Nikolay Nikolayevich Voronov was a Soviet military leader, chief marshal of the artillery, Hero of the Soviet Union. He was commander of artillery forces of the Red Army from 1941 until 1950. Voronov commanded the Soviet artillery during the Battle of Stalingrad and was the Stavka representative to various fronts during the Siege of Leningrad and the Battle of Kursk, he fought in the Russian Civil War, the Polish-Soviet War and the Battle of Khalkin Gol, as well as serving as an advisor to the Spanish Republican Army during the Spanish Civil War. Nikolay Voronov was born on 5 May 1899 in Saint Petersburg to Nikolai Terentyvich Voronov, a clerk, Valentina Voronov. After the Revolution of 1905, Voronov's father became unemployed due to his Russian Social Democratic Labour Party sympathies. On 30 November 1908, his poverty-stricken mother committed suicide by taking cyanide. Voronov dropped out of a private school in 1914 due to financial problems and in 1915 got a job working as a secretary for an attorney.
In the fall of 1916, his father was drafted. In 1917, Voronov passed an external degree examination. In March 1918, Voronov joined the Red Army. In the same year, he completed the 2nd Petrograd Artillery courses, after which he was a platoon commander in a howitzer battalion in the Petrograd 2nd Battery; as part of the 15th Army, he fought in battles with Nikolai Yudenich's forces near Pskov. In 1919, Voronov joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Beginning in April 1920, Voronov fought in the Polish–Soviet War with the 83rd Regiment of the 10th Rifle Division, his battery was armed with the 76 mm divisional gun M1902 instead of the 122 mm howitzer M1910. On 17 August, Voronov received a severe concussion during a battle in the village of Józefów nad Wisłą; when he regained consciousness, he found. The injured Voronov was captured. During his eight months of captivity, Voronov suffered from typhus and twice came close to having his leg amputated, he was repatriated at the end of the war in April 1921.
In the summer of 1922, Voronov was appointed commander of the howitzer battery of the 27th Rifle Division. In fall 1923 he attended the school of higher artillery commanders and after graduation continued to serve with the 27th Rifle Division. During the 1926 maneuvers, Voronov distinguished himself commanding the artillery of the Belorussian Military District; as a reward, he was granted permission to take the entrance examination for the Frunze Military Academy. In 1930, Voronov graduated from the academy, he became the commander of the artillery regiment of the 1st Moscow Rifle Division. In August 1932, Voronov was sent to Italy as part of the Soviet mission there. In April 1934, he was appointed chief military Commissar of the 1st Artillery School. In 1936, he was awarded the Order of the Red Star for his management of the school. In 1935, he served on the Soviet military mission to Italy for the second time, was promoted to Kombrig on 11 November. In 1937, he was sent under the name "Voltaire" as an advisor to the Spanish Republicans, where he worked on the training of artillery units on the Madrid Front.
During his tour in Spain, Voronov was awarded the Order of the Red Banner. In June 1937, Voronov returned to Moscow, he was promoted to Komkor and replaced Komdiv N. M. Rogowski as the chief of the artillery of the Red Army, shot during the Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization, on 20 June 1937. Voronov started work on the modernization of the Red Army artillery, in November 1937 submitted a memorandum to Kliment Voroshilov on the modernization of the artillery. At the end of July 1938 Voronov went as part of a special commission of the People's Commissariat of Defence to test the combat training of the Far Eastern Military District during the Battle of Lake Khasan. In June 1939, he was sent to Khalkhyn Gol to lead the 1st Army Group's artillery during the Battles of Khalkhin Gol. For his actions during the battle, Voronov was awarded a second Order of the Red Banner. In September 1939, Voronov commanded the Belorussian Military District's artillery during the Soviet invasion of Poland.
He was injured in a car accident and said his life was saved by a silver pen given to him by Dolores Ibárruri in Spain. In November, Voronov inspected the troops of the Leningrad Military District, in readiness for the Winter War. During the war, he led artillery units those of the 7th Army, fought in the offensive against the Mannerheim Line. For his actions during the war, Voronov was awarded a second Order of Lenin and was promoted to Komandarm 2nd rank. On 4 June 1940, he was given the rank of colonel general of the artillery after the introduction of Red Army general officers ranks. Voronov led the Kiev Special Military District's artillery during the Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina. An order of the People's Commissariat of Defence on 13 July abolished the position of chief of the artillery and introduced the position of first deputy chief of GRAU. Voronov was appointed to this position, subordinate to Grigory Kulik. On 19 June 1941, Voronov was transferred to the post of Chief of the Main Directorate of Air Defence, now accountable to the People's Commissar of Defence.
During the first days of the war on the Eastern Front. On 19 July, the post of chief of the artillery was restored and Voronov was appointed to that position. On 20 July, he was ordered organized antitank artillery during the Yelnya Offensive. After returning to Moscow, together with Le
193rd Tank Division
The 193rd Tank Division was a Red Army infantry division, reorganised after World War II as a mechanised and a tank division of the Soviet Army. The original 193rd Rifle Division was established in the Kharkov Military District on March 14, 1941. By June 22 it was still forming near Kamenka in the Kiev Military District and its order of battle was as follows: 685th Rifle Regiment 883rd Rifle Regiment 895th Rifle Regiment 384th Light Artillery Regiment 393rd Howitzer Regiment 50th Antitank Battalion 4th Sapper BattalionThe division, commanded by Colonel A. K. Berestov, joined with the 195th and 200th Rifle Divisions to form the 31st Rifle Corps. At the onset of the German invasion this corps was under direct command of the Kiev Special Military District, soon renamed Southwestern Front, was positioned in the second echelon southeast of Sarny. On June 28 the Corps was assigned to 5th Army and the 193rd went into battle at Rozhits and Kivertsy. By July 8 it was down to less than 35 guns and mortars of all types.
On August 19, as 5th Army began its retreat, the division had only 600 men remaining. In September the 193rd was destroyed; the division's number was stricken from the Soviet order of battle on Dec. 27. The division was reformed at Sorochinsk, in the South Urals Military District, from December 1941 to 3 January 1942, it comprised: 685th Rifle Regiment 883rd Rifle Regiment 895th Rifle Regiment 384th Artillery Regiment 50th Antitank Battalion 4th Sapper Battalion 320th Reconnaissance Company. In June the division went to the Voronezh Front reserves, but was still far from complete at that time. On 17 September the division, commanded by Col. F. N. Smekhotvorov, was assigned to the 62nd Army and fought during the Battle of Stalingrad. On 22 Sept. the 685th Regiment was ferried from the east to the west bank of the Volga into central Stalingrad and five nights on the 27th, the other two regiments joined it. The 883rd and 895th were deployed in the Red October factory complex; the following day, the 883rd was attacked by German tanks.
Anti-tank rifleman Mikhail Panikakha was attempting to defend his position with Molotov cocktails. A German bullet ignited one of his bombs, he threw himself against a tank with his remaining bomb and destroyed it, at the cost of his own life. Panikakha was posthumously made a Hero of the Soviet Union in 1990; the division was pushed back in a fierce German attack on 1 Oct.. A day it was defending the western part of the Red October Factory, which included the kitchens, the bath house and workers' flats; the regiments, down to 200 men, were unequal to the task and were pushed back by German tanks and infantry. Chuikov, writing in 1963, said that between 13 and 20 Nov. the survivors of the 193rd Rifle Division were consolidated into the 685th Rifle Regiment - the grand total was 250 soldiers. However the historian John Erickson says that by 11 Nov. the division was reduced to 1,000 personnel. At 2300 hrs. on November 12, Col. Smekhotvorov received orders from Maj. Gen. N. I. Krylov, chief-of-staff of 62nd Army, to withdraw his divisional headquarters and those of its subordinate regiments to the east bank of the Volga.
The composite regiment was subordinated to the 138th Rifle Division, the divisional artillery to the chief of 62nd Army's artillery. This order ended the division's participation in the battle; the rebuilding division was assigned to the 65th Army in February 1943. The 193rd would remain under these commanders for the duration of the war; the Front was redeployed to the Kursk area, where the division, now with a strength of 9,000 troops, made gains in a gap between the German 2nd Army and 2nd Panzer Army until German reserves brought the advance to a halt. The 193rd remained in the Kursk salient including Operation Zitadelle. At this time the division was part of the 27th Rifle Corps, was commanded by Major General F. N. Zhobrev. Zhobrev was replaced by Colonel A. G. Frolenkov on Aug. 28. Frolenkov was promoted to Maj. Gen. and named a Hero of the Soviet Union. After the German defeat at Kursk, the Red Army launched its first summer offensive; the 193rd staged a successful assault crossing of the Dnepr River on October 15, with divisional and army artillery firing 1,000 shells per minute in support.
For this action the division was awarded the honorific title Dnepr. In February, 1944 the division received 1,700 replacements from the 218th Reserve Rifle Regiment, but remained well understrength for some time; the 193rd was joined with the 354th Rifle Division in April to form the 105th Rifle Corps, commanded by General D. F. Alekseev, where it would remain for the duration of the war; as part of Rokossovski's 1st Belorussian Front, the 193rd took part in Operation Bagration known as the Destruction of Army Group Centre. The 193rd assisted the 354th in liberating the city of Bobruisk from the German 9th Army on 29 June 1944, on 8 July was credited with liberating the city of Baranovichi. Racing ahead, forward detachments of the division penetrated the Bialowiecz Forest, onwards to the Western Bug River where it was temporarily halted in late July by counterattacks by the 5th SS Panzer Division. Continuing to advance, the depleted 65th Army managed to carve out a bridgehead over the Narev River, north of Warsaw between Serotsk and Pultusk, on 5
62nd Army (Soviet Union)
The 62nd Order of Lenin Army was a field army established by the Soviet Union's Red Army during the Second World War. Formed as the 7th Reserve Army as part of the Reserve of the Supreme High Command in May 1942, the formation was designated as the 62nd Army the following month. After an epic combat performance in the Battle of Stalingrad, the 62nd Army was granted Guards status and renamed the 8th Guards Army in April 1943; the 7th Reserve Army was formed 28 May 1942 as part of the Stavka Reserve. Within one month, this force had been redesignated the 62nd Army. From mid August 1942 until late January 1943, the 62nd Army, under the command of General Vasily Chuikov, fought in the Battle of Stalingrad. 62nd Army conducted an epic defense of the city against repeated and desperate attacks by the German 6th Army. The Army, along with the 64th Army, was operating under the Soviet Stalingrad Front. After the German assault at Stalingrad had come to utter disaster, the 62nd Army was uniquely awarded the Order of Lenin, granted Guards status as the 8th Guards Army.
On 13 September 1942 the Army composition was: 33rd, 35th Guards, 87th, 98th, 112th, 131st, 196th, 229th, 244th, 315th, 399th Rifle Divisions 10th, 38th, 42nd, 115th, 124th, 129th, 149th Rifle Brigades post 9-27-1942 193rd Rifle Division 23rd Tank Corps 20th Tank Destroyer Brigade 115th Fortified Region twelve artillery and mortar regiments On 1 November 1942 during the height of the Battle of Stalingrad, the 62nd Army commanded the 13th, 37th, 39th Guards Rifle Divisions, the 45th, 95th, 112th, 138th, 193rd, 284th and 308th Rifle Divisions, the 42nd, 92nd, 115th, 124th, 149th, 160th Rifle Brigades, the 84th Tank and 2nd Motor Rifle Brigades, the 115th Fortified Region, 20 regiments of howitzer, antitank, mortar and anti-aircraft artillery among other support units. Many of these formations were burnt-out shells by the end of the Battle of Stalingrad, with many formations reduced to less than 5% of its original manpower. On 16 April 1943, the 62nd Army became the 8th Guards Army. Jul 1942 to Aug 1942: Major General V. Ia.
Kolpakchi Aug 1942 to Sep 1942: Lieutenant General A. I. Lopatin Sep 1942 to Apr 1943: Lieutenant General V. I. Chuikov Bonn, Keith E. ed.. Slaughterhouse: The Handbook of the Eastern Front. Bedford, Pennsylvania: Aberjona Press. ISBN 9780971765092. Erickson, John; the Road to Stalingrad. London: Cassell Military Paperbacks. ISBN 9780304365418. Glantz, David M. Companion to Colossus Reborn. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-1359-5. Poirier, Robert G.. The Red Army Order of Battle in the Great Patriotic War. Novato: Presidio Press. ISBN 0-89141-237-9
Battle of Stalingrad
The Battle of Stalingrad was the largest confrontation of World War II, in which Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad in Southern Russia. Marked by fierce close quarters combat and direct assaults on civilians in air raids, it was the largest and bloodiest battle in the history of warfare. After their defeat at Stalingrad, the German High Command had to withdraw vast military forces from the Western Front to replace their losses; the German offensive to capture Stalingrad began in August 1942, using the 6th Army and elements of the 4th Panzer Army. The attack was supported by intensive Luftwaffe bombing; the fighting degenerated into house-to-house fighting. By mid-November 1942, the Germans had pushed the Soviet defenders back at great cost into narrow zones along the west bank of the Volga River. On 19 November 1942, the Red Army launched Operation Uranus, a two-pronged attack targeting the weaker Romanian and Hungarian armies protecting the German 6th Army's flanks.
The Axis forces on the flanks were overrun and the 6th Army was cut off and surrounded in the Stalingrad area. Adolf Hitler ordered that the army make no attempt to break out. Heavy fighting continued for another two months. By the beginning of February 1943, the Axis forces in Stalingrad had exhausted their ammunition and food; the remaining units of the 6th Army surrendered. The battle lasted one week and three days. By the spring of 1942, despite the failure of Operation Barbarossa to decisively defeat the Soviet Union in a single campaign, the Wehrmacht had captured vast expanses of territory, including Ukraine and the Baltic republics. Elsewhere, the war had been progressing well: the U-boat offensive in the Atlantic had been successful and Erwin Rommel had just captured Tobruk. In the east, they had stabilized their front in a line running from Leningrad in the north to Rostov in the south. There were a number of salients, but these were not threatening. Hitler was confident that he could master the Red Army after the winter of 1942, because though Army Group Centre had suffered heavy losses west of Moscow the previous winter, 65% of its infantry had not been engaged and had been rested and re-equipped.
Neither Army Group North nor Army Group South had been hard pressed over the winter. Stalin was expecting the main thrust of the German summer attacks to be directed against Moscow again. With the initial operations being successful, the Germans decided that their summer campaign in 1942 would be directed at the southern parts of the Soviet Union; the initial objectives in the region around Stalingrad were the destruction of the industrial capacity of the city and the deployment of forces to block the Volga River. The river was the Caspian Sea to central Russia, its capture would disrupt commercial river traffic. The Germans cut the pipeline from the oilfields; the capture of Stalingrad would make the delivery of Lend Lease supplies via the Persian Corridor much more difficult. On 23 July 1942, Hitler rewrote the operational objectives for the 1942 campaign expanding them to include the occupation of the city of Stalingrad. Both sides began to attach propaganda value to the city, based on it bearing the name of the leader of the Soviet Union.
Hitler proclaimed that after Stalingrad's capture, its male citizens were to be killed and all women and children were to be deported because its population was "thoroughly communistic" and "especially dangerous". It was assumed that the fall of the city would firmly secure the northern and western flanks of the German armies as they advanced on Baku, with the aim of securing these strategic petroleum resources for Germany; the expansion of objectives was a significant factor in Germany's failure at Stalingrad, caused by German overconfidence and an underestimation of Soviet reserves. The Soviets realized, they ordered that anyone strong enough to hold a rifle be sent to fight. If I do not get the oil of Maikop and Grozny I must finish this war. Army Group South was selected for a sprint forward through the southern Russian steppes into the Caucasus to capture the vital Soviet oil fields there; the planned summer offensive, code-named Fall Blau, was to include the German 6th, 17th, 4th Panzer and 1st Panzer Armies.
Army Group South had overrun the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1941. Poised in Eastern Ukraine, it was to spearhead the offensive. Hitler intervened, ordering the Army Group to split in two. Army Group South, under the command of Wilhelm List, was to continue advancing south towards the Caucasus as planned with the 17th Army and First Panzer Army. Army Group South, including Friedrich Paulus's 6th Army and Hermann Hoth's 4th Panzer Army, was to move east towards the Volga and Stalingrad. Army Group B was commanded by Field Marshal Fedor von Bock and by General Maximilian von Weichs; the start of Case Blue had been planned for late May 1942. However, a number of German and Romanian units that were to take part in Blau were besieging Sevastopol on the Crimean Peninsula. Delays in ending the siege pushed back the start date for Blau several times, the city did not fall until early July. Operation Fridericus I by the Germans against the "Isium bulge", pinched off the Soviet
169th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)
The 169th Rifle Division was formed as a standard Red Army rifle division beginning in late August, 1939, as part of the pre-war Soviet military build-up. It saw service in the occupation force in western Ukraine in September; the German invasion found it still in Ukraine, fighting back to the Dniepr until it was nearly destroyed. The partly-rebuilt division fought again at Kharkov was pulled back into reserve and sent deep into the Caucasus where it fought south of Stalingrad throughout that battle. Following another major redeployment the division helped in the liberation of Oryol, the following race to the Dniepr. In 1944 and 1945 it was in 1st and 2nd Belorussian Fronts, participating in the offensives that liberated Belarus and conquered eastern Germany, it ended the war on the Elbe River. The 169th was based on a cadre from the 45th Rifle Regiment, began forming on Aug. 25 and into September, 1939 at Kherson and Nikolaeyev in the Ukrainian Military District. While still forming up it was in the third echelon of the Soviet forces taking part in the Soviet invasion of Poland.
On June 22, 1941, the order of battle of the 169th was as follows: 434th Rifle Regiment 556th Rifle Regiment 680th Rifle Regiment 307th Light Artillery Regiment 342nd Howitzer Regiment 160th Antitank Battalion 135th Antiaircraft Battalion 171st Sapper Battalion 159th Signal Battalion 152nd Reconnaissance BattalionAs the enemy offensive began the division was spread over 65 kilometres in peacetime garrisons around Lipkany, Mogilev-Podolsk, Grushka along the Dniestr River. On the 25th it was assigned to South Front, fought under command of either the 9th or the 18th Army through June and July in 55th Rifle Corps. While in 18th Army the 169th was attempting to aid the breakout of the Soviet forces encircled in the Uman pocket. While directing his troops from his command post in the Pervomaisk area, Mjr. Gen. I. E. Turunov, commander of the division, was wounded by a shell fragment, he was evacuated by air to Kharkov, but died in hospital on Aug. 3. Retreating under pressure through the southern Ukraine, by Aug. 12 the division was reduced to two groups, one with a strength of 808 men, one of just 603 men.
The former group was destroyed on Aug. 14, on the 16th the latter group was evacuated over the Dniepr to serve as a cadre for the rebuilding division. By Sept. 1 it was back in the line under command of 6th Army near Dnepropetrovsk. The order of battle had changed. On Oct. 30 the 169th was in 38th Army of Southwestern Front with 4,787 officers and men in the ranks. On Dec. 26 the 342nd Howitzer Regiment was disbanded and the 307th Light Artillery Regiment became a standard divisional artillery regiment, while the reconnaissance battalion was reorganized as a company, with the same number. On Jan. 1, 1942, the divisional strength was 5,536 officers and men, half of what was authorized for a rifle division at that time, but about average compared to other such divisions. In May and June, 1942, the 169th fought under the command of 28th Army during the Second Battle of Kharkov, the early stages of the German Operation Blue. German Sixth Army launched a preliminary attack, Operation Wilhelm, against the 28th Army bridgehead over the Donets at and south of Volchansk, from June 10–15.
The division was caught up in this and was encircled in spite of beginning to retreat immediately. During the main operation, the army's defenses along the Oskol River were penetrated by XXXX Panzer Corps on June 30, but the resistance of the 169th helped limit the advance. By July 10, 28th Army reported the division "was fighting in the Zhuravka region with 100 fighters", these remnants made their way south of the Don in the following days. On July 27 the remnants of the division were withdrawn into the Reserve of the Supreme High Command. After over a month of rest and refitting, by Sept. 11 the division was back up to a strength of 8,028 officers and men. On Oct. 29 it had reached nearly-full strength of 9,424 and was assigned to 57th Army on the west bank of the Volga, south of Stalingrad. In mid-October, the commander of Stalingrad Front, Gen. A. I. Yeryomenko ordered an attack from the so-called Beketovka bridgehead in yet another attempt to break through to the encircled 62nd Army in the city, or at least to divert German forces from the battle there.
The 169th was transferred to 64th Army for this purpose. In this operation, which began on Oct. 25 and continued until Nov. 2, the division served as a general reserve. While gaining little ground, these attacks served as a distraction for German Sixth Army. In preparation for the strategic counteroffensive called Operation Uranus, the 169th was transferred back to 57th Army in early November and moved southwards, to the vicinity of Tundutovo and Ivanovka, reinforced. For the offensive it was supported by 90th Tank Brigade, made up about half of 57th Army's shock group, with the 422nd Rifle Division and more armor making up the other half. After a 75-minute artillery preparation the division stepped off at 1115 hours on Nov. 20 and penetrated the defenses of the under-strength Romanian 2nd Infantry Division, which suffered "tank fright" and was routed in the first hour. By mid-afternoon the shock group had advanced 6 to 8 kilometres and the 169th had captured Khara-Uson and Nariman. In the evening the division came under attack by the German 29th Motorized Division, which drove it back from Nariman.
284th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)
The 284th Rifle Division began service as a standard Red Army rifle division shortly after the German invasion. Moved to the front soon after, it helped defend the Soviet lines west of the Ukrainian capital for more than a month, but was destroyed in the encirclement of Kiev. A new division was formed in early 1942, it served in the early fighting against the German summer offensive of 1942 until its losses forced it to be withdrawn for rebuilding. In September it was redeployed, played a leading role in defending the northern part of the central city and Mamayev Kurgan hill in the Battle of Stalingrad, in the reduction of the trapped German 6th Army during Operation Ring, for which it was raised to Guards status as the 79th Guards Rifle Division shortly after the battle ended. A third 284th was raised a few months later, it served on the quiet fronts of the Far East for most of the rest of the war before fighting against the Japanese in Manchuria in August, 1945. The unit continued to serve well into the postwar period under other designations.
The division began forming on July 1941, at Romny in the Kharkov Military District. The commanding officer, Col. Gennadii Petrovich Pankov, was appointed the same day, its basic order of battle was as follows: 1043rd Rifle Regiment 1045th Rifle Regiment 1047th Rifle Regiment 820th Artillery Regiment. Just three weeks after forming the 284th was railed to the Kiev Defense Sector. By August 12 it was assigned to 37th Army of Southwestern Front, helped to defend the direct approaches to Kiev for the next month, but this left it hopelessly trapped when the German forces linked up far east of Kiev in September; the division was destroyed that month, although it was not removed from the Soviet order of battle until December 27. On December 15 a new rifle division, the 443rd, began forming at Tomsk in the Siberian Military District. Kombrig Sergei Aleksandrovich Ostroumov was given command on that date. On January 27, 1942 it was re-designated as the new 284th Rifle Division. With most of its personnel of Siberian origin, it became known unofficially as the “Tomsk” division, although there were large numbers of men from Novosibirsk and Kemerovo as well.
Its order of battle remained the same as the 1st Formation. The unit spent about three months in training in Siberia before being sent to the front. On February 27, Col. Nikolai Filippovich Batyuk took command, which he would hold for the remainder of the 2nd Formation; the division was assigned to the new 48th Army in Bryansk Front. When Operation Blue began on June 28 it had not yet arrived in that Army, was under direct command of the Front. In the first two days of the offensive a gap about 40km wide and 35-40km deep was torn in the Front's defenses by the 4th Panzer Army; as a fresh unit, the 284th was ordered into the gap, along with the 1st Destroyer Division, to set up an all-around defense at Kastornoye. By June 30 the two divisions were defending the town with "exceptional stubbornness". On July 3 they came under further attack from 9th Panzer Division, which elected to bypass to the south of the position, forcing the Soviet units to withdraw northeastwards to avoid encirclement; however with more antitank assets on hand than usual, the 284th took considerable losses during its retreat.
By July 14 it regained the Soviet lines northwest of Voronezh. Within days it was subordinated to Operational Group Chibisov, formed from assets of Bryansk Front under command of the Front's deputy commander, Maj. Gen. Nikandr Evlampievich Chibisov; the plan was for this Group to attack the German 2nd Army in a salient west of Voronezh. It was intended in the event was put back to the 21st; the division was in a poor condition to support this offensive. On July 20 division commissar Tkachenko reported its state as follows:"In the division there are 3,172 military servicemen. There are 21 motorized vehicles in the division, but according to the shtat there should be 114. There are just 7 heavy machine guns. 47 light machine guns, but according to the shtat there should be 350. 36 anti-tank rifles, but 277 according to the shtat. The division's separation from its supply base extends up to 100 kilometres and aggravates the supply food." The commissar went on to urgently request vehicles, small arms and support weapons, draught horses, a closer supply base.
After the first day of fighting Tkachenko further reported that the lack of high-explosive shells forced the artillery to fire armor-piercing rounds at enemy firing points and troops. The 284th was the right-flank division of the Group. On July 21 the division, stretched over a wide sector and with no armor support, made no progress at all, was accused by the commander of the 340th of failing to attack. On the following day, as the 340th began to make some progress southwards, it became more difficult to keep contact with the 284th. General Chibisov decided to solve the problem by committing his fresh reserve 237th Rifle Division, backed by the 201st Tank Brigade, into the gap. Beginning its attack on the morning of July 23, the commander of the 237th complained of getting no support fr
260th Rifle Division
The 260th Rifle Division was an infantry division of the Red Army during World War II, formed twice. Formed in mid-1941, the division was destroyed during Operation Typhoon that year, it was reformed in early 1942 and fought in the Battle of Stalingrad was relocated to participate in Operation Kutuzov and the advance into eastern Belarus from mid to late 1943. In early 1944 it was again shifted to northwestern Ukraine, advancing into Poland during mid-1944 as part of Operation Bagration; the division received the Order of the Red Banner and the Kovel honorific in recognition of actions in northwestern Ukraine, in early 1945 participated in the Vistula–Oder Offensive, the East Pomeranian Offensive, the Berlin Offensive, receiving the Order of Suvorov, 2nd class, for its actions. Remaining in eastern Germany for several months after the end of the war, it was relocated to the Moscow Military District for disbandment in 1946; the division began forming on 2 July 1941 near part of the Moscow Military District.
It included the 1026th, 1028th, 1030th Rifle Regiments, as well as the 689th Artillery Regiment. The 260th spent about a month forming near Kalinin, on 15 August was relocated south to the frontline near Tula, where it joined the 50th Army of the Bryansk Front, under the command of Colonel Vasily Khokhlov; the division fought in the direction of Kaluga. The division was still holding positions there when the German 2nd Panzer Group attacked in Operation Typhoon, the attack beginning the Battle of Moscow. At the time, the 260th fielded 9,755 men, 324 machine guns, 98 artillery pieces and mortars, four anti-aircraft guns, fifteen anti-tank guns, it escaped complete destruction. Despite this, only 1,000 officers and men were left in the division by early November, it was withdrawn into the reserve north of Tula, its remnants were disbanded on 17 November due to a lack of resources to rebuild it since the front was under unrelenting pressure from German attacks. The division was reformed under the command of Colonel Alexander Chizhov between April and 13 May 1942 at Volokolamsk, just west of Moscow in the Moscow Military District, from the 55th Rifle Brigade.
It included the 1026th, 1028th, the 1030th Rifle Regiments, as well as the 738th Artillery Regiment. The 260th was assigned to the Moscow Defense Zone in July, to the Voronezh Front reserves in September. In late September it was moved to the front as part of the 1st Guards Army of the Don Front, holding positions to the northwest of Stalingrad. In late September, for "nonfulfillment of military tasks" in the Samofolovka area, Chizhov was relieved of command and demoted to become chief of staff of the 273rd Rifle Division, he was replaced by Colonel Grigory Miroshnichenko, who led the 260th in counterattacks against German troops who had broken through to the Volga from the Samofolovka area. From late September, it led attacks in an attempt to capture Khutor Borodkin; the 1st Guards Army was withdrawn to the Reserve of the Supreme High Command in mid-October, the division transferred to the 24th Army of the front. The division fought in the Battle of Stalingrad during Operation Uranus and Operation Koltso between November 1942 and February 1943, successively part of the 24th and 65th Armies of the Don Front.
Until January, it fought in the Kotluban area at checkpoint 564. Beginning on 18 January, the 260th advanced on the Barrikady Factory. After the battle ended with the surrender of the German 6th Army in early February, the 260th was transferred to the Don Front reserve to the Stalingrad Group of Forces. At the end of March, the division relocated to the Tula area as part of the 11th Army in the RVGK; the army transferred to the Western Front on 12 July and to the Bryansk Front on 30 July, fighting in Operation Kutuzov and the Bryansk Offensive during the summer offensive. About 18 August Miroshnichenko was wounded and evacuated to a hospital; the 260th became part of the army's 53rd Rifle Corps in August, fighting in battles for Bryansk and the crossing of the Desna River, during which Maximovsky was wounded and evacuated. He was replaced by Colonel Gennady Pankov, in turn replaced by Colonel Vasily Bulgakov in November, when it was part of the Belorussian Front during the Gomel–Rechitsa Offensive.
During that operation, the division helped capture Gomel. After it transitioned to the defensive on the approach to Zhlobin and the disbandment of the 11th Army, the division and its corps became part of the 63rd Army. In December the division fought in attacks to the north of Zhlobin; the division transferred back to the RVGK in the Moscow Military District at the end of January, was assigned to the 70th Army, joining the 125th Rifle Corps, in the process of formation, in February. With the corps, the division was sent to the 47th Army of the Belorussian Front in the Sarny area that month. With the army it fought in attacks towards Kovel. For its actions at Kovel the 260th received the Order of the Red Banner. In May it transferred to the army's 129th Rifle Corps; the 260th fought in Operation Bagration between June and August, crossing the Western Bug and participating in the capture of the Warsaw suburb of Praga during the Lublin–Brest Offensive. In December Bulgakov was replaced by Colonel Ivan Popov after the former departed for courses.
At the beginning of January 1945 Colonel Yakov Gorshenin replaced Popov. The division fought in the Warsaw–Poznan Offensive of the Vistula–Oder Strategic Offensive from January 1945, distinguishing itself in the capture of Jabłonna, the crossing of the Vistula, the battle fo