Georg Henri Anton "Joris" Ivens was a Dutch documentary filmmaker. Among the notable films he directed or co-directed are A Tale of the Wind, The Spanish Earth, Rain... A Valparaiso, Misère au Borinage, 17th Parallel: Vietnam in War, The Seine Meets Paris, Far from Vietnam, Pour le Mistral and How Yukong Moved the Mountains. Born Georg Henri Anton Ivens into a wealthy family, Ivens went to work in one of his father's photo supply shops and from there developed an interest in film. Under the direction of his father, he completed his first film at 13, he met photographer Germaine Krull in Berlin in 1923, entered into a marriage of convenience with her between 1927 and 1943 so that Krull could hold a Dutch passport and could have a "veneer of married respectability without sacrificing her autonomy."Originally his work focused on technique in Rain, a 10-minute short filmed over 2 years, in The Bridge. Around this time, along with Menno ter Braak and others, he was involved in the creation of the Dutch Film League based in Amsterdam.
The League drew foreign filmmakers to the Netherlands such as Alberto Cavalcanti, René Clair, Sergei Eisenstein, Vsevolod Pudovkin, Dziga Vertov, who became his friends. In 1929, Ivens went to the Soviet Union and was invited to direct a film on a topic of his own choosing, the new industrial city of Magnitogorsk. Before commencing work, he returned to the Netherlands to make Industrial Symphony for Philips Electric, considered to be a film of great technical beauty, he returned to the Soviet Union to make the film about Magnitogorsk, Song of Heroes in 1931 with music composed by Hanns Eisler. This was the first film on which Eisler worked together, it was a propaganda film about this new industrial city where masses of forced laborers and communist youth worked for Stalin's Five Year Plan. With Henri Storck, Ivens made a documentary on life in a coal mining region. In 1943, he directed two Allied propaganda films for the National Film Board of Canada, including Action Stations, about the Royal Canadian Navy's escorting of convoys in the Battle of the Atlantic.
From 1936 to 1945, Ivens was based in the United States. For Pare Lorentz's U. S. Film Service, in the year 1940, he made a documentary film on rural electrification called Power and the Land, it focused on the Parkinsons, who ran a business providing milk for their community. The film showed the problem in the way the problem was fixed. Ivens was, known for his anti-fascist and other propaganda films, including The Spanish Earth, for the Spanish Republicans, co-written with Ernest Hemingway and music by Marc Blitzstein and Virgil Thomson. Jean Renoir did the French narration for the film and Hemingway did the English version only after Orson Welles's sounded too theatrical.. This film was financed by Archibald MacLeish, Fredric March, Florence Eldridge, Lillian Hellman, Luise Rainer, Dudley Nichols, Franchot Tone and other Hollywood movie stars and writers who composed a group known as the Contemporary Historians. Spanish Earth was shown at the White House on July 8, 1937 after Ivens, Martha Gellhorn, had had dinner with President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Eleanor Roosevelt and Harry Hopkins.
The Roosevelts said that it needed more propaganda. This 1937 documentary was considered his masterpiece. In 1938 he traveled to China; the 400 Million depicted the history of modern China and the Chinese resistance during the Second Sino-Japanese War, including dramatic shots of the Battle of Taierzhuang. Robert Capa did camerawork, Sidney Lumet worked on the film as a reader, Hanns Eisler wrote the musical score, Fredric March provided the narration. It, had been financed by the same people as those of Spanish Earth, its chief fundraiser was recipient of the best actress Oscar two years in a row. The Guomindang government censored the film, fearing that it would give too much credit to left-wing forces. Ivens was suspected of being a friend of Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai. In early 1943, Frank Capra hired Ivens to supervise the production of Know Your Enemy: Japan for his U. S. War Department film series; the film's commentary was written by Carl Foreman. Capra fired Ivens from the project because he felt that his approach was too sympathetic toward the Japanese.
The film's release was held up because there were concerns that Emperor Hirohito was being depicted as a war criminal, there was a policy shift to portray the Emperor more favorably after the war as a means of maintaining order in post-war Japan. With the emerging "Red Scare" of the late 1940s, Ivens was forced to leave the country in the early months of the Truman administration. Ivens' leftist politics put the kibosh on his first feature film project, to have starred Greta Garbo. In fact, Walter Wanger, the film's producer, was adamant about "running him out of town." In 1946, commissioned to make a Dutch film about Indonesian'independence', Ivens resigned in protest over what he considered ongoing imperialism. Instead, Ivens filmed Indonesia Calling in secret. For around a decade Ivens lived in Eastern Europe, his position concerning Indonesia and his taking sides for the Eastern Bloc in the Cold War annoyed the Dutch government. Over a period of many years
Ernest Miller Hemingway was an American journalist, short-story writer, noted sportsman. His economical and understated style—which he termed the iceberg theory—had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction, while his adventurous lifestyle and his public image brought him admiration from generations. Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s, he won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954, he published seven novels, six short-story collections, two non-fiction works. Three of his novels, four short-story collections, three non-fiction works were published posthumously. Many of his works are considered classics of American literature. Hemingway was raised in Illinois. After high school, he reported for a few months for The Kansas City Star before leaving for the Italian Front to enlist as an ambulance driver in World War I. In 1918, he was wounded and returned home, his wartime experiences formed the basis for his novel A Farewell to Arms. In 1921, he married Hadley Richardson.
The couple moved to Paris, where he worked as a foreign correspondent and fell under the influence of the modernist writers and artists of the 1920s "Lost Generation" expatriate community. His debut novel, The Sun Also Rises, was published in 1926. After his 1927 divorce from Richardson, Hemingway married Pauline Pfeiffer, he based For Whom the Bell Tolls on his experience there. Martha Gellhorn became his third wife in 1940, he was present at the liberation of Paris. Shortly after the publication of The Old Man and the Sea, Hemingway went on safari to Africa, where he was killed in two successive plane crashes that left him in pain or ill-health for much of the rest of his life. Hemingway maintained permanent residences in Key West and Cuba. In 1959, he bought a house in Ketchum, where, in mid-1961, he ended his own life. Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago, his father, Clarence Edmonds Hemingway, was a physician, his mother, Grace Hall Hemingway, was a musician.
Both were well-educated and well-respected in Oak Park, a conservative community about which resident Frank Lloyd Wright said, "So many churches for so many good people to go to." For a short period after their marriage and Grace Hemingway lived with Grace's father, Ernest Hall, their first son's namesake. Ernest Hemingway would say that he disliked his name, which he "associated with the naive foolish hero of Oscar Wilde's play The Importance of Being Earnest"; the family moved into a seven-bedroom home in a respectable neighborhood with a music studio for Grace and a medical office for Clarence. Hemingway's mother performed in concerts around the village; as an adult, Hemingway professed to hate his mother, although biographer Michael S. Reynolds points out that Hemingway mirrored her energy and enthusiasm, her insistence that he learn to play the cello became a "source of conflict", but he admitted the music lessons were useful to his writing, as is evident in the "contrapuntal structure" of For Whom the Bell Tolls.
The family spent summers at Windemere near Petoskey, Michigan. Hemingway's father taught him to hunt and camp in the woods and lakes of Northern Michigan as a young boy; these early experiences in nature instilled a passion for outdoor adventure and living in remote or isolated areas. From 1913 until 1917, Hemingway attended River Forest High School, he took part in a number of sports such as boxing and field, water polo, football. He excelled in English classes, with his sister Marcelline, performed in the school orchestra for two years. During his junior year he had a journalism class, structured "as though the classroom were a newspaper office," with better writers submitting pieces to the school newspaper, The Trapeze. Hemingway and Marcelline both submitted pieces, he edited the Trapeze and the Tabula, imitating the language of sportswriters, taking the pen name Ring Lardner, Jr.—a nod to Ring Lardner of the Chicago Tribune whose byline was "Line O'Type."Like Mark Twain, Stephen Crane, Theodore Dreiser, Sinclair Lewis, Hemingway was a journalist before becoming a novelist.
After leaving high school he went to work for The Kansas City Star as a cub reporter. Although he stayed there for only six months, he relied on the Star's style guide as a foundation for his writing: "Use short sentences. Use short first paragraphs. Use vigorous English. Be positive, not negative." Early in 1918, after applying to serve with, being turned down by, the US Army and Marines because of poor eyesight, Hemingway responded to a Red Cross recruitment effort in Kansas City and signed on to become an ambulance driver in Italy. He left New York in May and arrived in Paris as the city was under bombardment from German artillery. By June, he was at the Italian Front, it was around this time that he first met John Dos Passos, with whom he had a rocky relationship for decades. On his first day in Milan, he was sent to the scene of a munitions factory explosion, where rescuers retrieved the shredded remains of female workers, he described the incident in his non-fiction book Death in the Afternoon: "I remember that after we searched quite for the complete dead we collected fragments."
A few days he was stationed a
Lillian Florence Hellman was an American dramatist and screenwriter known for her success as a playwright on Broadway, as well as her left-wing sympathies and political activism. She was blacklisted after her appearance before the House Committee on Un-American Activities at the height of the anti-communist campaigns of 1947–52. Although she continued to work on Broadway in the 1950s, her blacklisting by the American film industry caused a drop in her income. Many praised Hellman for refusing to answer questions by HUAC, but others believed, despite her denial, that she had belonged to the Communist Party; as a playwright, Hellman had many successes on Broadway, including Watch on the Rhine, The Autumn Garden, Toys in the Attic, Another Part of the Forest, The Children's Hour and The Little Foxes. She adapted her semi-autobiographical play The Little Foxes into a screenplay, which starred Bette Davis and received an Academy Award nomination in 1942. Hellman was romantically involved with fellow writer and political activist Dashiell Hammett, author of the classic detective novels The Maltese Falcon and The Thin Man, blacklisted for 10 years until his death in 1961.
The couple never married. Hellman's accuracy was challenged. In 1979, on The Dick Cavett Show, McCarthy said that "every word she writes is a lie, including'and' and'the'." During the libel suit, investigators found errors in Hellman's popular memoirs such as Pentimento. They said that the "Julia" section of Pentimento, the basis for the Oscar-winning 1977 movie of the same name, was based on the life of Muriel Gardiner. Martha Gellhorn, one of the most prominent war correspondents of the twentieth century, as well as Ernest Hemingway's third wife, said that Hellman's remembrances of Hemingway and the Spanish Civil War were wrong. McCarthy and others accused Hellman of lying about her membership in the Communist Party and being an unrepentant Stalinist. Lillian Florence Hellman was born in New Orleans, into a Jewish family, her mother was Julia Newhouse of Demopolis and her father was Max Hellman, a New Orleans shoe salesman. Julia Newhouse's parents were Sophie Marx, from a successful banking family, Leonard Newhouse, a Demopolis liquor dealer.
During most of her childhood she spent half of each year in New Orleans, in a boarding home run by her aunts, the other half in New York City. She studied for two years at New York University and took several courses at Columbia University. On December 31, 1925, Hellman married Arthur Kober, a playwright and press agent, although they lived apart. In 1929, she settled in Bonn to continue her education, she felt an initial attraction to a Nazi student group that advocated "a kind of socialism" until their questioning about her Jewish ties made their antisemitism clear, she returned to the United States. Years she wrote, "Then for the first time in my life I thought about being a Jew." Beginning in 1930, for about a year she earned $50 a week as a reader for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in Hollywood, writing summaries of novels and periodical literature for potential screenplays. Although she found the job rather dull, it created many opportunities for her to meet a greater range of creative people while she became involved in more political and artistic scenes during that time.
While there she met and fell in love with mystery writer Dashiell Hammett. She divorced Kober and returned to New York City in 1932; when she met Hammett in a Hollywood restaurant, she was 24 and he was 36. They maintained their relationship off and on until his death in January 1961. Hellman's drama The Children's Hour premiered on Broadway on November 24, 1934, ran for 691 performances, it depicts a false accusation of lesbianism by a schoolgirl against two of her teachers. The falsehood is discovered, but before amends can be made one teacher is rejected by her fiancé and the other commits suicide. Following the success of The Children's Hour, Hellman returned to Hollywood as a screenwriter for Goldwyn Pictures at $2,500 a week, she first collaborated on a screenplay for an earlier play and silent film. Following that film's successful release in 1935, Goldwyn purchased the rights to The Children's Hour for $35,000 while it still was running on Broadway. Hellman rewrote the play to conform to the standards of the Motion Picture Production Code, under which any mention of lesbianism was impossible.
Instead, one schoolteacher is accused of having sex with the other's fiancé. It appeared in 1936 under These Three, she next wrote the screenplay for Dead End, which featured the first appearance of the Dead End Kids and premiered in 1937. On May 1, 1935, Hellman joined the League of American Writers, whose members included Dashiell Hammett, Alexander Trachtenberg of International Publishers, Frank Folsom, Louis Untermeyer, I. F. Stone, Myra Page, Millen Brand, Arthur Miller. In 1935, Hellman joined the struggling Screen Writers Guild, devoted herself to recruiting new members, proved one of its most aggressive advocates. One of its key issues was the dictatorial way producers credited writers for their work, known as "screen credit." Hellman had received no recognition for some of her earlier projects, although she was the principal author of The Westerner and a principal contributor to The Melody Lingers On. In December 1936, her play. In it, she portrayed a labor dispute in a small Ohio town during which the characters try to balance the competing claims of owners and workers
Archibald MacLeish was an American poet and writer, associated with the modernist school of poetry. MacLeish studied English at law at Harvard University, he saw action during the First World War and lived in Paris in the 1920s. On returning to the US, he contributed to Henry Luce's magazine Fortune from 1929 to 1938. For five years MacLeish was Librarian of Congress, a post he accepted at the urging of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. From 1949 to 1962, MacLeish was Boylston Professor of Oratory at Harvard University. MacLeish was awarded three Pulitzer Prizes for his work. MacLeish was born in Illinois, his father, Scottish-born Andrew MacLeish, worked as a dry goods merchant and was a founder of the Chicago department store, Carson Pirie Scott. His mother, was a college professor and had served as president of Rockford College, he grew up on an estate bordering Lake Michigan. He attended the Hotchkiss School from 1907 to 1911. For his college education, MacLeish went to Yale University, where he majored in English, was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, was selected for the Skull and Bones society.
He enrolled in Harvard Law School, where he served as an editor of the Harvard Law Review. His studies were interrupted by World War I, in which he served first as an ambulance driver and as an artillery officer, he fought at the Second Battle of the Marne. His brother, Kenneth MacLeish was killed in action during the war, he graduated from law school in 1919, taught law for a semester for the government department at Harvard worked as an editor for The New Republic. He next spent three years practicing law with the Boston firm Hall & Stewart. MacLeish expressed his disillusion with war in his poem Memorial Rain, published in 1926. In 1923 MacLeish left his law firm and moved with his wife to Paris, where they joined the community of literary expatriates that included such members as Gertrude Stein and Ernest Hemingway, they became part of the famed coterie of Riviera hosts Gerald and Sarah Murphy, which included Hemingway, Zelda and F. Scott Fitzgerald, John Dos Passos, Fernand Léger, Jean Cocteau, Pablo Picasso, John O'Hara, Cole Porter, Dorothy Parker and Robert Benchley.
He returned to America in 1928. From 1930 to 1938 he worked as a writer and editor for Henry Luce's Fortune magazine, during which he became politically active with anti-fascist causes. By the 1930s, he considered Capitalism to be "symbolically dead" and wrote the verse play Panic in response. While in Paris, Harry Crosby, publisher of the Black Sun Press, offered to publish MacLeish's poetry. Both MacLeish and Crosby had overturned the normal expectations of society, rejecting conventional careers in the legal and banking fields. Crosby published MacLeish's long poem Einstein in a deluxe edition of 150 copies. MacLeish was paid US$200 for his work. In 1932, MacLeish published his long poem Conquistador which presents Cortés's conquest of the Aztecs as symbolic of the American experience. In 1933, Conquistador was awarded the first of three awarded to MacLeish. In 1938 MacLeish published as a book a long poem "Land of the Free", built around a series of 88 photographs of the rural depression by Dorothea Lange, Walker Evans, Arthur Rothstein, Ben Shahn and the Farm Security Administration and other agencies.
The book was influential on Steinbeck in writing The Grapes of Wrath. American Libraries has called MacLeish "one of the hundred most influential figures in librarianship during the 20th century" in the United States. MacLeish's career in libraries and public service began, not with an internal desire, but from a combination of the urging of a close friend Felix Frankfurter, as MacLeish put it, "The President decided I wanted to be Librarian of Congress." Franklin D. Roosevelt's nomination of MacLeish was a controversial and political maneuver fraught with several challenges. MacLeish sought support from expected places such as the president of Harvard, MacLeish's current place of work, but found none, it was support from unexpected places, such as M. Llewellyn Raney of the University of Chicago libraries, which alleviated the ALA letter writing campaign against MacLeish's nomination." The main Republican arguments against MacLeish's nomination from within Congress was: that he was a poet and was a "fellow traveler" or sympathetic to communist causes.
Calling to mind differences with the party he had over the years, MacLeish avowed that, "no one would be more shocked to learn I am a Communist than the Communists themselves." In Congress MacLeish's main advocate was Senate Majority Leader Alben Barkley, Democrat from Kentucky. With President Roosevelt's support and Senator Barkley's skillful defense in the United States Senate, victory in a roll call vote with sixty-three Senators voting in favor of MacLeish's appointment was achieved. MacLeish was sworn in as Librarian of Congress on July 10, 1939, by the local postmaster at Conway, Massachusetts. MacLeish became privy to Roosevelt's views on the library during a private meeting with the president. According to Roosevelt, the pay levels were too low and many people would need to be removed. Soon afterward, MacLeish joined the retiring Librarian of Congress Herbert Putnam for a luncheon in New York. At the meeting, Putnam relayed his intention to continue working at the Library, that he would be given the title of Librarian Emeritus and that his office would be down the hall from MacLeish's.
This meeting further crystallized for MacLeish that as Librarian of Congress, he would be "an unpopular newcomer, disturbing the status quo." It was a question from MacLeish's daughter, which led him to realize that, "Nothing
John Dos Passos
John Roderigo Dos Passos was an American novelist, most notable for his U. S. A. trilogy, written in experimental ‘non-linear’ form, blending elements of biography and news reports to paint a landscape of early 20th-century American culture. Published through the 1930’s, it reflected the death of idealism and a pessimistic view of national politics. Born in Chicago, Dos Passos graduated from Harvard College in 1916, he was well-traveled, visiting Europe and the Middle East, where he learned about literature and architecture. During World War I, he was an ambulance driver for American volunteer groups in Paris and Italy before joining the United States Army Medical Corps. In 1920, his first novel, One Man's Initiation: 1917, was published, in 1925, his novel Manhattan Transfer became a commercial success. In 1928, he went to the Soviet Union to study socialism, became a leading participant in the 1935 First American Writers Congress sponsored by the communist-leaning League of American Writers.
He was in Spain in 1937 during the Spanish Civil War. The murder of his friend José Robles soured his attitude toward Communism, led to severing his relationship with fellow writer Ernest Hemingway, his U. S. A. trilogy, which consists of the novels The 42nd Parallel, 1919, The Big Money, was ranked by the Modern Library in 1998 as 23rd of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century. By the 1950s, his political views had changed and he had become more conservative. In the 1960s, he campaigned for presidential candidates Barry Richard M. Nixon; as an artist, Dos Passos created his own cover art for his books, influenced by modernism in 1920s Paris. He died in Maryland. Spence's Point, his Virginia estate, was designated as a National Historic Landmark in 1971. Born in Chicago, Dos Passos was the out-of-wedlock son of John Randolph Dos Passos, a lawyer of half Madeiran Portuguese descent, Lucy Addison Sprigg Madison of Petersburg, Virginia, his father had a son several years older than John.
John traveled as a child extensively with his mother, an invalid and preferred Europe. Although John's father married his mother after the death of his first wife in 1910, he refused to acknowledge John for another two years, until he was 16. John Randolph Dos Passos was an authority on trusts and a staunch supporter of the powerful industrial conglomerates for which his son expressed criticism in his fictional works of the 1920s and 1930s. After his mother and he returned, John Dos Passos received a good education at the Choate School, a private preparatory school in Wallingford, Connecticut, in 1907 under the name John Roderigo Madison, he tried to adapt to its American culture. His parents arranged for him to travel with a private tutor on a six-month tour of France, Italy and the Middle East to study the masters of classical art and literature. In 1912, Dos Passos enrolled in Harvard College, where he became friends with classmate E. E. Cummings, who said there was a "foreignness" about Dos Passos, "no one at Harvard looked less like an American."Following his graduation cum laude in 1916, Dos Passos traveled to Spain to study art and architecture.
In July 1917, with World War I raging in Europe, Dos Passos volunteered for the S. S. U. 60 of the Norton-Harjes Ambulance Corps, along with friends Cummings and Robert Hillyer. He worked as a volunteer ambulance driver with the American Red Cross in north-central Italy. By the late summer of 1918, Dos Passos had completed a draft of his first novel. At the same time, he had to report for duty with the U. S. Army Medical Corps at Camp Crane in Pennsylvania. On Armistice Day, he was stationed in Paris, where the U. S. Army Overseas Education Commission allowed him to study anthropology at the Sorbonne. Three Soldiers, his novel drawn from these experiences, features a character who has the same military career and stays in Paris after the war. Considered one of the Lost Generation writers, Dos Passos published his first novel in 1920, One Man's Initiation: 1917, written in the trenches during World War I, it was followed by Three Soldiers, which brought him considerable recognition. His 1925 novel about life in New York City, titled Manhattan Transfer, was a commercial success.
These ideas coalesced into the U. S. A. trilogy, of which the first book appeared in 1930. A social revolutionary, Dos Passos came to see the United States as two nations, one rich and one poor, he wrote admiringly about the Industrial Workers of the World, the injustice in the criminal convictions of Sacco and Vanzetti. He joined with other notable figures in the United States and Europe in a failed campaign to overturn their death sentences. In 1928, Dos Passos spent several months in Russia studying socialism, he was a leading participant in the April 1935 First Americans Writers Congress sponsored by the Communist-leaning League of American Writers, but he balked at the idea of the control that Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union, would have on creative writers in the United States. In 1936—1937, Dos Passos served on the American Committee for the Defense of Leon Trotsky known as the "Dewey Commission", with other notable figures such as Sidney Hook, Reinhold Niebuhr, Norman Thomas, Edmund Wilson, chairman John Dewey.
It had been set up following the first of the Moscow "Show Trials" in 1936, part of the massive purges of party leaders and intellectuals in this period. The following year, he wrote the screenplay for the film The Devil is a Woman, starring Marlene Dietrich and directed
Spanish Civil War
The Spanish Civil War took place from 1936 to 1939. Republicans loyal to the left-leaning Second Spanish Republic, in alliance with the Anarchists and Communists, fought against the Nationalists, an alliance of Falangists and Catholics, led by General Francisco Franco. Due to the international political climate at the time, the war had many facets, different views saw it as class struggle, a war of religion, a struggle between dictatorship and republican democracy, between revolution and counterrevolution, between fascism and communism; the Nationalists won the war in early 1939 and ruled Spain until Franco's death in November 1975. The war began after a pronunciamiento against the Republican government by a group of generals of the Spanish Republican Armed Forces under the leadership of José Sanjurjo; the government at the time was a moderate, liberal coalition of Republicans, supported in the Cortes by communist and socialist parties, under the leadership of centre-left President Manuel Azaña.
The Nationalist group was supported by a number of conservative groups, including the Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups, including both the opposing sides of Alfonsists and the religious conservative Carlists, the Falange Española de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista, a fascist political party. Sanjurjo was killed in an aircraft accident while attempting to return from exile in Portugal, whereupon Franco emerged as the leader of the Nationalists; the coup was supported by military units in the Spanish protectorate in Morocco, Burgos, Valladolid, Cádiz, Córdoba, Seville. However, rebelling units in some important cities—such as Madrid, Valencia, Málaga—did not gain control, those cities remained under the control of the government. Spain was thus left militarily and politically divided; the Nationalists and the Republican government fought for control of the country. The Nationalist forces received munitions and air support from Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, while the Republican side received support from the Soviet Union and Mexico.
Other countries, such as the United Kingdom and the United States, continued to recognise the Republican government, but followed an official policy of non-intervention. Notwithstanding this policy, tens of thousands of citizens from non-interventionist countries directly participated in the conflict, they fought in the pro-Republican International Brigades, which included several thousand exiles from pro-Nationalist regimes. The Nationalists advanced from their strongholds in the south and west, capturing most of Spain's northern coastline in 1937, they besieged Madrid and the area to its south and west for much of the war. After much of Catalonia was captured in 1938 and 1939, Madrid cut off from Barcelona, the Republican military position became hopeless. Madrid and Barcelona were occupied without resistance, Franco declared victory and his regime received diplomatic recognition from all non-interventionist governments. Thousands of leftist Spaniards fled to refugee camps in southern France.
Those associated with the losing Republicans were persecuted by the victorious Nationalists. With the establishment of a dictatorship led by General Franco in the aftermath of the war, all right-wing parties were fused into the structure of the Franco regime; the war became notable for the passion and political division it inspired and for the many atrocities that occurred, on both sides. Organised purges occurred in territory captured by Franco's forces so they could consolidate their future regime. A significant number of killings took place in areas controlled by the Republicans; the extent to which Republican authorities took part in killings in Republican territory varied. The 19th century was a turbulent time for Spain; those in favour of reforming Spain's government vied for political power with conservatives, who tried to prevent reforms from taking place. Some liberals, in a tradition that had started with the Spanish Constitution of 1812, sought to limit the power of the monarchy of Spain and to establish a liberal state.
The reforms of 1812 did not last after King Ferdinand VII dissolved the Constitution and ended the Trienio Liberal government. Twelve successful coups were carried out between 1814 and 1874; until the 1850s, the economy of Spain was based on agriculture. There was little development of a bourgeois commercial class; the land-based oligarchy remained powerful. In 1868 popular uprisings led to the overthrow of Queen Isabella II of the House of Bourbon. Two distinct factors led to the uprisings: a series of urban riots and a liberal movement within the middle classes and the military concerned with the ultra-conservatism of the monarchy. In 1873 Isabella's replacement, King Amadeo I of the House of Savoy, abdicated owing to increasing political pressure, the short-lived First Spanish Republic was proclaimed. After the restoration of the Bourbons in December 1874, Carlists and Anarchists emerged in opposition to the monarchy. Alejandro Lerroux, Spanish politician and leader of the Radical Republican Party, helped bring republicanism to the fore in Catalonia, where poverty was acute.
Growing resentment of conscription and of the military culminated in the Tragic Week in Barcelona in 1909. Spain was neutral in World War I. Following the war, the working class, industrial class, military united in hopes of removing the corrupt central government, but were unsuc
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea