Sadly, many of the more remote huts have suffered from vandalism, s
Ranelagh is a township in the Huon Valley of Tasmania, Australia. A satellite town of Huonville, which it is adjacent to, it is a former agricultural area and now a tourist town and residence for workers who commute to other areas for work. At the 2011 census, Ranelagh had 1,027 people, it is best known for the Ranelagh Showgrounds which host the annual Huon Show and Taste of the Huon events which are major tourism attractions for the Huon Valley. Ranelagh shared the name Victoria with neighbouring Huonville. Huonville was renamed in 1891. Ranelagh is a semi-rural locality; the center are Wilmot Streets. Marguerite St includes the Ranelagh Soldiers' Memorial Hall opened in 1924, Summer Kitchen Cafe, Ranelagh General Store and the Ranelagh Showgrounds on the corner of Marguerite and Ranelagh St. Wilmot St holds the heritage-listed Clifton estate St Marys of the Cross Catholic Church and St James Anglican Church and respective cemeteries. Ranelagh includes the Jimmy Watson Memorial Trophy winning Home Hill Winery and Huon Bush Retreats
Sandfly is a suburb in the Kingborough Council local government area in Tasmania, Australia. A region of the Franklin Electorate, Sandfly is a historic area that sits between the suburbs of Longley, Lower Longley, Allens Rivulet, Leslie Vale and Kaoota; the population of Sandfly in 2011 was 156. The origin of the name of the suburb is confused, it is named after Sandfly Rivulet, a tributary of the Huon River, discovered in 1837 and renamed Kellaways Creek in 1969, but the origin of the rivulets name is unknown. A number of local geographic features have the name Sandfly; the present Sandfly Road was Cross Road, instead the now Pelverata Road was Sandfly Road. Usage of the term is now less common but Sandfly formed the center of the Sandfly basin, the region that encompasses the localities of Longley, Lower Longley, Allens Rivulet and Sandfly based on the area of the old Sandfly Rivulet; as late as 1905 it was enshrined as the Road District of Sandfly Basin, used as a school district in 1882. There existed a Parish of the Sandfly Basin for a short period.
Sandfly was first settled in the 1850s. Its economy was built on the growing of small fruits and pears like the nearby Huon Valley. Sandfly School was burnt down in 1897 during bushfires. In 1898 a new school was built and used until 1966. Sandfly Methodist Church's foundation was laid in 1897 but delayed the same year due to the 1897 Tasmanian bushfires. Construction rebegun in 1899 and it opened on 13 August 1899; the church burnt down in Black Tuesday, the last service being on 5 February 1967. Longley Anglican Church and Longley Anglican Church both burnt down in the same fires and in 1969 a combined Methodist-Anglican Church was built where the school had burnt down, it closed in 2008. Sandfly Hall was built in 1903, with the foundation stone laid by Captain Evans MHA on 7 March and the entire hall built in just three weeks. An anteroom was added in 1934, opened by Ben Pearsall MHA in November. Coal began mining it; this operation was brought up by the North West Bay Company, which merged with the Sandfly Colliery Company who owned mines at Kaoota, linked via a tramway from Kaoota through to Margate.
This company had been founbded in the 1870s by James Hurst, a wealthy landowner but the early mining operations were small scale. The Sandfly Coal Mining Company in 1902 began work on larger mines; the North West Bay Company and the Sandfly Coal Mining Company merged in 1904 and leased 100 acres to begin operations. In November 1906 the tramway was completed and production was increased, but the company went bankrupt in late 1907; the Tasmanian Wallsend Colliery Company acquired the Sandfly Colliery Company in 1908 and began mining again but after mining 16000 tons the coal ran out in 1910. The State Government purchased Sandfly Tramway in 1916 and began leasing it to Kingborough Council in 1917. In 1917 a syndicate reopened the mines after a strike cut coal supply from the mainland, but it again stopped in 1919. Bushfires damaged the tramways in 1917 and 1920, one of the bridges was destroyed in the 1920 fire; the Council continued to operate the service but stopped at the missing bridge, the rest of the tramway past the burnt bridge were sold to the Catamaran Coal Company, pulled down and used to help build Ida Bay Railway.
The Fogarty family began small scale mining again in 1937, which continued until 1971 when it closed for good. Sandfly Recreation Ground was created by the Sandfly Sports and Trotting Club in 1921 when a temporary racecourse was constructed there. A Recreation Ground Committee began improvements to the grounds. Paid for by a baby competition organised by the local schoolteacher, Sandfly Recreation Ground Pavilion was built in 1925; the Sandfly War Memorial was added to the Sandfly Recreation Grounds after World War II, expanding the pavilion and adding memorial gates to the grounds. The local polling station for the Denison division of the Franklin electorate is located in Sandfly Hall, Sandfly Road, Sandfly. Sandfly Post Office opened on 1 April 1888 and closed in 1981; the Longley Cricket Club, known as the Longley Bunyips, has Sandfly Oval, located on Sandfly Road, as its homeground. The defunct Anglican Church of St. Luke's is located in Sandfly; the original Church of St Luke's, built in 1893, burnt down in the year 1931, a second church was built to replace it, destroyed in the 1967 bush fires.
The current church was built using the combined resources of the local Methodist and Roman Catholic congregations, in 1969. At the corner of the Longley-Sandfly-Huon Highway intersection, the historic Sandfly Store still stands, although the original building is no longer in use and a new cinder block store has been constructed next door. Sandfly's major road is Sandfly Road, which begins at the Sandfly-Longley Junction and runs through Sandfly, in to Margate, acting as the major route between Longley, Allens Rivulet and Margate. List of localities in Tasmania
South Bruny National Park
The South Bruny National Park is a national park located on Bruny Island, Australia, about 50 kilometres south of Hobart. The park contains the Cape Bruny Lighthouse; the highest point of the park is Mount Bruny at 504 metres. The park embraces the Labillardiere Peninsula, named in honour of the French botanist Jacques Labillardière, author of the first general flora of Australia and a member of Bruni d'Entrecasteaux's expedition; the Nuenonne people once occupied South Bruny and there are several cultural sites around the national park, all of which are protected and some of which are publicized. Dolerite cliffs categorize part of the dramatic coastline, with continuous expanses of beaches from Fluted Cape to the southern tip, continuing around Cloudy Bay, encompass the whole southern part of Great Taylors Bay. South Bruny was declared a National Park in 1997 for its coastal scenery, as well as Aboriginal and historic heritage and to protect a number of threatened species endemic to the area.
The park has become a popular tourist destination enhanced by its abundant birdlife and coastal heathlands. A number of smaller islands were reserved for their ecological significance including Partridge Island, Green Island and The Friars. Plant communities in the park are of high conservation value due to the occurrence of geographically significant species endemic to the island and not protected by reserves or parks elsewhere in Tasmania. Much of the park's vegetation comprises dry sclerophyll communities such as eucalypt woodland as well as heathland and coastal communities. There are small patches of wet eucalypt forest and temperate rainforest. Common coastal plants include she-oaks and casuarinas, which have a high tolerance to salt spray and wind; the national park contains several rare, endemic orchid species including the endangered chestnut leek orchid and the pretty leek orchid, both of which are of high ecological significance due to their rare occurrence. These species occur in heathland communities which are diverse and are of high conservation significance.
The pretty leek orchid thrives in damp heathland and is so rare that the largest of the five known populations consists of fifty individuals. Several other heath species are classified as rare and vulnerable including the juniper wattle, variable smoke bush, the yellow onion orchid. Eucalyptus forests within the national park play an important role in creating habitat for many species of insects and mammals. Common species are brown-top stringy bark with pockets of blue gum and white peppermint; the eyebright is another species of particular note. The eyebright is a small flowering perennial occurring in open woodland and is vulnerable to disturbance where it exists on vehicle tracks and grazing areas. Common mammals in the park include the Bennett's wallaby, common brush tail possum and Tasmanian pademelon; the Bennett's wallaby is prevalent throughout Tasmania, however the national park protects a small population of unusual white Bennett's wallabies. The Bennett's wallaby referred to as the red-necked wallaby, can be found grazing on grasslands around the Fluted Cape area and are nocturnal.
The eastern quoll has been reported. Spotted-tail quolls, Tasmanian devils, common wombats have always been absent from the island. All twelve of Tasmania's endemic bird species are present, notably the forty-spotted pardalote for which the island is the main stronghold. Little penguins and hooded plovers breed along the coast. Reptiles recorded include lowland copperhead and white-lipped snake. A colony of Australian fur seals occupy The Friars; the birdlife of the park is of particular significance due to the varied habitats suitable for a rich variety of species. Several birds of prey exist in South Bruny National Park, including the white-bellied sea eagle, the wedge-tailed eagle and the grey goshawk; the goshawk is endangered and rare, is found on Partridge Island, part of the South Bruny National Park. On Partridge island is a breeding penguin colony, the island provides a secluded refuge and ideal habitat for the flightless bird. Nearby Green Island provides the ideal conditions for the kelp gull and is an important breeding ground of which there are few.
The park supports a rare ground parrot, which survives in the open heathland. Ground parrots are scarce with only three ground dwelling parrot species in existence, all of which are endangered; the preservation of their habitat is critical to the survival of the species, the undisturbed heathland of the South Bruny National Park provides this refuge. The forty-spotted pardalote is one of the rarest birds in Australia, is classified as endangered; the distribution of the species has declined over the last century with the bird thought to no longer occupy many parts of Tasmania where it
Woodbridge is a town in southern Tasmania, Australia 38 kilometres south of the state capital, Hobart. It is located on the D'Entrecasteaux Channel. At the 2006 census, Woodbridge had a population of 271. Peppermint Bay Post Office opened on May 15, 1854 and was renamed Woodbridge in 1881. Richard Deodatus Poulett-Harris - educationalist Lily Poulett-Harris - founder of women's cricket in Australia Henry Vere Poulett-Harris - Tasmanian and Western Australian State-level cricketer Woodbridge School
Magra is a locality in Tasmania, Australia. It is in the Derwent Valley a few kilometres north of New Norfolk. At the 2006 census, Magra had a population of 899. Magra is just over the hill from New Norfolk, it consists of dwelling houses and farmland. Accommodation is available as the area is popular with tourists. Notable features of Magra itself include the surrounding hills and the plantation of Lombardy Poplars; the site of the grave of Betty King, believed to be the first European white woman to set foot on Australian soil, is located in the vicinity of Magra. Magra Post Office opened on 1 June 1911 and closed in 1968. Https://web.archive.org/web/20130212154059/http://www.australiaforeveryone.com.au/places_newnorfolk.htm
Hobart is the capital and most populous city of the Australian island state of Tasmania. With a population of 225,000, it is the least populated Australian state capital city, second smallest if territories are taken into account. Founded in 1804 as a British penal colony, Hobart known as Hobart Town or Hobarton, is Australia's second oldest capital city after Sydney, New South Wales. Prior to British settlement, the Hobart area had been occupied for as long as 35,000 years, by the semi-nomadic Mouheneener tribe, a sub-group of the Nuennone, or South-East tribe; the descendants of these Aboriginal Tasmanians refer to themselves as'Palawa'. Since its foundation as a colonial outpost, the city has expanded from the mouth of Sullivans Cove in a north-south direction along both banks of the Derwent River, from 22 km inland from the estuary at Storm Bay to the point where the river reverts to fresh water at Bridgewater. Penal transportation ended in the 1850s, after which the city experienced periods of growth and decline.
The early 20th century saw an economic boom on the back of mining and other primary industries, the loss of men who served in the world wars was counteracted by an influx of immigration. Despite the rise in migration from Asia and other non-English speaking parts of the world, Hobart's population remains predominantly ethnically Anglo-Celtic, has the highest percentage of Australian-born residents among the Australian capital cities. In June 2016, the estimated greater area population was 224,462; the city is located in the state's south-east on the estuary of the Derwent River, making it the most southern of Australia's capital cities. Its harbour forms the second-deepest natural port in the world, its skyline is dominated by the 1,271-metre kunanyi/Mount Wellington, much of the city's waterfront consists of reclaimed land. It is the financial and administrative heart of Tasmania, serving as the home port for both Australian and French Antarctic operations and acting as a major tourist hub, with over 1.192 million visitors in 2011/2012.
The metropolitan area is referred to as Greater Hobart, to differentiate it from the City of Hobart, one of the five local government areas that cover the city. The first European settlement began in 1803 as a military camp at Risdon Cove on the eastern shores of the Derwent River, amid British concerns over the presence of French explorers. In 1804, along with the military and convicts from the abandoned Port Phillip settlement, the camp at Risdon Cove was moved by Captain David Collins to a better location at the present site of Hobart at Sullivans Cove; the city known as Hobart Town or Hobarton, was named after Lord Hobart, the British secretary of state for war and the colonies. The area's indigenous inhabitants were members of the semi-nomadic Mouheneener tribe. Violent conflict with the European settlers, the effects of diseases brought by them reduced the aboriginal population, replaced by free settlers and the convict population. Charles Darwin visited Hobart Town in February 1836 as part of the Beagle expedition.
He writes of Hobart and the Derwent estuary in his Voyage of the Beagle:... The lower parts of the hills which skirt the bay are cleared. I was chiefly built or building. Hobart Town, from the census of 1835, contained 13,826 inhabitants, the whole of Tasmania 36,505; the Derwent River was one of Australia's finest deepwater ports and was the centre of the Southern Ocean whaling and sealing trades. The settlement grew into a major port, with allied industries such as shipbuilding. Hobart Town became a city on 21 August 1842, was renamed Hobart from the beginning of 1881. Hobart is located on the estuary of the Derwent River in the state's south-east. Geologically Hobart is built predominantly on Jurassic dolerite around the foothills interspersed with smaller areas of Triassic siltstone and Permian mudstone. Hobart extends along both sides of the Derwent River. Both of these areas rest on the younger Jurassic dolerite deposits, before stretching into the lower areas such as the beaches of Sandy Bay in the south, in the Derwent estuary.
South of the Derwent estuary lies the Tasman Peninsula. The Eastern Shore extends from the Derwent valley area in a southerly direction hugging the Meehan Range in the east before sprawling into flatter land in suburbs such as Bellerive; these flatter areas of the eastern shore rest on far younger deposits from the Quaternary. From there the city extends in an easterly direction through the Meehan Range into the hilly areas of Rokeby and Oakdowns, before reaching into the tidal flatland area of Lauderdale. Hobart has access to a number of beach areas including those in the Derwent estuary itself. Hobart has a mild temperate oceanic climate; the highest temperature recorded was 41.8 °C on 4 January 2013 and the lowest was −2.8 °C on 25 June 1972 and 11 July 1981. Annually, Hobart receives 40.8 clear days. Compared to other major Australian cities, Hobart has the fewest daily average hours of sunshine, with 5.9 hours per day. However, during the summer it has the most