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Spasticity is a feature of altered skeletal muscle performance with a combination of paralysis, increased tendon reflex activity, hypertonia. It is colloquially referred to as an unusual "tightness", stiffness, or "pull" of muscles. Clinically, spasticity results from the loss of inhibition of motor neurons, causing excessive velocity-dependent muscle contraction; this leads to hyperreflexia, an exaggerated deep tendon reflex. Spasticity is treated with the drug baclofen, which acts as an agonist at GABA receptors, which are inhibitory. Spastic cerebral palsy is the most common form of cerebral palsy, a group of permanent movement problems that do not get worse over time. GABA's inhibitory actions contribute to baclofen's efficacy as an anti-spasticity agent. Spasticity occurs in disorders of the central nervous system affecting the upper motor neurons in the form of a lesion, such as spastic diplegia, or upper motor neuron syndrome, can be present in various types of multiple sclerosis, where it occurs as a symptom of the progressively-worsening attacks on myelin sheaths and is thus unrelated to the types of spasticity present in neuromuscular cerebral palsy rooted spasticity disorders.

The cause of spasticity is thought to be where an imbalance occurs in the excitatory and inhibitory input to α motor neurons caused by damage to the spinal cord and/or central nervous system. The damage causes a change in the balance of signals between the nervous system and the muscles, leading to increased excitability in muscles; this is common in people who have celebral palsy, brain injuries or a spinal cord injury, but it can happen to anybody e.g. having a stroke. One factor, thought to be related to spasticity is the stretch reflex; this reflex is important in coordinating normal movements in which muscles are contracted and relaxed and in keeping the muscle from stretching too far. Although the end result of spasticity is problems with the muscles, spasticity is caused by an injury to a part of the central nervous system that controls voluntary movements; the damage causes a change in the balance of signals between the muscles. This imbalance leads to increased activity in the muscles.

Receptors in the muscles receive messages from the nervous system, which sense the amount of stretch in the muscle and sends that signal to the brain. The brain responds by sending a message back to reverse the stretch by shortening. Overall, a defining feature of spasticity is that the increased resistance to passive stretch is velocity-dependent. Lance describes it this way: "...a motor disorder, characterised by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with exaggerated tendon jerks, resulting from hyper-excitability of the stretch reflex as one component of the upper motor neurone syndrome". Spasticity is found in conditions where the brain and/or spinal cord are damaged or fail to develop normally. Damage to the CNS as a result of stroke or spinal cord injury, alter the of peripheral nerves in the affected region; this change in input to bodily structures tends to favor excitation and therefore increase nerve excitability. CNS damage causes nerve cell membranes to rest in a more state.

The combination of decreased inhibition and an increased depolarized state of cell membranes, decreases action potential threshold for nerve signal conduction, thus increases activity of structures innervated by the affected nerves. Muscles affected in this way have many other potential features of altered performance in addition to spasticity, including muscle weakness. Clonus tends to co-exist with spasticity in many cases of stroke and spinal cord injury due to their common physiological origins; some consider clonus as an extended outcome of spasticity. Although linked, clonus is not seen in all patients with spasticity. Clonus tends to not be present with spasticity in patients with increased muscle tone, as the muscles are active and therefore not engaging in the characteristic on/off cycle of clonus. Clonus results due to an increased motor neuron excitation and is common in muscles with long conduction delays, such as the long reflex tracts found in distal muscle groups. Clonus is seen in the ankle but may exist in other distal structures as well, such as the knee or spine.

The clinical underpinnings of two of the most common spasticity conditions, spastic [ and multiple sclerosis, can be described as follows: in spastic diplegia, the upper motor neuron lesion arises as a result of neonatal asphyxia, while in conditions like multiple sclerosis, spasticity is thought by some to be as a result of the autoimmune destruction of the myelin sheaths around nerve endings—which in turn can mimic the gamma amino butyric acid deficiencies present in the damaged nerves of spastic cerebral palsy children, leading to the same presentation of spasticity, but which clinically is fundamentally different from the latter. Spasticity is assessed by feeling the resistance of the muscle to passive lengthening in its most relaxed state. A spastic muscle will have noticeable quite forceful, increased resistance to passive

Paramormyrops hopkinsi

Paramormyrops hopkinsi is a species of freshwater electric fish. It was discovered in the Ivindo River in Gabon, in west-Central Africa by Dr. Carl D. Hopkins of Cornell University, it is distributed throughout the Ntem River basin of Cameroon. Described as a Brienomyrus in 1985 it was transferred to Paramormyrops in 2007; the electric discharge has two phases: a head-positive phase followed by a head-negative phase. The mean duration of the EOD is 2.8 ms for 2.96 for males. The Fourier transform of the EOD peaks at 536 Hz for females, 468 for males. Both male and female EODs have a head-negative voltage bump about 5 to 6 ms after the main head positive phase. Cornell University. "Brienomyrus hopkinsi - Photo by Dr. Carl D. Hopkins". Cornell University Department of Neurobiology and Behavior. Retrieved September 27, 2007. CTD's Brienomyrus hopkinsi page from the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database UniProt Taxonomy. "Species Brienomyrus hopkinsi". UniProt Consortium. Retrieved September 27, 2007

Th 9 cell

In cell biology, TH9 cells are a sub-population of CD4+T cells that produce interleukin-9. They play a role in defense against helminth infections, in allergic responses, in autoimmunity, tumor suppression. TH9 cells are characterized by their cell surface expression of CD4 and CCR6 and the lack of CCR4. Additionally, they are defined by their high secretion of interleukin‑9. Besides IL-9, TH9 cells produce IL-10 and IL-21. However, their functions in TH9 cells are still unclear. Th9 cells can differentiate either by a shift from TH2 cells. There are numbers of cytokines, transcription factors and other molecules, that have a role in TH9 differentiation. Cytokines play a major role in development of TH9 cells. There are many cytokines impacting differentiation of TH9 cells and their production of IL-9 but IL-4 and TGF-β are indispensable for their development and polarization. IL-4 and TGF-β are necessary for naive T lymphocytes to differentiate into TH9 cells. While TGF-β alone can switch TH2 cells into TH9 cells.

IL-2 is critical for interleukin-9 production by TH9 cells. IL-1 may induce IL-9 in some cases, IL-33 is able to induce IL-9 in T cells generally. IL-1 family members enhance expression of Il9 gene. IL-25 induces IL-9 production in vivo. Development of TH9 cells requires a balanced cytokines signaling for its establishment. All mentioned cytokines signal through specific transcription factors, which are on required for a TH9 polarization. STAT6, IRF4, GATA3 are required for TH9 cell development and other such as PU.1, BATF, NF-κB, NFAT1, STAT5, AP-1 contribute to TH9 sub-population commitment and to IL-9 production. STAT6 is activated by signaling through IL-4 receptor. Once activated, phosphorylated STAT6 mediate the transcription of Gata3 and Irf4, which are both necessary for polarization of TH9 cells. STAT6 repress the expression of transcription factors T-bet and Foxp3 in TH9 cells, that block IL-9 production. GATA-3 in TH9 cells development represses transcriptional factor FOXP3, which would other wise let to other T helper cell subpopulation.

IRF4 binds to the promoter of Il-9 gene in TH9 cells and it is dependent on STAT6. BATF has been shown to bind to the Il-9 gene promoter and to activate Il-9gene transcription. PU.1 works by directly binding to the promoter of Il-9 gene and attract chromatin-modifying enzymes which reinforce Il9-gene transcription. NF-κB and NFAT1, are needed for a TCR-induced interleukin-9 production by TH9 cells. STAT5, downstream factor of IL-2, induce TH9 cells IL-9. STAT5 directly bind to Il-9 gene promoter, although it has not yet been determined how important this pathway is for TH9 development in vitro and in vivo. Numbers of molecules enhance or dampen IL-9 production and contribute to TH9 development such as: Activin A that can substitute the role of TGF-β in TH9 cells Jagged2, programmed cell death ligand, cyclooxy- genase -2, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, calcitonin gene-related peptide, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 4, thymic stromal lymphopoietin; the main physiological role of TH9 cells, while poorly defined, is defense against helminthic infections.

This is mediated by local and/or systemic production of Interleukin-9, as well as promoted survival of other anti-parasitic leukocytes, including mast cells and basophils. Th9 cells have shown both pro- and anti-tumorigenic activity, depending on the type of cancer, they have been shown to inhibit melanoma cell growth, increase anti-tumor lymphocytes, drastically lower tumor mass and disease severity. On the other hand patients suffering hepatocellular carcinoma with high TH9 infiltration had shorter disease-free survival period after surgical resection. TH9 cells appear to be linked to many pathophysiological processes, their exact role is poorly understood, as they appear to have a pleiotropic effect and seem to be dependent on the local, as well as systemic, cytokine environment. TH9 cells are present in the peripheral blood of allergic patients while such a population is rare in non-allergic persons. Few studies have reported distinct correlations of in vivo IL-9 with serum IgE concentration.

The percentages of IL-9-secreting T cells of atopic patients correlated with serum IgE in adults with asthma. Two studies showed, it was observed that TH9 cells can promote intestinal and central nervous system inflammation. TH9 cells are linked to asthma given their presence in draining lymph nodes and airways. TH9-Derived IL-9 has been shown to exacerbate the allergic immune response by enhancing antibody production and increasing cell infiltration inside of the respiratory tract. TH9 cells contribute to ulcerative colitis, due to the cell’s ability to impair cellular repair; this may play a role in TH9 tumor suppression. TH9 have been shown to play a role in both early and progressive phase of multiple sclerosis by decreasing the effects of pro-inflammatory TH17. Increased levels of IL-9 produced by TH9 have been detected in patients in remission phase of the disease. However, in vitro differentiated Th9 have been shown to induce EAE and cause peripheral neuropathies in mice, emphasizing the importance of context in which the cells develops and functions.

A higher percentage of TH9 cells in patients with chronic HCV was linked to higher levels of liver enzymes, more severe disease progression and faster development of HCC. Remission and faster HCV clearance was associated with lower TH9 cytokines' leves; this might be caused by TH9 mediated promotion of TH17 phenotype and hindering of TH1 phenotype


Nador is a coastal city and provincial capital in the northeastern Rif region of Morocco with a population of about 161,726. It is separated from the Mediterranean Sea by a salt lagoon named Sebkha Bou Areq, Bḥar Ameẓẓyan or Mar Chica and is 10 kilometres south of the Spanish city of Melilla. Nador was founded in the 19th century and was under Spanish rule until Morocco's independence in 1956. Nador Province has over 600,000 inhabitants, predominantly of Riff-Berber ethnicity. Nador is considered the second largest city in the Oriental East after Oujda; the origin of the city name is disputed. It may have originated from Has Nador, a small village by the lagoon, or it may have come from the Arabic term meaning either lighthouse or sight; the economy of Nador and Nador province includes fishery, some light and heavy industry. The economy has grown in recent years due to the manufacturing sector with the building of a metal processing complex supplied with iron ore from Wiksan, a mountain in the Rif range, anthracite from Jerada, textiles and some electronics industries.

In the summer months of June to August thousands of people originating from the Nador area and living in Europe return to the city. The total of these annual visitors may exceed 250,000, they stay with relatives or in rented or owned apartments, rather than staying in Nador's hotels. The location of the city on the Mediterranean coast and proximity of the Spanish town Melilla mean there is significant international trade evident in the widespread sale of Spanish manufactured foodstuffs and household goods in Nador. Nador was infamous as a centre of smuggling cheap Chinese duty-free goods; the smuggling has declined but it still alive competing with a smuggling stream from Algeria. Many used consumer goods from Europe and China find their way to Morocco and Africa via Melilla and Nador and illegally; the goods range from conserved food, shoes, electric home appliances, up to sophisticated hardware. It has become a fast-growing city, despite experiencing a population drop with the departure of the Spanish, when the population decreased from 23,000 in the early 1950s to less than 5,000 in 1960.

Nador's population grew by 566% between 1960 and 1971, from 4,806 people in 1960 and 32,000 in 1971. Its population has since grown with over 500% once again, to a total estimated population of 200,000 in 2015. Only eight years in 2007, the city had a population of 120,000. 98 percent of the city-population is made up by Riffian-Berbers. The Amazigh culture is dominant and Nador is the largest Tarifit-speaking city in the world; the population density in the city of Nador is many times that of the larger Nador Province. Nador is the 19th largest city in Morocco and is the capital of Nador Province in the Oriental Region of northern Morocco, it is located on the Sebkha Bou Areq lagoon on the Mediterranean coastline. The city sprawls along the coast, it is 75 km west of the Algerian border, 10 km south of the Spanish enclave of Melilla, 380 km east of the Moroccan capital of Rabat. The city center of Nador is a grid of streets around the north-south axis of Avenue Hassan II, with the main bus- and taxi stations at its southern end.

Avenue Mohammed V runs from the city's waterfront to the city's governmental facilities and town hall on its east end. Mohammed V Boulevard has open plazas and Spanish Iberian-style architecture seen in the Roman Catholic churches; the administrative city center, main post office, the Grand Mosque are all located on the Youssef Ben Tachfine Boulevard. The salt lagoon off and to the east of the city attract wildlife migratory birds The protected wetlands at Oued Moulouya and Kariat Arekman by the Moulouya River mouth are home to greater pink flamingos, great crested grebes, black-winged stilts, dunlins, Audouin's gulls, grey herons, little egrets, spotted redshanks, black-tailed godwits, common redshanks, black terns, numerous other species of terns and gulls; as well as being a safe haven for birds, this area is visited by locals because of its natural environment. There are major freshwater and saline sites covering large areas of protected sand dunes, marsh- and swampland. Insects include damselflies and numerous others.

The flora includes marram grass, juniper and more. Nador has a hot semi-arid climate. In winter there is more rainfall than in summer; the average annual temperature in Nador is 18.7 °C. About 313 mm of precipitation falls annually. Main Nador city quarters and neighbourhoods include: Teraqqa'a El Khettabi El Kindy Laarasi Anafag / Elmatar / New Nador / Ennaḍur Amaynu Laari Shikh Ammas n Temdint / Centro / Centre ville Downtown Nador: a developed area in comparison with the rest of the city; this lies in the centre of the city and was developed during the Spanish occupation of northern Morocco. Ulad Mimun Isebbanen Ichumay Aarrid Ulad Barhim Tireqqaâ / Tireqqaɛ Ayt Leḥsen Erfid / Ibarraqen Near Nador is the transmission site for long- and short-wave Medi 1 Radio which broadcasts to all Maghreb countries; the aerial masts of Medi 1 Radio for long-wave are 380 m high and are among the tallest man-made structures in Africa. A railway linking Nador to Taourirt was opened on 2 July 2009 by king Mohammed VI of Morocco.

As part of ONCF's rail p

Minuscule 585

Mimuscule 585 ε 125 is an illuminated Byzantine Gospel Book. It is dated paleographically to the late 10th-century; the manuscript contains the four Christian Gospels. There were Evangelist portraits at the beginning of each Gospel, but the portrait of Luke is lost; the text is written in one column per page, 20 lines per page. The tables of the κεφαλαια are placed before every Gospel, numerals of the κεφαλαια are given at the margin, their τιτλοι at the top of the pages. There is a division according to the Ammonian Sections, with a references to the Eusebian Canons, it contains liturgical portraits of the Evangelists. The manuscript is an example of the art during the Macedonian Renaissance; the Greek text of the codex is a representative of the Byzantine text-type. Aland placed it in Category V. Hermann von Soden classified it to the textual family Family Kx, it was examined by the Claremont Profile Method. It is dated by the INTF to the 10th century; the manuscript was in Venice in 1560, was purchased by Duke Alfonso II d'Este.

It was moved to Vienna in 1589 by Francesco d'Este. In 1868 it was returned to Italy under the provisions of the Convention of Florence, it is housed at the Biblioteca Estense at Modena. List of New Testament minuscules Biblical manuscript Lorenzo. Treasures from Italy's Great Libraries. New York, The Vendome Press, 1997

Herbert Niebling

Herbert Niebling was a master designer of the style of lace knitting called Kunststricken. Today, his designs remain popular with lace knitting enthusiasts. Herbert Niebling developed his style from working lace patterns disseminated in magazines and leaflets he read as a young boy; the first one he was exposed to was a design by Marie Niedner and Gussi von Reden published by Otto Beyer in 1921 as Band 46: Kunst-Stricken I. The designs of that time were geometric spirals and motifs which could be replicated and expanded to create a kaleidoscope effect. In contrast, Niebling's own designs were not repetitive and geometric, but contained concentrated waves of increases and decreases to create fluid shapes portraying leaves and flowers. Although much of his early work resembles the geometric style of his predecessors, Niebling’s most notable pieces are those featuring botanically accurate flower and leaf forms worked in textured stitches and twining against a background of mesh stitches; these pieces resemble the “true” needle and bobbin laces of earlier centuries with their densely worked floral motifs outlined in bolder threadwork and embellished with textural ornaments, set against a background of braided mesh or connected by a network of bars or brides.

He drew constant inspiration from nature. During his frequent travels, he would collect plants from foreign countries and transform their blossoms and leaves into delicate lace pictures, his ability to construct a knitting pattern working directly from live flowers without having to sketch the image first was a key part of his continuing creative achievement. Niebling produced hundreds of knitted lace designs over the 40-plus years of his career, his patterns were published in magazines throughout Europe. Niebling himself knitted samples of his designs using special long steel double-pointed needles and extra fine cotton threads which are no longer available. "His finest work was a tablecloth measuring about 39 inches square and weighing only about an ounce that could be drawn through a finger ring." In addition to mastering a new style of knit lace, Niebling worked with his publisher in the 1930s to develop a set of universal symbols to represent the individual stitches in lace patterns which enabled an entire row of stitches to be read at a glance.

This allowed the patterns to be more comprehensible and bring a wider readership for his publications. Publisher Aenne Burda purchased the Beyer publishing rights in 1963, still uses the chart symbols Niebling developed. Born in the German town of Averlak, in the northern state of Schleswig-Holstein, he learned to knit as a young boy from reading lace patterns found in leaflets of that time. By the age of six he was knitting his own stockings, by the time he went to school, he was skilled enough to give knitting lessons to his classmates. During World War I, he knit many stockings to send to the troops on the front lines; as a nine-year-old, he created a piece of gobelin embroidery directly from a postcard reproduction of an old master painting without first having re-drawn it into a pattern template. He designed his first knitted lace doilies soon after, he went on to attend the University of Fine Arts of Hamburg, where he studied a variety of crafts during his 4-year apprenticeship, ranging from ceramics to tapestry.

It was at knitting design that he most excelled. He published his first knit lace patterns with Otto Beyer in the early 1930s. Publications from 1936 list his residence as Itzehoe, he married Olga Linda Zehring on July 1935 in Brandis. The couple lived in Itzehoe from 1935 to 1940, at which time Niebling was drafted to serve in the German army during the second World War. After returning home from a prisoner of war camp in June of 1945, he and his wife made their home in Bensheim, he began publishing lace patterns inspired by the flowers in his garden, was known as the "Spitzenkönig von der Bergstraße". In February 1957, Niebling and his wife moved to Freiburg. In his studio he made shawls for Valais costumes, as well as Spanish mantillas and lace hats for the Sunday best of the peasant women in the Bretagne, he died on May 1966 in Freiburg. Herbert Niebling's designs have remained popular in the modern day, although amassing a complete catalogue of his work has been difficult as some of his patterns have been published without attribution.

The social knitting site Ravelry lists 440 different knitting patterns designed by Niebling with many thousands of individual projects inspired by those designs posted by their users. The Herbert Niebling enthusiast group on Ravelry was founded in 2007 and has over 3,000 members as of 2019. Herbert Niebling designs on Ravelry Herbert Niebling enthusiast group Museum Gallery exhibition of Niebling patterns knit by Riho Toomra Knitted Lace Designs of Herbert Niebling by Eva Maria Leszner Knitted Lace Designs of the'Modern Mode' by Kazuko Ichida, 2007 Lacis