This is a list of organizations opposing mainstream science by challenging the facts and conclusions recognized by the mainstream scientific community. By claiming to employ the scientific method in order to advance certain fringe ideas and theories, they are charged with promotion of various forms of pseudoscience. American Federation of Astrologers Association for Neuro Linguistic Programming - a United Kingdom organization founded to promote neuro-linguistic programming. Astrological Association of Great Britain Biodynamic Farming & Gardening Association - a United States-based company that promotes biodynamic agriculture systems. Center for Indoor Air Research - tobacco industry front group producing industry-friendly research on indoor air quality, disbanded as part of the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement in 1998. Creation Research Society - promotes creation science since the 1950s. Discovery Institute - founded in 1990, promotes Intelligent Design. Edinburgh Phrenological Society - founded in 1820, the society was influential in its time, helping popularize the concept of phrenology in the 19th century.
The last recorded meeting took place in 1870. Faculty of Astrological Studies Flat Earth Society - an organization which aims to further the idea that the Earth is flat instead of an oblate spheroid; the modern organization was founded by Englishman Samuel Shenton in 1956 and was led by Charles K. Johnson, who based the organization in his home in Lancaster, California; the formal society was inactive after Johnson’s death in 2001 but was resurrected in 2004 by its new president Daniel Shenton. Global Energy Balance Network - funded by Coca-Cola and promoting the idea that obesity is due to lifestyle alone, not excessive calorie consumption; the Heartland Institute - A think-tank on a variety of issues, including support of "climate change skepticism" Institute for Creation Research, promoting a religious worldview in contradiction to current knowledge of evolutionary biology. Kepler College, which grants certificates in the studies of astrology. Magi Society, an international association of astrologers.
National Association for Research & Therapy of Homosexuality - an organization that offers conversion therapy and other treatments that purport to change the sexual orientation of individuals who experience unwanted same-sex attraction. The organization disagrees with the holding of the world's major mental health organizations that homosexuality is not a disorder. National Council for Geocosmic Research, which promotes research and education in astrology. National Institute for Discovery Science - the National Institute for Discovery Science was a financed research organization based in Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, operated from 1995 to 2004, it was founded in 1995 by real-estate developer Robert Bigelow, who set it up to research and advance serious study of various fringe science, paranormal topics, most notably ufology. Deputy Administrator Colm Kelleher was quoted as saying the organization was not designed to study UFOs only. "We don't study aliens, we study anomalies. They're the same thing in a lot of people's minds, but not in our minds."
Natural Philosophy Alliance An organization which believes there are fundamental flaws in theories such as relativity, the big bang, plate tectonics. New England Antiquities Research Association, which believes in the occupation of New England by ancient Celts and other western Europeans long before the arrival of the Pilgrims in Massachusetts. Noah's Ark Zoo Farm - a zoo near Bristol, UK, that incorporates its belief in Creationism in its educational material about animals. Parapsychological Association - founded in 1957, the organization's purpose was "to advance parapsychology as a science, to disseminate knowledge of the field, to integrate the findings with those of other branches of science." Rosicrucian Fellowship a religious organization, but believing in unorthodox theories of the evolution of the planet Earth and life upon it. Thule Society political, but believed in Ultima Thule as a lost ancient landmass in the extreme north, home of the Aryan race. Quackery is the promotion of fraudulent medical treatments.
Association of American Physicians and Surgeons, right-wing group promoting AIDS denialism, refuted links between abortion and breast cancer, other politically motivated pseudomedical theories. Australian Vaccination-Skeptics Network, anti-vaccination group. Generation Rescue. International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, promoting the idea that chronic effects after Lyme disease are caused by a lingering infection. See Lyme disease controversy. Morgellons Research Foundation, promoting a hypothetical new disease, morgellons accepted as a manifestation of delusional parasitosis. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health the Office of Alternative Medicine and subsequently the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, established due to the work of Senator Tom Harkin with a brief to validate alternative medicine. A 2012 review found that $1.3bn had been disbursed in grants, not one treatment had been validated as a result. List of topics characterized as pseudoscience Category:Paranormal investigators
The Oceanic Steam Navigation Company, more known as the White Star Line, was a British shipping company. Founded out of the remains of a defunct packet company, it rose up as one of the most prominent shipping lines in the world, providing passenger and cargo services between the British Empire and the United States. While many other shipping lines focused on speed, White Star branded their services by focusing more on providing steady and comfortable passages, for both upper class travellers and immigrants. Today, it is most famous for the innovative vessel Oceanic of 1870, for the losses of some of their best passenger liners, including the wrecking of RMS Atlantic at Halifax in 1873, the sinking of RMS Republic off Nantucket in 1909, the loss of RMS Titanic in 1912 and HMHS Britannic in 1916 while serving as a hospital ship. Despite its casualties, the company retained a prominent hold on shipping markets around the globe before falling into decline during the Great Depression, which led to a merger with its chief rival, Cunard Line, which operated as Cunard-White Star Line until 1950.
Cunard Line operated as a separate entity until 2005 and is now part of Carnival Corporation & plc. As a lasting reminder of the White Star Line, modern Cunard ships use the term White Star Service to describe the level of customer care expected of the company; the first company bearing the name White Star Line was founded in Liverpool, England, by John Pilkington and Henry Wilson in 1845. It focused on the UK -- Australia trade; the fleet consisted of the chartered sailing ships RMS Tayleur, Blue Jacket, White Star, Red Jacket, Ben Nevis, Emma and Iowa. Tayleur, the largest ship of its day, was wrecked on its maiden voyage to Australia at Lambay Island, near Ireland, a disaster that haunted the company for years. In 1863, the company acquired Royal Standard; the original White Star Line merged with two other small lines in 1864, The Black Ball Line and The Eagle Line, to form a conglomerate, the Liverpool and Oriental Steam Navigation Company Limited. This did not prosper and White Star broke away.
White Star concentrated on Liverpool to New York City services. Heavy investment in new ships was financed by borrowing, but the company's bank, the Royal Bank of Liverpool, failed in October 1867. White Star was left with an incredible debt of £527,000, was forced into bankruptcy. On 18 January 1868, Thomas Ismay, a director of the National Line, purchased the house flag, trade name and goodwill of the bankrupt company for £1,000, with the intention of operating large ships on the North Atlantic service between Liverpool and New York. Ismay established the company's headquarters at Liverpool. Ismay was approached by Gustav Christian Schwabe, a prominent Liverpool merchant, his nephew, the shipbuilder Gustav Wilhelm Wolff, during a game of billiards. Schwabe offered to finance the new line if Ismay had his ships built by Wolff's company and Wolff. Ismay agreed, a partnership with Harland and Wolff was established; the shipbuilders received their first orders on 30 July 1869. The agreement was that Harland and Wolff would build the ships at cost plus a fixed percentage and would not build any vessels for the White Star's rivals.
In 1870, William Imrie joined the managing company. As the first ship was being commissioned, Ismay formed the Oceanic Steam Navigation Company to operate the steamers under construction. White Star began its North Atlantic run between Liverpool and New York with six nearly identical ships known as the'Oceanic' class: Oceanic, Atlantic and Republic, followed by the larger Celtic and Adriatic, it had long been customary for many shipping lines to have a common theme for the names of their ships. White Star gave their ships names ending in -ic; the line adopted a buff-coloured funnel with a black top as a distinguishing feature for their ships, as well as a distinctive house flag, a red broad pennant with two tails, bearing a white five-pointed star. In the initial designs for this first fleet of liners, each ship was to measure 420 feet in length, 40 feet in width and 3,707 in gross tonnage, equipped with compound expansion engines powering a single screw, capable of speeds of up to 14 knots.
They were identical in passenger accommodations based on a two-class system, providing accommodations for 166 First Class passengers amidships, which in those days was referred to as'Saloon Class' and 1,000 Steerage passengers. It was within the circles of the massive tides of immigrants flowing from Europe to North America that the White Star Line aimed to be revered by, as throughout the company's full history they strived to provide passage for steerage passengers which exceeded that seen with other shipping lines. With the'Oceanic' class, one of the most notable developments in steerage accommodations was the division of steerage at opposite ends of the vessels, with single men being berthed forward, single women and families berthed aft, with developments allowing married couples berths aft as well. White Star's entry into the Trans-Atlantic passenger market in the spring of 1871 got off to a rocky start; when Oceanic sailed on her maiden voyage on 2 March, she departed Liverpool with only 64 passengers aboard, from whence she was expected to make port at Queenstown the following day to pick up more passengers before proceeding to New York.
However, before she had cleared the Welsh coast her bearings overheated off Holyhead and she was forced to return for repairs. She resumed her crossing on 17 March and ended up not completing
Elizabeth Butchill was an English woman, tried and executed for the murder of her illegitimate newborn child. Little of Butchill's early life is known except that she came from Essex. In about 1777, Butchill—unmarried—moved to Cambridge to live with her uncle and aunt and Esther Hall. Like her aunt, she worked as a college bed maker at Trinity College. On 6 January 1780 Butchill spent the day in bed complaining of colic, she was tended to by her aunt in the morning and in the evening. On 7 January the body of a newborn girl was found in the river near the Halls' home on the grounds of the college. At an inquest, the coroner -- Mr Bond -- determined. William Hall believed that the infant was Butchill arranged for a surgeon to examine her. On examination, she admitted, she said that the child was born alive and that she had thrown her down a "necessary" into the river and buried the placenta. Butchill was charged by the coroner's jury with wilful murder. Unusually for an unmarried woman, she was not charged as the mother, that is, under the Concealment of Birth of Bastards Act 1623.
Under this act, it was a capital offence for a mother to conceal the birth of a child. Butchill was tried for murder, convicted. Despite pleading for mercy, she was sentenced to death and her body was to be anatomized, she was executed on 17 March 1780 at Cambridge. According to The Newgate Calendar, on the day of her death, she was "firm and exemplary... reconciled to her fate"
Pinery Provincial Park is a provincial park located on Lake Huron near Grand Bend, Ontario. It occupies an area of 25.32 square kilometres. It is a natural environment-class Provincial Park created to help preserve oak savannah and the beach dune ecology, it has 1,275 sites. These include the group camping sites; the initial package of land for the park was purchased from the Canada Company in 1957. In 1966, the park saw a 433-acre addition, adding 200 campsites to the park's existing 1,075 to accommodate the growth of the park patronage, which had reached peaks of 1,500 campers per day, causing many to be packed into overflow areas. Visitors to Pinery Provincial Park may access free wireless internet at the Visitor Centre provided by the Friends of Pinery Park; the park office is located on Ontario Highway 21 south of Grand Bend. The park is open all year round. Senior staff, including the superintendent, can be reached at the park office between 9:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. during summer months. The office is open from 8:00 a.m. until 9:00 p.m.
There is a sub-office for the Riverside Campground, open during peak arrival times. Riverside campground is located beside the Old Ausable Channel, it is the largest of the Pinery campgrounds. This campground is open all year round. There pull through sites for RVs and motorhomes. Permits are obtained at the park gatehouse. Firewood from the Hosts at posted hours; this area is open from May to September. It is the farthest from the main gate, it contains the more secluded sites within a short walk to the beach. These are camping sites; this area is open from May to October. The sites are within easy walking distance to the beach, the outdoor amphitheatre and visitor centre. Dunes campground provides a mixture of tenting sites. There are three group camping areas; the ten sites each accommodate up to 35 people. Water taps and vault toilets are on site; the sites are not adjacent to the comfort stations. Twelve yurts are located in Area 1 of the Riverside campground; these yurts are wheelchair accessible. Each "Yurt" includes bunks for sleeping 6 people and chairs, electric lighting and a heater.
Included are a propane gas barbecue and picnic shelter. These special sites are in high demand in all seasons; the park features the largest area of Oak Savanna in Ontario. To preserve this habitat, a population control program for White-tailed Deer has been implemented. During the early 1960s, because the value of the native savanna was not recognised, large numbers of Red and White pine trees were planted in the park, displacing the native vegetation; that is how the park got its name. The Old Ausable Channel is a slow-moving river which flows through the park, it was separated from the main Ausable River when two channels were excavated at Port Franks and Grand Bend at the end of the 19th century. Juniper trees growing in the dunes are shifting with the sands. Fallen junipers are re-buried, with main branches becoming new trees, so that distant trees are genetically identical, sometimes still connected below ground; the oak trees are critical to this habitat. Oaks are one of the few trees that will share the water it draws from deep underground with the surface plants that surround it, a critical element in this dry sandy ecosystem.
Many of the plant species in the park depend on fire to reproduce. In recent years controlled burning has been attempted to try and restore some of the original flora and fauna. To ensure that the water at public beaches is safe for swimming, the Community Health Services Department conducts sampling for beach water quality. Ontario beaches are posted with warnings of possible health risks when elevated E. coli levels are detected. Storm water runoff, combined with sewer overflows, sewage treatment plant by-passes, agricultural runoff, faulty septic systems, large populations of waterfowl which colonize a beach or the surrounding area all contribute to water pollution which can result in beach postings. Ipperwash Provincial Park - former provincial park located in Lambton County Official website Friends of Pinery Park
Pope Benedict XIV, born Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini, was head of the Catholic Church from 17 August 1740 to his death in 1758. One of the best scholars to sit on the papal throne, yet overlooked, he promoted scientific learning, the baroque arts, reinvigoration of Thomism, the study of the human form. Committed to carrying out the decrees of the Council of Trent and authentic Catholic teaching, Benedict removed changes made to the Breviary, sought peacefully to reverse growing secularism in European courts, invigorated ceremonies with great pomp, throughout his life and his reign published numerous theological and ecclesiastical treatises. In governing the Papal States, he reduced taxation on some products, but raised taxes on others. A scholar, he created the Profane Museums, now part of the present Vatican Museum. Benedict XIV, to an extent can be considered a polymath due to his numerous studies of ancient literature, the publishing of ecclesiastical books and documents, his interest in the study of the human body, his devotion to art and theology.
Horace Walpole described him as "loved by papists, esteemed by Protestants, a priest without insolence or interest, a prince without favorites, a pope without nepotism, an author without vanity, a man whom neither intellect nor power could corrupt." Lambertini was born into a noble family of Bologna, the third of five children of Marcello Lambertini and Lucrezia Bulgarini. At the time of his birth, Bologna was the second largest city in the Papal States, his earliest studies were with tutors, he was sent to the Convitto del Porto, staffed by the Somaschi Fathers. At the age of thirteen, he began attending the Collegio Clementino in Rome, where he studied rhetoric, Latin and theology. During his studies as a young man, he studied the works of St. Thomas Aquinas, his favorite author and saint. While he enjoyed studying at Collegio Clementino, his attention turned toward canon law. Soon after, in 1694 at the age of nineteen, he received the degree of Doctor of Sacred Theology and Doctor Utriusque Juris.
Lambertini became an assistant to Msgr. Alessandro Caprara, the Auditor of the Rota. After the election of Pope Clement XI in November 1700, he was made a consistorial advocate in 1701. Shortly after, he was created a Consultor of the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, in 1708 Promoter of the Faith; as Promoter of the Faith, he achieved two major successes. The first was the canonization of Pope Pius V; the second was the composition of his treatise on the process of the beatification and canonization of saints. In 1712 Lambertini was named Canon Theologus of the Chapter of the Vatican Basilica and member of the Sacred Congregation of Rites. On 12 June 1724, only two weeks after his election, Pope Benedict XIII appointed Lambertini titular bishop of Theodosia. Lambertini was consecrated a bishop in Rome, in the Pauline Chapel of the Vatican Palace, on 16 July 1724, by Pope Benedict XIII; the co-consecrators were Giovanni Francesco Nicolai, titular Archbishop of Myra, Nicola Maria Lercari, titular Archbishop of Nazianzus.
In 1725, he served as the Canonist at the Roman Synod of Pope Benedict XIII. In 1718, the Istituto delle scienze ed Arti Liberali in Bologna had begun construction of a chapel for everyday convenience dedicated to the Annunication of the Virgin Mary. In 1725, Bishop Prospero Lambertini of Theodosia, working in the Roman Curia but was mindful of his origins, ordered the chapel to be painted, he handed over the work to Carlo Salarolo. Lambertini ordered and paid for the painting above the main altar, an image of the Virgin being greeted by the angel, the work of Marcantonio Franceschini, he was made Bishop of Ancona on 27 January 1727, was permitted to retain the title of Archbishop, as well as all the offices which he had been granted. He was allowed to continue as Abbot Commendatory of the Camaldolese monastery of S. Stefano di Cintorio in the diocese of Pisa. In 1731, the new bishop had the choir of the cathedral restored and renovated. Once he became pope, Lambertini remembered his former diocese, sending an annual gift to the Church of Ancona, of sacred vessels of gold or silver, altar appointments and other items.
Bishop Lambertini was created a Cardinal on 9 December 1726, though the public announcement of his promotion was postponed until 30 April 1728. He was assigned the titular church of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme on 10 May 1728, he participated in the 1730 conclave. On 30 April 1731 Cardinal Lambertini was appointed Archbishop of Bologna by Pope Clement XII. During his time as archbishop, he composed an extensive treatise in three volumes, De synodo dioecesana, on the subject of the diocesan synod, presenting a synthesis of the history, Canon Law and procedures for the holding of those important meetings of the clergy of each diocese, he was in fact preparing the ground for the holding of a synod of his own for the diocese of Bologna, an expectation he first announced in a Notificazione of 14 October 1732. When the first edition of the De Synodo was published in 1748, the synod still had not taken place, he continued in the office of Archbishop of Bologna after he became Pope, not resigning until 14 January 1754.
After the death of Pope Clement XII on 6 February 1740, Cardinal Lambe