AGILE is an X-ray and Gamma ray astronomical satellite of the Italian Space Agency. AGILE's mission is to observe gamma-ray sources in the universe. Key scientific objectives of the AGILE Mission include the study of: Active Galactic Nuclei Gamma-Ray Bursts X-ray and gamma galactic sources Non-identified gamma sources Diffuse galactic gamma emissions Diffuse extra-galactic gamma emissions Fundamental physics AGILE's instrumentation includes a Gamma Ray Imaging Detector sensitive in the 30 MeV - 50 GeV energy range, a SuperAGILE hard X-ray monitor sensitive in the 18–60 keV energy range, a Mini-Calorimeter non-imaging gamma-ray scintillation detector sensitive in the 350 keV - 100 MeV energy range, an Anti-coincidence System, based on a plastic scintillator, to assist with suppressing unwanted background events; the SuperAGILE SA is an instrument based on a set of four silicon strip detectors, each equipped with one-dimensional coded mask. The SA is designed to detect X-Ray signals from burst-like signals.
It provides long-term monitoring of spectral features. MCAL can effectively detect high-energy radiation bursts in its energy band. AGILE was launched on 23 April 2007, from the Indian base of Sriharikota and was inserted in an equatorial orbit with low particle background. On 23 April 2007, ASI made contact with AGILE; some transient events detected by AGILE are associated with positions not consistent with a known source and have cosmological origins. Others are due to solar flares. "AGILE – Gamma Ray Light Detector – Astrorivelatore Gamma ad Immagini LEggero". Carlo Gavazzi Space. Archived from the original on 2007-07-07. "AGILE Launch Campaign". Iasf-bo. Archived from the original on 21 April 2007. "AGILE - Status and recent detections". INAF-IAPS
In telecommunications, broadband is wide bandwidth data transmission which transports multiple signals and traffic types. The medium can be optical fiber, radio or twisted pair. In the context of Internet access, broadband is used to mean any high-speed Internet access, always on and faster than dial-up access over traditional analog or ISDN PSTN services. Different criteria for "broad" have been applied at different times, its origin is in physics and radio systems engineering, where it had been used with a meaning similar to "wideband". With the advent of digital telecommunications, the term was used for transmission over multiple channels. Whereas a passband signal is modulated so that it occupies higher frequencies, it is still occupying a single channel; the key difference is that what is considered a broadband signal in this sense is a signal that occupies multiple passbands, thus allowing for much higher throughput over a single medium but with additional complexity in the transmitter/receiver circuitry.
The term became popularized through the 1990s as a marketing term for Internet access, faster than dialup access, the original Internet access technology, limited to a maximum bandwidth of 56 kbit/s. This meaning is only distantly related to its original technical meaning. In telecommunications, a broadband signalling method is one. "Broadband" is a relative term, understood according to its context. The wider the bandwidth of a channel, the greater the data-carrying capacity, given the same channel quality. In radio, for example, a narrow band will carry Morse code, a broader band will carry speech, a still broader band will carry music without losing the high audio frequencies required for realistic sound reproduction; this broad band is divided into channels or "frequency bins" using passband techniques to allow frequency-division multiplexing instead of sending a higher-quality signal. In data communications, a 56k modem will transmit a data rate of 56 kilobits per second over a 4-kilohertz-wide telephone line.
In the late 1980s, the Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network used the term to refer to a broad range of bit rates, independent of physical modulation details. The various forms of digital subscriber line services are broadband in the sense that digital information is sent over multiple channels; each channel is at higher frequency than the baseband voice channel, so it can support plain old telephone service on a single pair of wires at the same time. However, when that same line is converted to a non-loaded twisted-pair wire, it becomes hundreds of kilohertz wide and can carry up to 100 megabits per second using very-high-bit-rate digital subscriber line techniques. Many computer networks use a simple line code to transmit one type of signal using a medium's full bandwidth using its baseband. Most versions of the popular Ethernet family are given names such as the original 1980s 10BASE5 to indicate this. Networks that use cable modems on standard cable television infrastructure are called broadband to indicate the wide range of frequencies that can include multiple data users as well as traditional television channels on the same cable.
Broadband systems use a different radio frequency modulated by the data signal for each band. The total bandwidth of the medium is larger than the bandwidth of any channel; the 10BROAD36 broadband variant of Ethernet was standardized by 1985, but was not commercially successful. The DOCSIS standard became available to consumers in the late 1990s, to provide Internet access to cable television residential customers. Matters were further confused by the fact that the 10PASS-TS standard for Ethernet ratified in 2008 used DSL technology, both cable and DSL modems have Ethernet connectors on them. A television antenna may be described as "broadband" because it is capable of receiving a wide range of channels, while a single-frequency or Lo-VHF antenna is "narrowband" since it receives only 1 to 5 channels; the U. S. federal standard FS-1037C defines "broadband" as a synonym for wideband. "Broadband" in analog video distribution is traditionally used to refer to systems such as cable television, where the individual channels are modulated on carriers at fixed frequencies.
In this context, baseband is the term's antonym, referring to a single channel of analog video in composite form with separate baseband audio. The act of demodulating converts broadband video to baseband video. Fiber optic allows the signal to be transmitted farther without being repeated. Cable companies use a hybrid system using fiber to transmit the signal to neighborhoods and changes the signal from light to radio frequency to be transmitted over coaxial cable to homes. Doing so reduces the use of having multiple head ends. A head end gathers all the information from the local cable networks and movie channels and feeds the information into the system. However, "broadband video" in the context of streaming Internet video has come to mean video files that have bit-rates high enough to require broadband Internet access for viewing. "Broadband video" is sometimes used to describe IPTV Video on demand. Power lines have been used for various types of data communication. Although some systems for remote control are based on narrowband signaling, modern high-speed systems use broadband signaling to achieve high data rates.
One example is the ITU-T G.hn standard, which provides a
2008 in spaceflight
The year 2008 contained several significant events in spaceflight, including the first flyby of Mercury by a spacecraft since 1975, the discovery of water ice on Mars by the Phoenix spacecraft, which landed in May, the first Chinese spacewalk in September, the launch of the first Indian Lunar probe in October. The internationally accepted definition of a spaceflight is any flight which crosses the Kármán line, 100 kilometres above sea level; the first recorded spaceflight launch of the year occurred on 11 January, when a Black Brant was launched on a suborbital trajectory from White Sands, with the LIDOS ultraviolet astronomy payload. This was followed by the first orbital launch of the year on 15 January, by a Sea Launch Zenit-3SL, with the Thuraya 3 communications satellite; the launch marked the return to flight for Sea Launch following the explosion of a Zenit-3SL on the launch pad the previous January during an attempt to launch the NSS-8 satellite. Five carrier rockets made their maiden flights in 2008.
These were all derived from existing systems. The Blue Sparrow and Sejjil missiles conducted their maiden flights, the ATK Launch Vehicle made its only flight, but was destroyed by range safety after it went off course. In November, the baseline Proton-M was retired in favour of the Enhanced variant, first launched in 2007; the first Vietnamese and Venezuelan satellites, Vinasat-1 and Venesat-1 were launched in 2008, while a failed Iranian launch was reported to have been that country's first indigenous orbital launch attempt. In September, SpaceX conducted the first successful orbital launch of a developed and funded liquid-fuelled carrier rocket, when the fourth Falcon 1 launched RatSat, following previous failures in 2006, 2007, August. India launched its first Lunar probe, Chandraayan-1, on 22 October, with the spacecraft entering selenocentric orbit on 8 November. On 16 November, the Moon Impact Probe was released, crashed into the Lunar surface. Although no other spacecraft were launched beyond geocentric orbit in 2008, several significant events occurred in interplanetary flights, launched in previous years.
MESSENGER conducted flybys of Mercury in January and October, the first spacecraft to do so since Mariner 10 in 1975. Cassini continued to make flybys of the moons of Saturn, including several close passes of Enceladus, one at a distance of 25 kilometres. In September Rosetta flew past the asteroid 2867 Šteins. On 25 May, the Phoenix spacecraft landed in the Green Valley on Mars. Phoenix exceeded its design life of 90 days failing on 10 November; the Ulysses spacecraft, launched in 1990, was retired in 2008. Seven manned flights were launched in 2008, one by China, two by Russia and four by the United States. In April, Yi So-yeon became the first South Korean to fly in space, aboard Soyuz TMA-12. On the same flight, Sergey Volkov became the first second-generation cosmonaut. Yi returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TMA-11, which nearly ended in disaster following a separation failure between the descent and service modules, resulting in a ballistic reentry. In September, China conducted its third manned mission, Shenzhou 7, from which Zhai Zhigang and Liu Boming conducted the first Chinese spacewalk.
Soyuz TMA-13, launched in October, was the hundredth flight of the Soyuz programme to carry a crew at some point in its mission. Assembly of the International Space Station continued, with the delivery of the Columbus module by Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-122 in February. March saw the launch of the Jules Verne Automated Transfer Vehicle, an unmanned European spacecraft, used to resupply the space station. In March, Space Shuttle Endeavour launched on STS-123 with the first component of the Japanese Experiment Module, the Experiment Logistics Module. STS-123 marked the final flight of the Spacelab programme, with a SpaceLab pallet used to carry the Canadian-built Dextre RMS extension; the second JEM component, the main pressurised module, was launched by STS-124, flown by Discovery in May. In November, Endeavour launched on the STS-126 logistics flight, with the Leonardo MPLM. On 14 March, a Proton-M with a Briz-M upper stage launched AMC-14. Several hours on 15 March, the Briz-M engine cut off prematurely during a burn, leaving the satellite in a medium Earth orbit.
Following a small legal dispute, the satellite was sold, raised to a geosynchronous orbit by its manoeuvring thrusters, at the expense of a large amount of its fuel and hence operational life. On 3 August, SpaceX launched the third Falcon 1. Due to residual thrust caused by the upgraded Merlin-1C engine, being flown for the first time, the first stage recontacted the second during staging, resulting in the rocket failing to reach orbit; the Trailblazer, PreSat and NanoSail-D satellites were lost in the failure, as was a space burial capsule, containing the remains of several hundred people, including astronaut Gordon Cooper, actor James Doohan and director John Meredyth Lucas and Apollo mission planner Mareta West. On 16 August, Iran launched a Safir, which though successful, was reported to have failed due to a second stage malfunction; the purpose of this launch is in doubt, as before the launch it was claimed that it would place the Omid into orbit, whilst following the launch, it was reported that a boilerplate payload had been launched.
Other reports indicated. If this was an orbital launch attempt, it was the first Iranian attempt to launch a satellite. On 22 August, the inaugural launch of the Alliant Techsystems ALV X-1 was terminated 27 seconds after launch from W
Progress M-60, identified by NASA as Progress 25 or 25P, was a Progress spacecraft used to resupply the International Space Station. It was a Progress-M 11F615A55 spacecraft, with the serial number 360. Progress M-60 was launched by a Soyuz-U carrier rocket from Site 1/5 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Launch occurred at 03:25:36 GMT on 12 May 2007; the spacecraft docked with the Aft port of the Zvezda module at 05:10 GMT on 15 May. It remained docked for four months before undocking at 00:36:51 GMT on 19 September 2007. Following undocking it conducted research as part of the Plazma-Progress programme for a week prior to being deorbited, it was deorbited at 19:01 GMT on 25 September 2007. The spacecraft burned up in the atmosphere over the Pacific Ocean, with any remaining debris landing in the ocean at around 19:47 GMT. Progress M-60 carried supplies to the International Space Station, including food and oxygen for the crew and equipment for conducting scientific research. List of Progress flights List of unmanned spaceflights to the ISS
Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory
The Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory is a radio astronomy observatory, located in a natural bowl of hills at Hartebeesthoek just south of the Magaliesberg mountain range, South Africa, about 50 km west of Johannesburg. It is a National Research Facility run by South Africa's National Research Foundation. HartRAO was the only major radio astronomy observatory in Africa until the construction of the KAT-7 test bed for the future MeerKAT array; the observatory was named Deep Space Station 51 and was built in 1961 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. In this role the station assisted in tracking many unmanned United States space missions, including the Ranger and Lunar Orbiter spacecraft, the Mariner missions and the Pioneer missions; the first Mars surface images from Mariner 4 were received at DSS 51. NASA withdrew from the station in 1975, handing it over to South Africa's Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, who converted it to a radio astronomy observatory.
In 1988 the observatory became a National Facility operated by the Foundation for Research Development. As of 2011, NASA continues to contract for launch tracking services on an as-needed basis, did so for the launch of the Mars Science Laboratory on 26 November 2011; the observatory is equipped with a single 260 ton radio telescope with a main reflecting surface diameter of 26 metres. The telescope is equipped with radio receivers operating in the microwave band at wavelengths of 18 cm, 13 cm, 6 cm, 4.5 cm, 3.5 cm, 2.5 cm and 1.3 cm. HartRAO is used for continuum radiometry, pulsar timing and interferometry, it works together with radio telescopes in other continents as well as the orbiting radio telescopes HALCA and Spektr-R in order to perform Very Long Baseline Interferometry observations. HartRAO is an associate member of the European VLBI Network, but operates with the Australia Telescope Long Baseline Array, the Asia-Pacific Telescope, the United States Very Long Baseline Array and the Global Array.
HartRAO runs a Space Geodesy programme using VLBI, Satellite laser ranging and the Global Positioning System. Development work of a Lunar Laser Ranger has commenced, based on a 1 m optical telescope; the LLR system will use a 100 mJ, 20 Hz, 80 ps pulse length laser to range to corner cube reflector arrays on the Moon. The observatory provides students and lecturers from South African universities the facilities and opportunities to perform research; the XDM, a prototype dish for the MeerKAT radio telescope, was constructed at HartRAO. The XDM dish design was first used in KAT-7, a seven-dish engineering testbed and science instrument in Carnarvon in the Northern Cape Province. KAT-7, completed in 2012, marked the first stage of MeerKAT development. National Research Foundation of South Africa South African Astronomical Observatory Deep Space Network Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory Website SKA Website
Soyuz TMA-10 was a human spaceflight mission using a Soyuz-TMA spacecraft to transport personnel to and from the International Space Station. The mission began at 17:31:09 UTC on April 7, 2007 when the spacecraft was launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome by a Soyuz FG launch vehicle. Soyuz TMA-10 brought to the station two members of ISS Expedition 15 crew, along with one spaceflight participant, it remained at the space station as an escape craft until it was replaced by Soyuz TMA-11 in October 2007. Docked to ISS: 9 April 2007, 19:10 UTC Undocking from ISS: 27 September 2007 20:20 UTC Docking to ISS: 27 September 2007 20:47 UTC Undocking from ISS: 21 October 2007 07:14 UTC Soyuz TMA-10 docked to the ISS on April 9, 2007 at 22:10 UTC, following two days of free flight, its two Russian crew members remained on the station until the spacecraft's return to Earth in October 2007. Spaceflight participant Charles Simonyi returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TMA-9 on April 21, following eleven days of ISS handover operations.
TMA-10 undocked from the ISS at 07:14 UTC on October 21, deorbit occurred at 09:47. During atmospheric re-entry, the spacecraft transitioned to a ballistic reentry, resulting in it landing west of Arkalyk 340 km northwest of the intended Kazakhstan landing site; the trajectory was reported by the crew as soon as they came out of the communications blackout caused by plasma surrounding the spacecraft. A Commission of Inquiry determined that the ballistic re-entry was caused by damage to a cable in the spacecraft’s control panel, which connected to the control panel with the Soyuz descent equipment. Landing occurred at 10:36 GMT. A ballistic trajectory entry had happened with the Soyuz TMA-1 mission that returned Expedition 6; the information about the failure of a connector in service panel was faulty. In actuality, the Service module had failed to separate from the re-entry module, the ship had entered the atmosphere with the opposite orientation. Explosive bolts in connection struts between the Re-entry module and the Service module had failed to explode.
The heat had melted the failed struts and the re-entry module had separated from the service module - the changed trajectory of the ship had caused the switch to a ballistic emergency landing. The same situation had happened during the Soyuz 5 mission in 1969; the Soyuz re-entry module was, still is, protected on all sides with thermal insulation, so the struts melted before the crew entry hatch was damaged or destroyed, thus saving the crew. The Russians kept the failure of the Soyuz TMA-10 a secret until it happened again on the Soyuz TMA-11 with a NASA astronaut on board; this infuriated NASA and this led to further investigation as well as special EVA activity on the ISS to check the docked Soyuz TMA-12 and its explosive bolts in their connection struts. Charles in Space Soyuz TMA-10