Popular Science is an American quarterly magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects. Popular Science has won over 58 awards, including the American Society of Magazine Editors awards for its journalistic excellence in both 2003 and 2004. With roots beginning in 1872, Popular Science has been translated into over 30 languages and is distributed to at least 45 countries; the Popular Science Monthly, as the publication was called, was founded in May 1872 by Edward L. Youmans to disseminate scientific knowledge to the educated layman. Youmans had worked as an editor for the weekly Appleton's Journal and persuaded them to publish his new journal. Early issues were reprints of English periodicals; the journal became an outlet for writings and ideas of Charles Darwin, Thomas Henry Huxley, Louis Pasteur, Henry Ward Beecher, Charles Sanders Peirce, William James, Thomas Edison, John Dewey and James McKeen Cattell. William Jay Youmans, Edward's brother, helped found Popular Science Monthly in 1872 and was an editor as well.
He became editor-in-chief on Edward's death in 1887. The publisher, D. Appleton & Company, was forced for economic reasons to sell the journal in 1900. James McKeen Cattell became the editor in 1900 and the publisher in 1901. Cattell continued publishing articles for educated readers. By 1915 the readership was publishing a science journal was a financial challenge. In a September 1915 editorial, Cattell related these difficulties to his readers and announced that the Popular Science Monthly name had been "transferred" to a group that wanted the name for a general audience magazine, a publication which fit the name better; the existing journal would continue the academic tradition as Scientific Monthly. Existing subscribers would remain subscribed under the new name. Scientific Monthly was published until 1958; the Modern Publishing Company acquired the Popular Science Monthly name. This company had purchased Electrician and Mechanic magazine in 1914 and over the next two years merged several magazines together into a science magazine for a general audience.
The magazine had a series of name changes: Modern Electrics and Mechanics, Popular Electricity and Modern Mechanics, Modern Mechanics and World's Advance, before the publishers purchased the name Popular Science Monthly. The October 1915 issue was titled World's Advance; the volume number was that of Popular Science but the content was that of World's Advance. The new editor was a former editor of Scientific American; the change in Popular Science Monthly was dramatic. The old version was a scholarly journal. There would be ten to illustrations; the new version had hundreds of short, easy to read articles with hundreds of illustrations. Editor Kaempffert was writing for "the home craftsman and hobbyist who wanted to know something about the world of science." The circulation doubled in the first year. From the mid-1930s to the 1960s, the magazine featured fictional stories of Gus Wilson's Model Garage, centered on car problems. An annual review of changes to the new model year cars ran in 1940 and'41, but did not return after the war until 1954.
It continued until the mid-1970s when the magazine reverted to publishing the new models over multiple issues as information became available. From 1935 to 1949, the magazine sponsored a series of short films, produced by Jerry Fairbanks and released by Paramount Pictures. From July 1952 to December 1989, Popular Science carried Roy Doty's Wordless Workshop as a regular feature. From July 1969 to May 1989, the cover and table of contents carried the subtitle, "The What's New Magazine." The cover removed the subtitle the following month and the contents page removed it in February 1990. In 1983, the magazine introduced a new logo using the ITC Avant Garde font, which it used until late 1995. Within the next 11 years, its font changed 4 times. In 2009, the magazine used a new font for its logo, used until the January 2014 issue. In 2014, Popular Science sported a new look and introduced a new logo for the first time in 8 years, complete with a major overhaul of its articles; the Popular Science Publishing Company, which the magazine bears its name, was acquired in 1967 by the Los Angeles-based Times Mirror Company.
In 2000, Times Mirror merged with the Chicago-based Tribune Company, which sold the Times Mirror magazines to Time Inc. the following year. On January 25, 2007, Time Warner sold this magazine, along with 17 other special interest magazines, to Bonnier Magazine Group. On September 24, 2008, Australian publishing company Australian Media Properties launched a local version of Popular Science, it is a monthly magazine, like its American counterpart, uses content from the American version of the magazine as well as local material. Australian Media Properties launched www.popsci.com.au at the same time, a localised version of the Popular Science website. In January 2016, Popular Science switched to bi-monthly publication after 144 years of monthly publication. In April 2016 it was announced, it was announced that he would remain on staff as an editor-at-large. In September 2018, Popular Science switched to quarterly publication indicating future subscription prices will be increased. Popular Science is headquartered in New York.
Popular Science Radio is a partnership
Eugene Wesley Roddenberry was an American television screenwriter and creator of the original Star Trek television series, its first spin-off The Next Generation. Born in El Paso, Roddenberry grew up in Los Angeles, where his father was a police officer. Roddenberry flew 89 combat missions in the Army Air Forces during World War II, worked as a commercial pilot after the war, he followed in his father's footsteps and joined the Los Angeles Police Department, where he began to write scripts for television. As a freelance writer, Roddenberry wrote scripts for Highway Patrol, Have Gun–Will Travel, other series, before creating and producing his own television series The Lieutenant. In 1964, Roddenberry created Star Trek, which premiered in 1966 and ran for three seasons before being canceled, he worked on other projects, including a string of failed television pilots. The syndication of Star Trek led to its growing popularity. In 1987, the sequel series Star Trek: The Next Generation began airing on television in first-run syndication.
He continued to consult on the series until his death in 1991. In 1985, he became the first TV writer with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, he was inducted by both the Science Fiction Hall of Fame and the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences Hall of Fame. Years after his death, Roddenberry was one of the first humans to have his ashes carried into earth orbit; the popularity of the Star Trek universe and films has inspired films, comic books, video games, fan films set in the Star Trek universe. Roddenberry was born on August 19, 1921, in his parents' rented home in El Paso, the first child of Eugene Edward Roddenberry and Caroline "Glen" Roddenberry; the family moved to Los Angeles in 1923 after Gene's father passed the Civil Service test and was given a police commission there. During his childhood, Roddenberry was interested in reading pulp magazines, was a fan of stories such as John Carter of Mars and the Skylark series by E. E. Smith. Roddenberry majored in police science at Los Angeles City College, where he began dating Eileen-Anita Rexroat and became interested in aeronautical engineering.
He obtained a pilot's license through the United States Army Air Corps-sponsored Civilian Pilot Training Program. He enlisted with the USAAC on December 18, 1941, married Eileen on June 13, 1942, he graduated from the USAAC on August 1942, when he was commissioned as a second lieutenant. He was posted to Bellows Field, Oahu, to join the 394th Bomb Squadron, 5th Bombardment Group, of the Thirteenth Air Force, which flew the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress. On August 2, 1943, while flying B-17E-BO, 41-2463, "Yankee Doodle", out of Espiritu Santo, the plane Roddenberry was piloting overshot the runway by 500 feet and impacted trees, crushing the nose, starting a fire, killing two men, bombardier Sgt. John P. Kruger and navigator Lt. Talbert H. Woolam; the official report absolved Roddenberry of any responsibility. Roddenberry spent the remainder of his military career in the United States, flew all over the country as a plane crash investigator, he was involved in this time as a passenger. He was awarded the Air Medal.
In 1945, Roddenberry began flying for Pan American World Airways, including routes from New York to Johannesburg or Calcutta, the two longest Pan Am routes at the time. Listed as a resident of River Edge, New Jersey, he experienced his third crash while on the Clipper Eclipse on June 18, 1947; the plane came down in the Syrian Desert, Roddenberry, who took control as the ranking flight officer, suffered two broken ribs but was able to drag injured passengers out of the burning plane and led the group to get help. Fourteen people died in the crash, he resigned from Pan Am on May 15, 1948, decided to pursue his dream of writing for the new medium of television. Roddenberry applied for a position with the Los Angeles Police Department on January 10, 1949, spent his first 16 months in the traffic division before being transferred to the newspaper unit; this became the Public Information Division and Roddenberry became the Chief of Police's speech writer. He became technical advisor for a new television version of Mr. District Attorney, which led to him writing for the show under his pseudonym "Robert Wesley".
He began to collaborate with Ziv Television Programs, continued to sell scripts to Mr. District Attorney, in addition to Ziv's Highway Patrol. In early 1956, he sold two story ideas for I Led Three Lives, he found that it was becoming difficult to be a writer and a policeman. On June 7, 1956, he resigned from the force to concentrate on his writing career. Roddenberry was promoted to head writer for The West Point Story, wrote 10 scripts for the first season, about a third of the total episodes. While working for Ziv, he pitched a series to CBS set on board a cruise ship, but they did not buy it, as he wanted to become a producer and have full creative control, he wrote another script for Ziv's series Harbourmaster titled "Coastal Security", signed a contract with the company to develop a show called Junior Executive with Quinn Martin. Nothing came of the series, he wrote scripts for a number of other series in his early years as a professional writer, including Bat Masterson and Jefferson Drum.
Roddenberry's episode of the series
The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency is the Japanese national aerospace and space agency. Through the merger of three independent organizations, JAXA was formed on 1 October 2003. JAXA is responsible for research, technology development and launch of satellites into orbit, is involved in many more advanced missions such as asteroid exploration and possible manned exploration of the Moon, its motto is One its corporate slogan is Explore to Realize. On 1 October 2003, three organizations were merged to form the new JAXA: Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, the National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan, National Space Development Agency of Japan. JAXA was formed as an Independent Administrative Institution administered by the Ministry of Education, Sports and Technology and the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. Before the merger, ISAS was responsible for space and planetary research, while NAL was focused on aviation research. NASDA, founded on 1 October 1969, had developed rockets and built the Japanese Experiment Module.
The old NASDA headquarters were located at the current site of the Tanegashima Space Center, on Tanegashima Island, 115 kilometers south of Kyūshū. NASDA trained Japanese astronauts, who flew with the US Space Shuttles; the Basic Space Law was passed in 2008, the jurisdictional authority of JAXA moved from MEXT to the Strategic Headquarters for Space Development in the Cabinet, led by the Prime Minister. In 2016, the National Space Policy Secretariat was set up the Cabinet. In 2012, new legislation extended JAXA's remit from peaceful purposes only to include some military space development, such as missile early warning systems. Political control of JAXA passed from MEXT to the Prime Minister's Cabinet Office through a new Space Strategy Office. JAXA is composed of the following organizations: Space Technology Directorate I Space Technology Directorate II Human Spaceflight Technology Directorate Research and Development Directorate Aeronautical Technology Directorate Institute of Space and Astronautical Science Space Exploration Innovation Hub CenterJAXA has research centers in many locations in Japan, some offices overseas.
Its headquarters are in Tokyo. It has Earth Observation Research Center, Tokyo Earth Observation Center in Hatoyama, Saitama Noshiro Testing Center in Noshiro, Akita – Established in 1962, it carries out testing of rocket engines. Sanriku Balloon Center – Balloons have been launched from this site since 1971. Kakuda Space Center in Kakuda, Miyagi – Leads the development of rocket engines. Works with development of liquid fuel engines. Sagamihara Campus – Development of experimental equipment for rockets and satellites. Administrative buildings. Tanegashima Space Center – the launch site for the H-IIA and H-IIB rockets. Tsukuba Space Center in Tsukuba; this is the center of Japan's space network. It is involved in research and development of satellites and rockets, tracking and controlling of satellites, it develops experimental equipment for the Japanese Experiment Module. Training of astronauts takes place here. For International Space Station operations, the Japanese Flight Control Team is located at the Space Station Integration & Promotion Center in Tsukuba.
SSIPC communicates with ISS crewmembers via S-band audio. Uchinoura Space Center – the launch site for the Epsilon rocket. JAXA uses the H-IIA rocket from the former NASDA body and its variant H-IIB to launch engineering test satellites, weather satellites, etc. For science missions like X-ray astronomy, JAXA uses the Epsilon rocket. For experiments in the upper atmosphere JAXA uses the SS-520, S-520, S-310 sounding rockets. Prior to the establishment of JAXA, ISAS had been most successful in its space program in the field of X-ray astronomy during the 1980s and 1990s. Another successful area for Japan has been Very Long Baseline Interferometry with the HALCA mission. Additional success was achieved with solar observation and research of the magnetosphere, among other areas. NASDA was active in the field of communication satellite technology. However, since the satellite market of Japan is open, the first time a Japanese company won a contract for a civilian communication satellite was in 2005.
Another prime focus of the NASDA body is Earth climate observation. JAXA was awarded the Space Foundation's John L. "Jack" Swigert, Jr. Award for Space Exploration in 2008. Japan launched Ohsumi, in 1970, using ISAS' L-4S rocket. Prior to the merger, ISAS used small solid-fueled launch vehicles, while NASDA developed larger liquid-fueled launchers. In the beginning, NASDA used licensed American models; the first model of liquid-fuelled launch vehicle indigenously developed in Japan was the H-II, introduced in 1994. However, at the end of the 1990s, with two H-II launch failures, Japanese rocket technology began to face criticism. Japan's first space mission under JAXA, an H-IIA rocket launch on 29 November 2003, ended in failure due to stress problems. After a 15-month hiatus, JAXA performed a successful launch of an H-IIA rocket from Tanegashima Space Center, placing a satellite into orbit on 26 February 2005. In January 2017, JAXA attempted and failed to put a mini satellite into orbit atop one of its SS520 series rockets.
A second attempt on February 2, 2018 was successful, putting a 10-pound Cube
Leonard Simon Nimoy was an American actor, film director, author and songwriter. He was known for playing Spock in the Star Trek franchise, a character he portrayed in television and film from a pilot episode shot in late 1964 to his final film performance in 2013. Nimoy began his career in his early twenties, teaching acting classes in Hollywood and making minor film and television appearances through the 1950s, as well as playing the title role in Kid Monk Baroni. Foreshadowing his fame as a semi-alien, he played Narab, one of three Martian invaders, in the 1952 movie serial Zombies of the Stratosphere. In December 1964, he made his first appearance in the rejected Star Trek pilot "The Cage", went on to play the character of Spock until the end of the production run in early 1969, followed by eight feature films and guest slots in the various spin-off series; the character earned Nimoy three Emmy Award nominations. After the original Star Trek series, Nimoy starred in Mission: Impossible for two seasons, hosted the documentary series In Search of... narrated Civilization IV, made several well-received stage appearances.
He had a recurring role in the science fiction series Fringe. Nimoy's public profile as Spock was so strong that both of his autobiographies, I Am Not Spock and I Am Spock, were written from the viewpoint of sharing his existence with the character. In 2015 an asteroid was named 4864 Nimoy in his honor; the documentaries For the Love of Spock and Remembering Leonard Nimoy were produced by his son and daughter respectively. Leonard Simon Nimoy was born on March 26, 1931, in the West End of Boston, Massachusetts, to Jewish immigrants from Iziaslav, Ukraine, his parents left Iziaslav separately—his father first walking over the border into Poland while his mother and grandmother were smuggled out of the Soviet Union in a horse-drawn wagon by hiding under bales of hay. They reunited after arriving in the United States, his mother, was a homemaker, his father, Max Nimoy, owned a barbershop in the Mattapan section of Boston. He had Melvin; as a child, Nimoy took miscellaneous jobs to supplement his family's income, including selling newspapers and greeting cards, shining shoes, or setting up chairs in theaters, when he got older, selling vacuum cleaners.
He began acting at the age of eight in a children's and neighborhood theater. His parents wanted him to attend college and pursue a stable career, or learn to play the accordion, so he could always make a living, but his grandfather encouraged him to do what he wanted to do most, to become an actor. Nimoy realized he had an aptitude for singing, which he developed while a member of his synagogue's choir, his singing during his bar mitzvah at age 13 was so good that he was asked to repeat his performance the following week at another synagogue. "He is still the only man I know whose voice was two bar mitzvahs good!" said William Shatner. His first major role was at 17, as Ralphie in an amateur production of Clifford Odets' Awake and Sing!, which dealt with the struggles of a matriarchal Jewish family similar to his during the Great Depression. "Playing this teenage kid in this Jewish family, so much like mine was amazing," he said. "The same dynamics, the same tensions in the household." The role "lit a passion".
"I never wanted to do anything else." Shatner notes that Nimoy worked on local radio shows for children voice acting Bible stories, adding: Obviously, there was something symbolic about that. Many years as Captain Kirk, I would be busy rescuing civilizations in distress on distant planets while Leonard's Mr. Spock would be examining the morality of man– and alienkind. Nimoy took drama classes at Boston College, after moving to Los Angeles, he used $600 he saved from selling vacuum cleaners to enroll at the Pasadena Playhouse. However, he was soon disillusioned and quit after six months, feeling that the acting skills he had acquired from earlier roles were more advanced: "I thought, I have to study here three years in order to do this level of work, I'm doing better work."He became a devotee of method acting concepts derived from the teachings of Konstantin Stanislavsky, realizing that the stage allowed him to explore the "psychological and physical territories of life that can't be done anywhere else," inquiries which he said led him into acting in the first place.
He took method actor Marlon Brando as a role model, like him, wore jeans and T-shirts. Between studies, to have some income, he took a job at an ice cream parlor on the Sunset Strip. In 1953, Nimoy enlisted in the United States Army Reserve at Fort McPherson Georgia, serving for 18 months until 1955, leaving as a sergeant. Part of Nimoy's time in the military was spent with the Army Special Services, putting on shows which he wrote and emceed. One of his soldiers was Ken Berry, whom he encouraged to go into acting as a civilian, helped contact agents. During that period, he directed and starred in A Streetcar Named Desire, with the Atlanta Theater Guild. Soon after he was discharged, with his wife Sandi pregnant with their second child, they rented an apartment and Nimoy took a job driving a cab in Los Angeles. Nimoy spent more than a decade receiving only small parts in B movies and the lead in one, along with a minor TV role, he believed that playing the title role in the 1952 film Kid Monk Baroni would make him a star, but the film failed after playing briefly.
While he was serving in the military the film gained
Cable News Network is an American news-based pay television channel owned by WarnerMedia News & Sports, a division of AT&T's WarnerMedia. CNN was founded in 1980 by American media proprietor Ted Turner as a 24-hour cable news channel. Upon its launch, CNN was the first television channel to provide 24-hour news coverage, was the first all-news television channel in the United States. While the news channel has numerous affiliates, CNN broadcasts from the Time Warner Center in New York City, studios in Washington, D. C. and Los Angeles. Its headquarters at the CNN Center in Atlanta is only used for weekend programming. CNN is sometimes referred to as CNN/U. S. to distinguish the American channel from CNN International. As of August 2010, CNN is available in over 100 million U. S. households. Broadcast coverage of the U. S. channel extends to over 890,000 American hotel rooms, as well as carriage on subscription providers throughout Canada. As of July 2015, CNN is available to about 96,374,000 pay-television households in the United States.
Globally, CNN programming airs through CNN International, which can be seen by viewers in over 212 countries and territories. The Cable News Network was launched at 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on June 1, 1980. After an introduction by Ted Turner, the husband and wife team of David Walker and Lois Hart anchored the channel's first newscast. Burt Reinhardt, the executive vice president of CNN at its launch, hired most of the channel's first 200 employees, including the network's first news anchor, Bernard Shaw. Since its debut, CNN has expanded its reach to a number of cable and satellite television providers, several websites, specialized closed-circuit channels; the company has 42 bureaus, more than 900 affiliated local stations, several regional and foreign-language networks around the world. The channel's success made a bona-fide mogul of founder Ted Turner and set the stage for conglomerate Time Warner's eventual acquisition of the Turner Broadcasting System in 1996. A companion channel, CNN2, was launched on January 1, 1982 and featured a continuous 24-hour cycle of 30-minute news broadcasts.
The channel, which became known as CNN Headline News and is now known as HLN focused on live news coverage supplemented by personality-based programs during the evening and primetime hours. The first Persian Gulf War in 1991 was a watershed event for CNN that catapulted the channel past the "Big Three" American networks for the first time in its history due to an unprecedented, historical scoop: CNN was the only news outlet with the ability to communicate from inside Iraq during the initial hours of the Coalition bombing campaign, with live reports from the al-Rashid Hotel in Baghdad by reporters Bernard Shaw, John Holliman and Peter Arnett; the moment when bombing began was announced on CNN by Shaw on January 16, 1991, as follows: This is Bernie Shaw. Something is happening outside.... Peter Arnett, join me here. Let's describe to our viewers what we're seeing... The skies over Baghdad have been illuminated.... We're seeing bright flashes going off all over the sky. Unable to broadcast live pictures from Baghdad, CNN's coverage of the initial hours of the Gulf War had the dramatic feel of a radio broadcast – and was compared to legendary CBS news anchor Edward R. Murrow's gripping live radio reports of the German bombing of London during World War II.
Despite the lack of live pictures, CNN's coverage was carried by television stations and networks around the world, resulting in CNN being watched by over a billion viewers worldwide. The Gulf War experience brought CNN some much sought-after legitimacy and made household names of obscure reporters. In 2000, media scholar and director of the Center for the Study of Popular Television at Syracuse University, Robert Thompson, stated that having turned 20, CNN was now the "old guard." Shaw, known for his live-from-Bagdhad reporting during the Gulf War, became CNN's chief anchor until his retirement in 2001. Others include then-Pentagon correspondent Wolf Blitzer and international correspondent Christiane Amanpour. Amanpour's presence in Iraq was caricatured by actress Nora Dunn as ruthless reporter Adriana Cruz in the 1999 film Three Kings. Time Warner-owned sister network HBO produced a television movie, Live from Baghdad, about CNN's coverage of the first Gulf War. Coverage of the first Gulf War and other crises of the early 1990s led officials at the Pentagon to coin the term "the CNN effect" to describe the perceived impact of real time, 24-hour news coverage on the decision-making processes of the American government.
CNN was the first cable news channel. Anchor Carol Lin was on the air to deliver the first public report of the event, she broke into a commercial at 8:49 a.m. Eastern Time that morning and said:This just in. You are looking at a disturbing live shot there; that is the World Trade Center, we have unconfirmed reports this morning that a plane has crashed into one of the towers of the World Trade Center. CNN Center right now is just beginning to work on this story calling our sources and trying to figure out what happened, but something devastating happening this morning there on the south end of the island of Manhattan; that is once again, a picture of one of the towers of the World Trade Center. Sean Murtagh, CNN vice president of finance and administration, was the first network employe
James Arthur Lovell Jr. is a former NASA astronaut, Naval Aviator, retired Navy captain. Lovell is known for being the commander of the ill-fated Apollo 13 mission, which suffered a critical failure en route to the Moon but was brought back safely to Earth through the efforts of the crew and mission control. In addition to being part of the Apollo 13 crew, Lovell was the command module pilot of Apollo 8, the first Apollo mission to enter lunar orbit, he is one of only 24 people to have flown to the Moon and the first of only three people to fly to the Moon twice as well as the only one to have flown there twice without making a landing. Lovell was the first person to fly in space four times, he is a recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Born in 1928 in Cleveland, James Lovell was the only child of his mother Blanche, of Czech descent, his father, James, Sr. an Ontario, Canada-born coal furnace salesman, who died in a car accident in 1933. For about two years and his mother lived with a relative in Terre Haute, Indiana.
After relocating with his mother to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, he graduated from Juneau High School. A member of the Boy Scouts during his childhood, Lovell achieved Eagle Scout, the organization's highest level. Lovell built flying models as a boy. After graduating from high school, he attended the University of Wisconsin–Madison for two years under the "Flying Midshipman" program from 1946 to 1948. While at Madison, he pledged to the Alpha Phi Omega fraternity. While Lovell was attending pre-flight training in the summer of 1948, the navy was beginning to make cutbacks in the program, cadets were under a great deal of pressure to transfer out. There were concerns that some or most of the students who graduated as Naval Aviators would not have pilot billets to fill; this threat persisted until the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950. Lovell applied and was accepted to the United States Naval Academy in the fall of 1948. During his first year he wrote a treatise on the liquid-fueled rocket engine, he attended Annapolis for the full four years, graduating as an ensign in the spring of 1952 with a B.
S. degree. He went to flight training at NAS Pensacola from October 1952 to February 1954. In 1952, following his graduation from the Naval Academy, Lovell married his high school sweetheart, Marilyn Lillie Gerlach, the daughter of Lillie and Carl Gerlach; the two had attended Juneau High School in Milwaukee. While she was a college student, Gerlach transferred from Wisconsin State Teachers College to George Washington University in Washington D. C. so she could be near him. The couple have four children: Barbara, James and Jeffrey; the 1995 film Apollo 13 portrayed the family's home life during the Apollo 13 mission of 1970 with actress Kathleen Quinlan being nominated for a supporting actress Oscar for her performance as Marilyn Lovell. In 1999 the Lovell family opened "Lovell's of Lake Forest", a fine dining restaurant in Lake Forest, Illinois; the restaurant displayed many artifacts from Lovell's time with NASA, as well as from the filming of Apollo 13. The restaurant was sold to son and executive chef James in 2006.
The restaurant was put on the market for sale in February 2014 and closed in April 2015, with the property auctioned the same month. Lovell was designated a Naval Aviator on February 1, 1954. Upon completion of pilot training, he was assigned to VC-3 at Moffett Field near San Francisco, California. From 1954 to 1956 he flew F2H-3 Banshee night fighters; this included a WestPac deployment aboard the carrier USS Shangri-La, when the ship emerged from refit as only the second USN carrier with the new angled deck. Upon his return to shore duty, he was reassigned to provide pilot transition training for the F3H Demon. In January 1958, Lovell entered a six-month test pilot training course at what was the Naval Air Test Center at Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland. Two of his classmates were Wally Schirra; that year, Lovell and Schirra became three of 110 military test pilots selected as potential astronaut candidates for Project Mercury. Schirra went on to become one of the Mercury Seven, with Lovell and Conrad failing to make the cut for medical reasons: Lovell because of a temporarily high bilirubin count in his blood and Conrad for refusing to take the second round of invasive medical tests.
At NAS Patuxent River, Lovell was assigned to Electronics Test, with his assigned call sign being "Shaky", a nickname given him by Conrad. He became F4H program manager. In 1961 he received orders for VF-101 "Detachment Alpha" as an F4H instructor for the first East Coast squadron personnel assigned to that aircraft. In 1962 NASA needed a second group of astronauts for the Apollo programs. Lovell applied a second time and was accepted into NASA Astronaut Group 2, "The New Nine", as was Conrad. Lovell was selected as backup pilot for Gemini 4; this put him in position for his first space flight three missions as pilot of Gemini 7 with Command Pilot Frank Borman in December 1965. The flight's objective was to evaluate the effects on the crew and spacecraft from fourteen days in orbit; this fourteen-day flight set an endurance record making 206 orbits. It was the target vehicle for the first space rendezvous with Gemini 6A. Lovell was scheduled to be the backup command pilot of Gemini 10, but after the deaths of the Gemini 9 prim