In a modern sense, comedy refers to any discourse or work intended to be humorous or amusing by inducing laughter in theatre, film, stand-up comedy, or any other medium of entertainment. The origins of the term are found in Ancient Greece. In the Athenian democracy, the public opinion of voters was influenced by the political satire performed by the comic poets at the theaters; the theatrical genre of Greek comedy can be described as a dramatic performance which pits two groups or societies against each other in an amusing agon or conflict. Northrop Frye depicted these two opposing sides as a "Society of Youth" and a "Society of the Old." A revised view characterizes the essential agon of comedy as a struggle between a powerless youth and the societal conventions that pose obstacles to his hopes. In this struggle, the youth is understood to be constrained by his lack of social authority, is left with little choice but to take recourse in ruses which engender dramatic irony which provokes laughter.
Satire and political satire use comedy to portray persons or social institutions as ridiculous or corrupt, thus alienating their audience from the object of their humor. Parody subverts popular genres and forms, critiquing those forms without condemning them. Other forms of comedy include screwball comedy, which derives its humor from bizarre, surprising situations or characters, black comedy, characterized by a form of humor that includes darker aspects of human behavior or human nature. Scatological humor, sexual humor, race humor create comedy by violating social conventions or taboos in comic ways. A comedy of manners takes as its subject a particular part of society and uses humor to parody or satirize the behavior and mannerisms of its members. Romantic comedy is a popular genre that depicts burgeoning romance in humorous terms and focuses on the foibles of those who are falling in love; the word "comedy" is derived from the Classical Greek κωμῳδία kōmōidía, a compound either of κῶμος kômos or κώμη kṓmē and ᾠδή ōidḗ.
The adjective "comic", which means that which relates to comedy is, in modern usage confined to the sense of "laughter-provoking". Of this, the word came into modern usage through the Latin comoedia and Italian commedia and has, over time, passed through various shades of meaning; the Greeks and Romans confined their use of the word "comedy" to descriptions of stage-plays with happy endings. Aristotle defined comedy as an imitation of men worse than the average. However, the characters portrayed in comedies were not worse than average in every way, only insofar as they are Ridiculous, a species of the Ugly; the Ridiculous may be defined as a deformity not productive of pain or harm to others. In the Middle Ages, the term expanded to include narrative poems with happy endings, it is in this sense that Dante used the term in the title of La Commedia. As time progressed, the word came more and more to be associated with any sort of performance intended to cause laughter. During the Middle Ages, the term "comedy" became synonymous with satire, with humour in general.
Aristotle's Poetics was translated into Arabic in the medieval Islamic world, where it was elaborated upon by Arabic writers and Islamic philosophers, such as Abu Bischr, his pupils Al-Farabi and Averroes. They disassociated comedy from Greek dramatic representation and instead identified it with Arabic poetic themes and forms, such as hija, they viewed comedy as the "art of reprehension", made no reference to light and cheerful events, or to the troubling beginnings and happy endings associated with classical Greek comedy. After the Latin translations of the 12th century, the term "comedy" gained a more general meaning in medieval literature. In the late 20th century, many scholars preferred to use the term laughter to refer to the whole gamut of the comic, in order to avoid the use of ambiguous and problematically defined genres such as the grotesque and satire. Starting from 425 BCE, Aristophanes, a comic playwright and satirical author of the Ancient Greek Theater, wrote 40 comedies, 11 of which survive.
Aristophanes developed his type of comedy from the earlier satyr plays, which were highly obscene. The only surviving examples of the satyr plays are by Euripides, which are much examples and not representative of the genre. In ancient Greece, comedy originated in bawdy and ribald songs or recitations apropos of phallic processions and fertility festivals or gatherings. Around 335 BCE, Aristotle, in his work Poetics, stated that comedy originated in phallic processions and the light treatment of the otherwise base and ugly, he adds that the origins of comedy are obscure because it was not treated from its inception. However, comedy had its own Muse: Thalia. Aristotle taught that comedy was positive for society, since it brings forth happiness, which for Aristotle was the ideal state, the final goal in any activity. For Aristotle, a comedy did not need to involve sexual humor. A comedy is about the fortunate rise of a sympathetic character. Aristotle divides comedy into three categories or subgenres: farce, romantic comedy, satire.
On the contrary, Plato taught. He believed that it produces an emotion that overrides ra
Walter Marvin Koenig is an American actor, writer and director, known for his roles as Pavel Chekov in Star Trek and Alfred Bester in the Babylon 5 series. He wrote the script for the 2008 science fiction legal thriller InAlienable. Koenig was born in Chicago, the son of businessman Isadore Koenig and his wife Sarah, they moved to Manhattan. Koenig's parents were Russian Jewish immigrants from the Soviet Union. Koenig's father was a communist, investigated by the FBI during the McCarthy era. Koenig attended Grinnell College in Grinnell, with a pre-med major, he received a Bachelor of Arts in psychology. After a professor encouraged Koenig to become an actor, he attended Neighborhood Playhouse School of the Theatre in New York City with fellow students Dabney Coleman, Christopher Lloyd, James Caan. In Gene Roddenberry's first television production, the 1963–64 NBC series The Lieutenant, Koenig played a significant role as noncom Sgt. John Delwyn, recommended for Officer Candidates School by the series protagonist, Lt William T. Rice, played by Gary Lockwood.
The plot twist, at the height of the US-Soviet Cold War, is that Sgt Delwyn's visiting mother is a prominent, politically active, American Communist Party member. This sets up various interesting plot tensions involving Delwyn and Rice's CO, Capt. Rambridge, played by Robert Vaughn. Koenig began playing Ensign Pavel Chekov, navigator on the USS Enterprise, in the original Star Trek television series in the second season and in all of the films featuring the original cast including Star Trek Generations. One of only two actors to audition, he was cast as Chekov immediately because of his resemblance to British actor and singer Davy Jones of the Monkees. Show creator Gene Roddenberry hoped; as the 30-year-old's hair was receding, costume designers fashioned a Davy Jones-style "moptop" hairpiece for him. In episodes, his own hair grew out enough to accomplish the look with a comb-over. Roddenberry asked him to "ham up" his Russian accent to add a note of comic relief to the series. Chekov's accent has been criticized as inauthentic, in particular Koenig's substituting the "w" sound in place of a "v" sound.
Most of Koenig's fan mail indeed came from children, the high volume of letters contributed to him soon receiving a contract as a regular cast member. When the early Season 2 episodes of Star Trek were shot, George Takei was delayed while completing the movie The Green Berets, so Chekov is joined at the Enterprise helm by a different character; when Takei returned, the two had to share a single episode script. This angered Takei to the point where he nearly left the show, but the two actors have since become good friends, to the point that Koenig was the best man at Takei's wedding in 2008; the Chekov character never appeared in the animated Star Trek for budgetary reasons. He received Saturn Award nominations for Best Supporting Actor in a Film for both Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan and Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home. Koenig reprised the role of Chekov for the fan webseries Star Trek: New Voyages, "To Serve All My Days", the independent Sky Conway/Tim Russ film, Star Trek: Of Gods and Men, both in 2006, Star Trek: Renegades, in 2015.
According to the teaser for Renegades episodes 2 and 3, this will be the last time Koenig plays the role of Chekov. After Star Trek, before the movies started, Koenig found some work as a writer, he submitted freelance scripts to a number of shows, was the main writer on the show What Really Happened to the Class of'65?. After Chekov, Koenig had a recurring role as Psi Cop Alfred Bester on the television series Babylon 5, he was a "Special Guest Star" in twelve episodes and, at the end of the third season, the production company applied for an Emmy nomination on his behalf. He was slated to play Bester on the spin-off series Crusade, but the series was cancelled before his episode was filmed; the character name of "Alfred Bester" was an homage to the science-fiction writer of the same name. Koenig played "Oro" in two episodes of the Canadian science fiction television series The Starlost, which aired in 1973 on Canada's CTV television network, he filmed a few FMV sequences for a re-released copy of the game Star Trek Starfleet Academy for PCs.
Koenig's film, TV roles span fifty years. He has played roles ranging from a teenage gang leader to Scandinavian fiancé Gunnar in the Gidget episode entitled "Gidget's Foreign Policy": COMBAT! s.1 ep.12: "The Prisoner" Minor role as soldier on guard duty, to a Las Vegas entertainer. He returned to space with a starring role in Moontrap and played a futuristic dictator in the video game Maximum Surge; the game was cancelled, but considerable footage from it was recycled for the film Game Over, with Koenig's dialogue dubbed over in order to retrofit his performance into the r
Gregory Everett Proops is an American actor, stand-up comedian, voice artist and television host. He is known for his work as an improvisational comedian on the UK and U. S. versions of Whose Line Is It Anyway? He performed on Drew Carey's Green Screen Show and voiced the title character on the animated children's show Bob the Builder from 2005 to 2009. Proops was born in Phoenix and raised in San Carlos, California, a suburb south of San Francisco, attending San Carlos High School, he attended the College of San Mateo and spearheaded the comedy duo "Proops & Brakeman". He took courses in improvisation and acting at San Francisco State University, though he never finished college. After college, he joined an improv group with Mike McShane. Both Proops and McShane impressed producers Dan Patterson and Mark Leveson, who put them on their show, Whose Line Is It Anyway?. He instigated jokes concerning various idiosyncrasies and differences between British English and American English, would banter with Clive Anderson on these matters.
He lived in London for four years when he was doing the show and lists McShane, Richard Vranch and Colin Mochrie among his best friends. After the show ended, he was recalled for the American version and was a regular "fourth contestant". Proops appeared in every episode of the short-lived Drew Carey's Green Screen Show, where the performers would play improv games in front of a massive green screen. Animators would draw on the background and other props. In April 2011, Drew Carey's Improv-A-Ganza premiered on GSN featuring Proops along with other frequent guests from Whose Line is it Anyway? In July 2012, Proops appeared in Trust Us with Your Life. In November 2011, Proops did a week on Royal Caribbean's Freedom of the Seas with the Lewis Black Comedy Cruise Tour, he performed the entire week of stand-up with other artists, which included a live, one-hour podcast in front of his entire audience. Proops has performed his stand-up act across Britain, mainland Europe and New Zealand, his other credits include hosting Space Cadets, a mid-1990s science-fiction comedy game show on Channel 4 in the UK, which featured Craig Charles and Bill Bailey, appearances on BBC2's Mock the Week.
He appeared as a panelist on the 2000 revival of To Tell the Truth. Proops has hosted game shows, including VS. in 1999, Rendez-View in 2001, Head Games, a Science Channel game show which ran for one season in 2009. In addition to his stand-up and improv acts, Proops has done voice work in various films and TV shows, including Tim Burton's The Nightmare Before Christmas, the miniseries Stripperella with Pamela Anderson, he provided the voice for the Fode, the Galactic Basic speaking half of the two-headed Pod-Race announcer in Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace, with Scott Capurro providing the voice for the other, Huttese-speaking half, Beed. Proops provided the voice of Bob in the US version of the TV series Bob the Builder for the five seasons of Project Build It, he has featured in 2003 film Brother Bear as the voice of one of the Love Bears and provided the voice as Cryptograf in 2006 film Asterix and the Vikings. Proops has been involved with Turner Classic Movies since 2013, appearing on several of the network's podcasts and in person at public events.
In 2016, he appeared as a television presenter for TCM, introducing comedy films by the Marx Brothers and Wheeler & Woolsey. Proops has been involved with the Star Wars franchise as well, he played the role of Fode in Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace. He would work with the Expanded Universe, reprising his role as Fode in the video game Star Wars Episode I: Racer and the video game adaptation of Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace, he guest-starred on two episodes of the animated series Star Wars: The Clone Wars as Tal Merrick. Proops hosts a podcast called The Smartest Man In The World, in which he talks about current events, celebrity culture, his personal life in front of a live audience. Before Smartest Man, Proops hosted. From 1995–1996, Proops presented Bits from Last Week's Radio on BBC Radio 1, he did voice work for the BBC Radio 2 series Flight of the Conchords, first broadcast in September 2005. Proops played the title role in BBC Radio 4's sci-fi comedy series Seymour the Fractal Cat.
Proops was in the cast of Tim Burton's The Nightmare Before Christmas soundtrack and movie, providing the voice for the Harlequin Demon, the Devil, the Sax Player. Proops provides voice-over work as Howard "Buckshot" Holmes, a game show announcer along with John DiMaggio for the Nintendo Wii game MadWorld. DiMaggio and Proops play as comical announcers on a brutal game show set in the future. Proops provided the voice of Fargus, a pyromantic court jester for the PlayStation Pandemonium game series, he provided voice-work in Skylanders: Imaginators where he voiced a Brain, freed by Kaos in order to help perfect his Doomlanders project. Live Back in the UK Houston, We Have a Problem Joke Book Elsewhere Greg Proops Digs In! In the Ball Park The Resistance Greg Proops: Live At Musso & Frank On May 5, 2015, Proops released nonfiction book The Smartest Book in the World through publisher Touchstone; the book is based in part on Proops's weekly podcast The Smartest Man in the World, detailing the author's movie and poetry recommendations, baseball facts, powerful women, misconstrued history.
The paperback version of the book was released from Touchst
Sarah Joanne Cyzer more known by her radio name Sara Cox, is an English broadcaster and model. She presented The Radio 1 Breakfast Show on BBC Radio 1 between 2000 and 2003, she hosts Drivetime on BBC Radio 2 Monday-Friday 17:00-19:00. She has presented a number of television shows for the BBC including The Great Pottery Throw Down, Too Much TV and Back in Time for.... Cox was born Sarah Joanne Cox on 13 December 1974, but dropped the use of the letter'h' from her first name, her parents lived in the village of Little Lever near Bolton, Greater Manchester where she grew up on her father's farm. The youngest of five children, her parents separated when she was six or seven and she moved with her mother and a sister to another house in the same village. Cox attended Smithills High School until the age of 16, left Canon Slade School after her A-levels to pursue a career in modelling, she appeared in the music video for Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark's 1993 single "Everyday" and on a controversial promotional poster for the 1995 video game Wipeout.
Cox won her first television show role in 1996, presenting the early "Girl Power" show The Girlie Show on Channel 4. She had stints on Channel 5 entertainment show Exclusive and Channel 4 music programme Born Sloppy. In 1997 Cox presented on the UK feed of MTV, hosting MTV Hot, a late-night music show. In 1998 Cox won her first film role in The Bitterest Pill. In September 1998, Cox became a presenter of The Big Breakfast, following in the footsteps of her friend Zoe Ball. During her time on The Big Breakfast, she interviewed stars such as Robbie Williams and Leonardo DiCaprio. Cox preferred to do interviews in her father's caravan, situated in The Big Breakfast garden. A transfer to radio came on 19 September 1999 when she joined BBC Radio 1. Cox co-hosted the Saturday lunchtime show with Emma Boughton from 13:00 – 15:00 and she launched the hugely popular Sunday Surgery with Mark Hamilton, a health and welfare show where listeners called in about their problems, with Cox acting as "Nurse Coxy".
In December 1999, it was announced that Cox would again step into Zoe Ball's shoes as presenter of The Radio 1 Breakfast Show, as Ball had decided to leave the organisation to bring up a family. Cox's breakfast show stint began on 31 March 2000, three days early, her listening figures were good, growing from 6.9 million to 7.8 million listeners during her first fifteen months in the job—earning Radio 1 its largest breakfast audience ever—higher than that of her predecessor and Chris Evans. By August 2002, numbers had dipped back under 7 million. In August 2000, Cox said during a live broadcast that the Queen Mother "smelt of wee". In January 2003, Cox denied rumours that she was preparing to leave the BBC for a rival show and signed a three-year contract with the public service broadcaster, tying her to the breakfast show until April 2004 and with the BBC for two years after that. In August 2003, the BBC again denied rumours, reported in the Daily Mail, that she had been given 10 weeks to increase ratings, or to face replacement.
However, just two months the BBC announced that Cox, whose listening figures had slipped to 6.6 million, would be replaced by Chris Moyles in January 2004. Cox hosted her final breakfast show on 19 December 2003, her final track was " The Time of My Life". Cox presented the afternoon "drivetime" slot swapping shows with Chris Moyles, she hosted the Drivetime show for six months with features such as "For Your Ears Only", "Me, Myself and I", "Chap's Eye Pub Quiz". In June 2004, Cox began her maternity leave to give birth to Lola Anne. Before she returned to Radio 1 in early 2005, Scott Mills, the presenter who took over her slot during her maternity leave, was given the drivetime slot permanently. From February 2005, Cox took over the afternoon show on Sundays. On 17 February 2008, Cox presented her last show for six months before leaving for maternity leave to have her second child. Annie Mac presented the show during her absence. Cox covered for Jo Whiley, on maternity leave between October 2008 and February 2009.
Following Whiley's return, Cox returned to weekends to present a Sunday mid-morning show, broadcasting between 10:00 and 13:00. In March 2010 Cox went on maternity leave for the third time, leaving her show in the hands of the newest Radio 1 presenter, Matt Edmondson, she returned to the airwaves on 9 August 2010 to cover for Fearne Cotton for three weeks. Cox made a self-confessed unexpected return to the breakfast show on 2 and 3 September 2010, as she sat in for the unwell Chris Moyles. In August 2012, it was announced that Cox would cover Fearne Cotton's show on BBC Radio 1 weekdays from 10:00 to 12:45 whilst Cotton was on maternity leave, she was replaced by Matt Edmondson on Sunday mornings. After Cotton's return, Cox did various cover shows. In June 2011, Cox began hosting the fourth series of the comedy programme Hot Gossip on BBC Radio 2, covering for Claudia Winkleman, who chose not to present the series as she was pregnant at the time. Beginning in 2012, Cox has covered for Alex Lester, Janice Long and Vanessa Feltz, as well as providing cover for Simon Mayo Drivetime, Steve Wright in the Afternoon, The Ken Bruce Show.
Between 2012-2018, she was the main relief host of The Radio 2 Breakfast Show covering for Chris Evans. Cox joined BBC Radio 2 for her first regular show each Saturday night from 22:00 to midnight, presenting a 1980s show to complement the weekend 1960s and 1970s decade shows; the show began on Saturda
Paul Bruce Dickinson is an English singer, musician, airline pilot, entrepreneur and broadcaster. He is the lead singer of the heavy metal band Iron Maiden and is renowned for his wide-ranging operatic vocal style and energetic stage presence. Born in Worksop, Dickinson began his career in music fronting small pub bands in the 1970s while attending school in Sheffield and university in London. In 1979, he joined the new wave of British heavy metal band Samson, with whom he gained some popularity under the stage name "Bruce Bruce" and performed on two studio records, he left Samson in 1981 to join Iron Maiden, replacing Paul Di'Anno, debuted on their 1982 album The Number of the Beast. During his first tenure in the band, they issued a series of US and UK platinum and gold albums in the 1980s. Dickinson quit Iron Maiden in 1993 to pursue his solo career, which saw him experiment with a wide variety of heavy metal and rock styles, he rejoined the band in 1999, along with guitarist Adrian Smith, with whom he has released five subsequent studio albums.
Since his return to Iron Maiden, he issued one further solo record in Tyranny of Souls. His younger cousin, Rob Dickinson, is the former lead singer of British alternative rock band Catherine Wheel, while his son, fronted the metalcore band Rise to Remain. Outside his career in music, Dickinson is well known for his wide variety of other pursuits. Most notably, he undertook a career as a commercial pilot for Astraeus Airlines, which led to a number of media-reported ventures such as captaining Iron Maiden's converted charter aeroplane, Ed Force One, during their world tours. Following Astraeus' closure, he created his own aircraft maintenance and pilot training company in 2012, Cardiff Aviation. Dickinson presented his own radio show on BBC Radio 6 Music from 2002–2010, has hosted television documentaries, authored novels and film scripts, created a successful beer with Robinsons Brewery and competed at fencing internationally. Paul Bruce Dickinson was born in Nottinghamshire, his mother, worked part-time in a shoe shop, his father, was a mechanic in the army.
Dickinson's birth hurried the young couple just teenagers, into marriage. He was brought up by his grandparents; this is referred to in his song "Born In'58" from the album Tattooed Millionaire. Dickinson started school at Manton Primary in Worksop. Soon afterwards, when he was six, he was despatched to Sheffield, where he attended a primary school in Manor Top. After six months, his parents decided to move him to a small private school called Sharrow Vale Junior. Due to constant moving, Dickinson states that this period of his life taught him to be self-reliant as he was unable to make close friends. Dickinson has a younger sister, professional showjumper Helena Stormanns, born in 1963, he tried to isolate himself from her as much as he could when he was young out of spite because she, unlike him, was a planned pregnancy and birth. Dickinson's first musical experience was dancing in his grandparents' front room to Chubby Checker's "The Twist", when he still lived with them in Worksop; the first record Dickinson recalls owning was The Beatles single "She Loves You", which he managed to persuade his grandfather to buy him, which made him more interested in music.
He tried to play an acoustic guitar belonging to his father. By the time he moved to Sheffield, Dickinson's parents were earning a good living from buying property, refurbishing it and selling it for a profit; as a result, much of Dickinson's childhood was spent living on a building site, until his parents bought a boarding house and a bankrupt garage where his father began selling second-hand cars. The income from their business success gave them the opportunity to give Dickinson—then 13 years old—a boarding school education and they chose Oundle, a public school in Northamptonshire. Dickinson was not opposed to moving away from home because he had not built "any real attachment" to his parents, having been raised by his grandparents in Worksop until he was six. At Oundle, Dickinson was picked on and bullied by the older boys of Sidney House, the boarding house that he belonged to, which he described as "like systematic torture" and meant that he became an outsider, his interests at Oundle were military.
Oundle was where Dickinson became attracted to hard rock, after hearing Deep Purple's "Child in Time" being played in another student's room. As a result, the first album he bought was Deep Purple's In Rock, which created his interest in rock music. After In Rock, he went on to buy Black Sabbath's debut, Jethro Tull's Aqualung and Tarkus by Emerson, Lake & Palmer; every term, a band would play at the school, the first of these which Dickinson saw was called Wild Turkey, featuring former Jethro Tull bassist Glenn Cornick. After that, he saw Arthur Brown. Dickinson wanted to play the drums obtaining a pair of bongo drums from the music room for practice, he remembers playing "Let It Be" with his friend Mike Jordan, during which Dickinson discovered his singing voice while encouraging Jordan to sing the high-notes. Shortly afterwards Dickinson was expelled from Oundle for participating in a prank in which he urinated in the headmaster's dinner. Returning home to Sheffield in 1976, Dickins
Mark Robert Bailey, known by his stage name Bill Bailey, is an English comedian, singer, actor, TV and radio presenter and author. Bailey is well known for his role in Black Books and for his appearances on Never Mind the Buzzcocks, Have I Got News for You and QI, as well as his extensive stand-up work. Bailey was listed by The Observer as one of the 50 funniest acts in British comedy in 2003. In 2007, again in 2010, he was voted the seventh greatest stand-up comic on Channel 4's 100 Greatest Stand-Ups. Bailey was born in Bath and spent most of his childhood in Keynsham, a town situated between Bath and Bristol in the West of England, his father was his mother a hospital ward sister. His maternal grandparents lived in an annexe, built on the side of the house by his maternal grandfather, a stonemason and builder. Two rooms at the front of the family house were for his father's surgery. Bailey was educated at King Edward's School, an independent school in Bath where he was a academic pupil winning most of the prizes.
At about the age of 15, he started to become distracted from school work when he realised the thrill of performance as a member of a school band called Behind Closed Doors, which played original work. He was the only pupil at his school to study A-level music and he passed with an A grade, he claims to have been good at sport, which surprised his teachers. He would combine music and sport by leading the singing on the long coach trip back from away rugby fixtures, it was here that he was given his nickname Bill by his music teacher, Lynda Phipps, for being able to play the song "Won't You Come Home Bill Bailey" so well on the guitar. He started studies for an English degree at Westfield College of the University of London but left after a year, he is a classically trained musician and received an Associateship Diploma from the London College of Music as well as being made an honorary member of the Society of Crematorium Organists. He performed with a boy band "The Famous Five". Acting roles included a part in a Workers' Revolutionary Party stage production called The Printers, which featured Vanessa Redgrave and Frances de la Tour.
Until 24 February 2018, nobody was quite sure. There were two possible dates- 24 February 1964 or 13 January 1965- the latter being correct. Bailey is a supporter of the Labour Party and appeared in the Labour Party's fifth party election broadcast of the 2010 General Election campaign. However, he was critical of Labour during the 2015 election campaign, describing leader Ed Miliband as "a plastic bag caught in a tree", adding that "no one knows how he got up there and no one can be bothered to get him down". Bailey is an outspoken supporter of the Fawcett Society. Bailey is a prominent voice of men's issues, most notably prostate cancer and the Men United campaign. In 2015, Bailey endorsed Jeremy Corbyn's campaign in Labour Party leadership election, he said "Corbyn's nomination showed there is a kind of craving for a bit of honest speaking, a bit of principled plain speaking. But I think. Nuanced debate doesn't cut it in the political atmosphere. He’s having a fast-forward of his own political evolution, having to become'a politician' – the thing he never was."Bailey is a patron of International Animal Rescue and has been instrumental in the organisation's campaign to rescue dancing bears.
He has campaigned for the Sumatran Orangutan Society. For his works in environmental conservation, he received an honorary doctorate in conservation and sustainability from the Australian University of the Sunshine Coast in October 2014. Bailey began touring the country with comedians such as Mark Lamarr. In 1984, he formed the Rubber Bishops, with Toby Longworth, it was there that Bailey began developing his own style, mixing in musical parodies with deconstructions of or variations on traditional jokes. According to comedy folklore, after a reviewer once criticised his act for its lack of jokes, Bailey returned the following night, at Queen Margaret College, Edinburgh, to perform a set composed of punchlines. Longworth was replaced by Martin Stubbs. Stubbs quit to pursue a more serious career, in 1994 Bailey performed Rock at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe with Sean Lock, a show about an ageing rockstar and his roadie, script-edited by comedy writer Jim Miller, it was serialised for the Mark Radcliffe show on BBC Radio 1.
The show's attendances were not impressive and on one occasion the only person in the audience was comedian Dominic Holland. Bailey gave up comedy to take up a telesales job, he went solo the next year with the one man show Bill Bailey's Cosmic Jam. The show led to a recording at the Bloomsbury Theatre in London, broadcast in 1997 on Channel 4 as a one-hour special called Bill Bailey Live, it was not until 2005 that this was released under its original title. It marked the first time that Bailey had been able to tie together his music and post-modern gags with the whimsical rambling style he is now known for. After supporting Donna McPhail in 1995 and winning a Time Out award, he returned to Edinburgh in 1996 with a show, nominated for the Perrier Comedy Award. Amongst the other nominees was future Black Books co-star Dylan Moran, who narrowly beat him in the closest vote in the award's history. Bailey won the Best Live Stand-Up award at the British Comedy Awards in 1999. Though he did not win the Perrier Comedy Awards in 1996, the nomination was enough to g