Lawrence Hall of Science
The Lawrence Hall of Science is a public science center in Berkeley, California that offers hands-on science exhibits, designs curriculum, aids professional development, offers after school science resources to students of all ages. The Hall was established in 1968 in honor of physicist Ernest Orlando Lawrence, the University of California's first Nobel laureate; the Hall is located in the hills above the University of California, Berkeley campus, less than a mile uphill from the University's Botanical Garden. Science on a Sphere – interactive globe displaying real scientific data from Earth. Scientific data displayed on the globe includes Earth's weather patterns, ocean temperatures and currents, climate change and night views of the Earth, tsunami and hurricane patterns. Science on a Sphere was developed by researchers at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Forces That Shape the Bay – outdoor science park, which explores the seismological forces that created and still affect the entire San Francisco Bay area.
Sunstones – an 18-foot granite astronomical sculpture, created by David Cudaback and Richard O’Hanlon and installed outside the Hall in 1979. Sight lines in the piece allow visitors to view northern- and southern-most setting of the sun at the solstices and many other important astronomical events. Nano – an exhibit examining the field of nanotechnology; the Nanozone introduces nanotechnology researchers from UC Berkeley and across the country, the latest consumer products made with nanotechnology, computer games and hands-on activity stations that demonstrate how things work at the nanoscale. KidsLab – a multi-sensory play area for children in kindergarten and younger. Activities include large blocks and shapes to stack and build, a crawl-through kaleidoscope, the Gravity Wall, a puppet theater, a reading area. Ernest O. Lawrence Memorial – devoted to the life and research of Ernest O. Lawrence; this exhibit features a biographical film on Lawrence's life and a pair of "Dee" electrodes from one of the first cyclotrons.
A seismograph connected to UC Berkeley’s Seismographic Station, that registers earthquakes occurring anywhere in the world. Insect Zoo – See hermit crabs, Indian walking sticks, a tarantula, hissing cockroaches; the Animal Discovery Room – where children learn about animals. Many homeschool and other classes are held in the Animal Discovery Room and provide the opportunity for children to observe and interact with animals. Ingenuity Lab – This engineering lab offers a different challenge each month that allows kids to think critically and explore real world engineering problems. Math Around the World – an exhibit featuring math games played around the world. Popular games include Hex, Game Sticks and Shongo Networks. Pheena the Fin Whale – a life sized model of a juvenile Fin whale residing on the plaza. A larger-than-life DNA sculpture on the plaza is another favorite place for young visitors to play; this sculpture was designed by Michael Jantzen of California. It was put in place in the spring of 1992.
In addition to its permanent exhibits, the Lawrence Hall of Science features a constant rotation of traveling exhibits. Past traveling exhibits include: Tony Hawk Rad Science, Dinosaurs Unearthed, Scream Machines: The Science of Roller Coasters, RACE: Are We So Different?, Facing Mars, Animal Grossology, Engineer It, Wild Music: Songs and Sounds of Life, Circus! Science at the Big Top, Grossology, My Home, Planet Earth, Big Dinos Return, Candy Unwrapped, Math Midway. In 2003, following the death of Lawrence’s widow, Molly Lawrence, the Lawrence family chose the Lawrence Hall of Science to house his 1939 Nobel Prize in Physics; the medal was placed in a display case in the E. O Lawrence Memorial room, a permanent exhibit which has displayed artifacts of his life and work for nearly forty years. On March 1, 2007 a member of the Lawrence Hall of Science Exhibits staff reported that the Nobel Prize medal was missing from its locked display case; the UC Police Department was notified and began an investigation on the medal’s theft.
A $2,500 award was offered in exchange for the medal’s recovery and information leading to the arrest and conviction of the suspect. The medal is made from 23 karat gold and worth $4,000. Lawrence's medal was the first Nobel prize awarded to the University of California and the first Nobel prize won by an American public university; the prize was recovered and a student was arrested on suspicion of grand theft. A replica of the Ernest Lawrence Nobel Prize now resides in the museum display case; the Lawrence Hall of Science develops interactive planetarium shows for its own planetarium and other small planetariums. The planetarium was directed by Alan Friedman; the Holt Planetarium's programs have focused on audience participation, an innovation that has changed the way small planetariums around the world present astronomy to the public. In 2000 the Holt Planetarium was deemed "The Best Planetarium in the Whole World" by The Planetarian, Journal of the International Planetarium Society; the Hall's William Knox Holt Planetarium presents live, interactive shows, following the hands-on philosophy of science education.
Three different public planetarium shows are offered every day throughout the summer, on weekends and holidays during the school year. The Holt Planetarium has a strong interactive approach to astronomy education, their programs engage audience members in activities such as finding constellations, searching for exoplanets, so forth. The planetarium at Pacific Science Center in Seattle was directly modeled on the Holt. Dennis Schatz was hired in 1977 from Law
The Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms mission began in February 2007 as a constellation of five NASA satellites to study energy releases from Earth's magnetosphere known as substorms, magnetic phenomena that intensify auroras near Earth's poles. The name of the mission is an acronym alluding to the Titan, Themis. Three of the satellites orbit the Earth within the magnetosphere, while two have been moved into orbit around the Moon; those two were renamed ARTEMIS for Acceleration, Reconnection and Electrodynamics of the Moon’s Interaction with the Sun. THEMIS B became ARTEMIS P1 and THEMIS C became ARTEMIS P2; the THEMIS satellites were launched February 17, 2007 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch Complex 17 aboard a Delta II rocket. Each satellite carries identical instrumentation, including a fluxgate magnetometer, an electrostatic analyzer, a solid state telescope, a search-coil magnetometer and an electric field instrument; each probe has a mass including 49 kg of hydrazine fuel.
THEMIS data can be accessed using the SPEDAS software. THEMIS was scheduled to launch on October 19, 2006. Owing to delays caused by workmanship problems with Delta II second stages—an issue that affected the previous mission, STEREO—the THEMIS launch was delayed to Thursday, February 15, 2007. Due to weather conditions occurring on Tuesday, February 13, fueling of the second stage was delayed, the launch pushed back 24 hours. On February 16, the launch was scrubbed in a hold at the T-4 minute point in the countdown due to the final weather balloon reporting a red, or nogo condition for upper level winds. A 24-hour turnaround procedure was initiated, targeting a new launch window between 23:01 and 23:17 UTC on February 17. Favorable weather conditions were observed on February 17, the countdown proceeded smoothly. THEMIS launched at 6:01 p.m. EST; the spacecraft separated from the launch vehicle 73 minutes after liftoff. By 8:07 p.m. EST, mission operators at the Space Sciences Laboratory of the University of California, Berkeley and received signals from all five spacecraft, confirming nominal separation status.
The launch service was provided by the United Launch Alliance through the NASA Launch Services Program. From February 15, 2007 until September 15, 2007 the five THEMIS satellites coasted in a string-of-pearls orbital configuration. From September 15, 2007 until December 4, 2007 the satellites were moved to more distant orbits in preparation for data collection in the magnetotail; this phase of the mission was called the "Dawn Phase" because the satellites' orbits were in apogee on the dawn side of the magnetosphere. On December 4, 2007 the first tail science phase of the mission began. In this segment of the mission scientists will collect data from the magnetotail of the Earth's magnetosphere. During this phase the satellites' orbits are in apogee inside the magnetotail; the scientists hope to observe magnetic reconnection events. During these events charged particles stored in the Earth's magnetosphere are discharged to form the aurora borealis. Tail science is performed in the winter of the northern hemisphere because the ground magnetometers that Themis scientists correlate the satellite data with have longer periods of night.
During the night, observations are not interrupted by charged particles from the Sun. In 2007, THEMIS "found evidence of magnetic ropes connecting Earth's upper atmosphere directly to the Sun," reconfirming the theory of solar-terrestrial electrical interaction proposed by Kristian Birkeland circa 1908. NASA likened the interaction to a "30 kiloVolt battery in space," noting the "flux rope pumps 650,000 Amp current into the Arctic!"On 26 February 2008, THEMIS probes were able to determine, for the first time, the triggering event for the onset of magnetospheric substorms. Two of the five probes, positioned one third the distance to the Moon, measured events suggesting a magnetic reconnection event 96 seconds prior to Auroral intensification. Dr. Vassilis Angelopoulos of the University of California, Los Angeles, the principal investigator for the THEMIS mission, claimed, "Our data show and for the first time that magnetic reconnection is the trigger." On May 19, 2008 the Space Sciences Laboratory at Berkeley announced NASA had extended the THEMIS mission to the year 2012.
NASA approved the movement of THEMIS B and THEMIS C into lunar orbit under the mission name ARTEMIS. In February 2017, THEMIS celebrated ten years of science operations; as of August 2017, the three THEMIS inner probes continue to collect valuable data on the Sun's interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere. In early 2010, ARTEMIS P1 performed two lunar flybys and one Earth flyby, approached insertion into a Lissajous orbit around a lunar Lagrange point. Lunar orbit insertion was targeted for April 2011. ARTEMIS P2 completed a lunar flyby and was on the inbound leg of the first of three deep space excursions on its way to a Lissajous orbit and was targeted for lunar orbit in April 2011. On June 22, 2011, ARTEMIS P1 began firing its thrusters to move out of its kidney-shaped libration orbit on one side of the Moon, where it had been since January. On July 2, 2011 12:30 p.m. EDT, ARTEMIS P1 entered lunar orbit; the second spacecraft, ARTEMIS P2, moved into lunar orbit on July 17, 2011. Along the way, the two spacecraft were the first to achieve orbit around the Moon's Lagrangian points.
As of August 2017, both lunar probes are in stabl
University of California, Berkeley
The University of California, Berkeley is a public research university in Berkeley, California. It was founded in 1868 and serves as the flagship institution of the ten research universities affiliated with the University of California system. Berkeley has since grown to instruct over 40,000 students in 350 undergraduate and graduate degree programs covering numerous disciplines. Berkeley is one of the 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities, with $789 million in R&D expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2015. Today, Berkeley maintains close relationships with three United States Department of Energy National Laboratories—Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory—and is home to many institutes, including the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and the Space Sciences Laboratory. Through its partner institution University of California, San Francisco, Berkeley offers a joint medical program at the UCSF Medical Center.
As of October 2018, Berkeley alumni, faculty members and researchers include 107 Nobel laureates, 25 Turing Award winners, 14 Fields Medalists. They have won 9 Wolf Prizes, 45 MacArthur Fellowships, 20 Academy Awards, 14 Pulitzer Prizes and 207 Olympic medals. In 1930, Ernest Lawrence invented the cyclotron at Berkeley, based on which UC Berkeley researchers along with Berkeley Lab have discovered or co-discovered 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. During the 1940s, Berkeley physicist J. R. Oppenheimer, the "Father of the Atomic Bomb," led the Manhattan project to create the first atomic bomb. In the 1960s, Berkeley was noted for the Free Speech Movement as well as the Anti-Vietnam War Movement led by its students. In the 21st century, Berkeley has become one of the leading universities in producing entrepreneurs and its alumni have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Berkeley is ranked among the top 20 universities in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, the U.
S. News & World Report Global University Rankings, it is considered one of the "Public Ivies", meaning that it is a public university thought to offer a quality of education comparable to that of the Ivy League. In 1866, the private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus in order to re-sell it in subdivided lots to raise funds; the effort failed to raise the necessary funds, so the private college merged with the state-run Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College to form the University of California, the first full-curriculum public university in the state. Upon its founding, The Dwinelle Bill stated that the "University shall have for its design, to provide instruction and thorough and complete education in all departments of science and art, industrial and professional pursuits, general education, special courses of instruction in preparation for the professions". Ten faculty members and 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869.
Frederick H. Billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the new site for the college north of Oakland be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley. In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, became the first president. With the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female students where it held its first classes. Beginning in 1891, Phoebe Apperson Hearst made several large gifts to Berkeley, funding a number of programs and new buildings and sponsoring, in 1898, an international competition in Antwerp, where French architect Émile Bénard submitted the winning design for a campus master plan. In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento becoming the University of California, Davis. In 1919, Los Angeles State Normal School became the southern branch of the University, which became University of California, Los Angeles. By 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard.
Robert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958. In the 1930s, Ernest Lawrence helped establish the Radiation Laboratory and invented the cyclotron, which won him the Nobel physics prize in 1939. Based on the cyclotron, UC Berkeley scientists and researchers, along with Berkeley Lab, went on to discover 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. In particular, during World War II and following Glenn Seaborg's then-secret discovery of plutonium, Ernest Orlando Lawrence's Radiation Laboratory began to contract with the U. S. Army to develop the atomic bomb. UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley was a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. By 1942, the American Council on Education ranked Berkeley second only to Harvard in the number of distinguished departments.
During the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath. A number of faculty members led by Edward C. Tolman were dismissed. In 1952, the University of California became; each campus was give
Richmond is a city in western Contra Costa County, United States. The city was incorporated on August 7, 1905. Located in the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area, Richmond borders the cities of San Pablo, Albany, El Cerrito and Pinole in addition to the unincorporated communities of North Richmond, Hasford Heights, Kensington, El Sobrante, Bayview-Montalvin Manor, Tara Hills, East Richmond Heights, for a short distance San Francisco on Red Rock Island in the San Francisco Bay. Richmond is one of two cities, the other being San Rafael, that sits on the shores of San Francisco Bay and San Pablo Bay simultaneously. Under the McLaughlin Administration, Richmond was the largest city in the United States served by a Green Party mayor; as of the 2010 U. S. Census, the city's population is at 103,710, making it the second largest city in the United States named Richmond; the largest, Virginia, is the namesake of the California city. The Ohlone were the first inhabitants of the Richmond area, settling an estimated 5,000 years ago.
They spoke the Chochenyo language, subsisted as hunter-gatherers and harvesters. The name "Richmond" appears to predate actual incorporation by more than fifty years. Edmund Randolph from Richmond, represented the city of San Francisco when California's first legislature met in San Jose in December 1849, he became state assemblyman from San Francisco, his loyalty to the town of his birth caused him to persuade a federal surveying party mapping the San Francisco Bay to place the names "Point Richmond" and "Richmond" on an 1854 geodetic coast map, the geodetic map at the terminal selected by the San Francisco and San Joaquin Valley Railroad. The Atchison and Santa Fe Railroad had its terminus at Richmond; the first post office opened in 1900. Richmond was founded and incorporated in 1905, carved out of Rancho San Pablo, from which the nearby town of San Pablo inherited its name; until the enactment of prohibition in 1919, the city had the largest winery in the world. Starting in 1917, continuing through the 1920s, the Ku Klux Klan was active in the city.
In 1930 the Ford Motor Company opened an assembly plant called Richmond Assembly Plant which moved to Milpitas in 1956. The old Ford plant has been a National Historic Place since 1988, in 2004 was purchased by developer Eddie Orton and has been converted into an events center; the city was a small town at that time, until the onset of World War II brought a rush of migrants and a boom in the industrial sector. Standard Oil set up operations here in 1901, including what is now the Chevron Richmond Refinery and tank farm, which are still operated by Chevron. There is a pier into San Francisco Bay south of Point Molate for oil tankers; the western terminus of the Santa Fe Railroad was established in Richmond with ferry connections at Ferry Point in the Brickyard Cove area of Point Richmond to San Francisco. At the outset of World War II, the four Richmond Shipyards were built along the Richmond waterfront, employing thousands of workers, many recruited from all over the United States, including many African-Americans and women entering the workforce for the first time.
Many of these workers lived in specially constructed houses scattered throughout the San Francisco Bay Area, including Richmond and Albany. A specially built rail line, the Shipyard Railway, transported workers to the shipyards. Kaiser's Richmond shipyards built 747 Victory and Liberty ships for the war effort, more than any other site in the U. S; the city broke many records and built one Liberty ship in a record five days. On average the yards could build a ship in thirty days; the medical system established for the shipyard workers at the Richmond Field Hospital became today's Kaiser Permanente HMO. It remained in operation until 1993 when it was replaced by the modern Richmond Medical Center hospital, that has subsequently expanded to a large multiple building campus. Point Richmond was the commercial hub of the city, but a new downtown arose in the center of the city, it was populated by many department stores such as Kress, J. C. Penney, Macy's, Woolworth's. During the war the population increased and peaked at around 120,000 by the end of the war.
Once the war ended the shipyard workers were no longer needed, beginning a decades-long population decline. The Census listed 99,545 residents in 1950. By 1960 much of the temporary housing built for the shipyard workers was torn down, the population dropped to about 71,000. Many of the people who moved to Richmond came from the Midwest and South. Most of the white men were overseas at war, this opened up new opportunities for ethnic minorities and women; this era brought with it the innovation of daycare for children, as a few women could care for several dozen women's children, while most of the mothers went off to work in the factories and shipyards. In the 1970s the Hilltop area, including a large shopping mall, was developed in the northern suburbs of the city. In the late 1990s and early 2000s the Richmond Parkway was built along the western industrial and northwestern parkland of the city connecting Interstates 80 and 580. In the early 1900s, the Santa Fe railroad established a major rail yard adjacent to Point Richmond.
The railroad constructed a tunnel through the Potrero San Pablo ridge to run a track from their yard
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Space Systems Laboratory
The Space Systems Laboratory is part of the Aerospace Engineering Department and A. James Clark School of Engineering at the University of Maryland in College Park, Maryland; the Space Systems Laboratory is centered on the Neutral Buoyancy Research Facility, a 50-foot-diameter, 25-foot-deep neutral buoyancy pool used to simulate the microgravity environment of space. The only such facility housed at a university, Maryland's neutral buoyancy tank is used for undergraduate and graduate research at the Space Systems Lab. Research in Space Systems emphasizes space robotics, human factors, applications of artificial intelligence and the underlying fundamentals of space simulation. There are five robots being tested, including Ranger, a four-armed satellite repair robot, SCAMP, a six-degree of freedom free-flying underwater camera platform. Ranger was funded by NASA starting in 1992, was to be a technological demonstration of orbital satellite servicing. NASA was never able to manifest it for launch and the program was defunded circa 2006.
For example, Ranger development work at the SSL continues, albeit at a slower pace. The Space Systems Lab was founded at MIT in 1976, by faculty members Renee Miller and J. W. Mar, its early studies in space construction techniques led to the EASE flight experiment which flew on Space Shuttle mission STS-61-B in 1985. In 1990, lab director Dr. Dave Akin moved the lab to the University of Maryland; the Neutral Buoyancy Research Facility, or NBRF, was completed in 1992. Current projects include the MX-2 suit, a simplified neutral buoyancy spacesuit for use in EVA research; the SSL is a member of NASA's Small Satellite Technology Initiative, New Millennium Program, International Space Station Technology Testbed Program. Along with labs at Carnegie Mellon and Stanford, the SSL is part of the Institute for Dexterous Space Robotics; the Laboratory has ties with the M. I. T. Lincoln Laboratory, NASA Langley, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Air Force Research Laboratory, as well as the Departments of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering at M.
I. T. and aerospace companies such as Draper Laboratory, TRW, Lockheed-Martin, MDA and Hughes. Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory SPHERES