National and regional identity in Spain
Both the perceived nationhood of Spain, the perceived distinctions between different parts of its territory are said to derive from historical, linguistic, economic and social factors. Present-day Spain was formed in the wake of the expansion of the Christian states in northern Spain, a process known as the Reconquista; the Reconquista, ending with the Fall of Granada in 1492, was followed by a contested process of religious and linguistic unification and political centralisation, which began under the Catholic Monarchs and continued intermittently into the 20th century. Peripheral nationalism in its modern form arose chiefly in Cuba and the Basque Country during the 19th century; the modern division of Spain into Autonomous Communities embodies an attempt to recognise nationalities and regional identities within Spain as a basis for devolution of power. From the Reconquista onwards, in most parts of the peninsula, territories have identified themselves as distinct from the rest of Spain in one of three ways.
In the north: Galicia, León, Asturias, the Basque Country and Navarre. Many of these areas identify with Christian kingdoms from the early Reconquista, before dynastic unions linked the provinces. In the south, some Andalusians claim a unique regional identity through either more recent Muslim occupation or through the longer-lasting presence of Morisco culture. In central Spain, entities have identities connected to the Kingdom of Castile. Demands for greater autonomy or full independence remain in certain regions, conflicting with the view that decentralisation has gone far enough; the most dramatic recent manifestations of separatism have been the violent campaign by the Basque ETA group in the late 20th century, the unilateral Catalan declaration of independence in 2017.... The Peninsula asserts a fundamental unity comprising considerable variety Mainland Spain has been characterised by relative inaccessibility from outside and by difficult communication between different parts of it. "alls and battlements divide within itself the territory which walls and battlements separate from other countries".
In contrast to the "vast monotony" of the central plateau, the surrounding peripheral areas "present to the traveler every possible landscape". Diversity in forms of agriculture and its productivity are conditioned by the contrasts in rainfall between "wet" and "dry" Spain, to the extent that irrigation has been introduced. In the past the peripheral regions benefited from cheap coastal transport, whereas transport costs and distance hindered the development of the central regions; the Iberian Peninsula, as Hispania, became subject to Rome in the third to first centuries BC. The Romans divided the peninsula into different provinces and introduced the Latin language, Roman law, Christianity to the majority of the peninsula, they were succeeded by a number of Germanic tribes. The most significant of these was the Visigoths, who attempted to unify the disparate parts of Iberia, focusing on the Roman legacy the Roman law.711AD marks the beginning of the Arab period. The vast majority of Iberia came under Islamic control quickly.
Over the next couple hundred years, the rulers of Muslim Spain the Caliphate of Cordoba, were consolidating power and patronizing the arts and sciences, as well as experiencing relative religious tolerance. In the mountainous, rural northern regions to the north, the Christian rulers were regaining their footing, despite numerous internal conflicts, they expanded their control throughout the Reconquista, between the Battle of Covadonga c. 720 CE and the Fall of Granada in 1492. During this period several independent Christian kingdoms and independent political entities were formed by their own inhabitants' efforts under aristocratic leadership, coexisting with the Muslim Iberian states and having their own identities and borders. Portugal part of León, gained independence in 1128 after a split in the inheritance of the daughters of Alfonso VI and remained independent throughout the Reconquista. All these different kingdoms were ruled together, or separately in personal union, but maintained their particular ethnic differences, regardless of similarities through common origins or borrowed customs.
These kingdoms sometimes collaborated when they fought against Al-Andalus and sometimes allied themselves with the Muslims against rival Christian neighbors. The common non-Christian enemy has been considered the single crucial catalyst for the union of the different Christian realms. However, it was effective only for permanently reconquered territories. Much of the unification happened long after the departure of the last Muslim rulers. Just as Christians remained in Arab Spain after the Christian conquest, so too did Muslims and Arab culture remain after that conquest; the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon eclipsed the others in power and size through conquest and dynastic inheritance. The process of amalgamation can be summed up thus: From the west and Asturias merged into León, which itself was incorporated in the Crown of Castile; the Crowns of Castile and Aragon united in 1469 with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs. After this, the Muslim Emirate of Granada was conquered in 1492, Navarre was invaded and forced into the union in 1512, through a combinat
Spanish is a town in the Canadian province of Ontario, located on Trans-Canada Highway 17 in the Algoma District near the border of the Sudbury District. Known as the Township of Shedden, the municipality adopted its current status and name in 2004, taking the name of its largest community; the Town of Spanish is situated at the mouth of the Spanish River where it empties into the North Channel of Lake Huron. This river and its ecologically rich delta have had a positive impact on the development of the community of Spanish; the river has played an important and continuous role in the local economy from the days of the fur trade, through the timbering era, now contributes to the tourism industry. According to legend, the Spanish name was derived around the year 1750. Numerous persons have attempted to explain the rationale for the name "Spanish" in what was once part of New France. There are several different theories regarding the name of the community. According to local legends a French Jesuit Father was travelling in the area in the 1700s and encountered a Spanish speaking woman with children.
The woman had been captured by local warriors in a battle in Spanish controlled lands far to the south in what is now the United States of America, had been married to a local Ojibway chief, the family taking the name "Espaniel". Espaniel is a common surname among the local Ojibway communities. Another variant of the story has it that it was in fact a Spaniard who had fled the Spain-controlled lower Mississippi Valley during the fur trade days and had taken refuge along the North Shore and married into a local Ojibway community. Other theories on the name of Spanish include a claim that Dr. J. J. Bigsby, a geologist with the Canadian Boundary Commission, named the river to contrast with the nearby French River. Further intrigue arises from the 1980 discovery of two Spanish coins from 1742 found near the mouth of the Sauble River; this has led to speculation of early Spanish-speaking explorers along the North Shore. The Spanish River has had numerous names. John McBean, HBC Factor at the La Cloche Trading Post recorded the name Eskimanetigon in his map of 1824.
Elder Peter Owl of Sagamok states. The Ministry has named a Provincial Park on the upper river The Spanish River Valley Minitegoibe Signature site. Early settlement of the area gained momentum in the latter part of the 1800s with the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway in February 1884, between Lake Nipissing and Algoma, now known as Algoma Mills. According to an article in the Ontario Gazetteer, by 1903–1904, the Spanish River Station had a population of 200 with two timber companies operating in the vicinity: Huron Lumber Co. and Spanish River Co. W. H. Graham operated a general store, William Coget ran the hotel and the local blacksmith as well as the Postmaster was Gustavo Hamilton. During the same year, the community of Spanish Mills, located on Aird Island in the North Channel just south of the Town of Spanish had a thriving timber industry complete with a sawmill and general store; the Sable and Spanish River Boom and Dam Co. and the Spanish River Lumber Company. The earliest version of the Spanish Indian Residential Schools was a log cabin in Wiikwemkoong, Manitoulin Island from 1850–1911.
It was a day school for Native boys. Father Proulx was the first priest. In 1860 the Jesuit Priests managed the school; the old school burned down and a new site was chosen, 1,000 acres were purchased at the mouth of the Spanish River. Reverend Joseph Sauve and Father Paquin undertook to build and supervise construction. In the fall of 1913 the school commenced. Boys from as far as Manitoba and as close as Cutler attended the school. A shoe-maker shop and a pump house were built. Self-sufficient dormitories, several lavatories, kitchen, a scullery, refrigerated area, offices, cloistered area, laundry room, infirmary and tailor shop were housed in the school. In 1981 a chapel was added. Near the school stood a wind mill powerhouse and shoe shop, a mill and a storage for milled products, a huge barn which held cows, several horse teams, a bull, a dairy operation and a blacksmith shop, a piggery and sheepery, a chicken coop and a garden. At the wharf was a 30-foot cruiser named the Garnier and a vessel called.
In Wiikwemkoong a Native School for girls was located. It was run by the Daughters of the Heart of Mary from 1862–1914; the log cabin was relocated opposite the boys school in Spanish. Both schools were funded by the Federal Government; the Indian Act stated that "Indians can attend a residential school if an Indian Day School is not available to them within a three mile radius." Children from broken homes and where home conditions were not the best were sent to be enrolled into the schools. The Daughters of the Heart of Saint Mary was an organization formed by and idea from a young French woman who hoped for a life of religion to a woman whose responsibilities kept them in the world; this idea occurred to a Jesuit priest. The Society was forced to go underground; the society came to Canada 100 years ago to work among the natives in Ontario. In 1981 the building, the former "Girls School" burned down and the "Boys School" was demolished in 2004; the shell of the "Girls School" still remains as a witness to history.
1902: Railway station is built, the village's focus shifts to becoming a small service centre for the Canadian Pacific Railway instead of a lumber village. 1911: Wiikwemkoong's m
Culture of Spain
The culture of Spain is based on a variety of historical influences based on pre-Roman Celtic and Iberian culture. Other ancient peoples such as Romans, Phoenicians and Greeks had some influence. In the areas of language and religion, the Ancient Romans left a lasting legacy in the Spanish culture because Rome created Hispania as a political and administrative unit; the subsequent course of Spanish history added other elements to the country's culture and traditions. The Visigothic Kingdom left a united Christian Hispania, going to be welded in the Reconquista; the Visigoths kept the Roman legacy in Spain between the fall of the Roman Empire and the Early Middle Ages. Muslim influences remained during the Middle Ages in the areas conquered by the Umayyads, these influences had not been assimilated into the Spanish culture. Spanish culture before and after the arrival of the Muslims was based on Roman heritage and the primary religion practised was Catholicism. A comparison can be drawn with the North African nations, who lived under the Roman Empire before Muslim rule.
However, there is scarce reminder of the Roman presence in North Africa as the predominant culture is Arabic nowadays. Around 75% of modern Spanish language is derived from Latin. Ancient Greek has contributed to Spanish vocabulary through Latin, where it had a great impact. Spanish vocabulary has been in contact from an early date with Arabic, having developed during the Al-Andalus era in the Iberian Peninsula with around 8% of its vocabulary being Arabic in origin and minor influences but not least from other languages including Basque, Iberian and Gothic. Another influence was the minority Jewish population in some cities. After the defeat of the Muslims during the Christian Reconquista period between 718 and 1492, Spain became an Roman Catholic country. In addition, the nation's history and its Mediterranean and Atlantic environment have played a significant role in shaping its culture, in shaping other cultures, such as the culture of Latin America through the colonization of the Americas.
By the end of the 19th and 20th centuries, the Spaniards made expressions of cultural diversity easier than it had been for the last seven centuries. This occurred at the same period that Spain became drawn into a diverse international culture. Spain has the third highest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the world, after Italy and China, with a total of 47; the term "Spanish literature" refers to literature written in the Spanish language, including literature composed by Spanish and Latin American writers. It may include Spanish poetry and novels. Spanish literature is the name given to the literary works written in Spain throughout time, those by Spanish authors worldwide. Due to historic and generational diversity, Spanish literature has known a great number of influences and is diverse; some major movements can be identified within it. Highlights include the Cantar de Mio Cid, the oldest preserved Spanish cantar de gesta, it is written in the ancestor of modern Spanish. La Celestina is a book published anonymously by Fernando de Rojas in 1499.
This book is considered to be one of the greatest in Spanish literature, traditionally marks the end of medieval literature and the beginning of the literary renaissance in Spain. Besides its importance in the Spanish literature of the Golden Centuries, Lazarillo de Tormes is credited with founding a literary genre, the picaresque novel, so called from Spanish pícaro, meaning "rogue" or "rascal". In these novels, the adventures of the pícaro expose injustice while amusing the reader. Published by Miguel de Cervantes in two volumes a decade apart, Don Quixote is the most influential work of literature to emerge from the Spanish Golden Age and the entire Spanish literary canon; as a founding work of modern Western literature, it appears at or near the top of lists of the greatest works of fiction published. Spain's greatest painters during the Spanish Golden Age period included El Greco, Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, Diego Velázquez, Francisco Goya, who became world-renowned artists between the period of the 17th century to 19th century in early parts of the 20th century.
However, Spain's best known artist since the 20th century has been Pablo Picasso, known for his abstract sculptures, drawings and ceramics in addition to his paintings. Other leading artists include Salvador Dalí, Juan Gris, Joan Miró, Antoni Tàpies. During the Prehistoric period, the megalithic Iberian and Celtic architectures developed. Through the Roman period, both urban development and construction projects flourished. After the pre-Romanesque period, in the architecture of Al-Andalus, important contributions were made by the Caliphate of Córdoba, the Taifas, the Almoravids and Almohads, the Nasrid of the Kingdom of Granada. Several currents appear: Mudéjar, the Romanesque period, the Gothic period, the Renaissance, the Baroque period, the Spanish colonial architecture, Neoclassical style are the most significant. In the 19th century eclecticism and regionalism, the Neo-Mudéjar style and glass architecture bloom. In the 20th century, the Catalan Modernisme, modernist architecture, contemporary architecture germinated.
In recent years, Spanish
Spaniards, or the Spanish people, are a Romance ethnic group that are indigenous to Spain. They share a common Spanish culture, history and language. Within Spain, there are a number of nationalisms and regionalisms, reflecting the country's complex history and diverse culture. Although the official language of Spain is known as "Spanish", it is only one of the national languages of Spain, is less ambiguously known as Castilian, a standard language based on the medieval romance speech of the Kingdom of Castile in north and central Spain; the Spanish people's heritage includes the pre-Celts and Celts. There are several spoken regional languages, most notably Basque and Galician. There are many populations outside Spain with ancestors who emigrated from Spain and who share a Hispanic culture; the Roman Republic conquered Iberia during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. As a result of Roman colonization, the majority of local languages, with the exception of Basque, stem from the Vulgar Latin; the Germanic Vandals and Suebi, with part of the Iranian Alans under King Respendial conquered the peninsula in 409 AD.
In turn, the Visigoths established themselves in Spain. The Iberian Peninsula was conquered and brought under the rule of the Arab Umayyads in 711 and by the Berber North African dynasties the Almohads and the Almoravids in the 11th and 12th centuries. Following the eight century Christian Reconquista against the Moors, the modern Spanish state was formed with the union of the Kingdoms of Castille and Aragon, the conquest of the last Muslim Nasrid Kingdom of Granada and the Canary Islands in the late 15th century. In the early 16th century the Kingdom of Navarre was conquered; as Spain expanded its empire in the Americas, religious minorities in Spain such as Jews and Muslims were either converted or expelled and the Catholic church fiercely persecuted heresy during a period known as the Spanish Inquisition. A small number of Spaniards descend from converted Jewish and North Africans, as a result of the 800 years of Moorish occupation of the Iberian Peninsula. In parallel, a wave of emigration to the Americas began, with over 1.86 million Spaniards emigrating to the Spanish Americas during the colonial period and the population of the Spanish Empire had risen to 16.8 million by the end of the 18th century In the post-colonial period, a further 3.5 million Spanish left for the Americas Argentina, Mexico, Chile, Puerto Rico and Cuba.
Spain is home to one of the largest communities of Romani people. The Government's statistical agency CIS estimated in 2007 that the number of Gitanos present in Spain is around one million; the Spanish Roma, which belong to the Iberian Kale subgroup, are a formerly-nomadic community, which spread across Western Asia, North Africa, Europe, first reaching Spain in the 15th century. The population of Spain is becoming diverse due to recent immigration. From 2000 to 2010, Spain had among the highest per capita immigration rates in the world and the second highest absolute net migration in the World and immigrants now make up about 10% of the population; the prolonged economic crisis between 2008 and 2015 reduced both immigration rates and the total number of foreigners in the country, Spain becoming once more a net emigrant country. The earliest modern humans inhabiting Spain are believed to have been Neolithic peoples who may have arrived in the Iberian Peninsula as early as 35,000–40,000 years ago.
In more recent times the Iberians are believed to have arrived or developed in the region between the 4th millennium BC and the 3rd millennium BC settling along the Mediterranean coast. Celts settled in Spain during the Iron Age; some of those tribes in North-central Spain, which had cultural contact with the Iberians, are called Celtiberians. In addition, a group known as the Tartessians and Turdetanians inhabited southwestern Spain and who are believed to have developed a separate civilization of Phoenician influence; the seafaring Phoenicians and Carthaginians successively founded trading colonies along the Mediterranean coast over a period of several centuries. The Second Punic War between the Carthaginians and Romans was fought in what is now Spain and Portugal; the Roman Republic conquered Iberia during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC transformed most of the region into a series of Latin-speaking provinces. As a result of Roman colonization, the majority of local languages, with the exception of Basque, stem from the Vulgar Latin, spoken in Hispania, which evolved into the modern languages of the Iberian Peninsula, including Castilian, which became the main lingua franca of Spain, is now known in most countries as Spanish.
Hispania emerged as an important part of the Roman Empire and produced notable historical figures such as Trajan, Hadrian and Quintilian. The Germanic Vandals and Suebi, with part of the Iranian Alans under King Respendial, arrived in the peninsula in 409 AD. Part of the Vandals with the remaining Alans, now under Geiseric in personal union removed themselves to North Africa after a few conflicts with another Germanic tribe, the Visigoths, who established in Toulouse supported Roman campaigns against the Vandals and Alans in 415–19 AD and became the dominant power in Iberia for three centuries; the Visigoths were romanized in the eastern Empire and Christians, so their integration withi
"Spanish" is the fourth UK single from Craig David's second album Slicker Than Your Average. The song became his tenth top ten hit in the UK, peaking at #8 and spending six weeks inside the top 75. "Spanish" saw David incorporate a Spanish element into his music for the first time, including on the track with Spanish rapper Duke One. In Australia, "Spanish" was skipped and "World Filled with Love" was released as the fourth single instead; the video was directed by directing team Calabazitaz. UK CD: 1 "Spanish" "Whats Your Flava?" "Candle in the Wind" UK CD: 2 "Spanish" "Spanish" "Spanish" "Spanish" Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Spanish Town is the capital and the largest town in the parish of St. Catherine in the historic county of Middlesex, Jamaica, it was the Spanish and British capital of Jamaica from 1534 until 1872. The town is home to numerous memorials, the national archives, one of the oldest Anglican churches outside England; the Spanish settlement of Villa de la Vega was founded by governor Francisco de Garay in 1534 as the capital of the colony. It was called Santiago de la Vega or St. Jago de la Vega. Indigenous Taino had been living in the area for a millennium before this, but this was the first European habitation on the south of the island; when the English conquered Jamaica in 1655, they renamed the settlement as Spanish Town. Since the town was badly damaged during the conquest, Port Royal took on many administrative roles and functioned as an unofficial capital during the beginning of English rule. By the time Port Royal was devastated by an earthquake in 1692, Spanish Town had been rebuilt and was again functioning as the capital.
Spanish Town remained the capital until 1872. Kingston had been founded in the aftermath of the 1692 earthquake. By 1755, serious rivalry from lobbyists caused increasing speculation about the continued suitability of Spanish Town as the capital. In 1836, Governor Lionel Smith observed that "the capital was in ruins, with no commercial and agricultural concern in operation." To worsen the situation, following the Morant Bay Rebellion of 1865, Sir John Peter Grant ordered the removal of the capital in 1872 to Kingston. As a larger port, it had come to be considered the natural capital of the island. After the seat of government was relocated, Spanish Town lost much of its economic and cultural vitality. Built on the west bank of the Rio Cobre, the town lies thirteen miles from Kingston on the main road, its history was shaped by two significant colonial periods: Spanish rule from 1534–1655 and the English from 1655–1872. After that the capital was relocated to Kingston; the Anglican Church took over the 16th century cathedral.
The historic architecture and street names mark the colonial history, such as Red Church and White Church streets, symbolic of the Spanish chapels of the red and white cross, as well as Monk Street, in reference to the monastery that once stood nearby. Nugent and Manchester streets were named for the British Colonial Governors, George Nugent and William Montagu, 5th Duke of Manchester. King Street runs past the King's House, the governor's residence, Constitution Street, near to the Square, refers to the island's former administrative centre. Regency buildings in the town centre include the Rodney Memorial flanked by two guns from the French ship Ville de Paris, the façade of the Old King's House, the residence of the governor until 1872. Spanish Town is the site of an early cast-iron bridge, designed by Thomas Wilson and manufactured by Walker and Company of Rotherham, England. Spanning the Rio Cobre, the bridge was erected in 1801 at a cost of £4,000, its four arched ribs are supported on massive masonry abutments.
After the abutments deteriorated, endangering the structure, it was listed in the 1998 World Monuments Watch by the World Monuments Fund. A restoration project began in 2004, with funding provided by American Express through World Monuments Fund. Progress was slow until 2008. A first phase of restoration was completed in April 2010, when the repair of the abutments allowed the bridge to be reopened for the public. More violence in the area has prevented the bridge from achieving the status of a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 2009 the population of Spanish Town was estimated to be about 160,000; the population of Spanish Town, like the rest of the St. Catherine, has been growing rapidly, it is sometimes referred to colloquially as "Spain" or "Prison Oval" within Jamaica. The latter nickname is a reference to the cricket pitch or oval located just outside the St. Catherine District Prison, where some inmates can get a limited view of the sport through their cell windows. Association football is played at the Prison Oval.
C. is the major team. The town had one of the first Spanish cathedrals to be built in the New World, constructed around 1525. Many Christian denominations have churches or meeting halls in the town, including a Roman Catholic church and Wesleyan and Seventh-day Adventist chapels. There is a mosque. Standing untouched in character is a historic alms-house, public hospital, a penal institution built in the eighteenth century; the town contains a factory that manufactures dyes from logwood, a salt factory, a rice processing plant. In the neighbourhood are five large sugar estates, a milk condensary, a large textile mill; the Rio Cobre Juvenile Correctional Centre of the Department of Correctional Services, Jamaica is located in Spanish Town. Spanish Town is on the main A2 roads, it is well served by mini buses and taxis, which operate from the Spanish Town Transport Hub. The now disused Spanish Town railway station provided access to four lines: Kingston to Montego Bay Spanish Town to Ewarton Bog Walk to Port Antonio Linstead to New WorksThe station opened in 1845 and closed in October 1992 when all passenger traffic on Jamaica's railways abruptly ceased.
Blackbeard, British pirate Yohan Blake Sprinter, attended school in Spanish Town Davian Clarke, sprinter Chronixx, singer Chevelle Franklyn Gospel reggae singer, born in Tawes Pen, Spanish Town Uriah Hall, mixed martial artist, born in Spanish Town Andrew Holness, Prime Minister of Jamaica Grace J
Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula and its provinces. Under the Republic, Hispania was divided into two provinces: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. During the Principate, Hispania Ulterior was divided into two new provinces and Lusitania, while Hispania Citerior was renamed Hispania Tarraconensis. Subsequently, the western part of Tarraconensis was split off, first as Hispania Nova renamed "Callaecia". From Diocletian's Tetrarchy onwards, the south of remaining Tarraconensis was again split off as Carthaginensis, then too the Balearic Islands and all the resulting provinces formed one civil diocese under the vicarius for the Hispaniae; the name, was used in the period of Visigothic rule. The modern placenames Hispaniola are both derived from Hispania; the origin of the word Hispania is much disputed and the evidence for the various speculations are based upon what are at best mere resemblances to be accidental, suspect supporting evidence. One theory holds it to be from the Phoenician language of colonizing Carthage.
It may derive from a Punic cognate of Hebrew אי-שפניא meaning "island of the hyrax" or "island of the hare" or "island of the rabbit". Some Roman coins of the Emperor Hadrian, born in Hispania, depict a rabbit. Others derive the word from Phoenician span, meaning "hidden", make it indicate "a hidden", that is, "a remote", or "far-distant land". Another theory, proposed by the etymologist Eric Partridge in his work Origins, is that it is of Iberian derivation and that it is to be found in the pre-Roman name for Seville, which hints at an ancient name for the country of *Hispa, an Iberian or Celtic root whose meaning is now lost. Isidore of Sevilla considered Hispania derived from Hispalis. Hispalis may alternatively derive from Heliopolis. According to Manuel Pellicer Catalán, the name derives from Phoenician Spal "lowland", rendering this explanation of Hispania dubious. Hispania was called Hesperia Ultima, "the last western land" in Greek, by Roman writers, since the name Hesperia had been used by the Greeks to indicate the Italian peninsula.
Another theory holds that the name derives from Ezpanna, the Basque word for "border" or "edge", thus meaning the farthest area or place. During Antiquity and Middle Ages, the literary texts derive the term Hispania from an eponymous hero named Hispan, mentioned for the first time in the work of the Roman historian Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus, in the 1st century BC. Although "Hispania" is the Latin root for the modern name "Spain", substituting Spanish for Hispanicus or Hispanic, or Spain for Hispania, should be done and taking into account the correct context; the Estoria de España written on the initiative of Alfonso X of Castile "El Sabio", between 1260 and 1274, during the Reconquest of Spain, is believed to be the first extended history of Spain in Old Spanish using the words "España" and "Españoles" to refer to Medieval Hispania. The use of Latin "Hispania", Castilian "España", Catalan "Espanya" and French "Espaigne", between others, to refer to Roman Hispania or Visigothic Hispania was common throughout all the Late Middle Ages.
A document dated 1292 mentions the names of foreigners from Medieval Spain as "Gracien d'Espaigne". Latin expressions using "Hispania" or "Hispaniae" like "omnes reges Hispaniae" are used in the Middle Ages at the same time as the emerging Spain Romance languages during the Reconquista use the Romance version interchangeably. In James Ist Chronicle Llibre dels fets, written between 1208 and 1276, there are many instances of this: when it talks about the different Kings, "los V regnes de Espanya"; the Latin term Hispania used during Antiquity and the Low Middle Ages as a geographical name, starts to be used with political connotations, as shown in the expression "Laus Hispaniae" to describe the history of the peoples of the Iberian Peninsula of Isidore of Seville's "Historia de regibus Gothorum, Vandalorum et Suevorum".: You are, Oh Spain and always happy mother of princes and peoples, the most beautiful of all the lands that extend far from the West to India. You, by right, are now the queen of all provinces, from whom the lights are given not only the sunset, but the East.
You are the honor and ornament of the orb and the most illustrious portion of the Earth... And for this reason, long ago, the golden Rome desired you In modern history and Spanish have become associated with the Kingdom of Spain alone, although this process took several centuries. After the union of the central peninsular Kingdom of Castile with the eastern peninsular Kingdom of Aragon in the 15th century under the Catholic Monarchs in 1492, onl