In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object, intentionally placed into orbit. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as Earth's Moon. On 4 October 1957 the Soviet Union launched the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1. Since about 8,100 satellites from more than 40 countries have been launched. According to a 2018 estimate, some 4,900 remain in orbit, of those about 1,900. 500 operational satellites are in low-Earth orbit, 50 are in medium-Earth orbit, the rest are in geostationary orbit. A few large satellites have been assembled in orbit. Over a dozen space probes have been placed into orbit around other bodies and become artificial satellites to the Moon, Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, a few asteroids, a comet and the Sun. Satellites are used for many purposes. Among several other applications, they can be used to make star maps and maps of planetary surfaces, take pictures of planets they are launched into.
Common types include military and civilian Earth observation satellites, communications satellites, navigation satellites, weather satellites, space telescopes. Space stations and human spacecraft in orbit are satellites. Satellite orbits vary depending on the purpose of the satellite, are classified in a number of ways. Well-known classes include low Earth orbit, polar orbit, geostationary orbit. A launch vehicle is a rocket, it lifts off from a launch pad on land. Some are launched at sea aboard a plane. Satellites are semi-independent computer-controlled systems. Satellite subsystems attend many tasks, such as power generation, thermal control, attitude control and orbit control. "Newton's cannonball", presented as a "thought experiment" in A Treatise of the System of the World, by Isaac Newton was the first published mathematical study of the possibility of an artificial satellite. The first fictional depiction of a satellite being launched into orbit was a short story by Edward Everett Hale, The Brick Moon.
The idea surfaced again in Jules Verne's The Begum's Fortune. In 1903, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky published Exploring Space Using Jet Propulsion Devices, the first academic treatise on the use of rocketry to launch spacecraft, he calculated the orbital speed required for a minimal orbit, that a multi-stage rocket fuelled by liquid propellants could achieve this. In 1928, Herman Potočnik published The Problem of Space Travel -- The Rocket Motor, he described the use of orbiting spacecraft for observation of the ground and described how the special conditions of space could be useful for scientific experiments. In a 1945 Wireless World article, the English science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke described in detail the possible use of communications satellites for mass communications, he suggested. The US military studied the idea of what was referred to as the "earth satellite vehicle" when Secretary of Defense James Forrestal made a public announcement on 29 December 1948, that his office was coordinating that project between the various services.
The first artificial satellite was Sputnik 1, launched by the Soviet Union on 4 October 1957, initiating the Soviet Sputnik program, with Sergei Korolev as chief designer. This in turn triggered the Space Race between the United States. Sputnik 1 helped to identify the density of high atmospheric layers through measurement of its orbital change and provided data on radio-signal distribution in the ionosphere; the unanticipated announcement of Sputnik 1's success precipitated the Sputnik crisis in the United States and ignited the so-called Space Race within the Cold War. Sputnik 2 was launched on 3 November 1957 and carried the first living passenger into orbit, a dog named Laika. In May, 1946, Project RAND had released the Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship, which stated, "A satellite vehicle with appropriate instrumentation can be expected to be one of the most potent scientific tools of the Twentieth Century." The United States had been considering launching orbital satellites since 1945 under the Bureau of Aeronautics of the United States Navy.
The United States Air Force's Project RAND released the report, but considered the satellite to be a tool for science and propaganda, rather than a potential military weapon. In 1954, the Secretary of Defense stated, "I know of no American satellite program." In February 1954 Project RAND released "Scientific Uses for a Satellite Vehicle," written by R. R. Carhart; this expanded on potential scientific uses for satellite vehicles and was followed in June 1955 with "The Scientific Use of an Artificial Satellite," by H. K. Kallmann and W. W. Kellogg. In the context of activities planned for the International Geophysical Year, the White House announced on 29 July 1955 that the U. S. intended to launch satellites by the spring of 1958. This became known as Project Vanguard. On 31 July, the Soviets announced that they intended to launch a satellite by the fall of 1957. Following pressure by the American Rocket Society, the National Science Foundation, the International Geophysical Year, military interest picked up and in early 1955 the Army and Navy were worki
The Saturn V was an American human-rated expendable rocket used by NASA between 1967 and 1973. The three-stage liquid-propellant super heavy-lift launch vehicle was developed to support the Apollo program for human exploration of the Moon and was used to launch Skylab, the first American space station; the Saturn V was launched 13 times from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida with no loss of crew or payload. As of 2019, the Saturn V remains the tallest and most powerful rocket brought to operational status, holds records for the heaviest payload launched and largest payload capacity to low Earth orbit of 140,000 kg, which included the third stage and unburned propellant needed to send the Apollo Command/Service Module and Lunar Module to the Moon; the largest production model of the Saturn family of rockets, the Saturn V was designed under the direction of Wernher von Braun and Arthur Rudolph at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, with Boeing, North American Aviation, Douglas Aircraft Company, IBM as the lead contractors.
To date, the Saturn V remains the only launch vehicle to carry humans beyond low Earth orbit. A total of 15 flight-capable vehicles were built. An additional three vehicles were built for ground testing purposes. A total of 24 astronauts were launched to the Moon, three of them twice, in the four years spanning December 1968 through December 1972; the origins of the Saturn V rocket begin with the US government bringing Wernher von Braun along with about seven hundred German rocket engineers and technicians to the United States in Operation Paperclip, a program authorized by President Truman in August 1946 with the purpose of harvesting Germany's rocket expertise, to give the US an edge in the Cold War through development of intermediate-range and intercontinental ballistic missiles. It was known that America's rival, the Soviet Union, would try to secure some of the Germans. Von Braun was put into the rocket design division of the Army due to his prior direct involvement in the creation of the V-2 rocket.
Between 1945 and 1958, his work was restricted to conveying the ideas and methods behind the V-2 to the American engineers. Despite Von Braun's many articles on the future of space rocketry, the US Government continued funding Air Force and Navy rocket programs to test their Vanguard missiles in spite of numerous costly failures, it was not until the 1957 Soviet launch of Sputnik 1 atop an R-7 ICBM, capable of carrying a thermonuclear warhead to the US, that the Army and the government started taking serious steps towards putting Americans in space. They turned to von Braun and his team, who during these years created and experimented with the Jupiter series of rockets; the Juno I was the rocket that launched the first American satellite in January 1958, part of the last-ditch plan for NACA to get its foot in the Space Race. The Jupiter series was one more step in von Braun's journey to the Saturn V calling that first series "an infant Saturn"; the Saturn program was named Saturn. The Saturn's design stemmed from the designs of the Jupiter series rockets.
As the success of the Jupiter series became evident, the Saturn series emerged. Between 1960 and 1962, the Marshall Space Flight Center designed a series of Saturn rockets that could be used for various Earth orbit or lunar missions; the C-1 was developed into the Saturn I, the C-2 rocket was dropped early in the design process in favor of the C-3, intended to use two F-1 engines on its first stage, four J-2 engines for its second stage, a S-IV stage using six RL10 engines. NASA planned to use the C-3 as part of the Earth Orbit Rendezvous concept, with at least four or five launches needed for a single lunar mission, but MSFC was planning an bigger rocket, the C-4, which would use four F-1 engines on its first stage, an enlarged C-3 second stage, the S-IVB, a stage with a single J-2 engine, as its third stage. The C-4 would need only two launches to carry out an EOR lunar mission. On January 10, 1962, NASA announced plans to build the C-5; the three-stage rocket would consist of: the S-IC first stage, with five F-1 engines.
The C-5 was designed for a 90,000-pound payload capacity to the Moon. The C-5 would undergo component testing before the first model was constructed; the S-IVB third stage would be used as the second stage for the C-IB, which would serve both to demonstrate proof of concept and feasibility for the C-5, but would provide flight data critical to development of the C-5. Rather than undergoing testing for each major component, the C-5 would be tested in an "all-up" fashion, meaning that the first test flight of the rocket would include complete versions of all three stages. By testing all components at once, far fewer test flights would be required before a manned launch; the C-5 was confirmed as NASA's choice for the Apollo program in early 1963, was named the Saturn V. The C-1 became the Saturn I, C-1B became Saturn IB. Von Braun headed a team at the Marshall Space Flight Center in building a vehicle capable of launching a manned spacecraft to the Moon. Before they moved under NASA's jurisdiction, von Braun's team had begun work on improving the thrust, creating a less complex operating system, designing better mechanical systems.
It was during these revisions that the decision to reject the single engine of the V-2's design came about, the team moved to a multiple-engine design. The Saturn I and IB reflected these changes, but were not large enough to send a m
The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union with its satellite states, the United States with its allies after World War II. A common historiography of the conflict begins between 1946, the year U. S. diplomat George F. Kennan's "Long Telegram" from Moscow cemented a U. S. foreign policy of containment of Soviet expansionism threatening strategically vital regions, the Truman Doctrine of 1947, ending between the Revolutions of 1989, which ended communism in Eastern Europe, the 1991 collapse of the USSR, when nations of the Soviet Union abolished communism and restored their independence. The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, but they each supported major regional conflicts known as proxy wars; the conflict split the temporary wartime alliance against Nazi Germany and its allies, leaving the USSR and the US as two superpowers with profound economic and political differences. The capitalist West was led by the United States, a federal republic with a two-party presidential system, as well as the other First World nations of the Western Bloc that were liberal democratic with a free press and independent organizations, but were economically and politically entwined with a network of banana republics and other authoritarian regimes, most of which were the Western Bloc's former colonies.
Some major Cold War frontlines such as Indochina and the Congo were still Western colonies in 1947. The Soviet Union, on the other hand, was a self-proclaimed Marxist–Leninist state led by its Communist Party, which in turn was dominated by a totalitarian leader with different titles over time, a small committee called the Politburo; the Party controlled the state, the press, the military, the economy, many organizations throughout the Second World, including the Warsaw Pact and other satellites, funded communist parties around the world, sometimes in competition with communist China following the Sino-Soviet split of the 1960s. The two worlds were fighting for dominance in low-developed regions known as the Third World. In time, a neutral bloc arose in these regions with the Non-Aligned Movement, which sought good relations with both sides. Notwithstanding isolated incidents of air-to-air dogfights and shoot-downs, the two superpowers never engaged directly in full-scale armed combat. However, both were armed in preparation for a possible all-out nuclear world war.
Each side had a nuclear strategy that discouraged an attack by the other side, on the basis that such an attack would lead to the total destruction of the attacker—the doctrine of mutually assured destruction. Aside from the development of the two sides' nuclear arsenals, their deployment of conventional military forces, the struggle for dominance was expressed via proxy wars around the globe, psychological warfare, massive propaganda campaigns and espionage, far-reaching embargoes, rivalry at sports events, technological competitions such as the Space Race; the first phase of the Cold War began in the first two years after the end of the Second World War in 1945. The USSR consolidated its control over the states of the Eastern Bloc, while the United States began a strategy of global containment to challenge Soviet power, extending military and financial aid to the countries of Western Europe and creating the NATO alliance; the Berlin Blockade was the first major crisis of the Cold War. With the victory of the Communist side in the Chinese Civil War and the outbreak of the Korean War, the conflict expanded.
The USSR and the US competed for influence in Latin America and the decolonizing states of Africa and Asia. The Soviets suppressed the Hungarian Revolution of 1956; the expansion and escalation sparked more crises, such as the Suez Crisis, the Berlin Crisis of 1961, the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, the closest the two sides came to nuclear war. Meanwhile, an international peace movement took root and grew among citizens around the world, first in Japan from 1954, when people became concerned about nuclear weapons testing, but soon in Europe and the US; the peace movement, in particular the anti-nuclear movement, gained pace and popularity from the late 1950s and early 1960s, continued to grow through the'70s and'80s with large protest marches and various non-parliamentary activism opposing war and calling for global nuclear disarmament. Following the Cuban Missile Crisis, a new phase began that saw the Sino-Soviet split complicate relations within the Communist sphere, while US allies France, demonstrated greater independence of action.
The USSR crushed the 1968 Prague Spring liberalization program in Czechoslovakia, while the US experienced internal turmoil from the civil rights movement and opposition to the Vietnam War, which ended with the defeat of the US-backed Republic of Vietnam, prompting further adjustments. By the 1970s, both sides had become interested in making allowances in order to create a more stable and predictable international system, ushering in a period of détente that saw Strategic Arms Limitation Talks and the US opening relations with the People's Republic of China as a strategic counterweight to the Soviet Union. Détente collapsed at the end of the decade with the beginning of the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979; the early 1980s were another period of elevated tension, with the Soviet downing of KAL Flight 007 and the "Able Archer" NATO military exercises, both in 1983. The United States increased diplomatic and economic pressures on the Soviet Union, at a time when the communist state was suffering from economic stag
Mittelwerk was a German World War II factory built underground in the Kohnstein to avoid Allied bombing. It used slave labor from the Mittelbau-Dora concentration camp to produce V-2 ballistic missiles, V-1 flying bombs, other weapons. On the night of 17/18 August 1943, RAF bombers carried out Operation Hydra against the Peenemünde Army Research Center where V-2 development and production was being carried out. On 19 October 1943, the German limited company Mittelwerk GmbH was issued War Contract No. 0011-5565/43 by General Emil Leeb, head of the Army Weapons Office, for 12,000 A-4 missiles at 40,000 Reichsmarks each. Mittelwerk GmbH headed sites for V-2 rocket development and testing at Schlier and Lehesten. Beginning in May 1944, Georg Rickhey was the Mittelwerk general manager, Albin Sawatzki was the Mittelwerk technical director over both Arthur Rudolph's Technical Division and Hans Lindenberg's 50 engineers of the quality control group located at Ilfeld. Other Mittelwerk/Ilfield engineers included Magnus von Braun in turbopump production, Guenther Haukohl who supervised V-2 production after helping design the assembly line, Eric Ball, Hans Fridrich, Hans Palaoro and Rudolph Schlidt.
The facility had a communications staff under Captain Dr Kühle, an Administrative Division run by Börner under Mittelwerk board member Otto Karl Bersch, a Prisoner Labor Supply office. Hannelore Bannasch was Sawatzki's secretary. In July 1944, Hans Kammler ordered the North Works to use cross-tunnels 1-20 for a Junkers jet and piston engine factory, leaving cross-tunnels 21-46 for Mittelwerk GmbH. During February–April 1945, the Nordhausen plant built Taifun anti-aircraft missiles and Heinkel He 162 jet fighters and put into operation a liquid oxygen plant; the plant was the Eber project and used equipment evacuated from the Watten bunker and elsewhere to build Heylandt liquid oxygen generators. The Mittelwerk contained equipment for producing jet fuel, in an emergency 1944 decentralization program started the "Cuckoo" project, an underground oil plant to be "carved out of the Himmelsburg" North of the Mittelwerk. Additional plans for V-2 rocket plants were never fulfilled. V-1 flying bomb assembly began during October/November 1944 in the South end of tunnel A.
At the end of January 1945, 51 V-1s were shipped from a dispersed Fieseler factory in Upper Bavaria to the Nordhausen plant for completion. After a second V-1 factory at Burg was closed, the Mittelwerk Werk II in February 1945 was the only factory producing V-1 flying bombs, a total of 2,275 V-1s were built by Werk II from September 1944 until April 1945. Although there has long been speculation about other "exotic" weaponry being constructed or stored at Mittelwerk, evidence of this is scarce. For example, Richard Overy notes in The Bombing War - Europe 1939-1945: "There is some evidence that small spherical bombs containing radioactive waste were stored in the Mittelbau-Dora works, but it is not conclusive." In late February 1945, the Allied Chiefs of Staff discussed a proposed attack on the Nordhausen plant with a flammable petroleum-soap mixture, used in the Pacific theatre to penetrate buried strongpoints and scourge them with intense heat. The area was attacked with conventional bombs by RAF Bomber Command on 4 April.
What were believed to be barracks were attacked on 3 April but they contained forced labour workers. The attack of 4 April hit the town of Nordhausen; the Mittelbau-Dora forced labor was evacuated on 4 April, scientists evacuated to the Alpenfestung. Hitler had made an order, the "Demolitions on Reich Territory Decree", which ordered the destruction of any infrastructure that might be of use to the Allies but it was deliberately ignored by Speer and the Nordhausen plant was evacuated without damage. Having been warned to "expect something a little unusual in the Nordhausen area", after entering the Nordhausen plant from the North through the Junkers Nordwerke, U. S. 3rd Armored Division and 104th Infantry Divisions reached the city of Nordhausen on 11 April 1945 and discovered the dead and sick of the Boelcke Kaserne barracks. Casualties of the V-2 rocket are estimated at 5,923 injured. By contrast, of the 60,000 people who passed through Mittelbau-Dora and its subcamps, an estimated 20,000 died either at the camp or at places they were subsequently transported to: 350 were hanged, many others died from exhaustion, malnutrition or disease.
Some were murdered by guards. The total includes 1,300 to 1,500 prisoners killed by British bombs in early April. On 22 May 1945, US Army Special Mission V-2 shipped the first trainload of rocket parts for use in projects such as Operation Sandy, Operation Blossom and, at the White Sands Proving Grounds, the Hermes project; the Nordhausen area was to become part of the Soviet zone of occupation, Soviet Army officers arrived to tour the Nordhausen plant on 26 May 1945. In June 1945, the US Army left the Nordhausen plant as required by JCS Directive 1067/14, with parts, machine tools, documents left for the Soviets; the Red Army occupied the Mittelwerk on 5 July 1945 and demolished both of the entrances of the tunnel system in mid-1948. The 1947 Dora Trial convicted SS Officers and concentration camp kapos, while 3 scientists of the V-2 rocket program were implicated (
Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (Russian: Серге́й Па́влович Королёв, IPA: transliterated as Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov, Ukrainian: Сергій Павлович Корольов / Serhiy Pavlovych Korolyov. He is regarded by many as the father of practical astronautics, he was involved in the development of the R-7 Rocket, Sputnik 1, launching Laika and the first human being into space. Although Korolev trained as an aircraft designer, his greatest strengths proved to be in design integration and strategic planning. Arrested on a false official charge as a "member of an anti-Soviet counter-revolutionary organization", he was imprisoned in 1938 for six years, including some months in a Kolyma labour camp. Following his release he became a recognized rocket designer and a key figure in the development of the Soviet Intercontinental ballistic missile program, he directed the Soviet space program and was made a Member of Soviet Academy of Sciences, overseeing the early successes of the Sputnik and Vostok projects including the first human Earth orbit mission by Yuri Alexeyvich Gagarin on 12 April 1961.
Korolev's unexpected death in 1966 interrupted implementation of his plans for a Soviet manned Moon landing before the United States 1969 mission. Before his death he was identified only as Glavny Konstruktor, or the Chief Designer, to protect him from possible cold war assassination attempts by the United States; some of the cosmonauts who worked with him were unaware of his last name. Only following his death in 1966 was his identity revealed and he received the appropriate public recognition as the driving force behind Soviet accomplishments in space exploration during and following the International Geophysical Year. Korolev was born in Zhytomyr, the capital of Volhynian Governorate of the Russian Empire now located in Ukraine, his father, Pavel Yakovlevich Korolev, was born in Mogilev to a Russian soldier and a Belarusian mother. His mother, Maria Nikolaevna Koroleva, was a daughter of a wealthy merchant in the Ukrainian city of Nizhyn with Cossack heritage. On his maternal side, in addition to Ukrainian Cossacks, he had Greek and Polish ancestry.
His father moved to Zhytomyr to be a teacher of the Russian language. Three years after his birth the couple separated due to financial difficulties. Although Pavel wrote to Maria requesting a meeting with his son, Sergei was informed by his mother that his father had died. Sergei never saw his father after the family break-up, Pavel died in 1929 before his son learned the truth. Korolev grew up in Nizhyn, under the care of his maternal grandparents Mykola Yakovych Moskalenko, a trader of the Second Guild and Maria Matviivna Moskalenko, a daughter of a local cossack. Korolev's mother had a sister Anna and two brothers Yuri and Vasily. Maria Koroleva was away attending Women's higher education courses in Kiev; as a child, Korolev was stubborn and argumentative. Sergei grew up a lonely child with few friends. Korolev began reading at an early age, his abilities in mathematics and other subjects made him a favorite student of his teachers, but caused jealousy from his peers, he stated in an interview, the torment of classmates bullying and teasing him as a small child encouraged his focus on academic work.
His mother divorced Pavel in 1915 and in 1916 married Grigory Mikhailovich Balanin, an electrical engineer educated in Germany but attending the Kiev Polytechnic University because German engineering diplomas were unrecognized in Russia. After getting a job with the regional railway, Grigory moved the family to Odessa in 1917, where they endured hardships with many other families through the tumultuous years following the Russian Revolution and continuing internecine struggles until the Bolsheviks assumed unchallenged power in 1920. Local schools were closed and young Korolev had to continue his studies at home. Grigory proved a good influence on his step-son, who suffered from a bout of typhus during the severe food shortages of 1919. Korolev received vocational training in carpentry and in various academics at the Odessa Building Trades School. Enjoyment of a 1913 air show inspired interest in aeronautical engineering. Korolev began designing a glider as a diversion while studying for his graduation exams at the vocational school.
He made an independent study of flight theory, worked in the local glider club. A detachment of military seaplanes had been stationed in Odessa, Korolev took a keen interest in their operations. In 1923 he joined Aerial Navigation of Ukraine and the Crimea, he had his first flying lesson after joining the Odessa hydroplane squadron and had many opportunities to fly as a passenger. In 1924 he designed an OAVUK construction project glider called the K-5, he trained in gymnastics until his academic work suffered from this distraction. Korolev hoped to attend the Zhukovsky Academy in Moscow, but his qualifications did not meet the academy's standards, he attended the Kiev Polytechnic Institute's aviation branch in 1924 while living with his uncle Yuri, earning money to pay for his courses by performing odd jobs. His curriculum was technically oriented, included various engineering and mathematics classes, he met and became attracted to a classmate, Xenia Vincentini, who would become his first wife.
In 1925 he was accepted into a
Sputnik 1 was the first artificial Earth satellite. The Soviet Union launched it into an elliptical low Earth orbit on 4 October 1957, orbiting for three weeks before its batteries died silently for two more months before falling back into the atmosphere, it was a 58 cm diameter polished metal sphere, with four external radio antennas to broadcast radio pulses. Its radio signal was detectable by radio amateurs, the 65° inclination and duration of its orbit made its flight path cover the entire inhabited Earth; this surprise success precipitated the American Sputnik crisis and triggered the Space Race, a part of the Cold War. The launch was the beginning of a new era of political, military and scientific developments. Tracking and studying Sputnik 1 from Earth provided scientists with valuable information; the density of the upper atmosphere could be deduced from its drag on the orbit, the propagation of its radio signals gave data about the ionosphere. Sputnik 1 was launched during the International Geophysical Year from Site No.1/5, at the 5th Tyuratam range, in Kazakh SSR.
The satellite travelled at about 29,000 kilometres per hour, taking 96.2 minutes to complete each orbit. It transmitted on 20.005 and 40.002 MHz, which were monitored by radio operators throughout the world. The signals continued for 21 days until the transmitter batteries ran out on 26 October 1957. Sputnik burned up on 4 January 1958 while reentering Earth's atmosphere, after three months, 1440 completed orbits of the Earth, a distance travelled of about 70 million km. On 17 December 1954, chief Soviet rocket scientist Sergei Korolev proposed a developmental plan for an artificial satellite to the Minister of the Defence Industry, Dimitri Ustinov. Korolev forwarded a report with an overview of similar projects abroad. Tikhonravov had emphasized that the launch of an orbital satellite was an inevitable stage in the development of rocket technology. On 29 July 1955, U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower announced through his press secretary that, during the International Geophysical Year, the United States would launch an artificial satellite.
A week on 8 August, the Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union approved the proposal to create an artificial satellite. On 30 August Vasily Ryabikov – the head of the State Commission on the R-7 rocket test launches – held a meeting where Korolev presented calculation data for a spaceflight trajectory to the Moon, they decided to develop a three-stage version of the R-7 rocket for satellite launches. On 30 January 1956 the Council of Ministers approved practical work on an artificial Earth-orbiting satellite; this satellite, named Object D, was planned to be completed in 1957–58. The first test launch of "Object D" was scheduled for 1957. Work on the satellite was to be divided among institutions as follows: the USSR Academy of Sciences was responsible for the general scientific leadership and the supply of research instruments the Ministry of the Defence Industry and its primary design bureau, OKB-1, were assigned the task of building the satellite the Ministry of the Radiotechnical Industry would develop the control system, radio/technical instruments, the telemetry system the Ministry of the Ship Building Industry would develop gyroscope devices the Ministry of the Machine Building would develop ground launching and transportation means the Ministry of the Defense was responsible for conducting launchesPreliminary design work was completed in July 1956 and the scientific tasks to be carried out by the satellite were defined.
These included measuring the density of the atmosphere and its ion composition, the solar wind, magnetic fields, cosmic rays. These data would be valuable in the creation of future artificial satellites. A system of ground stations was to be developed to collect data transmitted by the satellite, observe the satellite's orbit, transmit commands to the satellite; because of the limited time frame, observations were planned for only 7 to 10 days and orbit calculations were not expected to be accurate. By the end of 1956 it became clear that the complexity of the ambitious design meant that'Object D' could not be launched in time because of difficulties creating scientific instruments and the low specific impulse produced by the completed R-7 engines; the government rescheduled the launch for April 1958. Object D would fly as Sputnik 3. Fearing the U. S. would launch a satellite before the USSR, OKB-1 suggested the creation and launch of a satellite in April–May 1957, before the IGY began in July 1957.
The new satellite would be simple and easy to construct, forgoing the complex, heavy scientific equipment in favour of a simple radio transmitter. On 15 February 1957 the Council of Ministers of the USSR approved this simple satellite, designated'Object PS'; this version allowed the satellite to be tracked visually by Earth-based observers, it could transmit tracking signals to ground-based receiving stations. The launch of two satellites, PS-1 and PS-2, with two R-7 rockets was approved, provided that the R-7 completed at least two successful test flights; the R-7 Semyorka was designed as an intercontinental ballistic missile by OKB-1. The decision to build it was made by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Council of Ministers of the USSR on 20 M
Rear Admiral Alan Bartlett Shepard Jr. was an American astronaut, naval aviator, test pilot, businessman. In 1961 he became the first American to travel into space, in 1971 he walked on the Moon. A graduate of the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Shepard saw action with the surface navy during World War II, he became a naval aviator in 1946, a test pilot in 1950. He was selected as one of the original NASA Mercury Seven astronauts in 1959, in May 1961 he made the first crewed Project Mercury flight, MR-3, in a spacecraft he named Freedom 7, his craft was not capable of achieving orbit. He became the second person, the first American, to travel into space, the first space traveler to manually control the orientation of his craft. In the final stages of Project Mercury, Shepard was scheduled to pilot the Mercury-Atlas 10, planned as a three-day mission, he named Mercury Spacecraft 15B Freedom 7 II in honor of his first spacecraft, but the mission was canceled. Shepard was designated as the commander of the first crewed Project Gemini mission, but was grounded in 1963 due to Ménière's disease, an inner-ear ailment that caused episodes of extreme dizziness and nausea.
This was surgically corrected in 1969, in 1971, Shepard commanded the Apollo 14 mission, piloting the Apollo Lunar Module Antares to the most accurate landing of the Apollo missions. At age 47, he became the fifth, the oldest, the earliest-born person to walk on the Moon, the only one of the Mercury Seven astronauts to do so. During the mission, he hit two golf balls on the lunar surface, he was Chief of the Astronaut Office from November 1963 to July 1969, from June 1971 until his retirement from the United States Navy and NASA on August 1, 1974. He was promoted to rear admiral on the first astronaut to reach that rank. Alan Bartlett Shepard Jr. was born on November 18, 1923, in Derry, New Hampshire, to Alan B. Shepard Sr. and Pauline Renza Shepard. He had a younger sister, known as Polly, he was one of many famous descendants of Mayflower passenger Richard Warren. His father, Alan B. Shepard Sr. known as Bart, worked in the Derry National Bank, owned by Shepard's grandfather. Alan Sr. joined the National Guard in 1915 and served in France with the American Expeditionary Force during World War I.
He remained in the National Guard between the wars, was recalled to active duty during World War II, rising to the rank of lieutenant colonel. Shepard attended Adams School in Derry. In 1936, he went to the Pinkerton Academy, a private school in Derry that his father had attended and where his grandfather had been a trustee, he completed years 9 to 12 there. Fascinated by flight, he created a model airplane club at the Academy, his Christmas present in 1938 was a flight in a Douglas DC-3; the following year he began cycling to Manchester Airfield, where he would do odd jobs in exchange for the occasional ride in an airplane or informal flying lesson. Shepard graduated from Pinkerton Academy in 1940; because World War II was raging in Europe, his father wanted him to join the Army. Shepard chose the Navy instead, he passed the entrance exam to the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis in 1940, but at sixteen was too young to enter that year. The Navy sent him to the Admiral Farragut Academy, a prep school for the Naval Academy, from which he graduated with the class of 1941.
Tests administered at Farragut indicated an IQ of 145. At Annapolis, Shepard enjoyed aquatic sports, he was a keen and competitive sailor, winning several races, including a regatta held by the Annapolis Yacht Club. He learned to sail all the types of boats the academy owned, up to and including USS Freedom, a 90-foot schooner, he participated in swimming, rowed with the eight. During his Christmas break in 1942, he went to Principia College to be with his sister, unable to go home owing to wartime travel restrictions. There he met Louise Brewer, whose parents were pensioners on the du Pont family estate, like Renza Shepard, were devout Christian Scientists. Owing to the war, the usual four-year course at Annapolis was cut short by a year, he graduated and was commissioned as an ensign on June 6, 1944, ranked 463rd in his class of 915; the following month he became secretly engaged to Louise. In 1944 he received a Bachelor of Science at the United States Naval Academy. After a month of classroom instruction in aviation, Shepard was posted to a destroyer, USS Cogswell, in August 1944.
At the time the destroyer was deployed on active service in the Pacific Ocean. Shepard joined it when it returned to the naval base at Ulithi on October 30. After just two days at sea Cogswell helped rescue 172 sailors from the cruiser USS Reno, torpedoed by a Japanese submarine escorted the crippled ship back to Ulithi; the ship was buffeted by Typhoon Cobra in December 1944, a storm in which three other destroyers went down, battled kamikazes in the invasion of Lingayen Gulf in January 1945. Cogswell returned to the United States for an overhaul in February 1945. Shepard was given three weeks' leave; the ceremony took place on March 3, 1945, in St. Stephen's Lutheran Church in Delaware, his father, served as his best man. The newlyweds had only a brief time together before Shepard rejoined Cogswell at the Long Beach Navy Yard on April 5, 1945