Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
A parish is a territorial entity in many Christian denominations, constituting a division within a diocese. A parish is under the pastoral care and clerical jurisdiction of a parish priest, who might be assisted by one or more curates, who operates from a parish church. A parish covered the same geographical area as a manor, its association with the parish church remains paramount. By extension the term parish refers not only to the territorial entity but to the people of its community or congregation as well as to church property within it. In England this church property was technically in ownership of the parish priest ex-officio, vested in him on his institution to that parish. First attested in English in the late, 13th century, the word parish comes from the Old French paroisse, in turn from Latin: paroecia, the latinisation of the Ancient Greek: παροικία, translit. Paroikia, "sojourning in a foreign land", itself from πάροικος, "dwelling beside, sojourner", a compound of παρά, "beside, by, near" and οἶκος οἶκος, "house".
As an ancient concept, the term "parish" occurs in the long-established Christian denominations: Catholic, Anglican Communion, the Eastern Orthodox Church, Lutheran churches, in some Methodist, Congregationalist and Presbyterian administrations. The eighth Archbishop of Canterbury Theodore of Tarsus appended the parish structure to the Anglo-Saxon township unit, where it existed, where minsters catered to the surrounding district. Broadly speaking, the parish is the standard unit in episcopal polity of church administration, although parts of a parish may be subdivided as a chapelry, with a chapel of ease or filial church serving as the local place of worship in cases of difficulty to access the main parish church. In the wider picture of ecclesiastical polity, a parish see. Parishes within a diocese may be grouped into a deanery or vicariate forane, overseen by a dean or vicar forane, or in some cases by an archpriest; some churches of the Anglican Communion have deaneries as units of an archdeaconry.
The Church of England geographical structure uses the local parish church as its basic unit. The parish system survived the Reformation with the Anglican Church's secession from Rome remaining untouched, thus it shares its roots with the Catholic Church's system described above. Parishes may extend into different counties or hundreds and many parishes comprised extra outlying portions in addition to its principal district being described as'detached' and intermixed with the lands of other parishes. Church of England parishes nowadays all lie within one of 44 dioceses divided between the provinces of Canterbury, 30 and York, 14; each parish has its own parish priest and supported by one or more curates or deacons - although as a result of ecclesiastical pluralism some parish priests might have held more than one parish living, placing a curate in charge of those where they do not reside. Now, however, it is common for a number of neighbouring parishes to be placed under one benefice in the charge of a priest who conducts services by rotation, with additional services being provided by lay readers or other non-ordained members of the church community.
A chapelry was a subdivision of an ecclesiastical parish in England, parts of Lowland Scotland up to the mid 19th century. It had a similar status to a township but was so named as it had a chapel which acted as a subsidiary place of worship to the main parish church. In England civil parishes and their governing parish councils evolved in the 19th century as ecclesiastical parishes began to be relieved of what became considered to be civic responsibilities, thus their boundaries began to diverge. The word "parish" acquired a secular usage. Since 1895, a parish council elected by public vote or a parish meeting administers a civil parish and is formally recognised as the level of local government below a district council; the traditional structure of the Church of England with the parish as the basic unit has been exported to other countries and churches throughout the Anglican Communion and Commonwealth but does not continue to be administered in the same way. The parish is the basic level of church administration in the Church of Scotland.
Spiritual oversight of each parish church in Scotland is responsibility of the congregation's Kirk Session. Patronage was regulated in 1711 and abolished in 1874, with the result that ministers must be elected by members of the congregation. Many parish churches in Scotland today are "linked" with neighbouring parish churches served by a single minister. Since the abolition of parishes as a unit of civil government in Scotland in 1929, Scottish parishes have purely ecclesiastical significance and the boundaries may be adjusted by the local Presbytery; the church in Wales is made up of six dioceses. Parishes were civil administration areas until communities were established in 1974. Although they are more simply called congregations and have no geographic boundaries, in the United Methodist Church congregations are called parishes. A prominent example of this usage comes in The Book of Discipline of The United Methodist Church, in which the committee of every local congregation that handles staff support is referred to as the committee on Pastor-Parish Relations.
This committee gives recommendations to the bishop on behalf of the parish/congregation since it is the United Methodist Bishop of the episcopal area who appoints a pastor to each congregation. The same is true in the Af
A municipality is a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns and hamlets; the term municipality may mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district; the term is derived from French Latin municipalis. The English word municipality derives from the Latin social contract municipium, referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments. A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, to a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York.
The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass only one populated place such as a city, town, or village several of such places only parts of such places, sometimes boroughs of a city such as the 34 municipalities of Santiago, Chile. Powers of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state. Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, corporate income tax, but may receive substantial funding from the state. In various countries, municipalities are referred to as "communes", notably in Romance languages such as French commune, Italian comune, Romanian comună, Spanish comuna, in Germanic languages such as German Kommune, Swedish kommun, Faroese kommuna, Norwegian, Danish kommune. However, in Moldova and Romania exist both municipalities and communes, a commune may be part of a municipality. Similar terms include Spanish ayuntamiento called municipalidad, Polish gmina, Dutch/Flemish Gemeente and Luxembourgish Gemeng.
In Australia, the term local government area is used in place of the generic municipality. Here, the "LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia. Incorporated areas are designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility." In Canada, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation within general municipal statutes. Types of municipalities within Canada include cities, district municipalities, municipal districts, parishes, rural municipalities, townships and villes among others; the Province of Ontario has different tiers of municipalities, including lower and single tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario include regional municipalities. Nova Scotia has regional municipalities, which include cities, districts, or towns as municipal units. In India, a Municipality or Nagar Palika is an urban local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. However, there are exceptions to that, as Municipality were constituted in urban centers with population over 20,000, so all the urban bodies which were classified as Municipality were reclassified as Municipality if their population was under 100,000.
Under the Panchayati Raj system, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in. Smaller district cities and bigger towns have a Municipality. Municipality are a form of local self-government entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined in the Constitutional Act,1992. In the United Kingdom, the term was used until the 1972 Local Government Act came into effect in 1974 in England and Wales, until 1975 in Scotland and 1976 in Northern Ireland, "both for a city or town, organized for self-government under a municipal corporation, for the governing body itself; such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, of superior members, as aldermen and councillors". Since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is known as a district, in Scotland as a council area. A district can retain its district title. In Jersey, a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12 parishes into which it is subdivided.
This is the highest level of regional government in this jurisdiction. In Trinidad and Tobago, "municipality" is understood as a city, town, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. A town may be awarded borough status and on may be upgraded to city status. Chaguanas, San Fernando, Port of Spain and Point Fortin are the 5 current municipalities in Trinidad and Tobago. In the United States, "municipality" is understood as a city, village, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. In a state law contex
Spånga-Tensta is a borough in Stockholm, Sweden located in the north. The districts that make up the borough are Bromsten, Lunda, Solhem and Tensta. A large portion of the uninhabited field Järvafältet belongs to the districts of Husby; the borough consists of the following places: Spånga TenstaThe population as of 2004 is 34,448 on an area of 12.85 km², which gives a density of 2,680.78/km². The transport provided is: Rail: The Blue Line of the Stockholm Metro, running from Kungsträdgården in the city centre to Hjulsta station in the north west, it has two stations in the borough of Spånga-Tensta and Tensta, both inaugurated in 1975. Commuter rail has Spånga Station. Bus: Several bus routes serve the borough. Car: E18/Hjulstavägen runs on the north of Hjulsta and Tensta; when finished, the Förbifart Stockholm motorway will connect to E18 at Hjulsta. Media related to Spånga-Tensta at Wikimedia Commons
Sundbyberg Municipality is a municipality in Stockholm County in east central Sweden, just north of the capital Stockholm. Sundbyberg has a 100 % urban population. Sundbyberg was detached from Bromma in 1888 as a market town, it got the title of a city in 1927. In 1949 parts of Solna Municipality and Spånga were added. A proposed merger with Solna in 1971 was never implemented, making Sundbyberg, with an area of 8.83 square kilometres, the smallest municipality in Sweden, but the most densely populated. The municipality prefers to call itself a city, however, has no legal significance. Sundbyberg was for a long time only an area of small agriculture value and most of all used as a place to spend summer for rich families in the city. In 1863 the entire area was bought by Anders Petter Löfström, including Duvbo Estate, who began building houses there. In 1870 the first industrial plot was sold and from there the town did expand with railroad, houses and community services of all kind. A. P. Löfström donated to the municipality, all land for roads, parks, school and other public areas.
Sundbyberg never became a suburb but a independent industrial town on its own. The 44,090 inhabitants live in 17,000 apartments; the industrial policy of the municipality is to provide one job opportunity for every apartment, thus 17,000 jobs. So unlike other municipalities in Metropolitan Stockholm, Sundbyberg is not a bedroom suburb wherefrom people commute to Stockholm, but a place commuted to from outside. In total, 12,000 commuters travel to or from Sundbyberg every day. On the 31st of December 2017 the number of people with a foreign background was 20 229, or 40.93% of the population. On the 31st of December 2002 the number of residents with a foreign background was 8 531, or 25.24% of the population. On 31 December 2017 there were 49 424 residents in Sundbyberg, of which 14 954 people were born in a country other than Sweden. Divided by country in the table below - the Nordic countries as well as the 12 most common countries of birth outside of Sweden for Swedish residents have been included, with other countries of birth bundled together by continent by Statistics Sweden.
Sundbyberg is well served by the Stockholm public transport system. There are several metro stations as well as one Stockholm commuter rail station and plenty of bus routes; some main line trains call at Sundbyberg. 1925-1959 Sundbyberg was served by trams. Light railway returned to Sundbyberg in October 2013 when Tvärbanan light rail service was extended from Sickla Udde via Alvik to Solna centrum; the line runs through Central Sundbyberg with tracks laid in the street and has two stops within the municipality. A northern light railway branch from Ulvsunda to Kista will pass through Rissne. Construction is expected to start in 2017. Central Sundbyberg Duvbo Hallonbergen Lilla Alby Rissne Storskogen Ursvik Ör There are plenty of nice shops in the Central Sundbyberg area, which makes the little city a bit independent; the following sports clubs are located in Sundbyberg: Sundbybergs IK Storskogens SK Sundbyberg Municipality - Official site Sundbyberg Museum & Archive - Official site Sundbyberg Den nya Förstaden, H. Österberg,Sundbybergs Museum Sundbyberg under Köpingtiden, H. Österberg,Sundbybergs Museum Sundbyberg den 113:e Staden, H. Österberg,Sundbybergs Museum Sundbyberg i Gamla Bilder, H. Österberg, Sundbybergs Museum Sundbyberg bygger en Kyrka, H. Österberg, Sundbybergs Museum Sundbyberg - om hus och miljöer, Eva Söderlind
Spånga Church is a church in the Spånga-Tensta borough in Stockholm, Sweden. The oldest part of the church origins from the time period 1175 – 1200. Large reconstructions and enhancements took place during the 15th century. Baron Gustaf Bonde, owner of the nearby Hässelby castle, made considerable donations to the church. After his death a grave choir, drawn by the architect Nicodemus Tessin the Elder, was attached as a continuation of the church, in which he and his descendants are buried; the church contains other historical monuments, such as several fresco paintings from the Middle Ages. The church was latest renovated 1953–1955; the first church paintings are from the 14th century, when the long nave was built. These were abstract decorations, geometrical patterns and ornaments. Paintings from the early 15th century are interpreted as biblical motives from the Old Testament, the prophets Elijah and Elisha, but with landscape, houses and tools common at the time of painting; the name of the painter from this period are not known.
In the late 15th century the triumph arch was set up, as well as a new choir, paintings from this period are of a different style, with motives from both the Old and New Testament, as well as Saints. At a church restoration in 1789 all paintings were overpainted with white; the interior walls remained white until a new restoration around 1900. This restoration was quite rough, the walls were repainted. In the 1950s the walls went through a new restoration, which aimed to bring forward some of the original middle age paintings, covered 160 years earlier. A granite rune stone, designated as U 61 in Rundata, dated from the Viking era stands outside the church. On one side the stone has a runic inscription within bands with an interior Christian cross design, on the other side it has a second cross, it is classified as being carved in runestone style RAK, the oldest style. This classification is used for those inscriptions where the runic text band ends are straight and do not have any attached serpent or animal heads.
The runic inscription for stylistic reasons has been attributed to a runemaster named Gunnar. Other runestones are attributed to this runemaster and he signed the runic inscription U 226 at Arkils tingstad. Of the personal names mentioned in the inscription, Þorbiorn or Þorbjôrn means "Thor's Bear," Gunnbiorn or Gunnbjôrn means "Battle Bear," Halfdan means "Half Dane," Ulf or Ulfr means "Wolf," and Biorn or Bjôrn means "Bear." A transliteration of the runic inscription to roman letters is: hialmuiþ: auk: þurbiarn: kunbiarn: auk: halftan: þais: raistu: stin: þina: eftiʀ: bruþur: sin: ulf: auk: faþur: sen biarn: auk: bruþur: sen: blakariA transcription into Old Norse is: hialmuiþ auk þurbiarn kunbiarn auk halftan þais raistu stin þina eftir bruþur sin ulf auk faþur sen biarn auk bruþur sen blakariA translation into English is: Hialmviðr and Þorbiorn and Halfdan raised this stone after their brother Ulf and their father Biorn and their brother Blakare. In 1901, Spånga kyrka was one of two churches designated control points for the first public orienteering competition held in Sweden.
List of churches in Stockholm Photograph of runestone U 61 Photograph of runestone U 61 reverse side
Sollentuna Municipality is a municipality in Stockholm County in east central Sweden, north of Stockholm. Its seat of local government is located in Tureberg, a part of the Stockholm urban area. Sollentuna borders the municipalities of Solna, Stockholm, Järfälla, Upplands Väsby, Täby and Danderyd in clockwise order starting to the south. Sollentuna municipality was founded in conjunction with the reform of local government in Sweden in 1863. However, its boundaries are equivalent to those of Sollentuna Parish, which dates back to the 12th century. Well into the 20th century, Sollentuna was a predominantly rural area. Modern Sollentuna evolved around the railway between Uppsala and Stockholm, inaugurated in 1866. Five of the eight districts that make up the municipality today correspond to railway stations, now operated by Stockholm commuter rail system. From south to north: Helenelund, Tureberg, Häggvik and Rotebro. Viby is an extension of Norrviken and the two remaining districts— Edsberg and Sjöberg—are found along the road to Danderyd.
Other roads into Sollentuna includes the road from Kallhäll to Rotebro and the E 4 motorway that approximates the same route as the railway. Sollentuna received the title of a merchant town in 1944. Köping status was made obsolete by the municipal reform of 1971. On the 31st of December 2017 the number of people with a foreign background was 23 284, or 32.41% of the population. On the 31st of December 2002 the number of residents with a foreign background was 12 443, or 21.26% of the population. On 31 December 2017 there were 71 848 residents in Sollentuna, of which 17 657 people were born in a country other than Sweden. Divided by country in the table below - the Nordic countries as well as the 12 most common countries of birth outside of Sweden for Swedish residents have been included, with other countries of birth bundled together by continent by Statistics Sweden. Sollentuna Municipality has a municipal assembly with 61 members elected by proportional representation through municipal elections, held in conjunction with the national parliamentary elections every four years.
The assembly elects a municipal board, the municipality's main governing body, chaired by the Mayor. The current mayor is Henrik Thunes, of the Moderate Party. In the 2018 municipal elections, the seats in the Council are divided in the following way: In the 2014 municipal elections, the seats in the Council are divided in the following way: In the 2010 municipal elections, the seats in the Council are divided in the following way: In the 2006 municipal elections, the seats in the Council are divided in the following way: In the 2002 municipal elections, the seats in the Council are divided in the following way: Urban Gibson Carl-Erik Nilsson Sven Olle Isidor Persson Jan-Olov Sundström Gun Blomberg Christina Naess Torbjörn Rosdahl Douglas Lithborn Anna Lena Johansson 2015-09-17- Henrik Thunes Sollentuna is served by the Stockholm public transport system. Stockholm commuter rail have five stations within the municipality. There is an extensive SL bus network. Since 1995 the bulk of the built-up area of the municipality is statistically counted to the multimunicipal city of Stockholm.
A few houses on the eastern border are in Täby urban area. Sjöberg is constituting a locality of its own; the municipality is subdivided into the following districts with population as of 31 December 2011: Tureberg, 15,650 inhabitants Rotebro, 8 802 Helenelund, 11,100 Edsberg, 9,208 Viby, 5,794 Sjöberg, 4,627 Häggvik, 4,717 Norrviken, 3,335 Vaxmora, 2,517 Järvafältet, 37 Rest, 104 Central to the landscape of Sollentuna are the rather big lakes Norrviken and Edsviken—the latter a bay of the Baltic Sea. Edsviken and Norrviken are popular lakes for ice tour skating during the winter; the municipality plows a 15 km long skating track on Norrviken. Note that Norrviken is the name of a district at the western shore of the Norrviken lake. Other lakes: Fjäturen Ravalen Rösjön Väsjön Översjön SnugganDjupan The municipality is twinned with: Hvidovre in Denmark Saue in Estonia Tuusula in Finland Oppegård in Norway Edsbacka krog, located by Edsbacka lake and founded in 1634, was the only Swedish restaurant with two stars in the Michelin Guide until it closed in February 2010.
Now the site have a less fancy restaurant called Edsbacka Wärdshus. Edsbergs slott was built in rococo 1760, its 400 km² can be rented. Probable burial mound of King Agne from the 5th century. Sollentunavallen is the biggest playing field, it consists of two fields. The main arena is for football and athletics. Alongside it there's a field with artificial grass, used for bandy during the winter season; the following sports clubs are located in Sollentuna Municipality: Sollentuna Volleybollklubb Rotebro IS FF Sollentuna FK Konståkningsklubben Sollentuna Turebergs FK Helenelunds IK Sollentuna HC SKIFTAs of June 2013 there were 57 sports clubs in Sollentuna. The full list is maintained on the municipality web site. Jonas Bane, actor Kajsa Bergqvist, high jumping world champion Thomas Bodström, football player, former minister of justice Ted Gärdestad, pop musician Maia Hirasawa, musician Patric Hörnqvist, NHL hockey player playing for the Pittsburgh Penguins Jonatan Johansson, snowboarder Ulrika Jonsson, television presenter Christer Pettersson, Olof