The Boeing Company is an American multinational corporation that designs and sells airplanes, rockets and missiles worldwide. The company provides leasing and product support services. Boeing is among the largest global aircraft manufacturers. Boeing stock is included in the Dow Jones Industrial Average. Boeing was founded by William Boeing on July 15, 1916, in Washington; the present corporation is the result of the merger of Boeing with McDonnell Douglas on August 1, 1997. Former Boeing's chair and CEO Philip M. Condit continued as the chair and CEO of the new Boeing, while Harry Stonecipher, former CEO of McDonnell Douglas, became the president and chief operating officer of the newly merged company; the Boeing Company has its corporate headquarters in Illinois. The company is led by CEO Dennis Muilenburg. Boeing is organized into five primary divisions: Boeing Commercial Airplanes. In 2017, Boeing recorded $93.3 billion in sales, ranked 24th on the Fortune magazine "Fortune 500" list, ranked 64th on the "Fortune Global 500" list, ranked 19th on the "World's Most Admired Companies" list.
In March 1910, William E. Boeing bought Heath's shipyard in Seattle on the Duwamish River, which became his first airplane factory. Boeing was incorporated in Seattle by William Boeing, on July 15, 1916, as "Pacific Aero Products Co". Boeing was incorporated in Delaware. Boeing, who studied at Yale University, worked in the timber industry, where he became wealthy and learned about wooden structures; this knowledge proved invaluable in his subsequent assembly of airplanes. The company stayed in Seattle to take advantage of the local supply of spruce wood. One of the two "B&W" seaplanes built with the assistance of George Conrad Westervelt, a U. S. Navy engineer, took its maiden flight on June 15, 1916. Boeing and Westervelt decided to build the B&W seaplane after having flown in a Curtiss aircraft. Boeing bought a Glenn Martin "Flying Birdcage" seaplane and was taught to fly by Glenn Martin himself. Boeing soon crashed the Birdcage and when Martin informed Boeing that replacement parts would not become available for months, Boeing realized he could build his own plane in that amount of time.
He and his friend Cdr. G. C. Westervelt soon produced the B&W Seaplane; this first Boeing airplane was assembled in a lakeside hangar located on the northeast shore of Seattle's Lake Union. Many of Boeing's early planes were seaplanes. On April 6, 1917, the U. S. declared war on Germany and entered World War I. On May 9, 1917, the company became the "Boeing Airplane Company". With the U. S. entering the war, Boeing knew that the U. S. Navy needed seaplanes for training. So Boeing shipped two new Model Cs to Pensacola, where the planes were flown for the Navy; the Navy ordered 50 more. The company moved its operations to a larger former shipbuilding facility known as Boeing Plant 1, located on the lower Duwamish River, Washington state; when World War I ended in 1918, a large surplus of cheap, used military planes flooded the commercial airplane market, preventing aircraft companies from selling any new airplanes, driving many out of business. Others, including Boeing, started selling other products. Boeing built dressers and furniture, along with flat-bottom boats called Sea Sleds.
In 1919 the Boeing B-1 flying boat made its first flight. It accommodated two passengers and some mail. Over the course of eight years, it made international airmail flights from Seattle to Victoria, British Columbia. On May 24, 1920, the Boeing Model 8 made its first flight, it was the first plane to fly over Mount Rainier. In 1923, Boeing entered competition against Curtiss to develop a pursuit fighter for the U. S. Army Air Service. Although Curtiss finished its design first and was awarded the contract, Boeing continued to develop its PW-9 fighter; that plane, along with the Boeing P-12/F4B fighter, made Boeing a leading manufacturer of fighters over the course of the next decade. In 1925, Boeing built its Model 40 mail plane for the U. S. government to use on airmail routes. In 1927, an improved version of this plane was built, the Model 40A which won the U. S. Post Office's contract to deliver mail between San Chicago; the 40A had a passenger cabin that accommodated two. That same year, Boeing created an airline named Boeing Air Transport, which merged a year with Pacific Air Transport and the Boeing Airplane Company.
The first airmail flight for the airline was on July 1, 1927. In 1929 the company merged with Pratt & Whitney, Hamilton Aero Manufacturing Company, Chance Vought under the new title United Aircraft and Transport Corporation; the merge was followed by the acquisition of the Sikorsky Manufacturing Corporation, Stearman Aircraft Corporation, Standard Metal Propeller Company. United Aircraft purchased National Air Transport in 1930. On July 27, 1928, the 12-passenger Boeing 80 biplane made its first flight. With three engines, it was Boeing's first plane built with the sole intention of being a passenger transport. An upgraded version, the 80A, carrying eighteen passengers, made its first flight in September 1929. In the early 1930s Boeing became a leader in all-metal aircraft construction, in the design revolution t
Space exploration is the discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of evolving and growing space technology. While the study of space is carried out by astronomers with telescopes, the physical exploration of space is conducted both by unmanned robotic space probes and human spaceflight. While the observation of objects in space, known as astronomy, predates reliable recorded history, it was the development of large and efficient rockets during the mid-twentieth century that allowed physical space exploration to become a reality. Common rationales for exploring space include advancing scientific research, national prestige, uniting different nations, ensuring the future survival of humanity, developing military and strategic advantages against other countries. Space exploration has been used as a proxy competition for geopolitical rivalries such as the Cold War; the early era of space exploration was driven by a "Space Race" between the Soviet Union and the United States.
The launch of the first human-made object to orbit Earth, the Soviet Union's Sputnik 1, on 4 October 1957, the first Moon landing by the American Apollo 11 mission on 20 July 1969 are taken as landmarks for this initial period. The Soviet space program achieved many of the first milestones, including the first living being in orbit in 1957, the first human spaceflight in 1961, the first spacewalk on 18 March 1965, the first automatic landing on another celestial body in 1966, the launch of the first space station in 1971. After the first 20 years of exploration, focus shifted from one-off flights to renewable hardware, such as the Space Shuttle program, from competition to cooperation as with the International Space Station. With the substantial completion of the ISS following STS-133 in March 2011, plans for space exploration by the U. S. remain in flux. Constellation, a Bush Administration program for a return to the Moon by 2020 was judged inadequately funded and unrealistic by an expert review panel reporting in 2009.
The Obama Administration proposed a revision of Constellation in 2010 to focus on the development of the capability for crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit, envisioning extending the operation of the ISS beyond 2020, transferring the development of launch vehicles for human crews from NASA to the private sector, developing technology to enable missions to beyond LEO, such as Earth–Moon L1, the Moon, Earth–Sun L2, near-Earth asteroids, Phobos or Mars orbit. In the 2000s, the People's Republic of China initiated a successful manned spaceflight program, while the European Union and India have planned future crewed space missions. China, Russia and India have advocated crewed missions to the Moon during the 21st century, while the European Union has advocated manned missions to both the Moon and Mars during the 20th and 21st century. From the 1990s onwards, private interests began promoting space tourism and public space exploration of the Moon; the first telescope was invented in 1608 in the Netherlands by an eyeglass maker named Hans Lippershey.
The Orbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 was the first space telescope launched on December 7, 1968. As of February, 2nd, 2019 there are 3,891 confirmed exoplanets discovered; the Milky Way is estimated to contain 100 -- more than 100 billion planets. There are at least 2 trillion galaxies in the observable universe. GN-z11 is the most distant known object from Earth, reported as 13.4 billion light-years away. The first successful orbital launch was of the Soviet uncrewed Sputnik 1 mission on 4 October 1957; the satellite weighed about 83 kg, is believed to have orbited Earth at a height of about 250 km. It had two radio transmitters. Analysis of the radio signals was used to gather information about the electron density of the ionosphere, while temperature and pressure data was encoded in the duration of radio beeps; the results indicated. Sputnik 1 was launched by an R-7 rocket, it burned up upon re-entry on 3 January 1958. The first successful human spaceflight was Vostok 1, carrying 27-year-old Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin on 12 April 1961.
The spacecraft completed one orbit around the globe, lasting 48 minutes. Gagarin's flight resonated around the world; the first artificial object to reach another celestial body was Luna 2 reaching the Moon in 1959. The first soft landing on another celestial body was performed by Luna 9 landing on the Moon on February 3, 1966. Luna 10 became the first artificial satellite of the Moon, entering Moon Orbit on April 3, 1966; the first crewed landing on another celestial body was performed by Apollo 11 on July 20, 1969, landing on the Moon. There have been a total of six spacecraft with humans landing on the moon starting from 1969 to the last human landing in 1972; the first interplanetary flyby was the 1961 Venera 1 flyby of Venus, though the 1962 Mariner 2 was the first flyby of Venus to return data. Pioneer 6 was the first satellite to orbit the Sun, launched on December 16, 1965; the other planets were first flown by in 1965 for Mars by Mariner 4, 1973 for Jupiter by Pioneer 10, 1974 for Mercury by Mariner 10, 1979 for Saturn by Pioneer 11, 1986 for Uranus by Voyager 2, 1989 for Neptune by Voyager 2.
In 2015, the dwarf planets Ceres and Pluto were orbited by Dawn and passed by New Horizons, respectively. This accounts for
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is an independent agency of the United States Federal Government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research. NASA was established in 1958; the new agency was to have a distinctly civilian orientation, encouraging peaceful applications in space science. Since its establishment, most US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station, the Space Shuttle. NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the Space Launch System and Commercial Crew vehicles; the agency is responsible for the Launch Services Program which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA launches. NASA science is focused on better understanding Earth through the Earth Observing System. From 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics had been experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1.
In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year. An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. After the Soviet launch of the world's first artificial satellite on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts; the US Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to national security and technological leadership, urged immediate and swift action. On January 12, 1958, NACA organized a "Special Committee on Space Technology", headed by Guyford Stever. On January 14, 1958, NACA Director Hugh Dryden published "A National Research Program for Space Technology" stating: It is of great urgency and importance to our country both from consideration of our prestige as a nation as well as military necessity that this challenge be met by an energetic program of research and development for the conquest of space... It is accordingly proposed that the scientific research be the responsibility of a national civilian agency...
NACA is capable, by rapid extension and expansion of its effort, of providing leadership in space technology. While this new federal agency would conduct all non-military space activity, the Advanced Research Projects Agency was created in February 1958 to develop space technology for military application. On July 29, 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA; when it began operations on October 1, 1958, NASA absorbed the 43-year-old NACA intact. A NASA seal was approved by President Eisenhower in 1959. Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. A significant contributor to NASA's entry into the Space Race with the Soviet Union was the technology from the German rocket program led by Wernher von Braun, now working for the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, which in turn incorporated the technology of American scientist Robert Goddard's earlier works. Earlier research efforts within the US Air Force and many of ARPA's early space programs were transferred to NASA.
In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a contractor facility operated by the California Institute of Technology. The agency's leader, NASA's administrator, is nominated by the President of the United States subject to approval of the US Senate, reports to him or her and serves as senior space science advisor. Though space exploration is ostensibly non-partisan, the appointee is associated with the President's political party, a new administrator is chosen when the Presidency changes parties; the only exceptions to this have been: Democrat Thomas O. Paine, acting administrator under Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, stayed on while Republican Richard Nixon tried but failed to get one of his own choices to accept the job. Paine was confirmed by the Senate in March 1969 and served through September 1970. Republican James C. Fletcher, appointed by Nixon and confirmed in April 1971, stayed through May 1977 into the term of Democrat Jimmy Carter. Daniel Goldin was appointed by Republican George H. W. Bush and stayed through the entire administration of Democrat Bill Clinton.
Robert M. Lightfoot, Jr. associate administrator under Democrat Barack Obama, was kept on as acting administrator by Republican Donald Trump until Trump's own choice Jim Bridenstine, was confirmed in April 2018. Though the agency is independent, the survival or discontinuation of projects can depend directly on the will of the President; the first administrator was Dr. T. Keith Glennan appointed by Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower. During his term he brought together the disparate projects in American space development research; the second administrator, James E. Webb, appointed by President John F. Kennedy, was a Democrat who first publicly served under President Harry S. Truman. In order to implement the Apollo program to achieve Kennedy's Moon la
Lockheed Martin Corporation is an American global aerospace, defense and advanced technologies company with worldwide interests. It was formed by the merger of Lockheed Corporation with Martin Marietta in March 1995, it is headquartered in Maryland, in the Washington, DC, area. Lockheed Martin employs 100,000 people worldwide as of December 2017. Lockheed Martin is one of the largest companies in the aerospace, defense and technologies industry, it is the world's largest defense contractor based on revenue for fiscal year 2014. In 2013, 78% of Lockheed Martin's revenues came from military sales. In 2009 US government contracts accounted for $38.4 billion, foreign government contracts $5.8 billion, commercial and other contracts for $900 million. Lockheed Martin operates in four business segments: Aeronautics and Fire Control and Mission Systems, Space Systems; the company has received the Collier Trophy six times, including in 2001 for being part of developing the X-35/F-35B LiftFan Propulsion System, most in 2006 for leading the team that developed the F-22 Raptor fighter jet.
Lockheed Martin is developing the F-35 Lightning II and leads the international supply chain, leads the team for the development and implementation of technology solutions for the new USAF Space Fence, is the primary contractor for the development of the Orion command module. The company invests in healthcare systems, renewable energy systems, intelligent energy distribution and compact nuclear fusion. Merger talks between Lockheed Corporation and Martin Marietta began in March 1994, with the companies announcing their $10 billion planned merger on August 30, 1994; the headquarters for the combined companies would be at Martin Marietta headquarters in North Bethesda, Maryland. The deal was finalized on March 1995, when the two companies' shareholders approved the merger; the segments of the two companies not retained by the new company formed the basis for the present L-3 Communications, a mid-size defense contractor in its own right. Lockheed Martin later spun off the materials company Martin Marietta Materials.
Both companies contributed important products to the new portfolio. Lockheed products included the Trident missile, P-3 Orion maritime patrol aircraft, U-2 and SR-71 reconnaissance airplanes, F-117 Nighthawk, F-16 Fighting Falcon, F-22 Raptor, C-130 Hercules, A-4AR Fightinghawk and the DSCS-3 satellite. Martin Marietta products included Titan rockets, Sandia National Laboratories, Space Shuttle External Tank, Viking 1 and Viking 2 landers, the Transfer Orbit Stage and various satellite models. On April 22, 1996, Lockheed Martin completed the acquisition of Loral Corporation's defense electronics and system integration businesses for $9.1 billion, the deal having been announced in January. The remainder of Loral became Loral Communications. Lockheed Martin abandoned plans for a $8.3 billion merger with Northrop Grumman on July 16, 1998, due to government concerns over the potential strength of the new group. For the Mars Climate Orbiter, Lockheed Martin incorrectly provided NASA with software using measurements in US Customary force units when metric was expected.
The development of the spacecraft cost $193.1 million. In addition to their military products, in the 1990s Lockheed Martin developed the texture mapping chip for the Sega Model 2 arcade system board and the entire graphics system for the Sega Model 3, which were used to power some of the most popular arcade games of the time. In May 2001, Lockheed Martin sold Lockheed Martin Control Systems to BAE Systems. On November 27, 2000, Lockheed completed the sale of its Aerospace Electronic Systems business to BAE Systems for $1.67 billion, a deal announced in July 2000. This group encompassed Sanders Associates, Fairchild Systems, Lockheed Martin Space Electronics & Communications. In 2001, Lockheed Martin won the contract to build the F-35 Lightning II. In 2001, Lockheed Martin settled a nine–year investigation conducted by NASA's Office of Inspector General with the assistance of the Defense Contract Audit Agency; the company paid the United States government $7.1 million based on allegations that its predecessor, Lockheed Engineering Science Corporation, submitted false lease costs claims to NASA.
On May 12, 2006, The Washington Post reported that when Robert Stevens took control of Lockheed Martin in 2004, he faced the dilemma that within 10 years, 100,000 of the about 130,000 Lockheed Martin employees – more than three-quarters – would be retiring. On August 31, 2006, Lockheed Martin won a $3.9 billion contract from NASA to design and build the CEV capsule named Orion for the Ares I rocket in the Constellation Program. In 2009, NASA reduced the capsule crew requirements from the initial six seats to four for transport to the International Space Station. On August 13, 2008, Lockheed Martin acquired the government business unit of Nantero, Inc. a company that had developed methods and processes for incorporating carbon nanotubes in next-generation electronic devices. In 2009, Lockheed Martin bought Unitech. On November 18, 2010, Lockheed Martin announced that it would be closing its Eagan, Minnesota location by 2013 to reduce costs and optimize capacity at its locations nationwide. In January 2011
Rotary Rocket Company was a rocketry company that developed the Roton concept in the late 1990s as a reusable single-stage-to-orbit manned spacecraft. The design was conceived by Gary Hudson, who formed the company to commercialize the concept; the Roton was intended to reduce costs of launching payloads into low earth orbit by a factor of ten. The company gathered considerable venture capital from angel investors and opened a factory headquartered in a 45,000-square-foot facility at Mojave Air and Space Port in Mojave, California; the fuselage for their vehicles was made by Scaled Composites, at the same airport, while the company developed the novel engine design and helicopter-like landing system. A full-scale test vehicle made three hover flights in 1999, but the company exhausted its funds and closed its doors in early 2001. Gary Hudson's and Bevin McKinney's initial concept was to merge a launch vehicle with a helicopter: spinning rotor blades, powered by tip jets, would lift the vehicle in the earliest stage of launch.
Once the air density thinned to the point that helicopter flight was impractical, the vehicle would continue its ascent on pure rocket power, with the rotor acting as a giant turbopump. Calculations showed that the helicopter blades modestly increased the effective specific impulse by 20–30 seconds only carrying the blades into orbit "for free". Thus, there was no overall gain from this method during ascent. However, the blades could be used to soft land the vehicle, so its landing system carried no additional cost. One problem found during research at Rotary was that once the vehicle left the atmosphere additional thrust would be necessary, thus multiple engines would be needed at the base as well as at the rotor tips. This initial version of the Roton had been designed with the small communications satellite market in mind. However, this market crashed; the Roton concept needed to be redesigned for heavier payloads. The revised and redesigned Roton concept was a cone-shaped launch vehicle, with a helicopter rotor on top for use only during landing.
An internal cargo bay could be used both for carrying payloads to orbit and bringing others back to Earth. The projected price to orbit of this design was given as $1,000 per kg of payload, less than one-tenth of the then-current launch price. Payload capacity was limited to a modest 6,000 pounds; the revised version would have used a unique rotating annular aerospike engine: the engine and base of the launch vehicle would spin at high speed to pump fuel and oxidizer to the rim by the rotation. Unlike the landing rotor, due to the shallow angle of the nozzles in the base rotor, the rotation speed self limited and required no control system. Since the density of the LOX was higher than that of the kerosene, extra pressure was available with the LOX, so it would have been used to cool the engine's throat and other components, rather than using the kerosene as the coolant as in a conventional LOX/kerosene rocket. However, at the high G levels at the outer edge of the rotating engine block, clarity on how LOX would work as a coolant was both unknown and difficult to validate.
That added one layer of risk. In addition, the rotating exhaust acted as a wall at the outer edge of the engine base, lowering the temperature of the base to below ambient due to ejector pump effect and creating an suction cup at the bottom in atmosphere; this could be alleviated using makeup gas to develop base pressure, requiring an additional rocket engine to fill up the base of the main rocket engine. At the rim, 96 miniature jets would exhaust the burning propellants around the rim of the base of the vehicle, which gained the vehicle extra thrust at high altitude – acting as a zero-length truncated aerospike nozzle. A similar system with non-rotating engines was studied for the N1 rocket; that application had a much smaller base area, did not create the suction effect a larger peripheral engine induces. The Roton engine had a projected vacuum ISP of ~355 seconds, high for a LOX/kerosene engine –and a thrust to weight ratio of 150, light. During reentry, the base served as a water-cooled heatshield.
This was theoretically a good way to survive reentry for a lightweight reusable vehicle. However, using water as a coolant would require converting it into superheated steam, at high temperatures and pressures, there were concerns about micrometeorite damage on orbit puncturing the pressure vessel, causing the reentry shield to fail; these concerns were resolved using a failure-resistant massively redundant flow system, created using thin metal sheets chemically etched with a pattern of micropores forming a channel system, robust against failure and damage. In addition, cooling was achieved two different ways. Further, the water metering system would have to be reliable, giving one drop per second per square inch, was achieved via a trial/error design approach on real hardware. By the end of the ROTON program, some hardware had been tested; the reentry trajectory was to be trimmed, similar to the Soyuz, to minimize the G loads on the passengers. And the ballistic coefficient was better for the Roton and could be bett
Ansari X Prize
The Ansari X Prize was a space competition in which the X Prize Foundation offered a US$10,000,000 prize for the first non-government organization to launch a reusable manned spacecraft into space twice within two weeks. It was modeled after early 20th-century aviation prizes, aimed to spur development of low-cost spaceflight. Created in May 1996 and called just the "X Prize", it was renamed the "Ansari X Prize" on May 6, 2004 following a multimillion-dollar donation from entrepreneurs Anousheh Ansari and Amir Ansari; the prize was won on October 4, 2004, the 47th anniversary of the Sputnik 1 launch, by the Tier One project designed by Burt Rutan and financed by Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen, using the experimental spaceplane SpaceShipOne. $10 million was awarded to the winner, more than $100 million was invested in new technologies in pursuit of the prize. Several other X Prizes have since been announced by the X Prize Foundation, promoting further development in space exploration and other technological fields.
The X Prize was inspired by the Orteig Prize—the 1919 prize worth 25,000 dollars offered by New York hotel owner Raymond Orteig that encouraged a number of intrepid aviators in the mid-1920s to fly across the Atlantic Ocean—which was won in 1927 by Charles Lindbergh in his aircraft Spirit of St. Louis. In reading the book, The Spirit of St. Louis during 1994, Peter Diamandis realized that "such a prize and offered... as a space prize, might be just what was needed to bring space travel to the general public, to jump-start a commercial space industry."Diamandis developed a formed idea for a "suborbital space barnstorming prize", set an initial goal of finding backers to support a US$10 million prize. He named it the X Prize, in part because "X" could serve as a variable for the name of the person who might back the prize; the X Prize was first publicly proposed by Diamandis in an address to the NSS International Space Development Conference in 1995. The competition goal was adopted from the SpaceCub project, demonstration of a private vehicle capable of flying a pilot to the edge of space, defined as 100 km altitude.
This goal was selected to help encourage the space industry in the private sector, why the entries were not allowed to have any government funding. It aimed to demonstrate that spaceflight can be affordable and accessible to corporations and civilians, opening the door to commercial spaceflight and space tourism, it is hoped that competition will breed innovation, introducing new low-cost methods of reaching Earth orbit, pioneering low-cost space travel and unfettered human expansion into the solar system. NASA is developing a similar prize program called Centennial Challenges to generate innovative solutions to space technology problems. Twenty-six teams from around the world participated, ranging from volunteer hobbyists to large corporate-backed operations: Acceleration Engineering Advent Launch Services — website ARCA — website Armadillo Aerospace — website American Astronautics Corporation — website Bristol Spaceplanes Limited — website Canadian Arrow The da Vinci Project — website Pablo de Leon & Associates — website Discraft Corporation Flight Exploration Fundamental Technology Systems High Altitude Research Corporation — website IL Aerospace Technologies — website Interorbital Systems — website Kelly Space and Technology — website Lone Star Space Access Corporation — website Micro-Space, Inc. — website Len Cormier's PanAero, Inc. — website Pioneer Rocketplane — website Scaled Composites' Tier One project — Winning Team Space Transport Corporation Starchaser Industries - website Suborbital Corporation TGV Rockets — website Vanguard Spacecraft Whalen Aeronautics Inc.
Some sources mention two other companies: AeroAstro* Cerulean Freight Forwarding Co.but do not mention Whalen Aeronautics Inc. The Tier One project made two successful competitive flights: X1 on September 29, 2004, piloted by Mike Melvill to 102.9 km. They thus won the prize, awarded on November 6, 2004. In press coverage, the winning team has been variously referred to as Mojave Aerospace Ventures, the corporation that funded the attempt; as of 2011, the trophy is on display in the Saint Louis Science Center in Missouri. Although only the Tier One team launched a spacecraft into suborbital space, several other teams have conducted low-altitude tests or announced future plans to launch into space: ARCA launched Demonstrator 2B rocket on September 9, 2004 at Cape Midia Air Force Base in Romania, it was the first flight of a reusable monopropellant rocket. The da Vinci Project announced that their first flight would be on October 2, 2004, but this was postponed indefinitely on September 23, 2004, as they were unable to obtain a few necessary components in time.
No flight occurred. The Canadian Arrow team conducted a successful full-power engine test in 2005 and announced on June 2, 2005, that it had received permission from the Canadian government to use Cape Rich as a future launch site. On August 8, 2004, Space Transport Corporation's Rubicon 1 and Armadillo Aerospace's unnamed test vehicle, in two separate unmanned test launches, both crashed and were destroyed. On February 15, 2005, AERA Corporation announced its plans to send seven paying passengers into space as early
Space colonization is permanent human habitation off the planet Earth. Many arguments have been made against space colonization; the two most common in favor of colonization are survival of human civilization and the biosphere in the event of a planetary-scale disaster, the availability of additional resources in space that could enable expansion of human society. The most common objections to colonization include concerns that the commodification of the cosmos may be to enhance the interests of the powerful, including major economic and military institutions, to exacerbate pre-existing detrimental processes such as wars, economic inequality, environmental degradation. No space colonies have been built so far; the building of a space colony would present a set of huge technological and economic challenges. Space settlements would have to provide for nearly all the material needs of hundreds or thousands of humans, in an environment out in space, hostile to human life, they would involve technologies, such as controlled ecological life support systems, that have yet to be developed in any meaningful way.
They would have to deal with the as-yet unknown issue of how humans would behave and thrive in such places long-term. Because of the present cost of sending anything from the surface of the Earth into orbit, a space colony would be a massively expensive project. There are yet no plans for building space colonies by any large-scale organization, either government or private. However, many proposals and designs for space settlements have been made through the years, a considerable number of space colonization advocates and groups are active. Several famous scientists, such as Freeman Dyson, have come out in favor of space settlement. On the technological front, there is ongoing progress in making access to space cheaper, in creating automated manufacturing and construction techniques; the primary argument calling for space colonization is the long-term survival of human civilization. By developing alternative locations off Earth, the planet's species, including humans, could live on in the event of natural or man-made disasters on our own planet.
On two occasions, theoretical physicist and cosmologist Stephen Hawking has argued for space colonization as a means of saving humanity. In 2001, Hawking predicted that the human race would become extinct within the next thousand years, unless colonies could be established in space. In 2006, he stated that humanity faces two options: either we colonize space within the next two hundred years and build residential units on other planets, or we will face the prospect of long-term extinction. In 2005 NASA Administrator Michael Griffin identified space colonization as the ultimate goal of current spaceflight programs, saying:... the goal isn't just scientific exploration... it's about extending the range of human habitat out from Earth into the solar system as we go forward in time... In the long run a single-planet species will not survive... If we humans want to survive for hundreds of thousands of millions of years, we must populate other planets. Now, today the technology is such that this is conceivable.
We're in the infancy of it.... I'm talking about that one day, I don't know when that day is, but there will be more human beings who live off the Earth than on it. We may well have people living on the Moon. We may have people living on the moons of other planets. We may have people making habitats on asteroids... I know that humans will colonize one day go beyond. Louis J. Halle of the United States Department of State, wrote in Foreign Affairs that the colonization of space will protect humanity in the event of global nuclear warfare; the physicist Paul Davies supports the view that if a planetary catastrophe threatens the survival of the human species on Earth, a self-sufficient colony could "reverse-colonize" Earth and restore human civilization. The author and journalist William E. Burrows and the biochemist Robert Shapiro proposed a private project, the Alliance to Rescue Civilization, with the goal of establishing an off-Earth "backup" of human civilization. Based on his Copernican principle, J. Richard Gott has estimated that the human race could survive for another 7.8 million years, but it is not to colonize other planets.
However, he expressed a hope to be proven wrong, because "colonizing other worlds is our best chance to hedge our bets and improve the survival prospects of our species". Resources in space, both in materials and energy, are enormous; the Solar System alone has, according to different estimates, enough material and energy to support anywhere from several thousand to over a billion times that of the current Earth-based human population. Outside the Solar System, several hundred billion other planets in the Milky Way alone provide opportunities for both colonization and resource collection, though travel to any of them is impossible on any practical time-scale without interstellar travel by use of generation ships or revolutionary new methods of travel, such as faster-than-light. Asteroid mining will be a key player in space colonization. Water and materials to make structures and shielding can be found in asteroids. Instead of resupplying on Earth and fuel stations need to be established on asteroids to facilitate better space travel.
Optical mining is the term. NASA believes by using propellant derived from asteroids for