Tensta is a district in Spånga-Tensta borough, Sweden. There are about 6,000 apartments in Tensta and a population of 17,083 as of December 31, 2007. Modern Tensta, with its Plattenbau-style concrete apartment buildings, was constructed in the 1960s. Like nearby Rinkeby and Hjulsta, it was part of the Million Programme, became known nationwide in the late 1960s; this was because lots of people moved in when the area was still a construction site, it took years before the metro station opened. In the center of Tensta there is a small fruit market; the art gallery Tensta Konsthall is situated close to the centre and has gained a name in Sweden and abroad. The government has decided to award to 200 million kronor in performance based subsidies to boost fifteen of Sweden’s suburbs grappling with social exclusion. Tensta is one of the suburbs; the districts will receive the cash injection at the end of 2013 at the earliest, after the results from the past year have been evaluated. The subsidy -, performance based - will be awarded for three criteria: how the areas deal with education and social benefits.
In the 2011-13 period, about 53% of the population originated outside the EU and the Nordic Countries. In its December 2015 report, Police in Sweden placed the district in the most severe category of urban areas with high crime rates; when the farm of Stora Tensta was demolished in the 1960s, it had stood on the same site for more than a thousand years. Tensta is situated on the Järva field, used as a military training ground from 1907; the area was closed to the public. Several farms continued growing crops and raising livestock throughout the time the army exercised here, but the farmers were not allowed to cultivate virgin soil or erect new building. In 1962 the government decided that the whole training ground should be made available for civil buildings; the aim was to build enough homes to eliminate the housing shortage. People living in cramped city flats without modern conveniences, all the people moving to Stockholm, would acquire spacious and comfortable homes; the construction of Tensta went fast.
The general plan was approved in 1965. People began to move in two years and Tensta Centre was opened in 1970; the first inhabitants families with young children, lived for many years as pioneers on a building site with provisional bus lines, temporary food stores in huts, unfinished paths, inadequate social service. The Metro came to Tensta in 1975; the lime-lined avenue of Tenstagången leads straight through the district
Förbifart Stockholm is a series of underground motorway tunnels under construction between the Kungens Kurva interchange in the south of Stockholm and the Häggvik interchange north of Stockholm. Most of this bypass, more than 17 out of 21 kilometres, is being built underground; the Swedish government decided to permit the construction of the bypass on September 3, 2009, according to the proposal by the Swedish Road Administration. The bypass will become the world's second longest road tunnel in the proximity of a city, after the Yamate Tunnel in Tokyo. 140,000 vehicles per day are expected to use the bypass. The tunnel reaches at its deepest point 65 metres below the lake Mälaren; the projected cost for the project is estimated at 27.6 billion SEK. Construction was stopped for political reasons soon after, it is expected to take ten years to complete. The highway in the planning stage since 1966, when a regional planning sketch titled Greater Stockholm Physical Structure 2000 proposed three concentric circular arcs surround Stockholm to the west.
The innermost arc was Brommagrenen, whose on-ramps were put in place when Essingeleden was under construction. The next bypass to the west was a connection between Essingeleden at Brännkyrka over Ålsten past Bromma airport and northwards, an extent, reminiscent of Diagonal Ulvsunda; the third, outermost bypass had an extent coinciding with the planned Förbifart Stockholm and was called Kungshattsleden. In the 1992 Dennis Package it had the name Västerleden. In 2001, an alternative consisting of a tunnel under Ekerö was included in the plans; the road capacity over the narrow passage between Saltsjön in the east and lake Mälaren in the west has not been expanded since Essingeleden opened in 1967. Essingeleden was designed with a capacity of 80,000 vehicles per day; this makes Essingeleden sensitive to traffic disturbances, with consequent road congestion. The heavy vehicular load causes severe wear and tear on the road surface, with large needs for repairs as a result. To solve the problem the Road Authority presented in its investigation North-South connections in the Stockholm area 2005 three alternatives: Förbifart Stockholm, Diagonal Ulvsunda, a combined alternative.
The Centre Party, Liberal People's Party, Christian Democrats, Moderate Party, Social Democratic Party were in 2010 supportive of the road project, while the Green Party and Left Party were opposed to it. Arguments supporting the construction of the bypass are the creation of improved road access, reduction of inefficient travelling time, reduction the load on central parts of Stockholm due to transit traffic. Arguments against construction cite increased carbon dioxide emissions, the high cost, environmental impact along the construction route, that traffic problems are not being addressed in a long-term perspective because travellers in the Stockholm region are enticed to continue using private transportation rather than public transportation, because a high percentage of the present-day traffic on the congested Essingeleden is local traffic to or from central Stockholm, rather than transit traffic. On 19 August 2014, there was a groundbreaking ceremony, led by the minister for infrastructure.
However, after the election of September 2014, a new government was elected and they decided on 23 October 2014 to halt the construction for a half-year period in order to debate the project. Soon a decision was made to restart the project, but this political manoeuver delayed the project for half a year; the current plan is presented on the website of the Swedish Transport Administration in section Railway and Road → Road Construction Projects → E4 The Stockholm bypass. The highway extension will consist of the following sections: The south part would start from the E4 highway at Kungens Kurva and go underground until the island of Lovön; the highway continues underground to the mainland east of Hässelby Strand. There were plans to let the highway to go above ground on the north part of Lovön and pass over a bridge to the mainland, but this was changed; the tunnel proceeds under the Grimsta Nature Reserve. The highway would continue underground directly west of Regional Road 275, ending at Akalla.
The last part of the highway from Akalla to the E4 south of Häggvik would be above ground. According to The Local, the project was approved by the Swedish government in September 2009 and construction is expected to start in 2010 and take 8 years to complete; the cost is estimated at 27 billion Swedish kronor. According to an episode of the documentary program series Uppdrag granskning, titled The most expensive Swedish expressway, the project will not solve the congestion problem, but instead result in a substantial increase in the use of cars and trucks as means of transportation. Maryland Route 200, the InterCounty Connector, a tolled motorway bypass through the northern suburbs of Washington, D. C. USA with some similarities to Förbifart Stockholm, completed in November 2014; the Light at the End is a Tunnel - Digging the 710 underground is a feasible first step toward relieving freeway congestion a proposed motorway tunnel in South Pasadena, California, USA
Älvsjö is a borough in the southern part of Stockholm Sweden. The borough is divided into the districts Herrängen, Långsjö, Långbro, Älvsjö, Solberga, Örby Slott and Liseberg, it has about 21000 inhabitants. Media related to Älvsjö at Wikimedia Commons
A municipality is a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns and hamlets; the term municipality may mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district; the term is derived from French Latin municipalis. The English word municipality derives from the Latin social contract municipium, referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments. A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, to a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York.
The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass only one populated place such as a city, town, or village several of such places only parts of such places, sometimes boroughs of a city such as the 34 municipalities of Santiago, Chile. Powers of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state. Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, corporate income tax, but may receive substantial funding from the state. In various countries, municipalities are referred to as "communes", notably in Romance languages such as French commune, Italian comune, Romanian comună, Spanish comuna, in Germanic languages such as German Kommune, Swedish kommun, Faroese kommuna, Norwegian, Danish kommune. However, in Moldova and Romania exist both municipalities and communes, a commune may be part of a municipality. Similar terms include Spanish ayuntamiento called municipalidad, Polish gmina, Dutch/Flemish Gemeente and Luxembourgish Gemeng.
In Australia, the term local government area is used in place of the generic municipality. Here, the "LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia. Incorporated areas are designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility." In Canada, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation within general municipal statutes. Types of municipalities within Canada include cities, district municipalities, municipal districts, parishes, rural municipalities, townships and villes among others; the Province of Ontario has different tiers of municipalities, including lower and single tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario include regional municipalities. Nova Scotia has regional municipalities, which include cities, districts, or towns as municipal units. In India, a Municipality or Nagar Palika is an urban local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. However, there are exceptions to that, as Municipality were constituted in urban centers with population over 20,000, so all the urban bodies which were classified as Municipality were reclassified as Municipality if their population was under 100,000.
Under the Panchayati Raj system, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in. Smaller district cities and bigger towns have a Municipality. Municipality are a form of local self-government entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined in the Constitutional Act,1992. In the United Kingdom, the term was used until the 1972 Local Government Act came into effect in 1974 in England and Wales, until 1975 in Scotland and 1976 in Northern Ireland, "both for a city or town, organized for self-government under a municipal corporation, for the governing body itself; such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, of superior members, as aldermen and councillors". Since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is known as a district, in Scotland as a council area. A district can retain its district title. In Jersey, a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12 parishes into which it is subdivided.
This is the highest level of regional government in this jurisdiction. In Trinidad and Tobago, "municipality" is understood as a city, town, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. A town may be awarded borough status and on may be upgraded to city status. Chaguanas, San Fernando, Port of Spain and Point Fortin are the 5 current municipalities in Trinidad and Tobago. In the United States, "municipality" is understood as a city, village, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. In a state law contex
European route E18
European route E18 runs from Craigavon in Northern Ireland to Saint Petersburg in Russia, passing through Scotland, Norway and Finland. It is about 1,890 kilometres in length. Although the designation implies the possibility of a through journey, this is no longer practical as there are no direct car ferry crossings between the United Kingdom and Norway; the route starts in Northern Ireland and runs from Craigavon – Belfast – Larne to Scotland: Stranraer and Galloway – Gretna – England via the – Carlisle to Newcastle. As is normal for European routes in the United Kingdom, it is not signposted as such.: Craigavon - Belfast: Belfast: Belfast -: -: - Larne: Larne - Cairnryan: Stranraer -: - Anglo-Scottish border: Anglo-Scottish border - Carlisle: Carlisle - Newcastle upon Tyne There are no ferries from Newcastle to Norway. Freight-only ferries may operate from other United Kingdom ports to Norway or Denmark, but for car journeys the only practical route is a crossing to France, Belgium or the Netherlands, followed by a road journey through Germany and Denmark, a ferry crossing from there to Norway.
The route continues as a motorway from Kristiansand in Norway. E18 is connected with the E39 Ferry to Denmark; the ferry runs from Kristansand to Hirtshals, takes about 3 hours and 15 minutes, is operated by Color Line. In Norway, the E18 has a length of 415 kilometres, it runs Kristiansand – Arendal – Porsgrunn – Larvik – Sandefjord – Tønsberg – Horten – Drammen – Oslo – Ås – Askim – Ørje. A flyover carrying the E18 Holmestrand bypass, opened in 2001 collapsed in February 2015 following a landslip, necessitating its demolition. From Ørje, the E18 crosses the border into Sweden at Töcksfors, it has a length of 510 kilometres. It runs Töcksfors – Karlstad – Örebro – Västerås – Stockholm / Kapellskär; the connection over the Baltic Sea is from Stockholm or Kapellskär, in Sweden, to Turku or Naantali, in Finland, using by ferries operated by Silja Line, Viking Line or Finnlines. It is possible to take a direct route to Helsinki. In theory it is possible to cross the sea via Åland and the Åboland islands by island hopping over bridges, by cable ferries and ferries along the Archipelago Ring Road, but this route is not signposted as being part of the E18.
In Finland the E18 goes from Åland through southern Finland by way of Turku/Naantali – Salo – Vihti – Espoo – Porvoo – Loviisa – Kotka – Hamina – Vaalimaa till the border with Russia. Crossing the border to Russia used to require queuing as the volume of traffic using it increased; the situation has since 2009 improved thanks to increased capacity, a new parking lot constructed by 2016 is expected to solve the problem for good. In Russia, E18 goes along the M10 highway from Finnish border to Saint Petersburg; the stretch of M10 between Saint Petersburg and the Finnish border will be redesignated to A181 by 2018. The route runs through northwestern Leningrad Oblast and through sparsely populated areas. Since 2003, after opening of Vyborg bypass E18 does not go through Vyborg, though it did. Near Saint Petersburg the route runs through suburbs, such as Olgino. E18 terminates at the western border of Saint Petersburg. There are plans to expand the road from one to three lanes in each direction because of the increasing volume of traffic.
In 2012 the highway will be connected with the Western Rapid Diameter near Beloostrov by expanded existing junction of M10 with the Zelenogorsk highway. It is to be a new terminus of E18. Media related to E 18 at Wikimedia Commons Queue situation at the Finnish/Russian border
Bromma is a borough in the western part of Stockholm, forming part of the Stockholm Municipality. Bromma is made up of the parish with the same name, the parish of Västerled; the fourth largest airport in Sweden and the third largest of the airports close to Stockholm, the Stockholm Bromma Airport, was built in Bromma in 1936. The districts that make up the borough are Abrahamsberg, Beckomberga, Bromma kyrka, Bällsta, Eneby, Höglandet, Mariehäll, Nockebyhov, Norra Ängby, Riksby, Smedslätten, Stora Mossen, Södra Ängby, Ulvsunda, Ulvsunda Industriområde, Åkeshov, Åkeslund, Ålsten and Äppelviken; as of 2004, the population is 59,229 in an area of 24.60 km², which gives a density of 2,407.68/km². Bromma is dotted with tiny forests and lakes, including the Judarn forest surrounding the Judarn Lake, the parks around Åkeshov Castle and Ulvsunda Castle. Bromma kyrka is one of the most distinguished Romanesque churches in the region, celebrated for a complete scheme of wallpaintings by the late medieval artist Albertus Pictor.
Bromma consists predominantly of high- and medium-income residential neighbourhoods, the Ulvsunda industrial area. This is situated close to the only airport in the city of Stockholm, it was opened in 1936 and serves domestic destinations. Ängby Camping is one of the largest camping lots in Stockholm and is situated close to a large beach by Lake Mälaren. In the 2002 elections, the right wing parties received 70% of the votes. Bromma is the birthplace of Douglas Murray. Per Albin Hansson, Prime Minister of Sweden 1932 to 1946, lived in Ålsten during the last years of his life, died on the tram in Ålsten in 1946. Martin Eriksson, better known as E-Type, moved to Bromma with his family at the age of 14. Sweden's first man in space, Christer Fuglesang, was raised in Bromma. Nobel Prize laureates Gunnar and Alva Myrdal lived at several locations in Bromma along with their children, including writer Jan Myrdal; the local football team Brommapojkarna is in the Allsvenskan although not regarded as a major team in Stockholm, it has the largest youth academy in the world.
Its main emphasis on producing technical and fast players. Sweden´s most famous basketball team, Alviks BK - founded 1956 - has won the Swedish Championship 19 times since 1963; when it operated, the charter airline Scanair had its head office in Bromma. Birgit Rosengren, actress. Politics of Stockholm Stockholm Bromma Airport Västerort Vällingby Sundbyberg Solna Drottningholm Bromma community page Map of Bromma Beauty salon Stockholm-Bromma Airport
Farsta is a borough in Söderort in the southern part of Stockholm Municipality, Sweden. The districts that make up the borough are Fagersjö, Farsta strand, Farstanäset, Gubbängen, Hökarängen, Larsboda, Sköndal and Tallkrogen; the population as of 2004 is 45,463 on an area of 15.40 km², which gives a density of 2,952.14/km². Media related to Farsta at Wikimedia Commons