Galway is a city in the West of Ireland, in the province of Connacht. Galway lies on the River Corrib between Lough Corrib and Galway Bay, surrounded by County Galway, is the sixth most populous city in Ireland, with a population at the 2016 Census of 79,934. Galway will be the European Capital of Culture in 2020, alongside Croatia; the city's name comes from the Irish name Gaillimhe, which formed the western boundary of the earliest settlement, Dún Gaillimhe "Fort Gaillimh".. The name was Anglicised as Galliv or Gallive, closer to the Irish pronunciation; the city's name in Latin is Galvia. Residents of the city are referred to as Galwegians; the city bears the nickname "City of the Tribes" because of the fourteen merchant families called the "tribes of Galway" who led the city in its Hiberno-Norman period. Dún Gaillimhe was constructed by the King of Connacht, Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair. A settlement grew around it. During the Norman invasion of Connacht in the 1230s, Dún Gaillimhe was captured by Richard Mor de Burgh, who had led the invasion.
As the de Burghs became Gaelicised, the merchants of the town, the Tribes of Galway, pushed for greater control over the walled city. This led to their gaining complete control over the city and to the granting of mayoral status by the English crown in December 1484. Galway endured difficult relations with its Irish neighbours. A notice over the west gate of the city, completed in 1562 by Mayor Thomas Óge Martyn, stated "From the Ferocious O'Flahertys may God protect us". A by-law forbade the native Irish unrestricted access into Galway, saying "neither O’ nor Mac shall strutte nor swagger through the streets of Galway" without permission. During the Middle Ages, Galway was ruled by an oligarchy of fourteen merchant families; these were the "Tribes of Galway". The city thrived on international trade, in the Middle Ages, it was the principal Irish port for trade with Spain and France; the most famous reminder of those days is ceann an bhalla, now known as the Spanish Arch, constructed during the mayoralty of Wylliam Martin.
In 1477 Christopher Columbus visited Galway stopping off on a voyage to Iceland or the Faroe Islands. Seven or eight years he noted in the margin of his copy of Imago Mundi: Men of Cathay have come from the west. We have seen many signs, and in Galway in Ireland, a man and a woman, of extraordinary appearance, have come to land on two tree trunks The most explanation for these bodies is that they were Inuit swept eastward by the North Atlantic Current. During the 16th and 17th centuries Galway remained loyal to the English crown for the most part during the Gaelic resurgence for reasons of survival. However, by 1642 the city had allied itself with the Catholic Confederation of Kilkenny during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. During the resulting Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, Cromwellian forces captured the city after a nine-month siege. At the end of the 17th century the city supported the Jacobites in the Williamite war in Ireland and was captured by the Williamites after a short siege not long after the Battle of Aughrim in 1691.
The great families of Galway were ruined. The city suffered further under the potato famines of 1845–1852, it did not recover until the period of strong economic growth of the late 20th century. Like most of Ireland, has a oceanic climate according to the Köppen climate classification, being one of the world's mildest cities for latitude because it is on an island. Galway has a year-round mild, moist and changeable climate, due to the prevailing winds of the North Atlantic Current; the city does not experience temperature extremes, with temperatures below 0 °C and above 30 °C being rare. The city receives an average of 1,156 mm of precipitation annually, evenly distributed throughout the year; the average January temperature in the city is 5.9 °C and the average July temperature is 15.9 °C.system. The highest temperature recorded in Galway was 31.7 °C in July 1921, whilst the lowest temperature recorded was −11.7 °C in January 1945. While extreme weather is rare, the city and county can experience severe windstorms that are the result of vigorous Atlantic depressions that pass along the north west coast of Ireland.
Most of these storms occur between early spring. Due to the city's northerly location, Galway has long summer days. Daylight at midsummer is before 04:20 and lasts until after 23:00. In midwinter, daylight does not start until 08:49, is gone by 16:19. Lynch's Castle on Shop Street is a medieval town house, now a branch of Allied Irish Banks; the Church of Ireland St. Nicholas' Collegiate Church is the largest medieval church still in everyday use in Ireland, it was founded in enlarged in the following two centuries. The Cathedral of Our Lady Assumed into Heaven and St Nicholas was consecrated in 1965 and is a far larger building constructed from limestone, it has an eclectic style, with a Renaissance Revival dome and round arches, a Romanesque Revival portico that dominates the main façade –, an unusual feature in modern Irish church building. The original quadrangle building of NUI Galway, erected in 1
The National University of Ireland Galway is located in the city of Galway in Ireland. A third-level teaching and research institution, the University has been awarded the full five QS stars for excellence, is ranked among the top 1 per cent of universities according to the 2018 QS World University Rankings; the University was founded in 1845 as "Queen's College Galway", was more known as "University College Galway". NUI Galway is a member of a network of 40 long-established European universities; the University opened for teaching in 1849 as "Queen's College Galway" with 37 professors and 91 students. A year it became part of the Queen's University of Ireland; the Irish Universities Act, 1908 made this college a constituent college of the new National University of Ireland, under a new charter the name of the University changed to "University College Galway". It was given special statutory responsibility under the University College Galway Act, 1929 with respect of the use of the Irish language as a working language of the University.
It retained the title of University College Galway until the Universities Act, 1997 changed it to the "National University of Ireland, Galway". Located close to the city centre, it stretches along the River Corrib; the oldest part of the University, the Quadrangle with its Aula Maxima was designed by John Benjamin Keane. The stone from which it is built was supplied locally. Fine Gael's youth wing took a hold on the university in 1973 during the Liam Cosgrave-led Fine Gael/Labour Coalition government, with Enda Kenny and Madeleine Taylor-Quinn among those behind its establishment there. More modern parts of the university sprang up in the 1970s and were designed by architects Scott Tallon Walker; the 1990s saw considerable development, including the conversion of an old munitions factory into a student centre. Under the early 21st-century Presidency of Iognáid G. Ó Muircheartaigh, NUI Galway announced details of plans to make the University a "campus of the future" at a cost of around €400 million.
Ó Muircheartaigh's successor James J. Browne continued with that plan; the University launched its Strategic Plan "Vision 2020" in 2015. 21st-century developments include a state-of-the-art University Sports Centre, Áras Moyola, J. E. Cairnes School of Business & Economics, the Alice Perry Engineering Building, the BioSciences Research Building, the Life Course Institute, the Lambe Institute and the O'Donoghue Centre for Drama and Performance. A new Human Biology Building completed in summer 2017. Nelson Mandela made a memorable appearance at the University in 2003. On what was his last visit to Ireland, Mandela condemned U. S. foreign policy and received an honorary doctorate from NUI Chancellor Garret FitzGerald. The five Colleges of the University are: College of Arts, Social Sciences and Celtic Studies College of Business, Public Policy and Law College of Engineering and Informatics College of Medicine and Health Sciences College of ScienceSince January 2006, St. Angela's College, Sligo has been a college of Galway.
As a result those admitted to St. Angela's College are registered as students at Galway. Since 2015 the Shannon College of Hotel Management is incorporated into the University — becoming part of the College of Business, Public Policy & Law at Galway —, formally marked by the Minister for Education and Skills Jan O'Sullivan at an event held in Shannon College on 9 November 2015. All staff of Shannon College of Hotel Management became staff of Galway and all students of Shannon College of Hotel Management became students at Galway. There are several Research Institutes at Galway, each of which comprise research teams drawn from the Colleges. National Centre for Biomedical Engineering Science Insight Centre for Data Analytics Ryan Institute - Marine, Energy & Environment CÚRAM Whitaker Institute for Innovation and Societal Change Institute for Lifecourse and Society Moore Institute for Research in the Humanities and Social Studies Irish Centre for Human Rights Constituent schools found in the relevant colleges include: Galway University Foundation was established in 1998 with the intention of generating financial support from private individuals and institutions for NUI Galway.
It nurtures relationships with donors for. The Foundation has many'Priority Projects' in development. NUI Galway has about 150 active student societies, ranging from the academic to artistic and performing. Religions are represented. In addition, many of Ireland's political parties have active societies at NUI Galway, including Fine Gael, Labour, People Before Profit, Sinn Féin and the Social Democrats; the oldest society on the campus is the Literary and Debating Society, founded in 1846. Another of NUI Galway's oldest societies is Cumann Staire. One of Europe's oldest history societies, it is a member of the Comhaltas na gCumann Staire - Irish History Students' Association and the International Students of History Association."Dram Soc" played a critical part in the formation of the Druid Theatre Company, Macnas and t
County Galway is a county in Ireland. It is located in the West of part of the province of Connacht. There are several Irish-speaking areas in the west of the county; the traditional county includes, is named for, the city of Galway, but the city and county now have separate local authorities: Galway City Council administers the urban area, while the rest of the county is administered by Galway County Council. The population of the county was 258,058 at the 2016 census; the first inhabitants in the Galway area arrived over 7000 years ago. Shell middens indicate the existence of people as early as 5000 BC; the county comprised several kingdoms and territories which predate the formation of the county. These kingdoms included Uí Maine, Maigh Seóla, Conmhaícne Mara, Soghain and Máenmaige. County Galway became an official entity around 1569 AD; the region known as Connemara retains a distinct identity within the county, though its boundaries are unclear, so it may account for as much as one third, or as little as 20%, of the county.
The county includes a number such as the Oileáin Árann and Inis Bó Fine. With the arrival of Christianity many monasteries were built in the county. Monasteries kept written records of events of its people; these were followed by a number of law-tracts, genealogies and miscellaneous accounts. Extant manuscripts containing references to Galway include: Nearly 20% of the population of County Galway live in the Gaeltacht. County Galway is home to the largest Gaeltacht Irish-speaking region in Ireland. There are over 48,000 people living within this region, which extends from Galway city westwards through Connemara; the region consists of the following Irish-speaking areas. All schools within the Gaeltacht use the Irish language for classroom instruction. There is a third-level constituent college of NUIG called Acadamh na hOllscolaíochta Gaeilge in Carraroe and Carna. Clifden is the largest town in the region. Galway City is home to Ireland's only Irish-language theatre, Taibhdhearc na Gaillimhe. There is a strong Irish-language media presence in this area too, which boasts the radio station Raidió na Gaeltachta and Foinse newspaper in Carraroe and national TV station TG4 in Baile na hAbhann.
The Aran Islands are part of the Galway Gaeltacht. According to Census 2016, there were 84,249 people in County Galway. According to Census 2011, the Galway city and county Gaeltacht has a population of 48,907, of which 30,978 say they can speak Irish, 23,788 can be classed as native Irish speakers while 7,190 speak Irish daily only within the classroom. There are 3,006 attending three Gaelcholáiste outside the Galway Gaeltacht. According to the Irish Census 2016 there are 9,445 people in the county who identify themselves as being daily Irish speakers outside the education system. Prior to the enactment of the Local Government Act 2001, the county was a unified whole for administrative purposes, despite the presence of two local authorities. Since that time, the administrative re-organisation has reduced the geographical extent of the county by the extent of the area under the jurisdiction of Galway City Council. Today, the geographic extent of the county is limited to the area under the jurisdiction of Galway County Council.
Each local authority ranks as first level local administrative units of the NUTS 3 West Region for Eurostat purposes. There are 34 LAU 1 entities in the Republic of Ireland; the remit of Galway County Council includes some suburbs of the city not within the remit of Galway City Council. Both local authorities are responsible for certain local services such as sanitation and development, the collection of motor taxation, local roads and social housing; the county is part of the Midlands–North-West constituency for the purposes of European elections. For elections to Dáil Éireann, the county is part of three constituencies: Galway East, Galway West and Roscommon–Galway. Together they return 11 deputies to the Dáil. County Galway is home to Na Beanna Beola mountain range, Na Sléibhte Mhám Toirc, the low mountains of Sliabh Echtghe; the highest point in the county is one of Benbaun, at 729m. County Galway is home to a number of Ireland's largest lakes including Lough Corrib, Lough Derg and Lough Mask.
The county is home to a large number of smaller lakes, many of which are in the Connemara region. These include Lough Anaserd, Ardderry Lough, Aughrusbeg Lough, Ballycuirke Lough, Ballynahinch Lake, Lough Bofin, Lough Cutra, Derryclare Lough, Lough Fee, Glendollagh Lough, Lough Glenicmurrin, Lough Inagh, Kylemore Lough, Lettercraffroe Lough, Maumeen Lough, Lough Nafooey, Lough Rea, Ross Lake and Lough Shindilla; the location of County Galway, situated on the west coast of Ireland, allows it to be directly influenced by the Gulf Stream. Temperature extremes are rare and short lived, though inland areas east of the Corrib, can boast some of the highest recorded temperatures of the summer in the island of Ireland. Overall, Galway is influenced by Atlantic airstreams which bring ample rainfall in between the fleeting sunshine. Rainf
Coláiste Iognáid, a bilingual secondary school, is located on Sea Road/Bóthar na Mara in Galway, Ireland. It has had numerous locations over the years before its current home; the college is a co-educational, non-fee-paying secondary school and one of a number of Jesuit schools in Ireland. There are 600 pupils in the school. Coláiste Iognáid is run by a board of management comprising parent and Jesuit representatives, it is non-fee-paying, co-educational, has no school uniforms. Students study there from ages thirteen to eighteen and sit the Junior and Leaving Certificate examinations; each of the six-year groups is divided into four classes. The four groups are Gaeilge, Xavier and Collins. Students are taught in similar ability classes throughout the school; the school is known locally as the'Jes'. In the fourth year, all students are reassigned into one of four classes, Gonzaga, Ricci, or Claver; the classes return to the initial four groups in the fifth year for Irish classes only. The reorganisation of the groups for the fourth year is part of the school's "Transition Year" programme.
While the Transition Year is optional in some Irish schools, it is compulsory in Coláiste Iognáid. Since 1620, the Jesuits have, with some involuntary intermissions, been working with and for the people of Galway. In 1645 their first school was founded through the generosity of Edmund Kirwan. While the language of the classroom was Latin, only the Jesuits with a fluent command of Irish were sent on the “Irish Mission”; the school, incorporated into a Jesuit residence in the present Abbeygate Street, continued in Galway through a time of political upheaval and military activity. In 1859, at the request of the Bishop of Galway, the Jesuits once more took up residence in the city, this time in Prospect Hill and served in the nearby St. Patrick’s Church. Within a year they had opened a college near the site of the present Bank of Ireland at 19 Eyre Square; the college’s present location on Sea Road dates from 1863, when it was built the same year as the Jesuit church next door, St Ignatius Church.
The modern phase of Coláiste Iognáid began in 1929. The local enthusiasm for the language revival efforts of the emerging Republic of Ireland was to be served by a re-invigorated Coláiste Iognáid, which became an Irish-medium School in 1931. In 1967, in contrast with its foundation of 1620, Coláiste Iognáid became part of the “non-fee-paying” secondary school system. In 1969, with the co-operation of management and staff, coupled with the help of parents, past pupils, friends of the Jesuits, the present main school building, the Griffin Building, was built. In 1974, when the school population was increased to provide three-form entry, one co-educational form became the Irish-medium Scoil Gaeilge. Following consultation with staff and Jesuits, the school established the Board of Management in 1980 to take shared responsibility for all aspects of the school – the first agreed board of its kind in Ireland. In 1982, the school underwent a buildings programme; this produced a new science block, a refurbished classroom block, a library, art, co-educational facilities.
The Colombian Hall was refurbished and an indoor sports area was added. Co-education was extended to the whole school in 1984, to become the first co-educational secondary school in the city; the senator Pádraig Ó Céidigh taught at Coláiste Iognáid for a time. Coláíste Íognáíd is a non-fee-paying, co-educational, secondary school, comprising Jesuit and lay staff and catering to a broad spectrum of social and academic intake; the school has a three-form entry. One form offers education through Irish up to Junior Certificate and all three forms offer mixed-ability teaching. In the three-year junior cycle all pupils follow the Junior Certificate syllabus in the core subjects of Irish, maths, commerce, geography, history, S. P. H. E. and C. S. P. E. as well as religion and physical education. There are options to study home economics, technical graphics, art and German, which can be chosen instead of French. Transition year follows the Junior Certificate and comprises a selection of courses designed within the school and taught as modules.
The subjects taken are as follows: accounting, art - design & craft, career guidance, English, Gaeilge, German, home economics, home maintenance, music, P. E. religious education, science and social studies. In the two-year Senior cycle pupils prepare for the Leaving Certificate. In addition to religious education, pupils study Irish, maths, a choice of three from chemistry, German, physics, economics, biology, business, home economics, design and communication graphics. Staff and former pupils undertake extracurricular activities voluntarily, it is expected. As circumstances allow, the school provides the following sports: rowing, Gaelic football, hockey, basketball, athletics and mountaineering. Gaelic football is now popular in the school, and in 2017, both the Junior Gaelic Football team and the Juvenile team have qualified for their respective Connacht finals. The Junior team played the Juvenile team played Garbally College. Pupils participate in various clubs and cultural activities such as debating, social acti
Galway City Museum
Galway City Museum is a museum in Galway City, County Galway, Ireland. It was founded on 29 July 2006, is located beside the Spanish Arch; the official website for the museum was launched on 27 November 2008. Galway City Museum was founded in the mid-1970s, it was located in Comerford House, which prior to this had been the home of artist Clare Sheridan. The museum began as a residual collection of medieval stones from the city, acquired by Sheridan. Curated by Etienne Ryan, Michael Keaney, Bill Scanlan and Jim Higgins the museum built up a general folklife and militia collection. Comerford House is a historic property, donated to the Galway City Council by the Comerford family for the intention of community care and purpose; the house was built c. 1800 as a private house lived in by the Comerford family and by the Greenwood family. Clare Consuelo Sheridan, journalist and first cousin of Sir Winston Churchill, lived at Comerford House between the years 1948 and 1954; the building became part of Galway Corporation’s administration offices for a period, before Galway City Museum was founded in 1976.
This museum closed in 2004. In April 2007 a new purpose built museum building was opened, behind the site of the old museum at Comerford House; the new Galway City Museum project was the initiative of Galway City Council to advance the cultural and heritage life of Galway City. The building was designed by Ciaran O’Connor and Ger Harvey, architects with the Office of Public Works, who were contracted by the Galway City Council; the new museum is located along the River Corrib beside the Spanish Arch, a protected monument which formed part of the defensive medieval wall that once surrounded the city of Galway. The design of the building creates a square between the museum and the Spanish Arch; the plan of the museum is composed in an ‘L’ shape and was restricted to three levels in order to maintain the scale of the surrounding buildings. The project was completed in 2006 and resulted in a space of 2,100 metres squared with a final cost of €6,890,000; the architects of the building won the Bank of Ireland Opus Architectural Award for their design in 2006.
The museum today hosts a variety of permanent and touring exhibitions. The permanent exhibitions include. Temporary exhibitions have included. Yeats’, ‘Between Art and Industry’ and ‘Uisce agus Bheatha/ Water and Life’, an exhibition regarding the heritage of people, places and water. Galway City Museum collects and displays materials relating to the history of Galway City; the museum began as a collection of medieval stones acquired by artist Claire Sheridan of Comerford House and, over the years expanded to include general folk life and militia objects. In April 2007 the new purpose built museum building was opened, located behind the site of Comerford House; the new building houses the collections of the previous city museum, as well as objects acquired for the new facility, although the majority of the collection is that, inherited from Comerford House. The Comerford House collection includes 1,000 objects relating to various periods in history, collected over a period of about thirty years.
DJ Murphy Collection:Consists of over three hundred farm and industrial implements from Galway County. The collection includes some rare straw items objects relating to traditional Irish rural life Medieval Stone Collection:Various carvings and architectural fragments which date to the 16th and 17th century Galway City, it includes chimney pieces, armorial plaques and heraldic panels. The collection includes two complete fireplaces and the Atty Doorway dating to 1577. One of the fireplaces is from the Slate House Nunery, Kirwins Lane; the second from the 17th century, bears the arms from the Lynch and Henry families and originates from a house in High Street. Many pieces in this collection pertain to buildings which are no longer in existence and are associated with families of the Tribes of Galway. Galway Militia Artefacts:Objects relating to the Connaught Rangers, which belonged to Galwegians who fought in various wars, from the Crimea War to the First and Second World Wars. Claddagh Collection:A collection relating to the history of the Claddagh, in particular the Claddagh apron and shawl.
It includes a model of the layout of the Claddagh village in the early 20th century. Maritime Collection:A selection of fishing boats, navigation books, an Aldis lamp and the boat building tools of John Reney. Reney is regarded as the last of the Claddagh’s boat builders and his building yard was adjacent to the site of the new museum. 19th and 20th Century Galway:A collection of objects relating to 19th and 20th century shops, public houses and business in Galway, including Persse’s Whiskey Distillery, Young’s Hibernian Mineral Water Works, clay pipe factories and a receipt book from one of the Magdalene Launderies or Magdalene Asylum. Derek Biddulph Photographic Collection:A series of photographs from Galway-based artist Derek Biddulph which document the city from the 1950s onwards Art Collection:Tiger Lillies, a painting, a carving of the Madonna and Child by artist Clare Sheridan, previous resident of the former museum at Comerford House. Cecil Maguire’s painting of "Bridie and Galway John outside Kenny".
A tsunami or tidal wave known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water in an ocean or a large lake. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions above or below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami. Unlike normal ocean waves, which are generated by wind, or tides, which are generated by the gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun, a tsunami is generated by the displacement of water. Tsunami waves do not resemble normal undersea currents or sea waves because their wavelength is far longer. Rather than appearing as a breaking wave, a tsunami may instead resemble a rising tide. For this reason, it is referred to as a "tidal wave", although this usage is not favoured by the scientific community because it might give the false impression of a causal relationship between tides and tsunamis. Tsunamis consist of a series of waves, with periods ranging from minutes to hours, arriving in a so-called "internal wave train".
Wave heights of tens of metres can be generated by large events. Although the impact of tsunamis is limited to coastal areas, their destructive power can be enormous, they can affect entire ocean basins; the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was among the deadliest natural disasters in human history, with at least 230,000 people killed or missing in 14 countries bordering the Indian Ocean. The Ancient Greek historian Thucydides suggested in his 5th century BC History of the Peloponnesian War that tsunamis were related to submarine earthquakes, but the understanding of tsunamis remained slim until the 20th century and much remains unknown. Major areas of current research include determining why some large earthquakes do not generate tsunamis while other smaller ones do; the term "tsunami" is a borrowing from the Japanese tsunami 津波, meaning "harbour wave". For the plural, one can either follow ordinary English practice and add an s, or use an invariable plural as in the Japanese; some English speakers alter the word's initial /ts/ to an /s/ by dropping the "t", since English does not natively permit /ts/ at the beginning of words, though the original Japanese pronunciation is /ts/.
Tsunamis are sometimes referred to as tidal waves. This once-popular term derives from the most common appearance of a tsunami, that of an extraordinarily high tidal bore. Tsunamis and tides both produce waves of water that move inland, but in the case of a tsunami, the inland movement of water may be much greater, giving the impression of an high and forceful tide. In recent years, the term "tidal wave" has fallen out of favour in the scientific community, because the causes of tsunamis have nothing to do with those of tides, which are produced by the gravitational pull of the moon and sun rather than the displacement of water. Although the meanings of "tidal" include "resembling" or "having the form or character of" the tides, use of the term tidal wave is discouraged by geologists and oceanographers. A 1969 episode of Hawaii Five-O entitled "Forty Feet High And It Kills!" used the terms "tsunami" and "tidal wave" interchangeably. The term seismic sea wave is used to refer to the phenomenon, because the waves most are generated by seismic activity such as earthquakes.
Prior to the rise of the use of the term tsunami in English, scientists encouraged the use of the term seismic sea wave rather than tidal wave. However, like tsunami, seismic sea wave is not a accurate term, as forces other than earthquakes – including underwater landslides, volcanic eruptions, underwater explosions, land or ice slumping into the ocean, meteorite impacts, the weather when the atmospheric pressure changes rapidly – can generate such waves by displacing water. While Japan may have the longest recorded history of tsunamis, the sheer destruction caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami event mark it as the most devastating of its kind in modern times, killing around 230,000 people; the Sumatran region is accustomed to tsunamis, with earthquakes of varying magnitudes occurring off the coast of the island. Tsunamis are an underestimated hazard in the Mediterranean Sea and parts of Europe. Of historical and current importance are the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and tsunami, the 1783 Calabrian earthquakes, each causing several tens of thousands of deaths and the 1908 Messina earthquake and tsunami.
The tsunami claimed more than 123,000 lives in Sicily and Calabria and is among the most deadly natural disasters in modern Europe. The Storegga Slide in the Norwegian Sea and some examples of tsunamis affecting the British Isles refer to landslide and meteotsunamis predominantly and less to earthquake-induced waves; as early as 426 BC the Greek historian Thucydides inquired in his book History of the Peloponnesian War about the causes of tsunami, was the first to argue that ocean earthquakes must be the cause. The cause, in my opinion, of this phenomenon must be sought in the earthquake. At the point where its shock has been the most violent the sea is driven back, recoiling with redoubled force, causes the inundation. Without an earthquake I do not see; the Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus described the typical sequence of a tsunami, including an incipient earthquake, the sudden retreat of the sea and a followin
Claddagh is an area close to the centre of Galway city, where the River Corrib meets Galway Bay. It was a fishing village, just outside the old city walls, it is just across the river from the Spanish Arch, the location of regular fish markets where the locals supplied the city with seafood as as the end of the 19th century. People have been gathering fishing from the area for millennia, it is one of the oldest former fishing villages in Ireland - its existence having been recorded since the arrival of Christianity in the 5th century. During the 19th century the Claddagh attracted many visitors, including writers; the original village of thatched cottages was razed in the 1930s and replaced by a council-housing scheme. The Claddagh is most famous internationally for the Claddagh ring, popular among those of Irish heritage as both a friendship and wedding ring; this traditional design consists of two clasped hands holding a crowned heart, symbolises love and loyalty. The Claddagh area contains a national school, Community Centre and a Catholic Church as well as the new Claddagh Arts Centre.
Notable natives of the area include recipient of the Victoria Cross. King of the Claddagh Claddagh Palace List of public art in Galway city Photos of Claddagh Galway Albertkahn.co.uk http://homepage.eircom.net/~claddaghns/oldcladdagh.htm http://www.kennys.ie/News/OldGalway/05062008-TheGreenGrassintheCladdagh/ http://www.libraryireland.com/IrishPictures/VII-Claddagh.php https://archive.is/20130218003431/http://www.kennys.ie/booktalk/old-galway/the-garra-glas-in-the-claddagh.html http://www.irishhistorylinks.net/pages/Old_Photos.html#Claddagh