Kladas is a small village, located about 5 kilometers north of the town of Sparti and belongs to the municipality of Sparti. Its population rose to 476 inhabitants after the expansion of the village, it is a place to visit on the way to Sparti, Skoutari or Kythera. There is no exact written date of the arrival of the first inhabitants of Kladas from nearby villages such as Vamvakou, Kalivia and from the town of Sparta. All, known is that the establishment of the Kladas community happened on 31 August 1912 according to Ioannis Kapodistrias self-government plan. However, 85 years – on 04/12 1997 – the Kladas community has been incorporated to the extended municipality of Sparti. Most inhabitants of the village are growers or breeders and, the way they make a living. Olive trees are the most common cultivation at cropped lands around the village or around neighboring villages in Theologos; the people grow tomatoes and other vegetables in their household garden. The village has two coffee shops, one coffee shop - tavern and one restaurant for the travelers -on the national road which connects Athens with Sparti- where the inhabitants but the visitors gather, relax or discuss about the most recent news.
Kladas has a car station and a factory which packs products that come from the olives but there aren't any commercial stores. The inhabitants year by year are turning to ecologists. Several crops are now Biological with ISO certification and certified by the European Union so the local agricultural products are equal to biological products from other European countries such as the Netherlands concerning quality. Another aspect of the eco-lifestyle is the fact that people use bicycles for their own transportation so not only they gain a clean place to live concerning the air quality but there is no noise caused by automobiles. There is a recycling point outside the elementary school of Kladas The village has been modernized in aspects like: The municipal waste management after the extension of the sewerage network of Sparta because the operation of the Technological Institute of Sparta in 2005–2006 The upgrade of the telephone/fiber network that allowed broadband connections The construction of the ring road of Kladas drove to the construction of new residential and rental properties.
The construction of the New National Road which connects Athens with Sparti makes Kladas a crossroad between Sparti, the nearby villages and Athens. The climate of Kladas is temperate Mediterranean and this is a result of the geological factors such us the elevation but the fact that the village is situated between mountain Parnonas and mountain Taygetos; the average yearly temperature is + 19 °C and the average yearly amount of rain is 600 mm, the average nebulousness is 4 and the average wind power is 4 Beaufort. In the Fall and in the Winter and ice are common phenomena but the snowstorms aren't that common and they have a duration less than four days; the village has an elementary school for the students of the 4th grades. The rest grades are in Aphision known as Aphisou (Greek: Αφίσιον/Αφισού and in Kokkinorachi according to the new administrative plan of the Greek Ministry of Education, applied since 1997 after the expansion of the municipality of Sparti which included the community of Kladas and other villages in its own wider area as the northern suburbs.
The Junior High School and the Senior High School of Sparti are located within the main city of Sparti. The students are being transferred to their schools with the local community bus under the auspices of the Greek State. There is a hill that belongs to the region of Kladas where is situated the Thechnolgical Educational Institute of Sparti that supports the department of Technology and Telecommunications. According to ΦΕΚ 189/14-10-2004/Τ.Α´/ΠΔ 211 the operation occurred in the academic year 2005-2006. The goal of the T. E. I. of Sparti is the scientific and technological development in the fields of Information Technology and Telecommunications because it's essential to meet the needs arising in all areas of productive procedure. Kladas or Sparti can be reached by car, taxi or the regional bus KTEL Schedule Papyrus Larousse Britannica Encyclopedia Δομή
Sparta was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece. In antiquity the city-state was known as Lacedaemon, while the name Sparta referred to its main settlement on the banks of the Eurotas River in Laconia, in south-eastern Peloponnese. Around 650 BC, it rose to become the dominant military land-power in ancient Greece. Given its military pre-eminence, Sparta was recognized as the leading force of the unified Greek military during the Greco-Persian Wars. Between 431 and 404 BC, Sparta was the principal enemy of Athens during the Peloponnesian War, from which it emerged victorious, though at a great cost of lives lost. Sparta's defeat by Thebes in the Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC ended Sparta's prominent role in Greece. However, it maintained its political independence until the Roman conquest of Greece in 146 BC, it underwent a long period of decline in the Middle Ages, when many Spartans moved to live in Mystras. Modern Sparta is the capital of the Greek regional unit of Laconia and a center for the processing of goods such as citrus and olives.
Sparta was unique in ancient Greece for its social system and constitution, which configured their entire society to maximize military proficiency at all costs, focused on military training and excellence. Its inhabitants were classified as Spartiates, mothakes and helots. Spartiates underwent the rigorous agoge training and education regimen, Spartan phalanges were considered to be among the best in battle. Spartan women enjoyed more rights and equality to men than elsewhere in the classical antiquity. Sparta was the subject of fascination in its own day, as well as in Western culture following the revival of classical learning; this love or admiration of Sparta is known as Laconophilia. At its peak around 500 BC the size of the city would have been some 20,000–35,000 citizens, plus numerous helots and perioikoi; the total of 40,000–50,000 made Sparta one of the largest Greek cities. The French classicist François Ollier in his 1933 book Le mirage spartiate warned that a major scholarly problem regarding Sparta is that all the surviving accounts were written by non-Spartans who presented an excessively idealized image of Sparta.
The earliest attested term referring to Lacedaemon is the Mycenaean Greek, ra-ke-da-mi-ni-jo, "Lacedaimonian", written in Linear B syllabic script, being the equivalent of the written in the Greek alphabet, latter Greek, Λακεδαιμόνιος, Lakedaimonios. The ancient Greeks used one of three words to refer to the home location of the Spartans; the first refers to the main cluster of settlements in the valley of the Eurotas River: Sparta. The second word was Lacedaemon. Herodotus seems to denote by it the Mycenaean Greek citadel at Therapne, in contrast to the lower town of Sparta, it could be used synonymously with Sparta, but it was not. It denoted the terrain. In Homer it is combined with epithets of the countryside: wide, lovely and most hollow and broken; the hollow suggests the Eurotas Valley. Sparta on the other hand is the country of a people epithet; the name of the population was used for the state of Lacedaemon: the Lacedaemonians. This epithet utilized the plural of the adjective Lacedaemonius.
If the ancients wished to refer to the country more directly, instead of Lacedaemon, they could use a back-formation from the adjective: Lacedaemonian country. As most words for "country" were feminine, the adjective was in the feminine: Lacedaemonia; the adjective came to be used alone. "Lacedaemonia" was not in general use during the classical period and before. It does occur in Greek as an equivalent of Laconia and Messenia during the Roman and early Byzantine periods in ethnographers and lexica glossing place names. For example, Hesychius of Alexandria's Lexicon defines Agiadae as a "place in Lacedaemonia" named after Agis; the actual transition may be captured by Isidore of Seville's Etymologiae, an etymological dictionary. He relied on Orosius' Historiarum Adversum Paganos and Eusebius of Caesarea's Chronicon as did Orosius; the latter defines Sparta to be Lacedaemonia Civitas but Isidore defines Lacedaemonia as founded by Lacedaemon, son of Semele, relying on Eusebius. There is a rare use the earliest of Lacedaemonia, in Diodorus Siculus, but with Χὠρα suppressed.
The immediate area around the town of Sparta, the plateau east of the Taygetos mountains, was referred as Laconice. This term was sometimes used to refer to all the regions under direct Spartan control, including Messenia. Lakedaimona was until 2006 the name of a province in the modern Greek prefecture of Laconia. Sparta is located in the south-eastern Peloponnese. Ancient Sparta was built on the banks of the Eurotas River, the main river of Laconia, which provided it with a source of fresh water; the valley of the Eurotas is a natural fo
Despotate of the Morea
The Despotate of the Morea or Despotate of Mystras was a province of the Byzantine Empire which existed between the mid-14th and mid-15th centuries. Its territory varied in size during its existence but grew to include all the southern Greek peninsula known as the Peloponnese, known as the Morea during the medieval and early modern periods; the territory was ruled by one or more sons of the current Byzantine emperor, who were given the title of despotes. Its capital was the fortified city of Mystras, near ancient Sparta, which became an important centre of the Palaiologan Renaissance; the Despotate of the Morea was created out of territory seized from the Frankish Principality of Achaea. This had been organized from former Byzantine territory after the Fourth Crusade. In 1259, the Principality's ruler William II Villehardouin lost the Battle of Pelagonia against the Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaeologus. William was forced to ransom himself by surrendering most of the eastern part of Morea and his newly built strongholds.
The surrendered territory became the nucleus of the Despotate of Morea. A Byzantine emperor, John VI Kantakouzenos, reorganized the territory in 1349 to establish it as an appanage for his son, the Despot Manuel Kantakouzenos; the rival Palaiologos dynasty seized the Morea after Manuel's death in 1380, with Theodore I Palaiologos becoming despot in 1383. Theodore ruled until 1407, consolidating Byzantine rule and coming to terms with his more powerful neighbours—particularly the expansionist Ottoman Empire, whose suzerainty he recognised, he sought to reinvigorate the local economy by inviting Albanians to settle in the territory. Subsequent despots were the sons of the Emperor Manuel II Palaiologos, brother of the despot Theodore: Constantine and Thomas; as Latin power in the Peloponnese waned during the 15th century, the Despotate of the Morea expanded to incorporate the entire peninsula in 1430 with territory being acquired by dowry settlements, the conquest of Patras by Constantine. However, in 1446 the Ottoman Sultan Murad II destroyed the Byzantine defences—the Hexamilion wall at the Isthmus of Corinth.
His attack opened the peninsula to invasion. His successor Mehmed II "the Conqueror" captured the Byzantine capital Constantinople in 1453; the despots, Demetrios Palaiologos and Thomas Palaiologos, brothers of the last emperor, failed to send him any aid, as Morea was recovering from a recent Ottoman attack. Their own incompetence resulted in an Albanian–Greek revolt against them, during which they invited in Ottoman troops to help them put down the revolt. At this time, a number of influential Moreote Greeks and Albanians made private peace with Mehmed. After more years of incompetent rule by the despots, their failure to pay their annual tribute to the Sultan, their own revolt against Ottoman rule, Mehmed came into the Morea in May 1460. Demetrios ended up his younger brother Thomas fled. By the end of the summer the Ottomans had achieved the submission of all cities possessed by the Greeks. A few holdouts remained for a time; the rocky peninsula of Monemvasia refused to surrender and it was first ruled for a brief time by a Catalan corsair.
When the population drove him out they obtained the consent of Thomas to submit to the Pope's protection before the end of 1460. The Mani Peninsula, on the Morea's south end, resisted under a loose coalition of the local clans and that area came under Venice's rule; the last holdout was Salmeniko, in the Morea's northwest. Graitzas Palaiologos was the military commander there. While the town surrendered and his garrison and some town residents held out in the castle until July 1461, when they escaped and reached Venetian territory, thus ended the last of the Byzantine Empire proper. After 1461 the only non-Ottoman territories were possessed by Venice: the port cities of Modon and Koroni at the southern end of the Morea, the Argolid with Argos, the port of Nafplion. Monemvasia subsequently surrendered itself to Venice at the beginning of the 1463–1479 Ottoman-Venetian war. Manuel Kantakouzenos Michael Asan? Andronikos Asan Manuel Kantakouzenos Matthew Kantakouzenos Demetrios I Kantakouzenos Theodore I Palaiologos Theodore II Palaiologos Constantine Palaiologos, after 1449 became emperor at Constantinople.
Thereafter, joint rule between his brothers: Thomas Palaiologos Demetrios II Palaiologos Byzantine Greece Principality of Theodoro Rosser, John H.. Historical Dictionary of Byzantium. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0810874770. Runciman, Steven. Lost Capital of Byzantium: The History of Mistra and the Peloponnese. Tauris Parke Paperbacks. ISBN 978-1-84511-895-2
Regional units of Greece
The 74 regional units are administrative units of Greece. They are subdivisions of the country's 13 regions, further subdivided into municipalities, they were introduced as part of the "Kallikratis" administrative reform on 1 January 2011 and are comparable in area and, in the mainland, coterminous with the pre-"Kallikratis" prefectures of Greece
Greece the Hellenic Republic, self-identified and known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of 11 million as of 2016. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the northeast; the Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a large number of islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres; the country consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace and the Ionian Islands.
Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Philip of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great conquering much of the ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to India. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, in which Greek language and culture were dominant. Rooted in the first century A. D. the Greek Orthodox Church helped shape modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence.
Greece's rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The sovereign state of Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, a high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001, it is a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power, it is the largest economy in the Balkans. The names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The Greek name of the country is Hellas or Ellada, its official name is the Hellenic Republic. In English, the country is called Greece, which comes from Latin Graecia and means'the land of the Greeks'; the earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, in the Greek province of Macedonia. All three stages of the stone age are represented for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries, as Greece lies on the route via which farming spread from the Near East to Europe. Greece is home to the first advanced civilizations in Europe and is considered the birthplace of Western civilisation, beginning with the Cycladic civilization on the islands of the Aegean Sea at around 3200 BC, the Minoan civilization in Crete, the Mycenaean civilization on the mainland; these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek.
The Mycenaeans absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC, during a time of regional upheaval known as the Bronze Age collapse. This ushered from which written records are absent. Though the unearthed Linear B texts are too fragmentary for the reconstruction of the political landscape and can't support the existence of a larger state contemporary Hittite and Egyptian records suggest the presence of a single state under a "Great King" based in mainland Greece; the end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, which spread to the shores of the Black Sea, So
The Taygetus, Taygetos or Taÿgetus is a mountain range in the Peloponnese peninsula in Southern Greece. The highest mountain of the range is Mount Taygetus known as the "Profitis Ilias", or "Prophet Elias"; the name is one of the oldest recorded in Europe, appearing in the Odyssey. In classical mythology, it was associated with the nymph Taygete. During Byzantine times and up until the 19th century, the mountain was known as Pentadaktylos; the Taygetus Massif is about 100 km long, extending from the center of the Peloponnese to Cape Matapan, its southernmost extremity. It contains the tallest mountain in the Profitis Ilias summit, reaching 2,404 m; the summit is an ultra-prominent peak. It is prominent above the Isthmus of Corinth, which separating the Peloponnese from mainland Greece, rises only to 60 m. Numerous creeks wash down from the mountains and the Eurotas has some of its headwaters in the northern part of the range; the western side of the massif houses the headwaters of the Vyros Gorge, which carries winter snowmelt down the mountain, emptying into the Messenian Gulf in the town of Kardamyli.
Taygetus overlooks the cities of Kalamata, whose skyline it dominates. The mountain range lies within the prefectures of Arcadia and Messenia. Taygetus is crossed by Greek National Road 82, which links Kalamata to Sparti and separates Northern Taygetus from the Central Range; the Rindomo Gorge separates the Central Range from Southern Taygetos. The section of Taygetus that forms the backbone of the Mani Peninsula is known as Saggias, is not considered part of Taygetus; the central part of the mountain range is called "Skoteini Plevra", which means "the dark side" because the villages located there do not receive as much sunshine in the early morning and the late afternoon hours. The mountains of southern Europe that fringe the Mediterranean Sea and run in an east-west direction are of the folded type generated by collision of the northward-moving African Plate with the Eurasian Plate. Where the northern edge of the African Plate is being subducted in an irregular line a second orogeny occurs, not understood.
The mountains of Italy and Greece are a combination of Folded Mountains and Fault-block mountains running in a northwest–southeast direction. The Hellenic Subduction carries the leading edge of the African Plate under the Aegean Sea Plate at the Hellenic Trench, it follows an arc around the outer edge of the Crete. The subduction on the west is to the northeast, on the east to the northwest, north in the center; the average direction is N 21° E. In the islands and southern Greece a fault-block mountain orogeny prevails due to a double set of crustal movements. On the one hand the Aegean Sea Plate is being raised by the subduction. On the other hand, north–south extensional movements, yet unexplained, are pulling the plate apart, creating normal extensional faults and generating a parallel sequence of horsts and grabens, or rift valleys, running in a north–south direction. Mount Taygetus is a limestone horst bordering the Eurotas Rift Valley. Below its eastern face is the Sparta fault, a normal fault striking perpendicular to the direction of extension.
Footwall scarps are visible on the eastern side of Taygetus at the base of its spurs. They result from sudden slippages of the hanging wall in the direction of the dip, causing earthquakes. Single earthquakes result in 1–12 m of scarp; the Sparta fault is zig-zag in strike, varying between N 170° E and N 140° E. The maximum slippage has been 10–12 m in three increments; the earthquake of 464 BC, which levelled Sparta, resulted from a slippage of 3–4 m over a length of 20 km of the fault. The slip rate has been about 1 mm per year suggesting an average interval between earthquakes of 3000 years; the slopes of Taygetus are forested with Greek fir and black pine. Devastating fires in 2005 and 2007 consumed much of the forests on the central west slopes, only about half remain; the slopes of Taygetus have been inhabited since at least Mycenean times. The site of Arkina, near the village of Arna, is still unexplored. Taygetus was important as one of Sparta's natural defenses; the Spartans threw criminals and "unfit" infants into a chasm of Taygetus known as Ceadas or Caeadas.
In antiquity, Spartan newborns were abandoned there. Recent evidence, found by the University of Athens, discovered remains of adult individuals which appeared to confirm that Ceadas was a place of punishment for criminals and captives. During the era of barbarian invasions, Taygetus served as a shelter for the native population. Many of the villages in its slopes date from this period. In Medieval times, the citadel and monastery of Mystras was built on the steep slopes, became a center of Byzantine civilization and served as the capital of the Despotate of the Morea. Mystras remains occupied by a tiny religious community; the buildings a major tourist attraction in the region. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the peak known as Taleton, above Bryseae, was'dedicated' to Helios, the Sun, to whom horses were sacrificed. Taleton was also'dedicated' to Zeus. Today, the mountain is associated with the holy Prophet Elias, every year on the 20th of July, the small chapel at the peak holds a large festival, in
Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia
The Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia, an Archaic site devoted in Classical times to Artemis, was one of the most important religious sites in the Greek city-state of Sparta, continued to be used into the fourth century CE. The cult of Orthia was common to the four villages constituting Sparta: Limnai, in which it is situated, Pitana and Mesoa. Chronologically speaking, it came after the cult to the city-goddess Athena Πολιοῦχος "protectress of the city" or Χαλκίοικος / Khalkíoikos "of the bronze house"; the sanctuary is located in a natural basin between Limnai and the west bank of the Eurotas River, outside ancient Sparta, above the reach of all but the severest flooding. The oldest relics, pottery fragments from the late Greek Dark Ages, indicate that the cult has existed since the 10th century BCE, but not before; the cult celebrated its rituals on a rectangular earthen altar, built up by the ashes of successive sacrifices. At the beginning of the 8th century BCE, the temenos was paved with river stones and surrounded by a trapezoidal wall.
A wood and stone altar was built as well as a temple. The works were financed by the wars waged by Sparta. A second temple was built around 570 BCE during the joint reign of Leon of Sparta and Agasicles, when military successes provided funds; the terrain was consolidated, undoubtedly following erosion caused by the Eurotas. An altar and a temple of limestone, oriented the same way as the previous buildings, were built on a bed of river sand; the surrounding wall was enlarged, at this stage took on a rectangular form. The second temple was rebuilt in the 2nd century BCE, except for the altar, replaced in its turn in the 3rd century CE when the Romans built a theatre around the temple and altar to welcome tourists to the diamastigosis; the Artemis Orthia theatre is not to be confused with the much larger late Hellenistic theatre at Sparta. The cult of Orthia was a pre-anthropomorphic and pre-Olympian religion; the inscriptions mentioned Orthia. The cult addressed a xoanon of malevolent reputation, for it was reputedly from Tauride, whence it was stolen by Orestes and Iphigenia, according to Euripides.
Orientalizing carved ivory images found at the site show the winged goddess grasping an animal or bird in either hand in the manner of the Potnia Theron. Pausanias best describes the subsequent origin of the diamastigosis: I will give other evidence that the Orthia in Lacedaemon is the wooden image from the foreigners. Firstly and Alopecus, sons of Irbus, son of Amphisthenes, son of Amphicles, son of Agis, when they found the image straightway became insane. Secondly, the Spartan Limnatians, the Cynosurians, the people of Mesoa and Pitane, while sacrificing to Artemis, fell to quarrelling, which led to bloodshed. Whereat an oracle was delivered to them, he used to be sacrificed upon whomsoever the lot fell, but Lycurgus changed the custom to a scourging of the ephebos, so in this way the altar is stained with human blood. By them stands the priestess, holding the wooden image. Now it is small and light, but if the scourgers spare the lash because of a lad's beauty or high rank at once the priestess finds the image grow so heavy that she can hardly carry it.
She lays the blame on the scourgers, says that it is their fault that she is being weighed down. So the image since the sacrifices in the Tauric land keeps its fondness for human blood, they call it not only Orthia, but Lygodesma, because it was found in a thicket of willows, the encircling willow made the image stand upright." According to Plutarch, writing in Life of Aristides, the ceremony is a reenactment memorializing an episode in the Greco-Persian Wars. In addition to the flagellation of the diamastigosis, the cult entailed individual dances by young men and dances by choruses of girls. For the young men, the prize is a sickle; the presence of ex-votos attests to the popularity of the cult: clay masks representing old women or hoplites as well as lead and terracotta figures showing men and women playing the flute, lyre, or cymbals, or mounting a horse. The archaic winged Artemis, represented in many ex-votos from the 8th century to the sixth, lingered longest here as Artemis Orthia. Dedicatory inscriptions invoke either Orthia or Artemis Orthia.
The cult of Orthia gave rise to διαμαστίγωσις / diamastigosis, where the éphēboi were flogged, as described by Plutarch, Xenophon and Plato. Cheeses were guarded by adults with whips; the young men would attempt to get them. At least to the Roman era, the priestess could control the force of the flogging. During the Roman period, according to Cicero, the ritual became a blood spectacle, sometimes to the death, with spectators from all over the empire. An amphitheatre had to be built in the 3rd century CE to accommodate the tourists. Libanios indicates that the spectacle was attracting the curious as late as the 4th century CE; the site was bro