The Ancien Régime was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages until 1789, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility were abolished by the French Revolution. The Ancien Régime was ruled by Bourbon dynasties; the term is used to refer to the similar feudal systems of the time elsewhere in Europe. The administrative and social structures of the Ancien Régime were the result of years of state-building, legislative acts, internal conflicts, civil wars, but they remained and the Valois Dynasty's attempts at re-establishing control over the scattered political centres of the country were hindered by the Huguenot Wars. Much of the reigns of Henry IV and Louis XIII and the early years of Louis XIV were focused on administrative centralization. Despite, the notion of "absolute monarchy" and the efforts by the kings to create a centralized state, the Kingdom of France retained its irregularities: authority overlapped and nobles struggled to retain autonomy.
The need for centralization in this period was directly linked to the question of royal finances and the ability to wage war. The internal conflicts and dynastic crises of the 16th and 17th centuries and the territorial expansion of France in the 17th century demanded great sums which needed to be raised through taxes, such as the land tax and the tax on salt and by contributions of men and service from the nobility. One key to this centralization was the replacing of personal patronage systems organized around the king and other nobles by institutional systems around the state; the creation of intendants—representatives of royal power in the provinces—did much to undermine local control by regional nobles. The same was true of the greater reliance shown by the royal court on the noblesse de robe as judges and royal counselors; the creation of regional parlements had the same goal of facilitating the introduction of royal power into newly assimilated territories, but as the parlements gained in self-assurance, they began to be sources of disunity.
The term in French means "old regime" or "former regime". However, most English language books use the French term Ancien Régime; the term first appeared in print in English in 1794, was pejorative in nature. It conjured up a society so encrusted with anachronisms that only a shock of great violence could free the living organism within. Institutionally torpid, economically immobile, culturally atrophied and stratified, this'old regime' was incapable of self-modernization."More ancien régime refers to any political and social system having the principal features of the French Ancien Régime. Europe's other anciens régimes had diverse fates; the Nine Years' War was a major conflict between France and a European-wide coalition of Austria and the Holy Roman Empire, the Dutch Republic, Spain and Savoy. It was fought on the European continent and the surrounding seas, in Ireland, North America, India, it was the first global war. Louis XIV had emerged from the Franco-Dutch War in 1678 as the most powerful monarch in Europe, an absolute ruler who had won numerous military victories.
Using a combination of aggression and quasilegal means, Louis XIV set about extending his gains to stabilize and strengthen France's frontiers, culminating in the brief War of the Reunions. The resulting Truce of Ratisbon guaranteed France's new borders for 20 years, but Louis XIV's subsequent actions – notably his revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 – led to the deterioration of his military and political dominance. Louis XIV's decision to cross the Rhine in September 1688 was designed to extend his influence and pressure the Holy Roman Empire into accepting his territorial and dynastic claims, but when Leopold I and the German princes resolved to resist, when the States General and William III brought the Dutch and the English into the war against France, the French King at last faced a powerful coalition aimed at curtailing his ambitions; the main fighting took place around France's borders, in the Spanish Netherlands, the Rhineland, Duchy of Savoy, Catalonia. The fighting favoured Louis XIV's armies, but by 1696, his country was in the grip of an economic crisis.
The Maritime Powers were financially exhausted, when Savoy defected from the alliance, all parties were keen for a negotiated settlement. By the terms of the Treaty of Ryswick, Louis XIV retained the whole of Alsace, but he was forced to return Lorraine to its ruler and give up any gains on the right bank of the Rhine. Louis XIV accepted William III as the rightful King of England, while the Dutch acquired their barrier fortress system in the Spanish Netherlands to help secure their own borders. However, with the ailing and childless Charles II of Spain approaching his end, a new conflict over the inheritance of the Spanish Empire would soon embroil Louis XIV and the Grand Alliance in a final war – the War of the Spanish Succession. Spain had a number of major assets, apart from its homeland itself, it controlled important territory in the New World. S
History of France
The first written records for the history of France appeared in the Iron Age. What is now France made up the bulk of the region known to the Romans as Gaul. Roman writers noted the presence of three main ethno-linguistic groups in the area: the Gauls, the Aquitani, the Belgae; the Gauls, the largest and best attested group, were Celtic people speaking what is known as the Gaulish language. Over the course of the 1st millennium BC the Greeks and Carthaginians established colonies on the Mediterranean coast and the offshore islands; the Roman Republic annexed southern Gaul as the province of Gallia Narbonensis in the late 2nd century BC, Roman forces under Julius Caesar conquered the rest of Gaul in the Gallic Wars of 58–51 BC. Afterwards a Gallo-Roman culture emerged and Gaul was integrated into the Roman Empire. In the stages of the Roman Empire, Gaul was subject to barbarian raids and migration, most by the Germanic Franks; the Frankish king Clovis I united most of Gaul under his rule in the late 5th century, setting the stage for Frankish dominance in the region for hundreds of years.
Frankish power reached its fullest extent under Charlemagne. The medieval Kingdom of France emerged from the western part of Charlemagne's Carolingian Empire, known as West Francia, achieved increasing prominence under the rule of the House of Capet, founded by Hugh Capet in 987. A succession crisis following the death of the last direct Capetian monarch in 1328 led to the series of conflicts known as the Hundred Years' War between the House of Valois and the House of Plantagenet; the war formally began in 1337 following Philip VI's attempt to seize the Duchy of Aquitaine from its hereditary holder, Edward III of England, the Plantagenet claimant to the French throne. Despite early Plantagenet victories, including the capture and ransom of John II of France, fortunes turned in favor of the Valois in the war. Among the notable figures of the war was Joan of Arc, a French peasant girl who led French forces against the English, establishing herself as a national heroine; the war ended with a Valois victory in 1453.
Victory in the Hundred Years' War had the effect of strengthening French nationalism and vastly increasing the power and reach of the French monarchy. During the period known as the Ancien Régime, France transformed into a centralized absolute monarchy. During the next centuries, France experienced the Protestant Reformation. At the height of the French Wars of Religion, France became embroiled in another succession crisis, as the last Valois king, Henry III, fought against rival factions the House of Bourbon and the House of Guise. Henry, King of Navarre, scion of the Bourbon family, would be victorious in the conflict and establish the French Bourbon dynasty. A burgeoning worldwide colonial empire was established in the 16th century. French political power reached a zenith under the rule of Louis XIV, "The Sun King", builder of Versailles Palace. In the late 18th century the monarchy and associated institutions were overthrown in the French Revolution; the country was governed for a period as a Republic, until the French Empire was declared by Napoleon Bonaparte.
Following Napoleon's defeat in the Napoleonic Wars, France went through several further regime changes, being ruled as a monarchy briefly as a Second Republic, as a Second Empire, until a more lasting French Third Republic was established in 1870. France was one of the Triple Entente powers in World War I, fighting alongside the United Kingdom, Italy, the United States and smaller allies against Germany and the Central Powers. France was one of the Allied Powers in World War II, but was conquered by Nazi Germany in 1940; the Third Republic was dismantled, most of the country was controlled directly by Germany while the south was controlled until 1942 by the collaborationist Vichy government. Living conditions were harsh as Germany drained away food and manpower, many Jews were killed. Charles de Gaulle led the Free France movement that one-by-one took over the colonial empire, coordinated the wartime Resistance. Following liberation in summer 1944, a Fourth Republic was established. France recovered economically, enjoyed a baby boom that reversed its low fertility rate.
Long wars in Indochina and Algeria ended in political defeat. In the wake of the Algerian Crisis of 1958, Charles de Gaulle set up the French Fifth Republic. Into the 1960s decolonization saw most of the French colonial empire become independent, while smaller parts were incorporated into the French state as overseas departments and collectivities. Since World War II France has been a permanent member in the UN Security Council and NATO, it played a central role in the unification process after 1945. Despite slow economic growth in recent years, it remains a strong economic, cultural and political factor in the 21st century; the French military has 30,000 troops deployed worldwide performing counter-terrorism missions. Opération Chammal, France's military efforts to contain ISIS, killed over 1,000 ISIS troops between 2014 and 2015. Stone tools discovered at Chilhac and Lézignan-la-Cèbe in 2009 indicate that pre-human ancestors may have been present in France at least 1.6 million years ago. Neanderthals were present in Europe from about 400,000 BC, but died out about 30,000 years ago out-competed by the modern humans during a period of cold weather.
The earliest modern humans – Homo sapiens – entered Europe by 43,000 years ago. The cave paintings of Lascaux and Gargas as well as the Carnac stones are remains of the local prehistoric activity; the first written records for the
Court of Auditors (France)
Under the French monarchy, the Courts of Accounts were sovereign courts specialising in financial affairs. The Court of Accounts in Paris was the forerunner of today's French Court of Audit, they oversaw public spending, handled finances, protected crown estates, audited the accounts of crown officials, adjudicated any related matters of law. To oversee the Kingdom's revenues and expenditure, the French King first relied on his King's Court or Curia Regis, court officials who assisted him in governing. However, by the mid-12th century, the Crown entrusted its finances to the Knights Templar, who maintained a banking establishment in Paris; the royal Treasury was henceforth organized like a bank and salaries and revenues were transferred between accounts. Royal accounting officers in the field, who sent revenues to the Temple, were audited by the King's Court, which had special clerks assigned to work at the Temple; these financial specialists came to be called the Curia in Compotis and sat in special sessions of the King's Court for dealing with financial business.
From 1297, accounts were audited twice yearly after Midsummer Christmas. In time, what was once a simple Exchequer of Receipts developed into a central auditing agency, branched off, specialized into a full-time court. In 1256, Saint Louis issued a decree ordering all mayors and town councilmen to appear before the King's sovereign auditors of the Exchequer in Paris to render their final accounting; the King's Court's general secretariat had members who specialized in finance and accountancy and could receive accounts. A number of Barons were commissioned to sit as the King's Exchequer. In or around 1303, the Paris Court of Accounts was established in the Palais de la Cité where it remained until the French Revolution, its auditors were responsible for overseeing revenue from Crown estates and checking public spending. It audited the Royal Household, royal commissioners and lower court justices. In 1307, the Philip IV definitively removed royal funds from the Temple and placed them in the fortress of the Louvre.
Thereafter, the financial specialists received accounts for audit in a room of the royal palace that became known as the Camera compotorum or Chambre des comptes, they began to be collectively identified under the same name, although still only a subcommittee within the King's Court, consisting of about sixteen people. The Vivier-en-Brie Ordinance of 1320, issued by Philip V, required the Chambre to audit finances, judge cases arising from accountancy, maintain registers of financial documents, they were assisted by eleven clerks. This complement grew by 50% in the next two decades but was reduced to seven masters and twelve clerks in 1346; the office of churchman Chief Baron was created by the Ordinance of 1381, a second lay Chief Baron was appointed in 1400. Clerks of court were added to the Court's composition. Examiners were created to assist the Barons. Other court officers appointed by the King were created to act alongside the puisne Barons. Lastly, the Ordinance of 26 February 1464 named the Court of Accounts as the "sovereign, primary and sole court of last resort in all things financial".
While gaining in stability in the 14th century, the Court lost its central role in royal finances. First, currency was moved to a separate body the regular "extraordinary" taxes became the responsibility of the généraux of the Cour des aides; the Crown's domainal revenues, still retained by the Court of Accounts, fell in importance and value. By 1400, the Court's role had been much reduced. However, with the gradual englargement of the Realm through conquest, the need for the Court remained secure; the oldest provincial Court of Accounts was in Dauphiné and established in 1368. Other courts sprang up in Normandy, Burgundy, Nantes in Brittany, Navarre and Roussillon, the cities of Nancy and Bar-le-Duc. Toward the end of the French monarchy and excluding the Paris Court of Accounts, out of 12 other regional courts of accounts, some continued to exercise as financial courts presiding over tax and estate cases; some sovereign courts of account were raised from grand feudal estates existing in certain provinces, did not therefore form a cohesive whole.
It was not until the French Revolution that the Courts of Accounts would be abolished between 17–29 September 1791. At any given time, a Court of Accounts may have included any of a number of officers: premier président - Chief Baron président - Presiding Baron maître des comptes - puisne or ordinary Baron auditeur des comptes - auditor correcteur des comptes - examiner of accounts conseiller contrôleur des restes - comptroller conseiller sécrétaire - judicial secretary sécrétaire du roi - Secretary to the King procureur du roi - King's attorney-general avocat général - King's deputy attorney substitut - King's solicitor-general greffier en chef - Chief Clerk of Court greffier au plumitif - Clerk of the Dockets greffier à la pe
The supreme court is the highest court within the hierarchy of courts in many legal jurisdictions. Other descriptions for such courts include court of last resort, apex court, high court of appeal. Broadly speaking, the decisions of a supreme court are not subject to further review by any other court. Supreme courts function as appellate courts, hearing appeals from decisions of lower trial courts, or from intermediate-level appellate courts. However, not all highest courts are named as such. Civil law states tend not to have a single highest court. Additionally, the highest court in some jurisdictions is not named the "Supreme Court", for example, the High Court of Australia. On the other hand, in some places the court named the "Supreme Court" is not in fact the highest court; the idea of a supreme court owes much to the framers of the United States constitution. It was while debating the division of powers between the legislative and executive departments that delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention established the parameters for the national judiciary.
Creating a "third branch" of government was a novel idea. It was proposed that the judiciary should have a role in checking the executive power to exercise a veto or to revise laws. In the end the Framers of the Constitution compromised by sketching only a general outline of the judiciary, vesting of federal judicial power in "one supreme Court, in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish." They delineated neither the exact powers and prerogatives of the Supreme Court nor the organization of the Judicial Branch as a whole. Some countries have multiple "supreme courts" whose respective jurisdictions have different geographical extents, or which are restricted to particular areas of law; some countries with a federal system of government may have both a federal supreme court, supreme courts for each member state, with the former having jurisdiction over the latter only to the extent that the federal constitution extends federal law over state law. However, other federations, such as Canada, may have a supreme court of general jurisdiction, able to decide any question of law.
Jurisdictions with a civil law system have a hierarchy of administrative courts separate from the ordinary courts, headed by a supreme administrative court as is the case in the Netherlands. A number of jurisdictions maintain a separate constitutional court, such as Austria, Germany, Portugal, Russia and South Africa. Within the former British Empire, the highest court within a colony was called the "Supreme Court" though appeals could be made from that court to the United Kingdom's Privy Council. A number of Commonwealth jurisdictions retain this system, but many others have reconstituted their own highest court as a court of last resort, with the right of appeal to the Privy Council being abolished. In jurisdictions using a common law system, the doctrine of stare decisis applies, whereby the principles applied by the supreme court in its decisions are binding upon all lower courts. In civil law jurisdictions the doctrine of stare decisis is not considered to apply, so the decisions of the supreme court are not binding beyond the immediate case before it.
The Supreme Court of Bangladesh is created by the provisions of the Constitution of Bangladesh, 1972. There are two Divisions of i.e. Appellate Division and High Court Division. Appellate Division is the highest Court of Appeal and does not exercise the powers of a court of first instance. Whereas, the High Court Division is a Court of first instance in writ/judicial review and admiralty matters; the Supreme Court of Canada was established in 1875 but only became the highest court in the country in 1949 when the right of appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council was abolished. This court hears appeals from the courts of appeal from the provinces and territories, appeals from the Federal Court of Appeal; the Supreme Court is a "General Court of Appeal." It can decide any question of law considered by the lower courts, including constitutional law, federal law, provincial law. The court's decisions are final and binding on the federal courts and the courts from all provinces and territories.
The title "Supreme" can be confusing because, for example, the Supreme Court of British Columbia does not have the final say and controversial cases heard there get appealed in higher courts - it is in fact one of the lower courts in such a process. In Hong Kong, the Supreme Court of Hong Kong was the final court of appeal during its colonial times which ended with transfer of sovereignty in 1997; the final adjudication power, as in any other British Colonies, rested with the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London, United Kingdom. Now the power of fi
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
A parlement, in the Ancien Régime of France, was a provincial appellate court. In 1789, France had 13 parlements, the most important of, the Parlement of Paris. While the English word parliament derives from this French term, parlements were not legislative bodies, they consisted of about 1,100 judges nationwide. They were the court of final appeal of the judicial system, wielded much power over a wide range of subject matter taxation. Laws and edicts issued by the Crown were not official in their respective jurisdictions until the parlements gave their assent by publishing them; the members were aristocrats called nobles of the gown who had bought or inherited their offices, were independent of the King. From 1770 to 1774 the Lord Chancellor, tried to abolish the Parlement of Paris in order to strengthen the Crown; the parlements spearheaded the aristocracy's resistance to the absolutism and centralization of the Crown, but they worked for the benefit of their own class, the French nobility. Alfred Cobban argues that the parlements were the chief obstacles to any reform before the Revolution, as well as the most formidable enemies of the French Crown.
He concludes that the Parlement of Paris, though no more in fact than a small, selfish and venal oligarchy, regarded itself, was regarded by public opinion, as the guardian of the constitutional liberties of France. In November 1789, early in the French Revolution, all parlements were suspended, they were formally abolished in September 1790; the political institutions of the Parlement in Ancien Régime France developed out of the King's Council, enjoyed ancient, customary consultative and deliberative prerogatives. In the 13th century, the parlements acquired judicial functions the right of remonstrance against the king; the parlement judges were of the opinion that their role included active participation in the legislative process, which brought them into increasing conflict with the increasing monarchical absolutism of the Ancien Régime, as the Court of Justice evolved during the 16th century from a constitutional forum to a royal weapon, used to force registration of edicts. Since c. 1250, there was only the Parlement of Paris, severed from the King's Council in 1307, with sessions held inside the medieval royal palace on the Île de la Cité, still the site of the Paris Hall of Justice.
The Paris parlement's jurisdiction covered the entire kingdom as it was in the 14th century, but did not automatically advance in step with the Crown's expanding realm. In 1443, following the turmoil of the Hundred Years' War, King Charles VII of France granted Languedoc its own parlement by establishing the Parlement of Toulouse, the first parlement outside Paris; the Parlement of Paris played a major role in stimulating the nobility to resist the expansion of royal power by military force in the Fronde, 1643-1652. In the end, the King won out and the nobility was humiliated; the parlements could withhold their assent by formulating remonstrances against the king's edicts, forcing the king to react, sometimes resulting in repeated resistance by the parlements, which the king could only terminate in his favour by issuing a Lettre de jussion, and, in case of continued resistance, appearing in person in the parlement: the Lit de justice. In such a case, the parlement's powers were suspended for the duration of this royal session.
King Louis XIV moved to centralize authority into his own hands, imposing certain restrictions on the parlements. In 1665, he ordained that a Lit de justice could be held without the king having to appear in person. In 1667, he limited the number of remonstrances to only one. In 1671–1673, the parlements resisted the taxes occasioned by the Dutch War. In 1673, the king imposed additional restrictions that stripped the parlements of any influence upon new laws by ordaining that remonstrances could only be issued after registration of the edicts. After Louis' death in 1715, all the restrictions were discontinued by the regent, although some of the judges of the Parlement of Paris accepted royal bribes to restrain that body until the 1750s. From 1443 until the French Revolution, several other parlements were created all over France, until at the end of the Ancien Régime there were provincial parlements in: Douai, Metz, Colmar, Besançon, Aix, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Rouen; these locations were provincial capitals of those provinces with strong historical traditions of independence before they were annexed to France.
Assembled in the parlements, the hereditary members, the provincial nobles of the gown were the strongest decentralizing force in a France, more multifarious in its legal systems and custom than it might have seemed under the apparent unifying rule of its kings. The Parlement of Paris had the largest jurisdiction of all the parlements, covering the major part of northern and central France, was known as "the Parlement". In some regions provincial States-General continued to meet and legislate with a measure of self-governance and control over taxation within their jurisdiction. All the parlements could issue regulatory decrees for the application of royal edicts or of customary practices, they could refuse to register laws that they adjudged as either untimely or contrary to the local customary law. Tenure on the court was bought from the