Federal Communications Commission
The Federal Communications Commission is an independent agency of the United States government created by statute to regulate interstate communications by radio, wire and cable. The FCC serves the public in the areas of broadband access, fair competition, radio frequency use, media responsibility, public safety, homeland security; the FCC was formed by the Communications Act of 1934 to replace the radio regulation functions of the Federal Radio Commission. The FCC took over wire communication regulation from the Interstate Commerce Commission; the FCC's mandated jurisdiction covers the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Territories of the United States. The FCC provides varied degrees of cooperation and leadership for similar communications bodies in other countries of North America; the FCC is funded by regulatory fees. It has an estimated fiscal-2016 budget of US $388 million, it has 1,688 federal employees, made up of 50% males and 50% females as of December, 2017. The FCC's mission, specified in Section One of the Communications Act of 1934 and amended by the Telecommunications Act of 1996 is to "make available so far as possible, to all the people of the United States, without discrimination on the basis of race, religion, national origin, or sex, efficient and world-wide wire and radio communication services with adequate facilities at reasonable charges."
The Act furthermore provides that the FCC was created "for the purpose of the national defense" and "for the purpose of promoting safety of life and property through the use of wire and radio communications."Consistent with the objectives of the Act as well as the 1999 Government Performance and Results Act, the FCC has identified four goals in its 2018-22 Strategic Plan. They are: Closing the Digital Divide, Promoting Innovation, Protecting Consumers & Public Safety, Reforming the FCC's Processes; the FCC is directed by five commissioners appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate for five-year terms, except when filling an unexpired term. The U. S. President designates one of the commissioners to serve as chairman. Only three commissioners may be members of the same political party. None of them may have a financial interest in any FCC-related business. † Commissioners may continue serving until the appointment of their replacements. However, they may not serve beyond the end of the next session of Congress following term expiration.
In practice, this means that commissioners may serve up to 1 1/2 years beyond the official term expiration dates listed above if no replacement is appointed. This would end on the date that Congress adjourns its annual session no than noon on January 4; the FCC is organized into seven Bureaus, which process applications for licenses and other filings, analyze complaints, conduct investigations and implement regulations, participate in hearings. The Consumer & Governmental Affairs Bureau develops and implements the FCC's consumer policies, including disability access. CGB serves as the public face of the FCC through outreach and education, as well as through their Consumer Center, responsible for responding to consumer inquiries and complaints. CGB maintains collaborative partnerships with state and tribal governments in such areas as emergency preparedness and implementation of new technologies; the Enforcement Bureau is responsible for enforcement of provisions of the Communications Act 1934, FCC rules, FCC orders, terms and conditions of station authorizations.
Major areas of enforcement that are handled by the Enforcement Bureau are consumer protection, local competition, public safety, homeland security. The International Bureau develops international policies in telecommunications, such as coordination of frequency allocation and orbital assignments so as to minimize cases of international electromagnetic interference involving U. S. licensees. The International Bureau oversees FCC compliance with the international Radio Regulations and other international agreements; the Media Bureau develops and administers the policy and licensing programs relating to electronic media, including cable television, broadcast television, radio in the United States and its territories. The Media Bureau handles post-licensing matters regarding direct broadcast satellite service; the Wireless Telecommunications Bureau regulates domestic wireless telecommunications programs and policies, including licensing. The bureau implements competitive bidding for spectrum auctions and regulates wireless communications services including mobile phones, public safety, other commercial and private radio services.
The Wireline Competition Bureau develops policy concerning wire line telecommunications. The Wireline Competition Bureau's main objective is to promote growth and economical investments in wireline technology infrastructure, development and services; the Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau was launched in 2006 with a focus on critical communications infrastructure. The FCC has eleven Staff Offices; the FCC's Offices provide support services to the Bureaus. The Office of Administrative Law Judges is responsible for conducting hearings ordered by the Commission; the hearing function includes acting on interlocutory requests filed in the proceedings such as petitions to intervene, petitions to enlarge issues, contested discovery requests. An Administrative Law Judge, appointed under the Administrative Procedure Act, presides at the hearing during which documents and sworn testimony are received in evidence, witnesses are cross-examined. At the co
Internet access is the ability of individuals and organizations to connect to the Internet using computer terminals and other devices. Internet access is sold by Internet service providers delivering connectivity at a wide range of data transfer rates via various networking technologies. Many organizations, including a growing number of municipal entities provide cost-free wireless access. Availability of Internet access was once limited, but has grown rapidly. In 1995, only 0.04 percent of the world's population had access, with well over half of those living in the United States, consumer use was through dial-up. By the first decade of the 21st century, many consumers in developed nations used faster broadband technology, by 2014, 41 percent of the world's population had access, broadband was ubiquitous worldwide, global average connection speeds exceeded one megabit per second; the Internet developed from the ARPANET, funded by the US government to support projects within the government and at universities and research laboratories in the US – but grew over time to include most of the world's large universities and the research arms of many technology companies.
Use by a wider audience only came in 1995 when restrictions on the use of the Internet to carry commercial traffic were lifted. In the early to mid-1980s, most Internet access was from personal computers and workstations directly connected to local area networks or from dial-up connections using modems and analog telephone lines. LANs operated at 10 Mbit/s, while modem data-rates grew from 1200 bit/s in the early 1980s, to 56 kbit/s by the late 1990s. Dial-up connections were made from terminals or computers running terminal emulation software to terminal servers on LANs; these dial-up connections did not support end-to-end use of the Internet protocols and only provided terminal to host connections. The introduction of network access servers supporting the Serial Line Internet Protocol and the point-to-point protocol extended the Internet protocols and made the full range of Internet services available to dial-up users. Broadband Internet access shortened to just broadband, is defined as "Internet access, always on, faster than the traditional dial-up access" and so covers a wide range of technologies.
Broadband connections are made using a computer's built in Ethernet networking capabilities, or by using a NIC expansion card. Most broadband services provide a continuous "always on" connection. Broadband provides improved access to Internet services such as: Faster world wide web browsing Faster downloading of documents, photographs and other large files Telephony, radio and videoconferencing Virtual private networks and remote system administration Online gaming massively multiplayer online role-playing games which are interaction-intensiveIn the 1990s, the National Information Infrastructure initiative in the U. S. made broadband Internet access a public policy issue. In 2000, most Internet access to homes was provided using dial-up, while many businesses and schools were using broadband connections. In 2000 there were just under 150 million dial-up subscriptions in the 34 OECD countries and fewer than 20 million broadband subscriptions. By 2004, broadband had grown and dial-up had declined so that the number of subscriptions were equal at 130 million each.
In 2010, in the OECD countries, over 90% of the Internet access subscriptions used broadband, broadband had grown to more than 300 million subscriptions, dial-up subscriptions had declined to fewer than 30 million. The broadband technologies in widest use are ADSL and cable Internet access. Newer technologies include VDSL and optical fibre extended closer to the subscriber in both telephone and cable plants. Fibre-optic communication, while only being used in premises and to the curb schemes, has played a crucial role in enabling broadband Internet access by making transmission of information at high data rates over longer distances much more cost-effective than copper wire technology. In areas not served by ADSL or cable, some community organizations and local governments are installing Wi-Fi networks. Wireless and satellite Internet are used in rural, undeveloped, or other hard to serve areas where wired Internet is not available. Newer technologies being deployed for fixed and mobile broadband access include WiMAX, LTE, fixed wireless, e.g. Motorola Canopy.
Starting in 2006, mobile broadband access is available at the consumer level using "3G" and "4G" technologies such as HSPA, EV-DO, HSPA+, LTE. In addition to access from home and the workplace Internet access may be available from public places such as libraries and Internet cafes, where computers with Internet connections are available; some libraries provide stations for physically connecting users' laptops to local area networks. Wireless Internet access points are available in public places such as airport halls, in some cases just for brief use while standing; some access points may provide coin-operated computers. Various terms are used, such as "public Internet kiosk", "public access terminal", "Web payphone". Many hotels have public terminals fee based. Coffee shops, shopping malls, other venues offer wireless access to computer networks, referred to as hotspots, for users who bring their own wireless-enabled devices such as a laptop or PDA; these services may be free to all, free to customer
Hughes Aircraft Company
The Hughes Aircraft Company was a major American aerospace and defense contractor founded in 1932 by Howard Hughes in Glendale, California as a division of Hughes Tool Company. The company was known for producing, among other products, the Hughes H-4 Hercules Spruce Goose aircraft, the atmospheric entry probe carried by the Galileo spacecraft, the AIM-4 Falcon guided missile. Hughes Aircraft was acquired by General Motors from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute in 1985 and was put under the umbrella of Hughes Electronics, now known as DirecTV, until GM sold its assets to Raytheon in 1997. During World War II the company built several prototype aircraft at Hughes Airport; these included the famous Hughes H-4 Hercules, better known by the public's nickname for it, the Spruce Goose, the H-1 racer, D-2, the XF-11. However the plant's hangars at Hughes Airport, location of present-day Playa Vista in the Westside of Los Angeles, were used as a branch plant for the construction of other companies' designs.
At the start of the war Hughes Aircraft had only four full-time employees—by the end the number was 80,000. During the war, the company was awarded contracts to build B-25 struts, centrifugal cannons, machine gun feed chutes. Hughes Aircraft was one of many aerospace and defense companies which flourished in Southern California during and after World War II and was at one time the largest employer in the area. Yet, employment had dropped to 800 by 1947. By the summer of 1947 certain politicians had become concerned about Hughes' alleged mismanagement of the Spruce Goose and the XF-11 photo reconnaissance plane project, they formed a special committee to investigate Hughes which culminated in a much-followed Senate investigation, one of the first to be televised to the public. Despite a critical committee report, Hughes was cleared; the company expanded into the booming electronics field employing 3,300 Ph. D.s. Hughes hired Ira Eaker, Harold L. George, Tex Thornton to run the company. By 1953, the company employed 17,000 had a $600,000,000 in government contracts.
In 1948 Hughes created a new division of the Aerospace Group. Two Hughes engineers, Simon Ramo and Dean Wooldridge, had new ideas on the packaging of electronics to make complete fire control systems, their MA-1 system combined signals from the aircraft's radar with a digital computer to automatically guide the interceptor aircraft into the proper position for firing missiles. At the same time other teams were working with the newly formed US Air Force on air-to-air missiles, delivering the AIM-4 Falcon known as the F-98; the MA-1/Falcon package, with several upgrades, was the primary interceptor weapon system of the USAF for many years, lasting into the 1980s. Ramo and Wooldridge, having failed to reach an agreement with Howard Hughes regarding management problems, resigned in September 1953 and founded the Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation to join Thompson Products to form the Thompson-Ramo-Wooldridge based in Canoga Park, with Hughes leasing space for nuclear research programs (present day West Hills.
The company became TRW in another aerospace company and a major competitor to Hughes Aircraft. In 1951 Hughes Aircraft Co. built a missile plant in Arizona. The construction of this plant, wrote David Leighton, in the Arizona Daily Star newspaper, was due to "Howard Hughes’ long-held fear that his plant in Culver City, was vulnerable to enemy attack because it was on the Pacific Coast." By the end of that year, the U. S. Air Force had purchased the property but allowed the company to continue to run day to day operations of the site; this Tucson plant is still in operation under the ownership of Raytheon Co. Howard Hughes donated Hughes Aircraft to the newly formed Howard Hughes Medical Institute in 1953 as a way of avoiding taxes on its huge income; the next year, L. A. "Pat" Hyland was hired as general manager of Hughes Aircraft. Under Hyland's guidance, the Aerospace Group continued to diversify and become massively profitable, became a primary focus of the company; the company developed radar systems, electro-optical systems, the first working laser, aircraft computer systems, missile systems, ion-propulsion engines, many other advanced technologies.
The'Electronic Properties Information Center' of the United States was hosted at the Hughes Culver City library in the 1970s. EPIC published the multi-volume Handbook of Electronic Materials as public documents. Nobel Laureates Richard Feynman and Murray Gell-Mann had Hughes connections: Feynman would hold weekly seminars at Hughes Research Laboratories. Greg Jarvis and Ronald McNair, two of the astronauts on the last flight of the Space Shuttle Challenger, were Hughes alumni. Hughes Aircraft Ground Systems Group was located in California; the facility was 3 million square feet and included manufacturing, offices, a Munson road test course. It designed developed and produced the Air Defense Systems that replaced the Semi Automatic Defense Ground Environment in the United States with the Joint Surveillance System AN/FYQ-93 including NORAD with Joint Tactical Information Distribution System and provided defense systems and air traffic control systems around the world; these systems are massive and at its peak Ground Systems Group employed 15,000 people and generated revenue in excess of $1 billion per year.
They were the largest revenue producer and with its massive systems engineering division coordinated the inclusion of
Hughes Electronics Corporation was formed in 1985 when Hughes Aircraft was sold by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to General Motors for $5.2 billion. The surviving parts of Hughes Electronics are today known as the DirecTV Group. On June 5, 1985 General Motors was announced as the winner of a secretive five month, sealed-bid auction. Other bidders included Boeing; the purchase was completed on December 20, 1985, for an estimated $5.2 billion, $2.7 billion in cash and the rest in 50 million shares of GM Class H stock. On December 31, 1985, General Motors merged Hughes Aircraft with its Delco Electronics unit to form Hughes Electronics Corporation, an independent subsidiary; the group consisted of: Delco Electronics Corporation and Hughes Aircraft Company. In August of 1992 Hughes Aircraft completed its purchase of General Dynamics' missile businesses for $450 million; this brought the Tomahawk Cruise Missile, Advanced Cruise Missile, Standard missile, Stinger missile, Phalanx Close-in weapon system, Rolling Airframe Missile into Hughes' portfolio.
In 1994 Hughes Electronics introduced DirecTV, the world's first high-powered DBS. In 1995 Hughes Electronic's Hughes Space and Communications division became the largest supplier of commercial satellites. In 1995 the group purchased Magnavox Electronic Systems from the Carlyle Group. In 1996 Hughes Electronics and PanAmSat agree to merge their fixed satellite services into a new publicly held company called PanAMSat with Hughes Electronics as majority shareholder. In 1995, Hughes Aircraft sold its Technology Products Division to an investor group led by Citicorp and incorporated the division as Palomar Technologies. In 2008, Citicorp sold the bonder division to the current management team at Palomar Technologies. In 1997 GM transferred Delco Electronics to its Delphi Automotive Systems business; that year the assets of Hughes Aircraft were sold to Raytheon for $9.5 billion. The remaining companies remained under the Hughes Electronics name and within GM. In 2000, The Boeing Company purchased three units within Hughes Electronics Corp.: Hughes Space and Communications Co. Hughes Electron Dynamics, Spectrolab Inc. in addition to Hughes Electronics' interest in HRL, the company's primary research laboratory.
The four joined Boeing Satellite Systems, a company subsidiary becoming the Satellite Development Center, part of Boeing Integrated Defense Systems. In 2003 the remaining parts of Hughes Electronics were purchased by News Corporation from GM and renamed The DirecTV Group. 1985: The HHMI sold Hughes Aircraft to General Motors for $5.2 billion. This was merged with GM's Delco Electronics to form Hughes Electronics Corporation; the group consisted of: Delco Electronics Corporation Hughes Aircraft Company 1987: Hughes Aircraft Company acquired M/A-COM Telecommunications, to form Hughes Network Systems. 1994: Hughes Electronics introduced DirecTV. 1995: Hughes Space and Communications Company became the world's biggest supplier of commercial satellites. 1995: Hughes Electronics acquired Magnavox Electronic Systems from the Carlyle Group. 1995: Hughes Aircraft acquired CAE-Link. 1996: Hughes Electronics and PanAmSat agreed to merge their fixed satellite services into a new publicly held company called PanAmSat with Hughes Electronics as majority shareholder.
1997: GM transferred Delco Electronics from Hughes Electronics to its Delphi Automotive Systems. Delphi became independent in 1999. 1997: The aerospace and defense operations of Hughes Electronics merged with Raytheon. 2000: Hughes Space and Communications Company remained independent until 2000, when it was purchased by Boeing and became Boeing Satellite Development Center. Boeing purchased one third of the HRL Laboratories, LLC, co-owned by Boeing, GM and Raytheon. 2003: The remaining parts of Hughes Electronics: DirecTV, DirecTV Latin America, PanAmSat and Hughes Network Systems were purchased by News Corporation and renamed The DirecTV Group. 2003: News Corporation sold PanAmSat to Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. in August 2004. 2004: Director Martin Scorsese used the Hughes Aircraft stage in Playa Vista to film the motion-capture sequences in the film The Aviator. 2004: SkyTerra Communications, Inc. completed its purchase of 100% controlling interest in Hughes Network Systems from the DirecTV Group in January 2006
Inter-satellite service is – according to Article 1.22 of the International Telecommunication Union´s Radio Regulations – defined as «A radiocommunication service providing links between artificial satellites.» See In accordance with ITU Radio Regulations variations of this radiocommunication service are classified as follows:Fixed service Fixed-satellite service Inter-satellite service Earth exploration-satellite service Meteorological-satellite service International Telecommunication Union Earth exploration-satellite service. ITU, Genf 2011. ISBN 92-61-13761-X
Telecommunications Industry Association
The Telecommunications Industry Association is accredited by the American National Standards Institute to develop voluntary, consensus-based industry standards for a wide variety of Information and Communication Technologies products, represents nearly 400 companies. TIA's Standards and Technology Department operates twelve engineering committees, which develop guidelines for private radio equipment, cellular towers, data terminals, telephone terminal equipment, accessibility, VoIP devices, structured cabling, data centers, mobile device communications, multimedia multicast, vehicular telematics, healthcare ICT, machine to machine communications, smart utility networks. Overall, more than 500 active participants, communications equipment manufacturers, service providers, government agencies, academic institutions, end-users are engaged in TIA's standards setting process. To ensure that these standards become incorporated globally, TIA is engaged in the International Telecommunication Union, the International Organization for Standardization, the International Electrotechnical Commission.
The Telecommunications Industry Assoc's most adopted standards include: TIA-942 Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard for Data Centers TIA-568-C. TIA-569-B Commercial Building Standards for Telecommunications Pathways and Spaces TIA-607-B TIA-598-C TIA-222-G Structural Standard for Antenna Supporting Structures and Antennas TIA-602-A Data Transmission Systems and Equipment, which standardized the common basic Hayes command set. TIA-102 - Land Mobile Communications for Public Safety TIA encourages engineers who represent the manufacturers and/or users of network equipment technology products and services, to become engaged in TIA's engineering committees, by voting and submitting technical contributions for inclusion in future standards. TIA is a participating standards organization of the ITU-T Global Standards Collaboration initiative; the GSC has created a Machine-to-Machine Standardization Task Force to foster industry collaboration on standards across different vertical markets, such as finance, e-health, connected vehicles, utilities.
TIA supported the E-LABEL Act, a bill that would direct the Federal Communications Commission to allow manufacturers of electronic devices with a screen to display information required by the agency digitally on the screen rather than on a label affixed to the device. Grant Seiffert argued that "by granting device manufacturers the ability to use e-labels, the legislation eases the technical and logistical burdens on manufactures and improves consumer access to important device information." Telecommunications Industry Association Website