Tennessee is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Tennessee is the 16th most populous of the 50 United States. Tennessee is bordered by Kentucky to the north, Virginia to the northeast, North Carolina to the east, Georgia and Mississippi to the south, Arkansas to the west, Missouri to the northwest; the Appalachian Mountains dominate the eastern part of the state, the Mississippi River forms the state's western border. Nashville is the state's capital and largest city, with a 2017 population of 667,560. Tennessee's second largest city is Memphis, which had a population of 652,236 in 2017; the state of Tennessee is rooted in the Watauga Association, a 1772 frontier pact regarded as the first constitutional government west of the Appalachians. What is now Tennessee was part of North Carolina, part of the Southwest Territory. Tennessee was admitted to the Union as the 16th state on June 1, 1796. Tennessee was the last state to leave the Union and join the Confederacy at the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861.
Occupied by Union forces from 1862, it was the first state to be readmitted to the Union at the end of the war. Tennessee furnished more soldiers for the Confederate Army than any other state besides Virginia, more soldiers for the Union Army than the rest of the Confederacy combined. Beginning during Reconstruction, it had competitive party politics, but a Democratic takeover in the late 1880s resulted in passage of disenfranchisement laws that excluded most blacks and many poor whites from voting; this reduced competition in politics in the state until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-20th century. In the 20th century, Tennessee transitioned from an agrarian economy to a more diversified economy, aided by massive federal investment in the Tennessee Valley Authority and, in the early 1940s, the city of Oak Ridge; this city was established to house the Manhattan Project's uranium enrichment facilities, helping to build the world's first atomic bombs, two of which were dropped on Imperial Japan near the end of World War II.
Tennessee's major industries include agriculture and tourism. Poultry and cattle are the state's primary agricultural products, major manufacturing exports include chemicals, transportation equipment, electrical equipment; the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, the nation's most visited national park, is headquartered in the eastern part of the state, a section of the Appalachian Trail follows the Tennessee-North Carolina border. Other major tourist attractions include the Tennessee Aquarium in Chattanooga; the earliest variant of the name that became Tennessee was recorded by Captain Juan Pardo, the Spanish explorer, when he and his men passed through an American Indian village named "Tanasqui" in 1567 while traveling inland from South Carolina. In the early 18th century, British traders encountered a Cherokee town named Tanasi in present-day Monroe County, Tennessee; the town was located on a river of the same name, appears on maps as early as 1725. It is not known whether this was the same town as the one encountered by Juan Pardo, although recent research suggests that Pardo's "Tanasqui" was located at the confluence of the Pigeon River and the French Broad River, near modern Newport.
The meaning and origin of the word are uncertain. Some accounts suggest, it has been said to mean "meeting place", "winding river", or "river of the great bend". According to ethnographer James Mooney, the name "can not be analyzed" and its meaning is lost; the modern spelling, Tennessee, is attributed to James Glen, the governor of South Carolina, who used this spelling in his official correspondence during the 1750s. The spelling was popularized by the publication of Henry Timberlake's "Draught of the Cherokee Country" in 1765. In 1788, North Carolina created "Tennessee County", the third county to be established in what is now Middle Tennessee; when a constitutional convention met in 1796 to organize a new state out of the Southwest Territory, it adopted "Tennessee" as the name of the state. Tennessee is known as The Volunteer State, a nickname some claimed was earned during the War of 1812 because of the prominent role played by volunteer soldiers from Tennessee during the Battle of New Orleans.
Other sources differ on the origin of the state nickname. This explanation is more because President Polk's call for 2,600 nationwide volunteers at the beginning of the Mexican–American War resulted in 30,000 volunteers from Tennessee alone in response to the death of Davy Crockett and appeals by former Tennessee Governor and Texas politician, Sam Houston. Tennessee borders eight other states: Virginia to the north. Tennessee is tied with Missouri as the state bordering the most other states; the state is trisected by the Tennessee River. The highest point in the state is Clingmans Dome at 6,643 feet (
United States congressional delegations from Connecticut
These are tables of congressional delegations from Connecticut to the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate. List of members of the United States House of Representatives from Connecticut, their terms in office, district boundaries, the district political ratings according to the CPVI; the delegation has five members. Tables showing membership in the Connecticut federal House delegation throughout history of statehood in the United States. Starting in 1837, Connecticut adopted districts instead. Tables showing membership in the Connecticut federal Senate delegation throughout history of statehood in the United States; as of April 2015, there are three former U. S. Senators from the U. S. State of Connecticut who are living at this time, two from Class 1 and one from Class 3. List of United States congressional districts
Tennessee's 10th congressional district
United States House of Representatives, Tennessee District 10 was a district of the United States Congress in Tennessee. It was lost to redistricting in 1953, its last Representative was Clifford Davis. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
United States congressional delegations from Arkansas
These are tables of congressional delegations from Arkansas to the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate. List of members of the Arkansas United States House delegation, their terms in office, district boundaries, the district political ratings according to the CPVI; the delegation has a total of 4 members, with all being Republicans. Tables showing membership in the Arkansas federal House delegation throughout history of statehood in the United States. Tables showing membership in the Arkansas federal Senate delegation throughout history of statehood in the United States; as of January 2016, there are five former U. S. Senators from the U. S. State of Arkansas are alive who are living at this time, four from Class 2 and one from Class 3. List of United States congressional districts
Tennessee's 3rd congressional district
The 3rd Congressional District of Tennessee is a congressional district in East Tennessee. It has been represented by Republican Chuck Fleischmann since January 2011; the district comprises two halves, joined together through a narrow tendril in Roane County near Ten Mile. The upper half borders Kentucky to the north and is composed of Scott, Roane and Union counties, as well as most of Campbell County; the lower half borders North Carolina to the Georgia to the south. It is composed of Hamilton, Polk, McMinn, Monroe, the southern half of Bradley County. Traditionally, the third district has centered on Chattanooga, part of the district since before the Civil War. In area, the district is sparsely populated. Half of the district's population lives in Hamilton County, home to Chattanooga; the region is mountainous, due to its location in the Appalachian Mountains. It contains many "natural wonders" such as: The Lost Sea, Frozen Head, Ocoee Whitewater Center, most famously, Lookout Mountain, which contains both Ruby Falls and Rock City from the "See Rock City" signs dotted across the South.
The 3rd District is on the dividing line between counties and towns that favored or opposed Southern secession in the Civil War. George Washington Bridges was elected as a Unionist to the Thirty-seventh Congress, but he was arrested by Confederate troops while en route to Washington, D. C. and taken back to Tennessee. Bridges was held prisoner for more than a year before he escaped and went to Washington, D. C. and assumed his duties on February 23, 1863. During much of the 20th century, southeastern Tennessee was the only portion of Republican East Tennessee where Democrats were able to compete on a more-or-less basis; the Chattanooga papers—the moderate-to-progressive Times and the archconservative Free Press --printed diametrically-opposed political editorials. The northern counties have predominantly voted Republican since the 1860s, in a manner similar to their neighbors in the present 1st and 2nd districts. However, Democrats have received some support in coal mining areas. In the years since World War II, the government-founded city of Oak Ridge, with its active labor unions and a population derived from outside the region, has been a source of potential Democratic votes.
This balance showed signs of changing beginning in the late 1950s, when rural and working-class whites began splitting their tickets in national elections to support Dwight Eisenhower, Barry Goldwater, Governors Winfield Dunn and Lamar Alexander, Ronald Reagan, two Chattanoogans, U. S. Representative LaMar Baker and Senator Bill Brock, it warmly supported George Wallace in his third-party run for president in 1968. The district has only supported a Democrat for president twice in the last half century, in 1956 and 1992. In those cases, that support was entirely attributable to the presence of native sons as vice presidential candidates. In 1956, Senator Estes Kefauver, who had represented the 3rd from 1939 to 1949, was the Democratic vice presidential candidate. In 1992, Senator Al Gore was Bill Clinton's running mate, but with Gore's presence, the Democrats only carried the 3rd by 39 votes out of 225,000 cast; as the district became friendlier to Republicans at the national level, Democrats still held their own at the local level.
Brock won the congressional seat in 1962. He handed the seat to Baker in 1971, but conservative Democrat Marilyn Lloyd regained it in 1974 and held it for 20 years; as late as the early 1990s, area Democrats held at least half the local offices in the region in the southern portion. As the 1990s wore on, Democrats began losing county and local offices that they had held for generations; this trend began as early as 1992, when Lloyd held onto her seat against Republican Zach Wamp. Lloyd retired in 1994, Wamp narrowly won the race to succeed her as part of that year's massive GOP wave. Wamp was handily reelected in 1996, the Republicans have held it without serious difficulty since then. Indeed, the Democrats have only cleared 40 percent of the vote twice. Redistricting after the 2010 census consolidated the Republican hold on the seat, it is now one of the most Republican districts in the nation. Democrats still remain competitive in some local- and state-level races in Chattanooga and Oak Ridge.
Chattanooga elects some Democrats to the state legislature. However moderately liberal politics are a hard sell, most of the area's Democrats—particularly outside Chattanooga—are quite conservative on social issues; the 3rd District is home to several Evangelical Protestant denominations and colleges, contributing to the area's social conservatism. Republican Zach Wamp of Chattanooga had represented the 3rd District since 1995. After Wamp's January 2009 announcement that he would run for governor in 2010 instead of seeking re-election, several candidates announced campaigns for the seat; as of March 2010, the Republican field included former state party chairwoman Robin Smith, Air Force Captain Rick Kernea, Tommy Crangle, Chattanooga attorney Chuck Fleischmann, Bradley County sheriff Tim Gobble, Art Rhodes, Van Irion, Basil Marceaux. Fleischmann won the August 2010 primary with about 28 % of the total vote. Democratic candidates as of October 2009 were Paula Flowers of Oak Ridge, a former member of Governor Phil Bredesen's cabinet, and
Tennessee's 2nd congressional district
The 2nd congressional district of Tennessee is a congressional district in East Tennessee. It has been represented by Republican Tim Burchett since January 2019; the district is located in East Tennessee and borders Kentucky to the north and North Carolina to the south. It is composed of the following counties: Blount, Grainger and Loudon, it contains a small piece of Campbell County and a large piece of Jefferson County. The district is based in Knoxville, is coextensive with that city's metropolitan area; the area is known for being the home of the flagship campus for the University of Tennessee, hosting the 1982 World's Fair, for being the headquarters for the Tennessee Valley Authority, Ruby Tuesday, Pilot Flying J. The 2nd is one of the safest districts in the nation for the Republican Party. No Democrat has represented the district since 1855, Republicans have held the district continuously since 1859; this district traditionally gives its congressmen long tenures in Washington. Since 1909, six men have served at least ten years in Congress, with three of those having served at least twenty years.
Although the district has taken many forms over the years, it has included Knoxville every year since 1853. During the Civil War era, the area was represented in Congress by Horace Maynard. Maynard switched parties many times, but was pro-Union, did not resign from Congress when Tennessee seceded. Maynard entered Congress in 1857, but did not leave until 1875. For a short period in the 1870s, the area was represented by Jacob M. Thornburgh. For the 44th United States Congress, Thornburgh was the only Republican in the Tennessee delegation. Following Thornburgh's retirement, the district chose former Union colonel Leonidas C. Houk, who served until his death in 1891, upon which he was succeed by his son John. In late 1893, John faced a primary challenge from Henry R. Gibson. Gibson was chosen following this narrow and divisive primary went on to serve in Congress for ten years. Gibson did not seek re-election in 1904 and was succeeded by Nathan W. Hale, who served only two terms. Similar in character to the Houk/Gibson primary in 1893, Hale faced a divisive primary with eventual winner Richard W. Austin in 1908.
Ten years Austin himself was defeated for the Republican nomination, being edged out by former state Republican chairman J. Will Taylor. Taylor managed to serve for twenty years until his death in 1939. In a special election to fill the vacancy left by Taylor's death, the district elected former judge John Jennings, Jr.. Jennings' tenure nearly coincided with the 1940s decade. In 1950, Jennings was defeated in primary by former district attorney Howard Baker, Sr.. Baker served for thirteen years until his death in 1964, where he was succeeded by his widow Irene who did not seek re-election. In the 1964 election, the district chose Knoxville mayor John Duncan, Sr.. Duncan served for 23 years before his death in summer 1988. Following Duncan's death, the district elected Jimmy; the younger Duncan served for just over thirty years from late 1988 until his successor was sworn in early January 2019. Upon Jimmy Duncan's retirement, the district chose outgoing Knox County mayor Tim Burchett, who has served since January 2019.
Tennessee's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present