Spanish naming customs

Spanish naming customs are historical traditions for naming children practised in Spain. According to these customs, a person's name consists of a given name followed by two surnames; the first surname was the father's first surname, the second the mother's first surname. In recent years, the order of the surnames in a family is decided when registering the first child, but the traditional order is still the choice; the practice is to use one given name and the first surname most of the time, the complete name being reserved for legal and documentary matters. In these cases, it is common to use only the second surname, as in "Lorca", "Picasso" or "Zapatero"; this does not affect alphabetization: discussions of "Lorca", the Spanish poet, must be alphabetized in an index under "García Lorca" and not "Lorca". In Spain, people bear a single or composite given name and two surnames. A composite given name comprises two single names; the two surnames refer to each of the parental families. Traditionally, a person's first surname is the father's first surname, while their second surname is the mother's first surname.

For example, if a man named Eduardo Fernández Garrido marries a woman named María Dolores Martínez Ruiz and they have a child named José, there are several legal options, but their child would most be known as José Fernández Martínez. Spanish gender equality law has allowed surname transposition since 1999, subject to the condition that every sibling must bear the same surname order recorded in the Registro Civil, but there have been legal exceptions. Since 2013, if the parents of a child were unable to agree on the order of surnames, an official would decide, to come first, with the paternal name being the default option; the only requirement is that every son and daughter must have the same order of the surnames, so they cannot change it separately. Since June 2017, adopting the paternal name first is no longer the standard method, parents are required to sign an agreement wherein the name order is expressed explicitly; the law grants a person the option, upon reaching adulthood, of reversing the order of their surnames.

However, this legislation only applies to Spanish citizens. Each surname can be composite, with the parts linked by the conjunction y or e, by the preposition de, or by a hyphen. For example, a person's name might be Juan Pablo Fernández de Calderón García-Iglesias, consisting of a forename, a paternal surname, a maternal surname. There are times when it is impossible, by inspection of a name, to analyse it. For example, the writer Sebastià Juan Arbó was alphabetised by the Library of Congress for many years under "Arbó", assuming that Sebastià and Juan were both given names. However, "Juan" was his first surname. Resolving questions like this, which involve common names requires the consultation of the person involved or legal documents pertaining to them. A man named José Antonio Gómez Iglesias would be addressed as either señor Gómez or señor Gómez Iglesias instead of señor Iglesias, because Gómez is his first surname. Furthermore, Mr. Gómez might be informally addressed as José Antonio José Pepe Antonio Toño Joselito, Joselillo, Josico or Joselín Antoñito, Toñín, Toñito, Ñoño or Nono Joseán.

Formally, he could be addressed with an honorific such as don José Antonio or don José. It is not unusual, when the first surname is common, like García in the example above, for a person to be referred to formally using both family names, or casually by their second surname only. For example, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero is called Zapatero, the name he inherited from his mother's family since Rodríguez is a common surname and may be ambiguous; the same occurs with another former Spanish Socialist leader, Alfredo Pérez Rubalcaba, with the poet and dramatist Federico García Lorca, with the painter Pablo Ruiz Picasso. As these people's paternal surnames are common, they are referred to by their maternal surnames, it would nonetheless be a mistake to index Rodríguez Zapatero under Z or García Lorca under L. In an English-speaking environment, Spanish-named people sometimes hyphenate their surnames to avoid Anglophone confusion or to fill in forms with only one space provided for last name, thus: Mr. José Antonio Gómez-Iglesias.

Parents choose their child's given name, which must be recorded in the Registro Civil to establish his or her legal identity. With few restrictions, parents can now choose any name. Legislation in Spain under Franco limited cultural naming customs to only Christian and

Tutankhamun and the Daughter of Ra

Tutankhamun and the Daughter of Ra is a novel written by Moyra Caldecott in 1989. It was first published in 1990 as Daughter of Ra in paperback by Arrow Books Limited. Based on the lives of Tutankhamun and Ankhesenamun. Tutankhamun and the Daughter of Ra is part of Moyra Caldecott’s Egyptian sequence, which includes Hatshepsut: Daughter of Amun and Akhenaten: Son of the Sun. Chronologically and the Daughter of Ra takes place after the other two books. Ankhesenamun has never been safe in all her short life – not with her beloved husband and half brother Tutankhamun. Daughter of Pharaoh Akhenaten and the fabled Nefertiti, married at one time to her father, she is forced to marry Tutankhamun by the powerful General Horemheb at a time of bitter political and religious division. Ankhesenamun is the delicate link between scheming factions. Left vulnerable by the failure of her plans for the sacred egg of Ra and the death of her young husband, Ankhesenamun is forced into making one last extraordinary and desperate bid for life and happiness...

Tutankhamun – the main protagonist Ankhesenamun – half sister and wife to Tutankhamun Horemheb – General in Pharaoh's army 1990, UK, Arrow Books Limited ISBN 0-09-959870-1, Pub date?? 1990, paperback 2000, UK, Mushroom Publishing ISBN 1-899142-62-2, Pub date?? 2000, ebook and subsequently in other eBook formats over the next three years. 2004, UK, Bladud Books ISBN 1-84319-266-7, Pub date 21 April 2004, paperback


Vilafrancada was the name of an uprising led by prince Miguel I of Portugal in Vila Franca de Xira on 27 May 1823. The liberal regime established in Portugal by the Liberal Revolution of 1820 did not enjoy the confidence of more traditional elements of society, which demanded the return of absolutism. At the head of this tendency stood Queen Carlota Joaquina, wife of João VI of Portugal, exiled to Queluz after refusing to swear allegiance to the Constitution of 1822 and her third son, Prince Miguel; the year 1823 gave the absolutists the opportunity they sought to end the liberal regime in Portugal. In that year the Holy Alliance authorised a French invasion of Spain to bring down the liberal government in Madrid and restore Fernando VII of Spain; this encouraged an absolutist uprising by the count of Amarante in the north of Portugal and led the party of the Queen to open revolt, confident of French support. On 23 May Prince Miguel went to Vila Franca where he was joined by the 23rd Regiment of Infantry, sent to Almeida to reinforce the frontier town against being taken by the rebels.

With the Queen and Prince Miguel prepared to force him to abdicate if necessary, João VI decided to take command of the revolt himself, encouraged by the rising of the 18th Infantry Regiment which presented itself at Bemposta Palace to acclaim him as absolute ruler. He left for Vika Franca, obliged Prince Miguel to submit, returned to Lisbon in triumph; the Cortes disbanded and various liberal politicians went into exile as the absolutist regime was restored. The King managed to prevent the ultra-reactionary faction from coming to power, but the Queen’s party continued its intrigues, less than a year a new absolutist rebellion broke out, the April Revolt, which ended with Prince Miguel going into exile. On 27 May 1823, at the beginning of the uprising, Prince Miguel issued the following proclamation from Vila Franca: ”Men of Portugal: It is time to break the iron yoke in which we live... The strength of national ills without limits, leaves me no choice ” In place of the long-established national rights which they promised you would recover on August 24, 1820, they gave you ruin and the King has been reduced to a mere ghost.

I find myself in the midst of valiant and brave Portuguese, determined as I am to die or to restore to His Majesty hus freedom and authority. Do not hesitate and citizens of all classes. Come and help the cause of religion, royalty and of you all, swear not to kiss the royal hand again, until after His Majesty is restored to his authority. To commemorate the uprising a "Medal of Loyalty to King and Country" was instituted, humorously referred to by Liberals as the “medal of dust.” The medal was intended to honour those who had joined João VI at Vila Franca or Prince Miguel At Santarém, or who had joined the forces of Manuel da Silveira Pinto da Fonseca Teixeira, Count of Amarante made marquês de Chaves