The coconut tree is a member of the family Arecaceae and the only species of the genus Cocos. The term coconut can refer to the coconut palm or the seed, or the fruit. The spelling cocoanut is a form of the word. The term is derived from the 16th-century Portuguese and Spanish word coco meaning head or skull, coconuts are known for their great versatility, as evidenced by many traditional uses, ranging from food to cosmetics. They form a part of the diets of many people in the tropics and subtropics. Coconuts are distinct from other fruits for their quantity of water. When mature, they can be used as seed nuts or processed to give oil from the kernel, charcoal from the hard shell, the endosperm is initially in its nuclear phase suspended within the coconut water. As development continues, cellular layers of endosperm deposit along the walls of the coconut, when dried, the coconut flesh is called copra. The oil and milk derived from it are used in cooking and frying, as well as in soaps. The husks and leaves can be used as material to make a variety of products for furnishing and decorating, the coconut has cultural and religious significance in certain societies, particularly in India, where it is used in Hindu rituals.
Cocos nucifera is a palm, growing up to 30 m tall, with pinnate leaves 4–6 m long. Coconuts are generally classified into two types and dwarf. On fertile soil, a coconut palm tree can yield up to 75 fruits per year. Given proper care and growing conditions, coconut palms produce their first fruit in six to ten years, the coconut fruit is a drupe, not a true nut. Like other fruits, it has three layers, the exocarp and endocarp, the exocarp and mesocarp make up the husk of the coconuts. Coconuts sold in the shops of nontropical countries often have had the exocarp removed, the mesocarp is composed of a fiber, called coir, which has many traditional and commercial uses. The shell has three germination pores or eyes that are visible on its outside surface once the husk is removed. A full-sized coconut weighs about 1.44 kg and it takes around 6,000 full-grown coconuts to produce a tonne of copra
A schooner /ˈskuːnər/ is a type of sailing vessel with fore-and-aft sails on two or more masts, the foremast being shorter than the main and no taller than the mizzen if there is one. While the schooner was originally gaff-rigged, modern schooners typically carry a Bermuda rig, such vessels were first used by the Dutch in the 16th or 17th century. They were further developed in North America from the early 18th century, the most common type, with two masts, were popular in trades requiring speed and windward ability, such as slaving, blockade running, and offshore fishing. In the Chesapeake Bay area several distinctive schooner types evolved, including the Baltimore clipper, schooners were popular among pirates in the West Indies during the Golden Age of Piracy, for their speed and agility. They could sail in shallow waters, and while being smaller than other ships of the time period. Schooners first evolved in the late 17th century from a variety of small two-masted gaff-rigged vessels used in the coast, most were working craft but some pleasure yachts with schooner rigs were built for wealthy merchants and Dutch nobility.
Following the arrival of the Dutch monarch William of Orange on the British throne and this vessel, captured in a detailed Admiralty model, is the earliest fully documented schooner. Royal Transport was quickly noted for its speed and ease of handling, North American shipbuilders quickly developed a variety of schooner forms for trading and privateering. According to the language scholar Walter William Skeat, the term comes from scoon. The Dutch word schoone means nice, good looking, robinson replied, A schooner let her be. The launch is variously described as being in 1713 or 1745, naval architects such as Howard Chapelle have dismissed this invention story as a childish fable, but some language scholars feel that the legend may support a Gloucester origin of the word. Other sources state the etymology as unknown and uncertain, the first detailed definition of a schooner, describing the vessel as two-masted vessel with fore and aft gaff-rigged sails appeared in 1769 in William Falconers, Universal Dictionary of the Marine.
Although a schooner may have up to four masts, the schooner has only two, with the foremast shorter than the mainmast. There may be a bowsprit to help balance the rig, the principal issue with a schooner sail plan is how to fill the space between the two masts most effectively. Traditional schooners were rigged, and the trapezoid shape of the foresail occupied the inter-mast space to good effect, with a useful sail area. A Bermuda rigged schooner typically has four sails, a mainsail, a main staysail abaft the foremast, plus a forestaysail. An advantage of the schooner is that it is easily handled and reefed by a small crew. The main staysail will not overlap the mainsail, and so little to prepare the wind for the mainsail
Mountain guns are artillery pieces designed for use in mountain warfare and areas where usual wheeled transport is not possible. They are similar to infantry support guns, and are capable of being broken down into smaller loads. Due to their ability to be broken down into smaller packages, during the American Civil War these small portable guns were widely used and were called mountain howitzers. Mountain guns are largely outdated, their role being filled by mortars, multiple rocket launchers, recoilless rifles, most modern artillery is manufactured from light-weight materials and can be transported fully assembled by helicopters
A steamboat is a boat that is propelled primarily by steam power, typically driving propellers or paddlewheels. Steamboats sometimes use the prefix designation SS, S. S. or S/S or PS, the term steamboat is used to refer to smaller, steam-powered boats working on lakes and rivers, particularly riverboats. As using steam became more reliable, steam power became applied to larger, Early attempts at powering a boat by steam were made by the French inventor Denis Papin and the English inventor Thomas Newcomen. Papin invented the steam digester and experimented with closed cylinders and pistons pushed in by atmospheric pressure, Papin proposed applying this steam pump to the operation of a paddlewheel boat and tried to market his idea in Britain. He was unable to convert the piston motion into rotary motion. Newcomens design did solve the first problem, but remained shackled to the inherent limitations of the engines of the time, a steamboat was described and patented by English physician John Allen in 1729.
In 1736, Jonathan Hulls was granted a patent in England for a Newcomen engine-powered steamboat, William Henry of Lancaster, having learned of Watts engine on a visit to England, made his own engine. In 1763 he put it in a boat, the boat sank, and while Henry made an improved model, he did not appear to have much success, though he may have inspired others. At its first demonstration on 15 July 1783, Pyroscaphe travelled upstream on the river Saône for some fifteen minutes before the engine failed, presumably this was easily repaired as the boat is said to have made several such journeys. Following this, De Jouffroy attempted to get the government interested in his work, De Jouffroy did not have the funds for this, following the events of the French revolution, work on the project was discontinued after he left the country. Similar boats were made in 1785 by John Fitch in Philadelphia and William Symington in Dumfries and this boat could typically make 7 to 8 miles per hour and traveled more than 2,000 miles during its short length of service.
The Fitch steamboat was not a success, as this travel route was adequately covered by relatively good wagon roads. The following year, a boat made 30-mile excursions, and in 1790. Miller sent King Gustav III of Sweden an actual version,100 feet long. Miller engaged engineer William Symington to build his patent steam engine drove a stern-mounted paddle wheel in a boat in 1785. The boat was successfully tried out on Dalswinton Loch in 1788 and was followed by a steamboat the next year. The boat was built by Alexander Hart at Grangemouth to Symingtons design with a cylinder engine. Trials on the River Carron in June 1801 were successful and included towing sloops from the river Forth up the Carron and thence along the Forth, in 1801, Symington patented a horizontal steam engine directly linked to a crank
A warship is a naval ship that is built and primarily intended for naval warfare. Usually they belong to the forces of a state. As well as being armed, warships are designed to damage and are usually faster. Unlike a merchant ship, which carries cargo, a warship typically carries weapons, ammunition. Warships usually belong to a navy, though they have operated by individuals, cooperatives. In wartime, the distinction between warships and merchant ships is often blurred, in war, merchant ships are often armed and used as auxiliary warships, such as the Q-ships of the First World War and the armed merchant cruisers of the Second World War. Until the 17th century it was common for merchant ships to be pressed into naval service, until the threat of piracy subsided in the 19th century, it was normal practice to arm larger merchant ships such as galleons. Warships have often used as troop carriers or supply ships. The development of catapults in the 4th century BC and the subsequent refinement of technology enabled the first fleets of artillery-equipped warships by the Hellenistic age.
During late antiquity, ramming fell out of use and the galley tactics against other ships used during the Middle Ages until the late 16th century focused on boarding. Naval artillery was redeveloped in the 14th century, but cannon did not become common at sea until the guns were capable of being reloaded quickly enough to be reused in the same battle. The size of a required to carry a large number of cannons made oar-based propulsion impossible. The sailing man-of-war emerged during the 16th century, by the middle of the 17th century, warships were carrying increasing numbers of cannon on their broadsides and tactics evolved to bring each ships firepower to bear in a line of battle. The man-of-war now evolved into the ship of the line, in the 18th century, the frigate and sloop-of-war – too small to stand in the line of battle – evolved to convoy trade, scout for enemy ships and blockade enemy coasts. During the 19th century a revolution took place in the means of propulsion, naval armament.
Marine steam engines were introduced, at first as an auxiliary force, the Crimean War gave a great stimulus to the development of guns. The introduction of explosive shells soon led to the introduction of iron, the first ironclad warships, the French Gloire and British Warrior, made wooden vessels obsolete. Metal soon entirely replaced wood as the material for warship construction
Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of the Earth. Some shorelines experience a semi-diurnal tide—two nearly equal high and low tides each day, other locations experience a diurnal tide—only one high and low tide each day. A mixed tide—two uneven tides a day, or one high, Tides vary on timescales ranging from hours to years due to a number of factors. To make accurate records, tide gauges at fixed stations measure water level over time, gauges ignore variations caused by waves with periods shorter than minutes. These data are compared to the level usually called mean sea level. Tidal phenomena are not limited to the oceans, but can occur in other systems whenever a gravitational field varies in time. For example, the part of the Earth is affected by tides. Tide changes proceed via the following stages, Sea level rises over several hours, covering the intertidal zone, the water rises to its highest level, reaching high tide.
Sea level falls over several hours, revealing the intertidal zone, the water stops falling, reaching low tide. Oscillating currents produced by tides are known as tidal streams, the moment that the tidal current ceases is called slack water or slack tide. The tide reverses direction and is said to be turning, slack water usually occurs near high water and low water. But there are locations where the moments of slack tide differ significantly from those of high, Tides are commonly semi-diurnal, or diurnal. The two high waters on a day are typically not the same height, these are the higher high water. Similarly, the two low waters each day are the low water and the lower low water. The daily inequality is not consistent and is small when the Moon is over the equator. From the highest level to the lowest, Highest Astronomical Tide – The highest tide which can be predicted to occur, note that meteorological conditions may add extra height to the HAT. Mean High Water Springs – The average of the two high tides on the days of spring tides, mean High Water Neaps – The average of the two high tides on the days of neap tides.
Mean Sea Level – This is the sea level
Piracy in the Sulu Sea
Piracy in the Sulu Sea occurred in the vicinity of Mindanao, where frequent acts of piracy were committed against the Spanish. Because of the wars between Spain and the Moro people, the areas in and around the Sulu Sea became a haven for piracy which was not suppressed until the beginning of the 20th century. The pirates should not be confused with the forces or privateers of the various Moro tribes. However, many of the pirates operated under government sanction during time of war, the pirate ships used by the Moros were known as proa, or garays, and they varied in design. The majority were wooden sailing galleys about ninety feet long with a beam of ten feet 27.4 by 6.1 m and they carried around fifty to 100 crewmen. Slave trading and raiding was common, the pirates would assemble large fleets of proas. Hundreds of Christians were captured and imprisoned over the centuries, many were used as galley slaves aboard the pirate ships. Other than muskets and rifles, the Moro pirates, as well as the navy sailors, the wooden or ivory handle was often heavily ornamented with silver or gold.
The type of wound inflicted by its blade makes it difficult to heal, the kris was used often used in boarding a vessel. Moros used a Kampilan, another sword, a knife, or barong and a spear, made of bamboo and an iron spearhead. The Moros swivel guns were not like more modern guns used by the powers but were of a much older technology, making them largely inaccurate. Lantakas dated back to the 16th century and were up to six long, requiring several men to lift one. They fired up to a cannonball or grape shot. A lantaka was bored by hand and were sunk into a pit, the barrel was bored by a company of men walking around in a circle to turn drill bits by hand. The Spanish engaged the Moro pirates frequently in the 1840s, the expedition to Balanguingui in 1848 was commanded by Brigadier José Ruiz with a fleet of nineteen small warships and hundreds of Spanish Army troops. They were opposed by at least 1,000 Moros holed up in four forts with 124 cannons, there were dozens of proas at Balanguingui but the pirates abandoned their ships for the better defended fortifications.
The Spanish stormed three of the positions by force and captured the one after the pirates had retreated. Over 500 prisoners were freed in the operation and over 500 Moros were killed or wounded, the Spanish lost twenty-two men killed and around 210 wounded
Battle of Nam Quan
The Battle of Nam Quan was fought in 1853 as part of a British anti-piracy operation in China. A Royal Navy sloop-of-war encountered eight pirate ships near Nam Quan, for years the United Kingdom, the Qing dynasty, the United States and the Portuguese of Macao operated against the pirates of southwestern China. It took decades to clear the South China Sea of pirate junks. The largest problem was that the western and Chinese navies did not have the strength to combat the pirates. However, operations continued despite the weakness and several significant battles were fought, usually the sailors of the navies were heavily outnumbered and outgunned by the pirates but this did not prevent them from hunting and engaging the brigands wherever found. HMS Rattler of twelve guns was one of the Royal Navy vessels assigned to counter piracy in the early 1850s, on May 10,1853, the Rattler found pirates off Nam Quan which is near the present day border with Vietnam. Just days before, a convoy of merchant ships was captured by the pirates who were holding the vessels off Nam Quan, when the Rattler approached she opened fire at long range on the pirate flagship.
This vessel returned fire but it was sunk and under water. Rattler engaged a second junk and sunk her too with gunfire before moving on to capture a third which was burned, disheartened the remaining pirate ships broke off the action and were beached by their crews. At least half of the 1,000 pirates escaped to shore but most of them were attacked by Chinese militia, one group, after their ship was grounded, took over a merchant junk, killed its crew and began to flee. The British sent their cutter after it but when it closed in on the junk, three Britons were killed, one officer and two enlisted men. Out of over 1,000 pirates,500 were estimated to have killed or wounded. All four of the junks and the one lorcha were refloated and captured by the British. Eighty-four cannons were taken along with the remaining merchant ships. Battle of Fatshan Creek First and Second Opium Wars Wombwell, A. James, the Long War Against Piracy, Historical Trends. Fort Leavenworth, Combat Studies Institute Press
In this regard, it is an ancillary close-quarter combat or last-resort weapon. Some modern bayonets, such as the one used on the British SA80 assault rifle, knife-shaped bayonets—when not fixed to a gun barrel—have long been utilized by soldiers in the field as general purpose cutting implements. The term bayonette dates back to the end of the 16th century, for example, Cotgraves 1611 Dictionarie describes the Bayonet as a kind of small flat pocket dagger, furnished with knives, or a great knife to hang at the girdle. Likewise, Pierre Borel wrote in 1655 that a kind of long-knife called a bayonette was made in Bayonne, the bayonet may have emerged to allow a hunter to fend off wild animals in the event of a missed shot. This idea was particularly persistent in Spain where hunting arms were equipped with bayonets from the 17th century until the advent of the cartridge era. The weapon was introduced into the French army by General Jean Martinet and was common in most European armies by the 1660s, the usefulness of such a dual-purpose arm soon became apparent.
Early muskets fired at a rate, and could be both inaccurate and unreliable, depending on the quality of manufacture. A bayonet on a 5-foot tall musket achieved a similar to the infantry spear. The bayonet/musket combination was, considerably heavier than a polearm of the same length, early bayonets were of the plug type. This allowed light infantry to be converted to infantry and hold off cavalry charges. The bayonet had a handle that slid directly into the musket barrel. This naturally prevented the gun from being fired, in 1671, plug bayonets were issued to the French regiment of fusiliers raised. They were issued to part of an English dragoon regiment raised in 1672 and disbanded in 1674, however, it was not widely adopted at the time. Soon socket bayonets would incorporate both ring mounts and a blade, keeping the bayonet well away from the muzzle blast of the musket barrel. In 1703, the French infantry adopted spring-loaded locking system that prevented the bayonet from accidentally separating from the musket, the socket bayonet became, with the musket or other firearm, the typical weapon of the French infantry.
The socket bayonet had by adopted by most European armies. The British socket bayonet had a blade with a flat side towards the muzzle. However it had no lock to keep it fast to the muzzle and was well-documented for falling off in the heat of battle
Battle of Tysami
The Battle of Tysami was a military engagement involving a warship from the British China Squadron and the Chinese pirates of Chui A-poo. It was fought in September 1849 off Tysami, Harlaim Bay, China and it was the precursor engagement to the larger Battle of Pinghoi Creek where Chui A-poos fleet was destroyed. Chui A-poo is said to have commended over 500 junks in his career as an outlaw and was a follower of Shap Ng-tsai, Chui A-poos base was in Bias Bay which is next to Harlaim Bay and was the location of his harbor and arsenal for constructing war-junks. In February 1849, Chui A-poo fled Hong Kong after killing two Europeans, the incident became known to the foreign population of the island who pressured the Royal Navy to respond. During the time of the battles he commanded twenty-seven war-junks each mounting twelve to eighteen guns, all together about 1,800 pirates crewed them with about 200 guns in total which were found to be mostly of English manufacture. Commander John Charles Dalrymple Hay led the Royal Navy vessels which encountered Chui A-poos fleet and his ship was the twelve gun brig, HMS Columbine with about eighty crewmen and twenty marines.
The steamer Canton participated, her number of crew and armament is not known but she was chartered and armed by a Lieutenant Bridges from the Peninsular and she arrived unsuspected at the battle area and assisted in attacking the pirates. On September 27 of 1849, the Columbine left Hong Kong for Harlaim Bay, there they found the village to have been attacked and burnt by the pirates who fled further northeast to the village of Tysami so the expedition went further until within plain view of the village. It was destroyed by the pirates and was burning, smoke filled the air according to Commander Hays report, while off the burning Tysami at 11,00 pm the Chui A-poo and his men were spotted in fourteen large junks heading southwest in two lines of seven vessels. Hay ordered his men to battle stations, raised his colors, the wind was very calm but Hay counted on this as it meant his steam ships could advance while the junks could barely move. At 11,45 the Columbine fired the first shots at the largest junk closest to her, the British scored some hits but not enough to disable any of the junks.
From there on the battle continued for hours as the Columbine chased the pirates. The pirates were searching for sort of waterway to escape but they found none. Chui A-poo was heading west followed by Columbine when the Canton appeared, seeing the chase, Cantons commander Lieutenant Bridges changed course into the direction of the pirates in order to assist Commander Hay. Heading right for the junks Canton opened up with her guns and by the time she was receiving enemy fire, Hays ship came within range and engaged. After a few minutes of accurate fire Chui A-poos fleet scattered. Towards the end of the engagement shots from the Columbine hit one of the junks and it exploded. Ten junks escaped the battle due to the British who chose not to continue the chase for they had an idea about where the brigands were going, the Britons had already been at station non-stop for forty hours and this was another reason for abandoning the pursuit
Battle of Ty-ho Bay
The Battle of Ty-ho Bay was a significant naval engagement in 1855 involving the United Kingdom and United States against Chinese pirates. The action off Tai O, Hong Kong was to rescue captured merchant vessels and American forces defeated the pirates in one of the last major battles between Chinese pirate fleets and western navies. It was one of the first joint operations undertaken by British, unlike the Atlantic Ocean where piracy was largely over by 1830, piracy in Asia and elsewhere in the Pacific continued to thrive as it had for centuries. Chinese and Japanese pirates constantly fought each other along Chinas coastal regions and this prompted western naval forces to fight them when they attacked shipping. Sometime in September 1855, the pirates of Kuhlan seized four merchant vessels in that area which were under escort by the paddle steamer HMS Eaglet, in response the Royal Navy sloop-of-war HMS Rattler was sent to rescue the merchantmen. HMS Rattler found the pirates in Kuhlan Harbor but shallow water prevented her from attacking so she left to seek aid from the Eaglet, was a screw frigate of the East India Squadron and commanded by Commodore William J.
McCluney. Rattler was commanded by Commodore William Fellowes and was manned by 180 officers, the number of crew and armament of Eaglet is unknown but she was originally a civil vessel chartered for British naval service between 1855 and 1857, to tow British vessels through shallow water. On August 4, the steamer Eaglet arrived at Ty-ho Bay, she was towing at least six boats of different types, filled with British and American sailors, each boat was armed with a howitzer or cannon. The British first spotted a merchant junk that appeared to be fleeing the bay, so the pinnace of the Rattler, some 1,500 pirates crewed the vessels and they were armed with small cannons. Also in the bay were seven captured merchant ships, most of which were Chinese junks, when the Chinese sighted the approaching enemy, half of the pirate junks began to flee while the other remained behind to engage. The pirates began a fire on the British and Americans but most of the shot was not well directed and passed over the Eaglet.
When the expedition was in range the boats started their return fire, when the range decreased to close quarters, Eaglet detached the boats and they went off to board the junks. Fourteen were taken with heavy resistance and were burned just after, the seven merchant ships were liberated but two were heavily damaged in the battle and subsequently burned as well. As result of the action, fourteen larger junks were destroyed along with six small ones while sixteen others escaped, an estimated 500 pirates were killed in action, drowned, or were wounded. Around 1,000 pirates were taken prisoner, American casualties consisted of six wounded with five dead out of about 100 men, the dead were crewmen John Pepper, James A. Halsey, Isaac Coe, Landsman, S. Mullard and B. F. Addamson. The British suffered several wounded and four men killed, officer George Mitchell, and crewmen James Silvers, John Massey, the battle is largely forgotten but a monument was erected at Happy Valley in commemoration, it was moved to the city of Hong Kong.
Battle of Fatshan Creek First and Second Opium War Wombwell, A. James, the Long War Against Piracy, Historical Trends. Fort Leavenworth, Combat Studies Institute Press, colledge, J. J. & Warlow, Ben
The Irene incident of 1927 was a significant event of the British anti-piracy operations in China during the first half of the 20th century. The British were successful in thwarting the hijacking though they sank the ship, following the end of the age of sail, the pirates of southern China were forced to change their tactics when it came to taking over merchant ships. New steam-powered vessels, used both by the navies and the merchants, rendered fleets of heavily armed sailing junks useless. By 1927, the history of piracy in China continued. On more than one occasion, when British warships were sent into the area, so the Royal Navy created a plan to stealthily patrol the area with submarines. The British fleet at Hong Kong included twelve submarines, so they assigned the L class boats HMS L4, under Lieutenant Frederick John Crosby Halahan, the two submarines left under everybodys assumption that routine exercises were to take place, though they were actually sailing for the bay. When the two submarines arrived they were off Mendoza Island at the entrance of the bay, the two split up, L4 went to patrol around the entrance of the bay and Halahan ordered L5 to patrol within.
Bias Bay is surrounded by rocks and that there was a fleet of fishing junks sheltering inside. She had been taken over by at least eighteen pirates armed with automatic pistols and it was still dark so the L4 was surface cruising with a crew at the 4-inch gun and another pair at the vessels searchlight. Lieutenant Halahan knew that torpedoes were not helpful in recapturing a pirate held ship, when the shot was ignored a second live round was fired and it blew a hole straight through the ship and killed a pirate who was standing on deck. The pirates still paid no attention and continued on with their attempt to make it to shore so the 4-inch gun was opened up on them again, by this time the L5 had arrived in the area and her crew counted eight muzzle flashes from the L4s deck gun. Lieutenant Gilbert Hackforth Jones reported that they were too far away at that time to open fire themselves, at that point Lieutenant Halahan signaled the L5 that lifeboats were being lowered from the steamer and that he was maneuvering in to rescue the survivors.
The L5 followed suit and both submarines dispatched a boat with one officer and one each to go aboard the burning Irene. The pirates on board were counting on this and they were waiting for the British to move in close before responding and when it came they revealed themselves from their hiding places and opened fire. Their shots were inaccurate though and went over the heads of the sailors in the boats turned around so the submarines could open fire again with their deck guns. After a few additional shots one shot struck something flammable on board the steamer, following that the pirates offered no more resistance and abandoned ship, some of them drowned in the cold water. The Irene was burning well so additional vessels were sent for, most of the Irenes 258 passengers were saved though fourteen were never seen again. The British put out the fire but because they had sprayed so much water into the vessel she eventually capsized, several men received decorations for their conduct in rescuing survivors, including Lieutenant Halahan who received the Distinguished Service Cross