The Lyric Stage Company of Boston
The Lyric Stage Company of Boston is the oldest professional theatre company in Boston. Founded in 1974, the Lyric Stage Company is a non-profit organization located at 140 Clarendon Street in the YWCA building, it has been under the leadership of Producing Artistic Director Spiro Veloudos since 1998. The theatre produces about seven plays and musicals each season and is well known for its productions of Stephen Sondheim musicals; the mission of the Lyric Stage Company of Boston is to produce intimate and entertaining theatre. It accomplishes this through outreach programs, employment and development opportunities; the Lyric Stage Company of Boston was founded in 1974 by Ron Ritchell and Polly Hogan and began performances in the Community Church on Boylston Street. Two years the Lyric Stage moved to a theatre at 56 Charles Street; the stage sat no more than 103 audience members. The Lyric Stage moved again 140 Clarendon Street where it resides; the current theatre is triple the original size, includes a band loft, seats 234.
The Lyric Stage's first season consisted of The Second Man. The Importance of Being Earnest was its first production at 54 Charles Street. In its 1995–96 season, the Lyric Stage's production of Whoop-Dee-Doo! Earned the theatre its first Elliot Norton Award for Outstanding Designer; the theatre's first large-scale musical production occurred in its 2001–02 season with Sunday in the Park with George. A 2014 production of Into the Woods is the highest grossing run in Lyric Stage history; as part of its mission to support the Boston theatre scene, the Lyric Stage is committed to casting and hiring local playwrights, directors and musicians. Since its founding, the Lyric Stage has employed over 160 designers; the Lyric Stage Company of Boston develops new plays through its partnership with Fresh Ink Theatre. This initiative supports playwrights and directors through the development of new works. Lyric First stage is a summer program designed for young artists to gain theatrical experience; the program consists of professional mentors who teach a company of teenagers through workshops in music and movement.
At the end of each Lyric First Stage program, these young artists perform staged productions for a live audience. Lyric First Curtain is an educational initiative which gives Boston educators the ability to include drama in their curriculum; this program gives students the opportunity to experience theatre, which they may not otherwise have access to, delivers theatre education to local communities. Lyric First Curtain is in residence at McKinley School and at the Dudley Public Library. Ref Elliot Norton Award – Outstanding Musical Performance by an ActorWill McGarrahan, Souvenir Elliot Norton Award – Outstanding Musical Performance by an ActressLeigh Barrett and Souvenir Elliot Norton Award – Outstanding Director, Musical TheaterSummer L. Williams, Barbecue Elliot Norton Award – Outstanding Actress, Midsize TheatrePaula Plum, Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? Elliot Norton Award – Outstanding Production, Midsize TheatreWho's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? IRNE Award – Best Projection DesignSeaghan McKay, Sondheim on Sondheim IRNE Award – Best Solo PerformancePhil Tayler, Buyer & Cellar IRNE Award – Best Actress, Midsize Lindsey McWhorter, Intimate Apparel IRNE Award – Best Actress, MusicalJennifer Ellis, My Fair Lady IRNE Award – Best Director, MusicalScott Edmiston, My Fair Lady IRNE Award – Best MusicalMy Fair Lady IRNE Award – Special Award for Valiant ReplacementPaula Plum, Red Hot Patriot Elliot Norton Award – Outstanding Musical Production, Small or FringeMy Fair Lady Elliot Norton Award – Outstanding Actress, MidsizeCloteal Horne, Saturday Night/Sunday Morning Elliot Norton Award – Outstanding Solo PerformancePhil Tayler, Buyer & Cellar Elliot Norton Award – Outstanding Director, MidsizeScott Edmiston, My Fair Lady Elliot Norton Award – Musical Performance by an ActressJennifer Ellis, My Fair Lady IRNE Award – Best Lighting DesignFranklin Meissner, Jr. Sweeney Todd IRNE Award – Best Ensemble, MidsizeInto the Woods IRNE Award – Best Supporting Actress, Midsize Paula Plum, Death of a Salesman IRNE Award – Best Supporting Actor, Midsize Kelby T. Akin, Death of a Salesman IRNE Award – Best Director of a MusicalSpiro Veloudos, Into the Woods IRNE Award – Best MusicalInto the Woods IRNE Award – Best Play, MidsizeDeath of a Salesman Elliot Norton Award – Outstanding Actor, MidsizeNael Nacer, Intimate Apparel Elliot Norton Award – Best Director, MidsizeSpiro Veloudos, Into the Woods Elliot Norton Award – Outstanding Musical Performance by an ActressAimee Doherty, Into the Woods Elliot Norton Award – Outstanding Musical ProductionInto the Woods Elliot Norton Award – Outstanding Musical Performance by an ActressAimee Doherty, On the Town IRNE Award – Best Supporting Actor in a PlayJohn Davin, One Man, Two Guvnors IRNE Award – Best MusicalAvenue Q IRNE Award – Best Actress in a PlayCeleste Oliva, Chinglish IRNE Award – Best Actress in a MusicalErica Spyres, Avenue Q IRNE Award – Best Supporting Actor in a MusicalDavid Kravitz, The Mikado IRNE Award – Best Music DirectorCatherine Stornetta, Avenue Q IRNE Award – Best Director of a MusicalSpiro Veloudos, Avenue Q IRNE Award – Best Puppet AppearanceAvenue Q Elliot Norton Award – Outstanding Musical ProductionAvenue Q Elliot Norton Award – Outstanding EnsembleAvenue Q Elliot Norton Award – Outstanding ProductionThe Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby, Parts 1 & 2 Elliot N
Désirée Saskia Nick is a German actress and writer. After going to school in Berlin, Nick studied ballet at Berliner Tanzakademie, she became a member of the ensemble of Deutsche Oper Berlin and of Bavarian State Opera in Munich. Between 1982 and 1985 she studied Roman Catholic theology, she worked as a teacher for a few years. In the 1990s, Nick worked as an actress, in 2000 she wrote her autobiography, Bestseller einer Diva - Seit Jahren vergriffen. In 2004, Nick had a legal issue with actress Anouschka Renzi; that same year, Nick became popular in Germany, when she won the TV show Ich bin ein Star – Holt mich hier raus!, the German version of I'm a Celebrity... Get Me Out of Here!. Since 2005, Nick wrote several books. In one of them, Eva go home, she faced the controversial claims on her motherhood and family, published by former TV presenter Eva Herman. Nick was in a relationship with Prince Heinrich Julius of Hanover for twelve years with whom she has one son. In 2011 Thyra von Westernhagen, Prince Heinrich's wife, filed a legal complaint against Nick for slander and insult.
1997: Bestseller einer Diva: Seit Jahren vergriffen. Droemer Knaur, Munich 1997. ISBN 3-426-60665-8 2005: Gibt es ein Leben nach vierzig? Eine Anleitung zum Entfalten in Theorie und Praxis. Gustav Lübbe Verlag, Bergisch Gladbach 2005. ISBN 3-7857-2204-4 2006: Was unsere Mütter uns verschwiegen haben. Der Heimtrainer für Frauen in Nöten. Krüger, Frankfurt a. M. 2006. ISBN 3-8105-1325-3 2007: Eva go home! Eine Streitschrift. S. Fischer, Frankfurt a. M. 2007. ISBN 978-3-596-17669-4 2008: Liebling, ich komm später: Das große Buch vom Seitensprung. Krüger, Frankfurt a. M. 2008. ISBN 978-3-8105-1326-7 Official website by Désirée Nick Désirée Nick in German National Library Tagesspiegel: interview 2006 Désirée Nick on IMDb
Lyceum Theatre (Broadway)
The Lyceum Theatre is a Broadway theatre located at 149 West 45th Street near Times Square between Seventh and Sixth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Opened in 1903, the Lyceum Theatre is one of the three oldest surviving Broadway venues, it is the oldest continuously operating legitimate theatre in New York City, the first Broadway theatre to be granted landmark status. It is one of the few theatres in New York. Designed by architects Herts & Tallant in the Beaux-Arts style, the Lyceum was built by impresario Daniel Frohman, it opened on November 1903, with the play The Proud Prince. Frohman's brother Charles served as the theater's manager until his death in 1915. Two previous New York playhouses had been called "Lyceum Theatre"; the Fourteenth Street Theatre used the name from 1871 to 1879. Frohman's own earlier Lyceum on Fourth Avenue, was built in 1885 and closed in April 1902, it was replaced by the new Lyceum on 45th Street. Among the prominent performers who appeared on the Lyceum's stage in its early years were Ethel Barrymore, Fanny Brice, Billie Burke, Ina Claire, Miriam Hopkins, Walter Huston, Basil Rathbone, Cornelia Otis Skinner.
It has been owned by the Shubert Organization since 1952. The theatre maintains most of its original Beaux-Arts design, including its elaborate marble staircases and undulating marquee. Although it has three levels, it is one of the smaller Broadway theatres in terms of capacity, seating only 922. An apartment located above the orchestra used by Frohman, is now the headquarters of the Shubert Archives. List of New York City Designated Landmarks in Manhattan from 14th to 59th Streets Official website Lyceum Theatre at the Internet Broadway Database Lyceum Theatre, New York City Theatre Lyceum Theatre, Playbill
Florence Foster Jenkins
Florence Foster Jenkins was an American socialite and amateur soprano, known and mocked for her flamboyant performance costumes and notably poor singing ability. The historian Stephen Pile ranked her "the world's worst opera singer... No one, before or since, has succeeded in liberating themselves quite so from the shackles of musical notation."Despite her technical incompetence, she became a prominent musical cult figure in New York City during the 1920s, 1930s, 1940s. Cole Porter, Gian Carlo Menotti, Lily Pons, Sir Thomas Beecham, other celebrities were fans. Enrico Caruso is said to have "regarded her with affection and respect"; the poet William Meredith wrote that what Jenkins provided "was never an aesthetic experience, or only to the degree that an early Christian among the lions provided aesthetic experience. Narcissa Florence Foster was born July 19, 1868, in Wilkes-Barre, the daughter of Charles Dorrance Foster, an attorney and scion of a wealthy land-owning Pennsylvania family, Mary Jane Hoagland Foster.
Her one sibling, a younger sister named Lillian, died at the age of eight in 1883 of diphtheria. Foster said. A talented pianist, she performed at society functions as "Little Miss Foster", gave a recital at the White House during the administration of President Rutherford B. Hayes. After graduating from high school, she wanted to study music in Europe, but after her father refused she eloped with Frank Thornton Jenkins to Philadelphia, where they married in 1885; the following year, after learning that she had contracted syphilis from Frank, she ended their relationship and never spoke of him again. Years Florence asserted that a divorce decree had been granted on March 24, 1902, although no documentation of this has been found, she retained the Jenkins surname for the remainder of her life. After an arm injury ended her aspirations as a pianist, Jenkins gave piano lessons in Philadelphia to support herself. In 1909, she met British Shakespearean actor St. Clair Bayfield, they began a vaguely defined cohabitation relationship that continued the rest of her life.
Upon her father's death that year, Jenkins became the beneficiary of a sizable trust, resolved to resume her musical career as a singer, with Bayfield as her manager. She began taking voice lessons and immersed herself in wealthy New York City society, joining dozens of social clubs; as the "chairman of music" for many of these organizations, she began producing lavish tableaux vivants—popular diversions in upper-crust social circles of that era. In each of these productions, Jenkins would invariably cast herself as the main character in the final tableau, wearing an elaborate costume of her own design. In a republished photograph, Jenkins poses in a costume, complete with angelic wings, from her tableau inspired by Howard Chandler Christy's painting Stephen Foster and the Angel of Inspiration. Jenkins began giving private vocal recitals in 1912. In 1917, she became founder and "President Soprano Hostess" of her own social organization, the Verdi Club, dedicated to "fostering a love and patronage of Grand Opera in English".
Its membership swelled to over 400. When Jenkins's mother died in 1930, additional financial resources became available for the expansion and promotion of her singing career. According to published reviews and other contemporary accounts, Jenkins's acknowledged proficiency at the piano did not translate well to her singing, she is described as having great difficulty with such basic vocal skills as pitch and sustaining notes and phrases. In recordings, her accompanist Cosmé McMoon can be heard making adjustments to compensate for her constant tempo variations and rhythmic mistakes, but there was little he could do to conceal her inaccurate intonation, she was flat, sometimes so. Her diction was substandard with foreign-language lyrics; the difficult operatic solos that she chose to perform—all well beyond her technical ability and vocal range—served only to emphasize these deficiencies. "There's no way to pedagogically discuss it," said vocal instructor Bill Schuman. "It's amazing that she's attempting to sing that music."
The opera impresario Ira Siff, who dubbed her "the anti-Callas", said, "Jenkins was exquisitely bad, so bad that it added up to quite a good evening of theater... She would stray from the original music, do insightful and instinctual things with her voice, but in a distorted way. There was no end to the horribleness... They say Cole Porter had to bang his cane into his foot in order not to laugh out loud when she sang, she was that bad." Porter missed a recital. The question of whether "Lady Florence"—as she liked to be called, signed her autographs—was in on the joke, or believed she had vocal talent, remains a matter of debate. On the one hand, she compared herself favorably to the renowned sopranos Frieda Hempel and Luisa Tetrazzini, seemed oblivious to the abundant audience laughter during her performances, her loyal friends endeavored to disguise the laughter with cheers and applause. Favorable articles and bland reviews, published in specialty musi
Munich is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria, the second most populous German federal state. With a population of around 1.5 million, it is the third-largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg, as well as the 12th-largest city in the European Union. The city's metropolitan region is home to 6 million people. Straddling the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps, it is the seat of the Bavarian administrative region of Upper Bavaria, while being the most densely populated municipality in Germany. Munich is the second-largest city in the Bavarian dialect area, after the Austrian capital of Vienna; the city is a global centre of art, technology, publishing, innovation, education and tourism and enjoys a high standard and quality of living, reaching first in Germany and third worldwide according to the 2018 Mercer survey, being rated the world's most liveable city by the Monocle's Quality of Life Survey 2018. According to the Globalization and World Rankings Research Institute Munich is considered an alpha-world city, as of 2015.
Munich is a major international center of engineering, science and research, exemplified by the presence of two research universities, a multitude of scientific institutions in the city and its surroundings, world class technology and science museums like the Deutsches Museum and BMW Museum.. Munich houses many multinational companies and its economy is based on high tech, the service sector and creative industries, as well as IT, biotechnology and electronics among many others; the name of the city is derived from the Old/Middle High German term Munichen, meaning "by the monks". It derives from the monks of the Benedictine order, who ran a monastery at the place, to become the Old Town of Munich. Munich was first mentioned in 1158. Catholic Munich resisted the Reformation and was a political point of divergence during the resulting Thirty Years' War, but remained physically untouched despite an occupation by the Protestant Swedes. Once Bavaria was established as a sovereign kingdom in 1806, it became a major European centre of arts, architecture and science.
In 1918, during the German Revolution, the ruling house of Wittelsbach, which had governed Bavaria since 1180, was forced to abdicate in Munich and a short-lived socialist republic was declared. In the 1920s, Munich became home to several political factions, among them the NSDAP; the first attempt of the Nazi movement to take over the German government in 1923 with the Beer Hall Putsch was stopped by the Bavarian police in Munich with gunfire. After the Nazis' rise to power, Munich was declared their "Capital of the Movement". During World War II, Munich was bombed and more than 50% of the entire city and up to 90% of the historic centre were destroyed. After the end of postwar American occupation in 1949, there was a great increase in population and economic power during the years of Wirtschaftswunder, or "economic miracle". Unlike many other German cities which were bombed, Munich restored most of its traditional cityscape and hosted the 1972 Summer Olympics; the 1980s brought strong economic growth, high-tech industries and scientific institutions, population growth.
The city is home to major corporations like BMW, Siemens, MAN, Linde and MunichRE. Munich is home to many universities and theatres, its numerous architectural attractions, sports events and its annual Oktoberfest attract considerable tourism. Munich is one of the fastest growing cities in Germany, it is a top-ranked destination for expatriate location. Munich hosts more than 530,000 people of foreign background; the first known settlement in the area was of Benedictine monks on the Salt road. The foundation date is not considered the year 1158, the date the city was first mentioned in a document; the document was signed in Augsburg. By the Guelph Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, had built a toll bridge over the river Isar next to the monk settlement and on the salt route, but as part of the archaeological excavations at Marienhof in advance of the expansion of the S-Bahn from 2012 shards of vessels from the eleventh century were found, which prove again that the settlement Munich must be older than their first documentary mention from 1158.
In 1175 Munich received city fortification. In 1180 with the trial of Henry the Lion, Otto I Wittelsbach became Duke of Bavaria, Munich was handed to the Bishop of Freising. In 1240, Munich was transferred to Otto II Wittelsbach and in 1255, when the Duchy of Bavaria was split in two, Munich became the ducal residence of Upper Bavaria. Duke Louis IV, a native of Munich, was elected German king in 1314 and crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in 1328, he strengthened the city's position by granting it the salt monopoly, thus assuring it of additional income. In the late 15th century, Munich underwent a revival of gothic arts: the Old Town Hall was enlarged, Munich's largest gothic church – the Frauenkirche – now a cathedral, was constructed in only 20 years, starting in 1468; when Bavaria was reunited in 1506, Munich became its capital. The arts and politics became influenced by the court. During the 16th century, Munich was a centre of the German counter reformation, of renaissance arts. Duke Wilhelm V commissioned the Jesuit Michaelskirche, which became a centre for the counter-reform
San Jose Repertory Theatre
The San Jose Repertory Theatre was the first resident professional theatre company in San Jose, California. It was founded in 1980 by James P. Reber. In 2008, after the demise of the American Musical Theatre of San Jose, the San Jose Rep became the largest non-profit, professional theatre company in the South Bay with an annual operating budget of $5 million. In 2006, it was saved from impending insolvency by a $2 million bailout loan from the city of San Jose. On June 11, 2014, San Jose Rep filed Chapter 7 bankruptcy. San Jose Rep was founded by James P. Reber in 1980. James Reber was born in Butte and was raised in the Santa Clara Valley, he returned home after having been the first employee of the Berkeley Shakespeare Festival as business manager and general manager. San Jose Rep was formed as San Jose's first resident professional theatre, the Rep soon became the fastest growing regional theatre in the country. Mr. Reber led a group of young artists, technical staff, administrative staff, most of them based in the Bay Area.
The Rep's opening production of Noël Coward's Private Lives was the first step for the fledgling company. This was followed by three more plays in 1981. Early support came from the City of San Jose's Fine Arts Commission, which provided funding and worked to help create a viable board of trustees; the first board was led by Dr. Clayton Feldman, able to provide guidance for the young staff and helped recruit the future leadership of the Rep, including Attorney Phil Hammer, who succeeded Dr. Feldman; the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation provided a key early grant to help hire professional staff. Elaine Knoernschild became the third board president; as happens with most nonprofit theatres, the founding board members made success possible by their dedication and hard work. Most notable among the Rep's early accomplishments was their payment of competitive wages, a commitment that Mr. Reber made for the company from its inception. David Lemos, a recent graduate of Santa Clara University, became the first production manager and artistic director.
Lemos and Reber negotiated with Actors Equity for early concessions and to full Equity status. Artistically, San Jose Rep was a bit uneven, but given its age, many productions were high quality and were given excellent critical notices and are still revered by patrons. Among the more distinguished productions of the early Rep era were: A popular WWII version of Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew directed by Anne McNaughton and featuring a dashing and handsome young John Callahan, who went on to a successful television career, as Petruchio. A series of large productions done in collaboration with the San Jose Symphony, sponsored by Merrill Lynch and known as the Merrill Lynch Great Performances; these were produced in the massive San Jose Center for Performing Arts and had short runs. The first was The Tempest with music by Sibelius and the next was the only known production of Peter Shaffer's masterpiece, featuring Ray Birk as Salieri and a chorus of Opera San Jose singers performing Mozart's Requiem.
The music for both productions was conducted by George Cleave. A collaborative production of Emily Mann's Execution of Justice, which told the story of the infamous slaying of San Francisco Supervisor Harvey Milk and Mayor George Moscone by Supervisor Dan White; the production was produced by San Jose Rep, Berkeley Repertory Theatre, the Eureka Theatre. It premiered at the Montgomery Theater and moved to Berkeley Repertory Theater; the American premiere of Ken Jenkin's original play, "007 Crossfire" directed by Edward Hastings. "Translations" by Irish playwright, Brian Friel, directed by James Edmondson in 1986. A collaboration with San Jose/Cleveland Ballet company for the production of "Swan Lake" with Cynthia Gregory as prima ballerina and San Jose Rep company performing member, Joanna Munisteri in 1987. Among the distinguished alumni of San Jose Rep's early years, all of whom were recruited by the young Artistic Director David Lemos and played significant roles in launching the young company, are: James Houghton, founding artistic director of New York City's unique Signature Theater Company.
Educator Stevie Coyle. The arrival of Timothy Near as artistic director in 1987 signaled the theatre's commitment to produce plays that spoke to the city's diverse community both directly or by inflection; the Rep achieved this with modernized versions of the classics, contemporary works, a commitment to developing new plays. In 1997 the company moved from the Montgomery Theater into a new building in downtown San Jose, built for the Rep. No longer restricted by space or required to share their venue with other organizations, the Rep was able to offer a wider range of programming, produced to high artistic and technical standards. Since moving to the new building, the Rep ha
Johannes Brahms was a German composer and conductor of the Romantic period. Born in Hamburg into a Lutheran family, Brahms spent much of his professional life in Vienna, Austria, his reputation and status as a composer are such that he is sometimes grouped with Johann Sebastian Bach and Ludwig van Beethoven as one of the "Three Bs" of music, a comment made by the nineteenth-century conductor Hans von Bülow. Brahms composed for symphony orchestra, chamber ensembles, piano and voice and chorus. A virtuoso pianist, he premiered many of his own works, he worked with some of the leading performers of his time, including the pianist Clara Schumann and the violinist Joseph Joachim. Many of his works have become staples of the modern concert repertoire. An uncompromising perfectionist, Brahms left others unpublished. Brahms has been considered, by his contemporaries and by writers, as both a traditionalist and an innovator, his music is rooted in the structures and compositional techniques of the Classical masters.
While many contemporaries found his music too academic, his contribution and craftsmanship have been admired by subsequent figures as diverse as Arnold Schoenberg and Edward Elgar. The diligent constructed nature of Brahms's works was a starting point and an inspiration for a generation of composers. Embedded within his meticulous structures, are romantic motifs. Brahms's father, Johann Jakob Brahms, was from the town of Heide in Holstein; the family name was sometimes spelt'Brahmst' or'Brams', derives from'Bram', the German word for the shrub broom. Against the family's will, Johann Jakob pursued a career in music, arriving in Hamburg in 1826, where he found work as a jobbing musician and a string and wind player. In 1830, he married Johanna Henrika Christiane Nissen. In the same year he was appointed as a horn player in the Hamburg militia, he became a double-bass player in the Hamburg Stadttheater and the Hamburg Philharmonic Society. As Johann Jakob prospered, the family moved over the years to better accommodation in Hamburg.
Johannes Brahms was born in 1833. Fritz became a pianist. Johann Jakob gave his son his first musical training. From 1840 he studied piano with Otto Friedrich Willibald Cossel. Cossel complained in 1842 that Brahms "could be such a good player, but he will not stop his never-ending composing." At the age of 10, Brahms made his debut as a performer in a private concert including Beethoven's quintet for piano and winds Op. 16 and a piano quartet by Mozart. He played as a solo work an étude of Henri Herz. By 1845 he had written a piano sonata in G minor. Brahms's parents disapproved of his early efforts as a composer, feeling that he had better career prospects as a performer. From 1845 to 1848 Brahms studied with Cossel's teacher composer Eduard Marxsen. Marxsen had been a personal acquaintance of Beethoven and Schubert, admired the works of Mozart and Haydn, was a devotee of the music of J. S. Bach. Marxsen conveyed to Brahms the tradition of these composers and ensured that Brahms's own compositions were grounded in that tradition.
In 1847 Brahms made his first public appearance as a solo pianist in Hamburg, playing a Fantasy of Sigismund Thalberg. His first full piano recital, in 1848, included a fugue by Bach as well as works by Marxsen and contemporary virtuosi such as Jacob Rosenhain. A second recital in April 1849 included Beethoven's Waldstein sonata and a waltz fantasia of his own composition, garnered favourable newspaper reviews. Brahms's compositions at this period are known to have included piano music, chamber music and works for male voice choir. Under the pseudonym'G. W. Marks' some piano arrangements and fantasies were published by the Hamburg firm of Cranz in 1849; the earliest of Brahms's works which he acknowledged date from 1851. However Brahms was assiduous in eliminating all his early works. Persistent stories of the impoverished adolescent Brahms playing in bars and brothels have only anecdotal provenance, many modern scholars dismiss them. In 1850 Brahms met with the Hungarian violinist Ede Reményi and accompanied him in a number of recitals over the next few years.
This was Brahms's introduction to "gypsy-style" music such as the czardas, to prove the foundation of his most lucrative and popular compositions, the two sets of Hungarian Dances. 1850 marked Brahms's first contact with Robert Schumann. In 1853 Brahms went on a concert tour with Reményi. In late May the two visited composer Joseph Joachim at Hanover. Brahms had earlier heard Joachim playing the solo part in Beethoven's violin concerto and been impressed. Brahms played some of his own solo piano pieces for Joachim, who remembered fifty years later: "Never in the course of my artist's l