Moussa Sow is a professional footballer who plays as a striker for Gazişehir Gaziantep. He started his professional career at Stade Rennais in 2004 as an 18-year-old. In his first couple of seasons, Sow made his mark in cup competitions, scoring a brace for Rennes against Corte on 6 January 2006 in the Coupe de France and one in an away game against Lille in the Coupe de la Ligue, he was loaned out to Sedan in 2007. Upon his return to Rennes, he was the club's first-choice striker for two seasons before joining Lille on a free transfer In June 2010, where he made an immediate impact, he finished the 2010–11 Ligue 1 as the league's top scorer with 25 goals and made the Team of the Year. He joined Fenerbahçe in 2012. Born in France, he represents Senegal at the international level. After his contract with Rennes came to an end, the 24-year–old forward signed a three-year deal with Lille on 28 June 2010. Sow scored on his debut for Lille in a 1–1 draw away to his former club Rennes, but Moussa Sow did not score again in the league until a 90th-minute goal on 19 September gave Lille all three points in a tough home contest against Auxerre.
Sow scored his first hat-trick for Lille on 13 November 2010, the goals came in a 5–2 away victory to Caen, with both Gervinho and Franck Beria grabbing 90th-minute goals to seal the win. Less than a month on 5 December 2010, Sow netted another hat-trick this time against Lorient, his goals helped Lille to a 6–3 win and placed his side into contention for the Ligue 1 crown. Lille went into the winter break in sole position of first place, as Sow fired in their only goal in a 1–1 draw with Saint Étienne on 22 December 2010. Sow scored his 22nd goal of the Ligue 1 campaign in a 2–2 draw with Paris Saint-Germain on 21 May 2011; the result ensured that Lille would secure their first Ligue 1 title since 1954. Sow scored his third hat-trick, on the final day of the season, as Lille tied the knot on their championship season with an emphatic 3–2 victory over former club Rennes. Sow was the top scorer during the 2010–11 season with 25 league goals and contributed with three assists. On 27 January 2012, Fenerbahçe acquired Sow for €10 million.
He signed a 4.5-year contract -- 16 season. Sow made his debut against local rivals Beşiktaş on 5 February 2012, scoring a goal in the second minute of injury time. On 18 March he scored the first goal of the derby match with a bicycle kick against Galatasaray, he continued his good run of form by scoring a late equaliser against Kayserispor to earn a draw for his team in quarter-finals of the Turkish Cup on 12 April 2012, helping his team to reach the semi-finals through a penalty shoot-out. Sow scored the second goal for his team against rivals Trabzonspor on 15 April 2012. Over the course of the 2011 -- 12 season Sow played 12 league scored 7 goals. Sow earned his first trophy with Fener in the Turkish Cup final on 16 May as the club ripped apart Bursaspor by a score of 4–0. In the 2012 -- 13 season Sow scored 3 goals in European matches. On 3 March 2013, he scored twice against Beşiktaş followed by a goal each in the following league matches, a 4–1 victory against Bursaspor and a 2–1 win against.
Antalyaspor. On 22 May 2013, he scored the solitary goal as Fenerbahçe defeated Trabzonspor to secure the club's second straight 2012–13 Turkish Cup, consolation for falling short to city rivals Galatasaray in the league campaign. On 21 September 2013, Fenerbahçe were victorious in a 4–0 win against Elazığspor while Sow completed his first hat-trick for the club during this match. On 29 August 2015, Al Ahli acquired Sow for €16 million. On 31 August 2016, Sow returned to Fenerbahçe on a season long loan deal from Al Ahli. In November 2016, Fenerbahçe began selling shirts with Sow's name and number turned upside as tribute to his repeated times of his amazing bicycle kick goals, the latter of whom he scored a hat-trick against. On 8 December 2016, Sow scored another bicycle kick, this time in the UEFA Europa League in a 1–0 away victory against Feyenoord. In January 2018, Sow joined Bursaspor on loan from Al Ahli until the end of 2017–18 season. On 28 January 2019, Sow signed for Gazişehir Gaziantep on a one-and-a-half-year contract.
On 5 September 2010, Sow scored his first goal for Senegal in a 4–0 defeat of the Democratic Republic of Congo during qualifying for the 2012 Africa Cup of Nations. He scored three more times in the qualifying phase as well as once in a 2–1 defeat to Equatorial Guinea at the tournament finals. At the 2015 Africa Cup of Nations, Sow scored Senegal's winning goal as they defeated Ghana 2–1 in the team's opening match. In May 2018 he was named in Senegal's 23-man squad for the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia, he retired from international football in August 2018. On 26 June 2017, Sow would become a part-owner of expansion North American Soccer League franchise San Diego 1904 FC to begin play in 2018, alongside Demba Ba, Eden Hazard and Yohan Cabaye; as of match played 27 May 2017 As of match played 31 May 2018 Scores and results list Senegal's goal tally first. Lille Ligue 1: 2010–11 Coupe de France: 2010–11Fenerbahce Süper Lig: 2013–14 Türkiye Kupası: 2011–12, 2012–13 Süper Kupa: 2014Al-Ahli Dubai UAE Pro-League: 2015–16 France U19 UEFA European Under-19 Football Championship: 2005 Ligue 1 top goalscorer: 201011 Ligue 1 Team of the Season: 2010–11 Moussa Sow at ESPN FC Moussa Sow at Soccerway Moussa Sow at National-Football-Teams.com Moussa Sow at the Turkish Football Federation
The wild boar known as the wild swine, Eurasian wild pig, or wild pig, is a suid native to much of Eurasia, North Africa, the Greater Sunda Islands. Human intervention has spread its distribution further, making the species one of the widest-ranging mammals in the world, as well as the most spread suiform, its wide range, high numbers, adaptability mean that it is classed as least concern by the IUCN and it has become an invasive species in part of its introduced range. The animal originated in Southeast Asia during the Early Pleistocene, outcompeted other suid species as it spread throughout the Old World; as of 1990, up to 16 subspecies are recognized, which are divided into four regional groupings based on skull height and lacrimal bone length. The species lives in matriarchal societies consisting of their young. Grown males are solitary outside the breeding season; the grey wolf is the wild boar's main predator throughout most of its range, except in the Far East and the Lesser Sunda Islands, where it is replaced by the tiger and Komodo dragon, respectively.
It has a long history of association with humans, having been the ancestor of most domestic pig breeds and a big-game animal for millennia. Boars have re-hybridized in recent decades with feral pigs; as true wild boars became extinct in Great Britain before the development of Modern English, the same terms are used for both true wild boar and pigs large or semi-wild ones. The English'boar' stems from the Old English bar, thought to be derived from the West Germanic *bairaz, of unknown origin. Boar is sometimes used to refer to males, may be used to refer to male domesticated pigs breeding males that have not been castrated.'Sow', the traditional name for a female, again comes from Old English and Germanic. The young may be called'piglets'; the animals' specific name scrofa is Latin for'sow'. In hunting terminology, boars are given different designations according to their age: MtDNA studies indicate that the wild boar originated from islands in Southeast Asia such as Indonesia and the Philippines, subsequently spread onto mainland Eurasia and North Africa.
The earliest fossil finds of the species come from both Europe and Asia, date back to the Early Pleistocene. By the late Villafranchian, S. scrofa displaced the related S. strozzii, a large swamp-adapted suid ancestral to the modern S. verrucosus throughout the Eurasian mainland, restricting it to insular Asia. Its closest wild relative is the bearded pig of Malacca and surrounding islands; as of 2005, 16 subspecies are recognised, which are divided into four regional groupings: Western: Includes S. s. scrofa, S. s. meridionalis, S. s. algira, S. s. attila, S. s. lybicus and S. s. nigripes. These subspecies are high-skulled, with thick underwool and poorly developed manes. Indian: Includes S. s. davidi and S. s. cristatus. These subspecies have sparse or absent underwool, with long manes and prominent bands on the snout and mouth. While S. s. cristatus is high-skulled, S. s. davidi is low-skulled. Eastern: Includes S. s. sibiricus, S. s. ussuricus, S. s. leucomystax, S. s. riukiuanus, S. s. taivanus and S. s. moupinensis.
These subspecies are characterised by a whitish streak extending from the corners of the mouth to the lower jaw. With the exception of S. s. ussuricus, most are high-skulled. The underwool is thick, except in S. s. moupinensis, the mane is absent. Indonesian: Represented by S. s. vittatus, it is characterised by its sparse body hair, lack of underwool long mane, a broad reddish band extending from the muzzle to the sides of the neck. It is the most basal of the four groups, having the smallest relative brain size, more primitive dentition and unspecialised cranial structure. With the exception of domestic pigs in Timor and Papua New Guinea, the wild boar is the ancestor of most pig breeds. Archaeological evidence suggests that pigs were domesticated from wild boar as early as 13,000–12,700 BC in the Near East in the Tigris Basin being managed in the wild in a way similar to the way they are managed by some modern New Guineans. Remains of pigs have been dated to earlier than 11,400 BC in Cyprus.
Those animals must have been introduced from the mainland, which suggests domestication in the adjacent mainland by then. There was a separate domestication in China, which took place about 8,000 years ago. DNA evidence from sub-fossil remains of teeth and jawbones of Neolithic pigs shows that the first domestic pigs in Europe had been brought from the Near East; this stimulated the domestication of local European wild boars, resulting in a third domestication event with the Near Eastern genes dying out in European pig stock. Modern domesticated pigs have involved complex exchanges, with European domesticated lines being exported in turn to the ancient Near East. Historical records indicate that Asian pigs were introduced into Europe during the 18th and early 19th centuries. Domestic pigs tend to have much more developed hindquarters than their wild boar ancestors, to the point where 70% of their body weight is concentrated in the posterior, the opposite of wild boar, where most of the muscles are concentrated on the head and shoulders.
The wild boar is a bulky, massively built suid with short and thin legs. The trunk is short and massive, w
The domestic pig called swine, hog, or pig when there is no need to distinguish it from other pigs, is a domesticated large, even-toed ungulate. It is variously considered a subspecies of a distinct species; the domestic pig's head-plus-body-length ranges from 0.9 to 1.8 m, adult pigs weigh between 50 and 350 kg, with well-fed individuals exceeding this weight range. The size and weight of a hog depends on its breed. Compared to other artiodactyls, its head is long and free of warts. Even-toed ungulates are herbivorous, but the domestic pig is an omnivore, like its wild relative; when used as livestock, domestic pigs are farmed for the consumption of their flesh, called pork. The animal's bones and bristles are used in commercial products. Domestic pigs miniature breeds, are kept as pets; the domestic pig has a large head, with a long snout, strengthened by a special prenasal bone and a disk of cartilage at the tip. The snout is used to dig into the soil to find food, is a acute sense organ; the dental formula of adult pigs is 18.104.22.168.1.4.3.
The rear teeth are adapted for crushing. In the male the canine teeth can form tusks, which grow continuously and are sharpened by being ground against each other. Four hoofed toes are on each foot, with the two larger central toes bearing most of the weight, but the outer two being used in soft ground. Most domestic pigs have rather a bristled sparse hair covering on their skin, although woolly-coated breeds such as the Mangalitsa exist. Pigs possess both apocrine and eccrine sweat glands, although the latter appear limited to the snout and dorsonasal areas. Pigs, like other "hairless" mammals, do not use thermal sweat glands in cooling. Pigs are less able than many other mammals to dissipate heat from wet mucous membranes in the mouth through panting, their thermoneutral zone is 16 to 22 °C. At higher temperatures, pigs lose heat by wallowing in water via evaporative cooling. Pigs are one of four known mammalian species which possess mutations in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor that protect against snake venom.
Mongooses, honey badgers and pigs all have modifications to the receptor pocket which prevents the snake venom α-neurotoxin from binding. These represent four independent mutations. Domestic pigs have small lungs in relation to their body size, are thus more susceptible than other domesticated animals to fatal bronchitis and pneumonia; the domestic pig is most considered to be a subspecies of the wild boar, given the name Sus scrofa by Carl Linnaeus in 1758. However, in 1777, Johann Christian Polycarp Erxleben classified the domestic pig as a separate species from the wild boar, he gave it the name Sus domesticus, still used by some taxonomists. Archaeological evidence suggests that pigs were domesticated from wild boar as early as 13,000–12,700 BC in the Near East in the Tigris Basin, Çayönü, Cafer Höyük, Nevalı Çori being managed in the wild in a way similar to the way they are managed by some modern New Guineans. Remains of pigs have been dated to earlier than 11,400 BC in Cyprus; those animals must have been introduced from the mainland, which suggests domestication in the adjacent mainland by then.
There was a separate domestication in China which took place about 8000 years ago. DNA evidence from subfossil remains of teeth and jawbones of Neolithic pigs shows that the first domestic pigs in Europe had been brought from the Near East; this stimulated the domestication of local European wild boar, resulting in a third domestication event with the Near Eastern genes dying out in European pig stock. Modern domesticated pigs have involved complex exchanges, with European domesticated lines being exported, in turn, to the ancient Near East. Historical records indicate that Asian pigs were introduced into Europe during the 18th and early 19th centuries. In August 2015, a study looked at over 100 pig genome sequences to ascertain their process of domestication, assumed to have been initiated by humans, involved few individuals, relied on reproductive isolation between wild and domestic forms; the study found that the assumption of reproductive isolation with population bottlenecks was not supported.
The study indicated that pigs were domesticated separately in Western Asia and China, with Western Asian pigs introduced into Europe, where they crossed with wild boar. A model that fitted the data included a mixture with a now extinct ghost population of wild pigs during the Pleistocene; the study found that despite back-crossing with wild pigs, the genomes of domestic pigs have strong signatures of selection at DNA loci that affect behavior and morphology. The study concluded that human selection for domestic traits counteracted the homogenizing effect of gene flow from wild boars and created domestication islands in the genome; the same process may apply to other domesticated animals. The adaptable nature and omnivorous diet of the wild boar allowed early humans to domesticate it readily. Pigs were used for food, but early civilizations used the pigs' hides for shields, bones for tools and weapons, bristles for brushes. In India, pigs have been domesticated for a long time in Goa and some rural areas, for pig toilets.
Though ecologically logical as well as economical
Sewing is the craft of fastening or attaching objects using stitches made with a needle and thread. Sewing is one of the oldest of the textile arts, arising in the Paleolithic era. Before the invention of spinning yarn or weaving fabric, archaeologists believe Stone Age people across Europe and Asia sewed fur and skin clothing using bone, antler or ivory needles and "thread" made of various animal body parts including sinew and veins. For thousands of years, all sewing was done by hand; the invention of the sewing machine in the 19th century and the rise of computerization in the 20th century led to mass production and export of sewn objects, but hand sewing is still practiced around the world. Fine hand sewing is a characteristic of high-quality tailoring, haute couture fashion, custom dressmaking, is pursued by both textile artists and hobbyists as a means of creative expression; the first known use of the word "sewing" was in the 14th century. Sewing has an ancient history estimated to begin during the Paleolithic Era.
Sewing was used to stitch together animal hides for shelter. The Inuit, for example, used sinew from caribou for thread and needles made of bone. Sewing was combined with the weaving of plant leaves in Africa to create baskets, such as those made by Zulu weavers, who used thin strips of palm leaf as "thread" to stitch wider strips of palm leaf, woven into a coil; the weaving of cloth from natural fibres originated in the Middle East around 4000 BC, earlier during the Neolithic Age, the sewing of cloth accompanied this development. During the Middle Ages, Europeans who could afford it employed tailors; the vital importance of sewing was indicated by the honorific position of "Lord Sewer" at many European coronations from the Middle Ages. An example was Robert Radcliffe, 1st Earl of Sussex, appointed Lord Sewer at the coronation of Henry VIII of England in 1509. Sewing for the most part was a woman's occupation, most sewing before the 19th century was practical. Clothing was an expensive investment for most people, women had an important role in extending the longevity of items of clothing.
Sewing was used for mending. Clothing, faded would be turned inside-out so that it could continue to be worn, sometimes had to be taken apart and reassembled in order to suit this purpose. Once clothing became worn or torn, it would be taken apart and the reusable cloth sewn together into new items of clothing, made into quilts, or otherwise put to practical use; the many steps involved in making clothing from scratch meant that women bartered their expertise in a particular skill with one another. Decorative needlework such as embroidery was a valued skill, young women with the time and means would practise to build their skill in this area. From the Middle Ages to the 17th century, sewing tools such as needles and pincushions were included in the trousseaus of many European brides. Decorative embroidery was valued in many cultures worldwide. Although most embroidery stitches in the Western repertoire are traditionally British, Irish or Western European in origin, stitches originating in different cultures are known throughout the world today.
Some examples are the Cretan Open Filling stitch, Romanian Couching or Oriental Couching, the Japanese stitch. The stitches associated with embroidery spread by way of the trade routes that were active during the Middle Ages; the Silk Road brought Chinese embroidery techniques to Western Asia and Eastern Europe, while techniques originating in the Middle East spread to Southern and Western Europe through Morocco and Spain. European imperial settlements spread embroidery and sewing techniques worldwide. However, there are instances of sewing techniques indigenous to cultures in distant locations from one another, where cross-cultural communication would have been unlikely. For example, a method of reverse appliqué known to areas of South America is known to Southeast Asia; the Industrial Revolution shifted the production of textiles from the household to the mills. In the early decades of the Industrial Revolution, the machinery produced whole cloth; the world's first sewing machine was patented in 1790 by Thomas Saint.
By the early 1840s, other early sewing machines began to appear. Barthélemy Thimonnier introduced a simple sewing machine in 1841 to produce military uniforms for France's army. By the 1850s, Isaac Singer developed the first sewing machines that could operate and and surpass the productivity of a seamstress or tailor sewing by hand. While much clothing was still produced at home by female members of the family and more ready-made clothes for the middle classes were being produced with sewing machines. Textile sweatshops full of poorly paid sewing machine operators grew into entire business districts in large cities like London and New York City. To further support the industry, piece work was done for little money by women living in slums. Needlework was one of the few occupations considered acceptable for women, but it did not pay a living wage. Women doing piece work from home worked 14-hour days to earn enough to support themselves, sometimes by renting sewing machines that they could not afford to buy.
Tailors became associated with higher-end clothing during this period. In London, this status grew out of the dandy trend of the early 19th century, when new tailor shops were established around Savile Row
Sowerby Bridge railway station
Sowerby Bridge railway station serves the town of Sowerby Bridge in West Yorkshire, England. It lies 21 miles west of Leeds; the original station was opened on 5 October 1840 by the Manchester and Leeds Railway, on a site 662 yards further west of the current site. Prior to opening, in August 1840, Branwell Brontë was engaged as'assistant clerk in charge' at Sowerby Bridge, for which his salary was £75 per annum; the station became a junction from 1 January 1852, when a branch line from nearby Milner Royd Junction to Halifax was opened by the M&L's successor company the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway. Ahead of the opening of the Rishworth Branch in the 1880s, a new station was built on the current site - this opened on 1 September 1876. Regular passenger services along the original M&L main line via Brighouse were withdrawn by British Rail on 5 January 1970. Through trains between Manchester & York over the route had ended in the mid-1960s, leaving a much-reduced DMU service in years that started/terminated here and connected with the Calder Valley trains via Bradford.
The route remained in use for freight and was subsequently re-opened to passengers on a limited basis in 2000, with an all day service restored in 2007. A major fire in 1978 resulted in the demolition of most of the buildings by British Rail in 1980. New canopies were erected in 1981 on the remaining platforms, with a ticket office housed in the surviving wing of the 1870s station, however this closed in 1983 and the station is now unstaffed. In 2008, the former ticket office building was re-opened as a bar called the Jubilee Refreshment Rooms. A ticket machine was installed in 2011, allowing passengers to buy tickets before boarding for the first time in 30 years. Recent work has seen the installation of an electronic Passenger information system, giving details of forthcoming departures, the car park enlarged, free to use. Step-free access is available to both platforms via the inclined subway linking them or from adjoining roads. A volunteer group, The Friends of Sowerby Bridge Railway Station, was founded in 2010, to improve the station's environs.
On 22 October 1903, an express passenger train was in collision with a light engine due to a signalman's error. Another passenger train collided with the wreckage at low speed. One person was killed; the regular service from here was increased at the May 2018 timetable change to 3tph each way. Eastbound trains run via Dewsbury. One of the former continues to York. Westbound there are two trains per hour to one per hour to Preston. During the evenings and on Sundays, there is an hourly service each way to Manchester and Preston and two per hour to Leeds via Bradford. At Milner Royd Junction a quarter of a mile to the east of the lines to Halifax and Brighouse diverge. East of the station, the dismantled branch line to Ripponden and Rishworth diverged to the southwest, until its closure in 1958; this had at one time its own separate wooden platform south of the main station and linked to it by a short footpath. Train times and station information for Sowerby Bridge railway station from National Rail Milner Royd Junction
Aminata Sow Fall
Aminata Sow Fall is a Senegalese-born author. While her native language is Wolof, her books are written in French, she is considered "the first published woman novelist from francophone Black Africa". She was born in Saint-Louis, where she grew up before moving to Dakar to finish her secondary schooling. After this, she did a degree in Modern Languages in France and became a teacher upon returning to Senegal, she was a member of the Commission for Educational Reform responsible for the introduction of African literature into the French syllabus in Senegal, before becoming director of La Propriété littéraire in Dakar. She was appointed the first woman president of Senegal's Writer's Association in 1985. In 1990 she founded the publishing house Éditions Khoudia. 1980 - Grand prix littéraire d'Afrique noire for La Grève des bàttu. 1982 - Prix International Alioune Diop for L'Appel des arènes. 1997 - honorary doctorate from Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, Massachusetts. Her books include: Le Revenant, Nouvelles éditions africaines, 1976.
ISBN 2 7236 0109 9. La Grève des bàttu. Dorothy Blair, Longman, ISBN 0-582-00243-5 L'Appel des arènes. ISBN 2 7236 0837 9. Ex-père de la nation: roman, Paris: L'Harmattan, 1987. ISBN 2 85802 875 3. Douceurs du bercail, Nouvelles Editions ivoiriennes, 1998. ISBN 2 911725 46 8. Le jujubier du patriarche: roman, Serpent à Plumes, 1998 Sur le flanc gauche du Belem. Arles: Actes Sud, 2002. ISBN 2 7427 4044 9. Un grain de vie et d'espérance. Paris: Françoise Truffaut Editions, 2002. ISBN 2-951661-45-2. Festins de la détresse: roman. Editions d'en bas. 2005. ISBN 978-2-8290-0318-9; the film Battu by director Cheick Oumar Sissoko is based on her novel La Grève des bàttu. Simon Gikandi, Encyclopedia of African Literature, Routledge, pp. 518–9. ISBN 0-415-23019-5 Médoune Guèye, Aminata Sow Fall: Oralité et société dans l'oeuvre romanesque, Editions L'Harmattan. ISBN 2-7475-8557-3 "An Interview with Aminata Sow Fall". African Affairs 87: 419-430. Laïla Ibnlfassi, Nicki Hitchcott, eds.. "Marxist Intertext, Islamic Reinscription?".
African Francophone Writing: a critical introduction. Berg. ISBN 978-1-85973-014-0. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter Ada Uzoamaka Azodo, Emerging Perspectives on Aminata Sow Fall: The Real and the Imaginary in her Novels, Africa World Press, 2007. ISBN 978-1-59221-557-7. Irene Udousoro, "Aminata Sow Fall’s Works: A Compendium of Development-Oriented Issues", Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 4, No. 6, July 2013. Pp. 67–71
Deuce (playing card)
The Deuce is the playing card with the highest value in German card games. It may have derived its name from dice games in which the face of the die with two pips is called a Daus in German. Unlike the Ace, with which it may be confused, the Deuce represents the 2, why two hearts, etc. are depicted on the card. In many regions it is not only equated to the Ace, but is incorrectly, called an Ace. In the south German area it has been called the Sow and still is today, because of the appearance of a wild boar on the Deuces in early card packs, a custom that has survived on the Deuce of Bells. Ei der Daus! is an expression, similar, to "What the deuce!" in English, which reflects astonishment, bewilderment or anger. It is if wrongly, assumed to be an expression derived from card players' jargon; the word Daus. It comes from the Late Old High German Middle High German word, dûs, borrowed from the North French word, daus; this corresponds to the French word for "two", which in turn came from the Latin duos and duo.
On the introduction of playing cards into the German language area at the end of the 14th century, the word was transferred to the cards with the value 2. This card became the highest value playing card in the German card deck, the equivalent to the Ace in the French deck. On the German playing card with the 2, the deuce, there is a picture of a hog or sow. While Friedrich Kluge is unsure, how the card came to be called the Daus, because he avers that there are no game rules that have survived from the Middle Ages, Marianne Rumpf is clear: The word'Daus' is a term, taken over from the dice game. However, unlike dice games, in which the 2 was a low throw and did not count for much, the deuce card played a special role as a trick card, because it could beat the King; the Early New High German author, Johann Fischart, says thus: "I have thrown out the Ace and Deuce of Bells, Hearts respectively. The name Schwein was used for the deuce as may be read in the Reimchronik über Herzog Ulrich von Württemberg, which reveals that the Deuce, like the Ace in the modern game of Skat, was worth 11 points: "The King ought to beat all the cards.
That is apart from the Hog. It wants to be worth 11."Early evidence of the depiction of a hog on the card is found as early as the 15th century, from which Deuces of Bells and Acorns have survived on which there is a wild boar. Decks with a hog or sow on the card along with the 2 of Bells have survived from the year 1525 in the Swiss State Museum in Zürich and in a deck dating to 1573 made by the Viennese artist, Hans Forster. There is a deck of cards by a Frankfurt manufacturer dating to 1573, on which the hog is found on a 2 of Hearts; the link between the Deuce and the Sow is evinced by Johann Leonhard Frisch in his 1741 German-Latin dictionary: "Sow in card game, from the figure of a sow, painted on the Deuce of Acorns, whence the other deuces are called Sows." How the boar ended up on the playing card is unknown. Hellmut Rosenfeld suspects that it was derived from the prize sow that played a role in local shooting festivals and, linked with the last sheaf of the harvest; the description Sau may have been a corruption of the word Daus, the depiction of a boar on the playing cards was a pictorial illustration of this etymological development.
According to Marianne Rumpf, the name comes from a Baden dialect in which the "S" is spoken like a "Sch" and the word Dausch is used for a female pig or sow. can... with a little imagination, picture that the players, in the excitement of the game when playing the trump card... loudly emphasize their triumph by saying the name of the card. The Brothers Grimm state in their dictionary, that the word Tausch was used for the four cards; the word Dausch inspired card artists who illustrated the free space under the coloured symbols with a sow. The language of card players may have given rise to the expression Däuser for'coins', recorded since the 19th century, because in a game played for money, the aces are worth cash. Quite similar is the saying Däuser bauen Häuser, used since 1850, because with a trick with several aces, one scores the points needed to win. Marianne Rumpf: Zur Entwicklung der playing cardsnfarben in der Schweiz, in Deutschland und in Frankreich. In: „Schweizerisches Archiv für Volkskunde“ 72, 1976, pp. 1–32 Skat deck Pip cards