F. R. Scott
Francis Reginald Scott known as Frank Scott or F. R. Scott, was a Canadian poet and constitutional expert, he helped found the first Canadian social democratic party, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, its successor, the New Democratic Party. He won Canada's top literary prize, the Governor General's Award, once for poetry and once for non-fiction, he was married to artist Marian Dale Scott. Scott was born on August 1899, in Quebec City, the sixth of seven children, his father was Frederick George Scott, "an Anglican priest, minor poet and staunch advocate of the civilizing tradition of imperial Britain, who instilled in his son a commitment to serve mankind, a love for the regenerative balance of the Laurentian landscape and a firm respect for the social order." He witnessed the riots in the city during the Conscription Crisis of 1917. Completing his undergraduate studies at Bishop's University, in Lennoxville, Scott went to Magdalen College, Oxford, as a Rhodes Scholar and was influenced by the Christian socialist ideas of R. H. Tawney and the Student Christian Movement.
Scott returned to Canada, settled in Montreal and studied law at McGill University joining the law faculty as a professor. While at McGill, Scott became a member of the Montreal Group of modernist poets, a circle that included Leon Edel, John Glassco, A. J. M. Smith. Scott and Smith became lifelong friends. Scott contributed to the McGill Daily Literary Supplement. After the Review folded, Scott helped found and co-edited The Canadian Mercury. Scott, assisted by Smith and Leo Kennedy anonymously edited the modernist poetry anthology New Provinces, published in 1936; the Great Depression disturbed Scott. Through the LSR, Scott became an influential figure in the Canadian socialist movement, he was a founding member of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation and a contributor to that Party's Regina Manifesto. He edited a book advocating Social Planning for Canada. In 1943, he co-authored Make This Your Canada, spelling out the CCF national programme, with David Lewis. Scott was elected national chairman of the CCF in 1942, would serve until 1950.
In March 1942 Scott co-founded a literary magazine, with Montreal poet Patrick Anderson. Like the earlier Montreal Group publications, "Preview's orientation was cosmopolitan, he began translating French-Canadian poetry. In 1952 he served as a United Nations technical assistance resident representative in Burma, helping to build a socialist state in that country. During the 1950s, Scott was an active opponent of the Duplessis regime in Quebec and went to court to fight the Padlock Law, he represented Frank Roncarrelli, a Jehovah's Witness, in Roncarelli v. Duplessis all the way to the Supreme Court of Canada a battle that Maurice Duplessis lost. Scott began translating French-Canadian poetry, publishing Anne Hébert and Saint-Denys Garneau in 1962, he edited Poems of French Canada. Scott served as dean of law at McGill University from 1961 to 1964 and served on the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism. In 1970 he was offered a seat in the Senate of Canada by Pierre Trudeau but declined the appointment.
He did, support Trudeau's imposition of the War Measures Act during the October Crisis that same year. Scott opposed Quebec's Bill 22 and Bill 101 which established the province within its jurisdiction as an unilingual province within an bilingual country. Following his death on January 30, 1985, Scott was interred in Montreal. Scott won the 1977 Governor General's Award for non-fiction for his Essays on the Constitution and the 1981 Governor General's Award for poetry for his Collected Poems; the Royal Society of Canada elected Scott a fellow in 1947, awarded him its Lorne Pierce Medal in 1962. Scott won the Molson Prize in 1965. In 1966, Scott received an honorary doctorate from Sir George Williams University, which became Concordia University. Leonard Cohen added music to Scott's villanelle, "A Villanelle for Our Time", recorded it on his album Dear Heather. Scott is the subject of a number of critical works, as well as a major biography, The Politics of the Imagination: A Life of F. R. Scott by Sandra Djwa.
Overture. Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1945. Events and Signals. Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1954; the Eye of the Needle: Satire, Sundries. Montreal: Contact Press, 1957. Signature. Vancouver: Klanak Press, 1964. Selected Poems. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1966. Trouvailles: Poems from Prose. Montreal: Delta Canada, 1967; the Dance is One. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1973; the Collected Poems of F. R. Scott. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1981. St-Denys Garneau & Anne Hebert: Translations/Traductions. Translated by F. R. Scott. Vancouver: Klanak Press, 1962. Poems of French Canada. Translated by F. R. Scott. Burnaby, BC: Blackfish Press, 1977. Except where indicated, bibliographical information on poetry courtesy of Canadian Poetry Online. Social Reconstruction and the B. N. A. Act – 1934 Labour Conditions in the Men's Clothing Industry – 1935 Social Planning for Canada – 1935. Canada Today: A Study of Her National Interests and National Policy – 1938 Canada's Role in World Affairs –
The Acadians are the descendants of French colonists who settled in Acadia during the 17th and 18th centuries, some of whom are descended from the Indigenous peoples of the region. The colony was located in what is now Eastern Canada's Maritime provinces, as well as part of Quebec, present-day Maine to the Kennebec River. Acadia was a distinctly separate colony of New France, it was administratively separate from the French colony of Canada. As a result, the Acadians and Québécois developed two distinct cultures, they developed a different French language. France has one official language and to accomplish this they have an administration in charge of the language. Since the Acadians were separated from this council, their French language evolved independently, Acadians retain several elements of 17th-century French that have disappeared in France; the settlers whose descendants became Acadians came from many areas in France, but regions such as Île-de-France, Brittany and Aquitaine. Acadian family names have come from many areas in France.
For example, the Maillets are from Paris. During the French and Indian War, British colonial officers suspected Acadians were aligned with France after finding some Acadians fighting alongside French troops at Fort Beausejour. Though most Acadians remained neutral during the French and Indian War, the British, together with New England legislators and militia, carried out the Great Expulsion of the Acadians during the 1755–1764 period, they deported 11,500 Acadians from the maritime region. One-third perished from disease and drowning; the result was what one historian described as an ethnic cleansing of the Acadians from Maritime Canada. Other historians indicate that it was a deportation similar to other deportations of the time period. Most Acadians were deported to various American colonies, where many were forced into servitude, or marginal lifestyles; some Acadians were deported to England, to the Caribbean, some were deported to France. After being expelled to France, many Acadians were recruited by the Spanish government to migrate to present day Louisiana state, where they developed what became known as Cajun culture.
In time, some Acadians returned to the Maritime provinces of Canada to New Brunswick because they were barred by the British from resettling their lands and villages in what became Nova Scotia. Before the US Revolutionary War, the Crown settled New England Planters in former Acadian communities and farmland as well as Loyalists after the war. British policy was to assimilate Acadians with the local populations. Acadians speak. Many of those in the Moncton area speak English; the Louisiana Cajun descendants speak a variety of American English called Cajun English, with many speaking Cajun French, a close relative of Acadian French from Canada, but influenced by Spanish and West African languages. During the early 1600s, about sixty French families were established in Acadia, they developed friendly relations with the Wabanaki Confederacy, learning their hunting and fishing techniques. The Acadians lived in the coastal regions of the Bay of Fundy. Living in a contested borderland region between French Canada and British territories, the Acadians became entangled in the conflict between the powers.
Over a period of seventy-four years, six wars took place in Acadia and Nova Scotia in which the Confederacy and some Acadians fought to keep the British from taking over the region. While France lost political control of Acadia in 1713, the Mí'kmaq did not concede land to the British. Along with some Acadians, the Mi'kmaq from time to time used military force to resist the British; this was evident in the early 1720s during Dummer's War but hostilities were brought to a close by a treaty signed in 1726. The British Conquest of Acadia happened in 1710. Over the next forty-five years the Acadians refused to sign an unconditional oath of allegiance to Britain. Many were influenced by Father Jean-Louis Le Loutre, who from his arrival in 1738 until his capture in 1755 preached against the'English devils'. During this time period Acadians participated in various militia operations against the British and maintained vital supply lines to the French Fortress of Louisbourg and Fort Beausejour. During the French and Indian War, the British sought to neutralize any military threat Acadians posed and to interrupt the vital supply lines Acadians provided to Louisbourg by deporting Acadians from Acadia.
With the founding of Halifax in 1749 the Mi'kmaq resisted British settlements by making numerous raids on Halifax, Dartmouth and Lunenburg. During the French and Indian War, the Mi'kmaq assisted the Acadians in resisting the British during the Expulsion of the Acadians. Many Acadians might have signed an unconditional oath to the British monarchy had the circumstances been better, while other Acadians did not sign because they were anti-British. For the Acadians who might have signed an unconditional oath, there were numerous reasons why they did not; the difficulty was p
Robert Lepage, is a Canadian playwright, film director, stage director. Lepage was raised in Quebec City. At age five, he was diagnosed with a rare form of alopecia, which caused complete hair loss over his whole body, he struggled with clinical depression in his teens as he came to terms with being gay. Between 1975 and 1978, he studied theatre at Quebec City's Conservatoire d'Art Dramatique, he subsequently participated in workshops at Alain Knapp's theatre school in France. After coming back to Quebec City, he wrote and played in a few independent productions and joined Théâtre Repère in 1980. With that company, he created Circulations, presented across Canada and won an award as best Canadian production during La Quinzaine Internationale de Théâtre de Québec; the following year, he created The Dragons' Trilogy and received international recognition. Vinci and Tectonic Plates followed and were toured around the world, he was the artistic director of the National Arts Centre's Théâtre français in Ottawa from 1989 to 1993, continued to stage plays.
His productions of Needles and Opium, Macbeth, The Tempest and A Midsummer Night's Dream were all created in that period. In 1994, Lepage founded Ex Machina, a multidisciplinary production company, for which he is artistic director. Lepage and Ex Machina have toured a number of productions internationally to critical and popular acclaim, including The Seven Streams of the River Ota and Elsinore. Lepage was invited in 1994 to direct August Strindberg's A Dream Play at Royal Dramatic Theatre in Stockholm, Sweden, it premiered in guest played in the spring of 1995 in Glasgow Scotland. Geometry of Miracles and The Far Side of the Moon, a solo show in which he juxtaposed the Cold War competition of the Americans and the Soviets in the Space Race with the story of two Québécois brothers—one straight, one gay—and their competitive relationship after their mother's death, it won four trophies at a Time Out Award and the Evening Standard Award. In 2003 The Far Side of the Moon was adapted by Lepage—who plays both brothers—into a film of the same name.
Lepage has directed five other feature films: The Confessional, Polygraph, Nô, Possible Worlds and Triptyque, has acted in films by other directors, including Jesus of Montreal and Stardom by Denys Arcand. He has been involved in music productions, being the stage director for the Secret World Tour by Peter Gabriel in 1993/1994, the subsequent Growing Up tour in 2003/2004, he directed a number of operas, including Bluebeard's Castle and Erwartung at the Canadian Opera Company, The Damnation of Faust in Japan and Paris, Lorin Maazel's 1984 at the Royal Opera House in London in 2005. Cirque du Soleil asked him to create the permanent Las Vegas show named Kà at the MGM Grand in 2005; the Andersen Project is his last solo play, based on the life and works of Danish writer Hans Christian Andersen, his tale "The Dryad". Lipsynch, his large-canvas work, premiered in its first version in Newcastle upon Tyne's Northern Stage in February 2007 in its five-hour version, he staged Igor Stravinsky's The Rake's Progress, presented in Brussels' Opéra de la Monnaie in April 2007 and San Francisco War Memorial Opera House in November 2007.
In 2008, Lepage and Ex Machina created The Image Mill, celebrating the 400th anniversary of Quebec City. For forty nights, a forty minute show was displayed by the banks of Bassin Louise, using the huge surface of the Bunge grain elevators as a giant screen, it was at the time the biggest outdoor architectural projection in the world. In November 2008, Lepage directed a staged version of Hector Berlioz' The Damnation of Faust at the Metropolitan Opera in New York. In February, 2009, Lepage premiered a new work entitled Eonnagata at Sadler's Wells Theatre, London, UK. For this project he collaborated with the dancers Sylvie Guillem and Russell Maliphant, fashion designer Alexander McQueen, lighting designer Michael Hulls and sound designer Jean-Sébastien Côté, his production of Stravinsky's The Rake's Progress, conducted by Christopher Hogwood, was re-released at the Teatro Real, Madrid, in January 2009. In spring 2009, Lepage presented The Blue Dragon, a sequel to his Dragons' Trilogy, in which he reprised the role of Pierre Lamontagne, a Québécois artist who lives in China.
In fall 2009, Lepage directed The Nightingale and Other Short Fables, an operatic staging of short works by Stravinsky blending hand shadow puppetry, Kabuki theatre, Chinese opera and Vietnamese Water puppetry. The Canadian Opera Company in Toronto premiered the work. Lepage wrote and directed Totem, Cirque du Soleil's next touring show, began work on a new production of Der Ring des Nibelungen by Richard Wagner for the Metropolitan Opera of New York; the series was presented in installments during the 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 seasons – Das Rheingold and Die Walküre were premiered during the 2010/2011 season, Siegfried premiered on October 27, 2011, Götterdämmerung premiered on January 27, 2012. Lepage's complete Ring cycle premiered in April 2012; the Metropolitan Opera had to install steel reeinforcements under the stage in order to support LePage's 45 tonne set. Lepage was featured in a 2012 documentary about Wagner's Dream. In 2012, Lepage appeared as a holog
Xenophobia is the fear and distrust of that, perceived to be foreign or strange. Xenophobia can involve perceptions of an ingroup towards an outgroup and can manifest itself in suspicion of the activities of others, a desire to eliminate their presence to secure a presumed purity and may relate to a fear of losing national, ethnic or racial identity. Xenophobia can be exhibited in the form of an "uncritical exaltation of another culture" in which a culture is ascribed "an unreal and exotic quality"; the terms xenophobia and racism are sometimes confused and used interchangeably because people who share a national origin may belong to the same race. Due to this, xenophobia is distinguished by opposition to foreign culture. Dictionary definitions of xenophobia include: "deep-rooted fear towards foreigners", "fear of the unfamiliar"; the word comes from the Ancient Greek words ξένος, meaning "strange", "foreigner", φόβος, meaning "fear". A scholarly definition of xenophobia, according to Andreas Wimmer, is "an element of a political struggle about who has the right to be cared for by the state and society: a fight for the collective goods of the modern state."
In other words, xenophobia arises when people feel that their rights to benefit from the government is being subverted by other people's rights. An early example of xenophobic sentiment in Western culture is the Ancient Greek denigration of foreigners as "barbarians", the belief that the Greek people and culture were superior to all others, the subsequent conclusion that barbarians were meant to be enslaved. Ancient Romans held notions of superiority over all other peoples, such as in a speech attributed to Manius Acilius, "There, as you know, there were Macedonians and Thracians and Illyrians, all most warlike nations, here Syrians and Asiatic Greeks, the most worthless peoples among mankind and born for slavery." Despite the majority of the country's population being of mixed, African, or indigenous heritage, depictions of non-European Brazilians on the programming of most national television networks is scarce and relegated for musicians/their shows. In the case of telenovelas, Brazilians of darker skin tone are depicted as housekeepers or in positions of lower socioeconomic standing.
Muslim and Sikh Canadians have faced racism and discrimination within recent years after 2001, the spill over effect of the United States’ War on Terror. A 2016 survey from The Environics Institute, a follow-up to a study conducted 10 years prior that there may be discriminating attitudes that may be a residual of the effects of the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States; when it comes to opinions on both Sikh's and Muslims, a poll done by Maclean's revealed that only 28% of Canadians view Islam favourably, only 30% viewed the Sikh religion favourably. 45 % of respondents believed. In Quebec in particular, only 17% of respondents had a favourable view of Muslims There has been racial tension between the Indo-Guyanese people and the Afro-Guyanese. Racism in Mexico has a long history. Mexicans with light skin tones had absolute control over dark skinned Amerindians due to the structure of the Spanish colonial caste system; when a Mexican of a darker-skinned tone marries one of a lighter skinned-tone, it is common for them say that they are "'making the race better'."
This can be interpreted as a self-attack on their ethnicity. Despite improving economic and social conditions of Indigenous Mexicans, discrimination against Indigenous Mexicans continues to this day and there are few laws to protect Indigenous Mexicans from discrimination. Violent attacks against indigenous Mexicans are moderately common and many times go unpunished. In Venezuela, like other South American countries, economic inequality breaks along ethnic and racial lines. A 2013 Swedish academic study stated that Venezuela was the most racist country in the Americas, followed by the Dominican Republic. Concern over Japanese ethnic and immigrant groups during the Second World War prompted the Canadian and U. S. governments to intern most of their ethnically Japanese populations in the western portions of North America. As in most countries, many people in the U. S. continue to be xenophobic against other races. In the view of a network of scores of US civil rights and human rights organizations, "Discrimination permeates all aspects of life in the United States, extends to all communities of color."
Discrimination against racial and religious minorities when it comes to African Americans, is acknowledged. Members of every major American ethnic and religious minority have perceived discrimination in their dealings with other minority racial and religious groups. Philosopher Cornel West has stated that "racism is an integral element within the fabric of American culture and society, it is embedded in the country's first collective definition, enunciated in its subsequent laws, imbued in its dominant way of life." After Donald Trump took presidential office in 2017, he attempted to enact a travel ban on seven countries which were listed as "countries of concern" by Secretary of Homeland Security Jeh Johnson under the Obama administration in 2011. This was changed to six in a revision that removed Iraq in part due to criticism that the original order overlooked the country’s role in fighting Islamic terrorism and barred entry to the Iraqi interpreters, embedded with US forces in the region.
Khizr Khan, the father of United States Army Captain Humayun Khan, described it in a CNN interview as a continuat
Le Devoir is a French-language newspaper published in Montreal and distributed in Quebec and throughout Canada. It was founded by journalist and nationalist Henri Bourassa in 1910. Le Devoir is one of few independent large-circulation newspapers in Quebec in a market dominated by the media conglomerate Quebecor. Le Devoir was considered Canada's francophone newspaper of record, although in the 21st century it has been challenged for that title by the increased status of competitor La Presse. Henri Bourassa, a young and promising Liberal Party MP from Montreal, rose to national prominence in 1899 when he resigned his seat in Parliament in protest at the Liberal government's decision to send troops to support the British in the South African War of 1899–1902. Bourassa was opposed to all Canadian participation in British wars and would go on to become a key figure in fighting for an independent Canadian foreign policy, he is considered both a forebear of French Canadian nationalists as well as a Canadian nationalist more generally.
He was an early promoter of the bicultural Anglo-French conception of Canada, an impassioned advocate for the political and cultural equality of all French Canadians within Confederation, wherever they may reside. In 1910 he founded Le Devoir as an outlet for his anti-imperialist Ligue nationaliste and to fight for the rights of French Canadians within Confederation. In its maiden edition, published January 10, 1910, Bourassa explained the name and mission of the newspaper thus: "To ensure the triumph of ideas over appetites, of the public good over partisan interests, there is but one means: awake in the people, above all in the ruling classes, a sense of public duty in all its forms: religious duty, national duty, civic duty."Bourassa headed the newspaper until August 3, 1932, when he was replaced by Georges Pelletier. After the death of Pelletier in early 1947, the role of editor-in-chief would pass to Gérard Filion, ex-editor of La Terre de chez nous, under whose reign the paper would publish controversial critiques of Maurice Duplessis's government in Quebec by journalists and figures such as André Laurendeau.
Claude Ryan, a federalist, took the helm in 1964, followed by Jean-Louis Roy in 1980 and Benoit Lauzière in 1986. In 1990 the paper got its first woman editor-in-chief when Lise Bissonnette succeeded Lauzière establishing the paper's sovereigntist orientation following the federalist years of Ryan and his successors, she would continue on in her post until 1998, with the current editor-in-chief, Bernard Descôteaux, taking over the following year. While the paper has in recent times becomes associated with the Quebec nationalist movement, it is important to note that Bourassa himself was in fact opposed to the notion of a separate territorial entity for the majority French-speaking province, believing instead in an Anglo-French conception of Canada in which French-speaking Canadians would see their culture recognized as equal and protected and encouraged from coast to coast. Instances of this view can be found in both his campaign for Franco-Ontarian rights as well as his ardent opposition to controversial priest and historian Lionel Groulx in the 1920s following Groulx's musing on the possibility and desirability of a separate Quebec state.
This said, the history of Le Devoir would become characterized by varying phases of French Canadian and Québécois nationalism, opening its pages in the troubled 1930s to Groulx and his followers, yet seeing a federalist at its helm in 1964 in the form of Claude Ryan, who in 1978 would go on to become leader of the federalist Quebec Liberal Party. Ideologically, Le Devoir has been a chief voice against military intervention and in favour of pacifism and social democracy, opposing conscription in World War II and endorsing, under federalist Ryan's tenure, the election of René Lévesque's new socialist-inspired Parti Québécois in the 1976 election, despite its platform centred on Québécois nationalism. Once considered a reformist paper, it has been associated less with ideas that challenge the status quo of Quebec's economic and cultural issues. Le Devoir began as several other businesses besides the newspaper; these ventures included a general printer and publishing house, a bookstore, a travel agency.
Trips were organized to coincide with Catholic congresses around the world, as well as for "pilgrimages", allowing Quebecois to visit the French diaspora across North America. Such trips included Acadia and Louisiana; the purpose of the travel venture was, said Napoleon Lafortune, to "extend the'work' of the newspaper to defend the French language and the Catholic faith, but by other means." The unusual service lasted from 1924 to 1947, though it ended at the start of World War II when international civilian travel became difficult. Le Devoir has a low circulation of about 34,000 on weekdays and 58,000 on Saturdays, its financial situation has been precarious, recent years are no exception: in 2002, it had revenues of $14,376,530, with a meager profit of $13,524, while the previous year it had made a small loss. The newspaper's slogan is "Fais ce que dois". "Le Devoir" means "the duty" in French. In 1993, following a redesign by Lucie Lacava, a Montreal-based design consultant, the Society for News Design awarded Le Devoir Best of Show award for "Overall Design Excellence" and in 1994 the same group awarded it its Gold award in the Feature Design category.
In September 2011, the National Film Board of Canada and Le Devoir announced that they will be jointly hosting three interactiv
Joseph-Edmond-André Laurendeau was a journalist, politician, co-chair of the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism, playwright in Quebec, Canada. He is referred to as André Laurendeau, he was active in various spheres and capacities, for three decades. Laurendeau's career "spanned the most turbulent periods in the history of Canada". André Laurendeau was born March 1912, into a ` notable' Québécois family, he was the only child of Arthur Laurendeau. Theirs was a musically and politically oriented home, a Catholic atmosphere, his father Arthur was an ardent nationalist and Laurendeau grew up admiring people such as the founder of Le Devoir, Henri Bourassa, the Catholic nationalist historian Abbé Lionel Groulx. Laurendeau graduated from Collège Sainte-Marie in 1931. Due to a bout with depression, Laurendeau did not pursue a university degree thereafter; the fact that he reached young adulthood as the Great Depression struck influenced his social views. Starting in 1933, Laurendeau and several friends from the University of Montréal founded a neo-nationalist, separatist movement called "Jeune-Canada".
They advocated for a homeland for French Canadians. While a member of Jeune-Canada, Laurendeau helped organize and spoke at a protest rally titled "Politicians and Jews", it was held in response to a protest against anti-Semitism in Germany held in Montreal, both rallies taking place in 1933. Laurendeau questioned the validity of the charges of maltreatment against Jewish peoples in Germany, he described Jewish peoples' ability to make their political weight felt as a cohesive unit. While claiming not to be anti-Semitic throughout their political career, Jeune-Canada's message of hatred was debated in the newspaper Le Devoir, it was not until the death of Hitler that the group died down. In 1963 Laurendeau wrote an article in the French edition of Maclean's magazine, which denounced this period of his life as ignorant, youthful passion. In 1935 he left Quebec with his spouse to study philosophy and social sciences at the Sorbonne. After studying abroad, Laurendeau relinquished his separatist persuasion and began to be more preoccupied with the American threat to French-Canadian culture than with that threat posed by English Canada.
Upon returning home, he served as director of the L'Action nationale magazine from 1937 to 1943 and from 1949 to 1953, under his father's direction in the past. As a journalist and editorialist, Laurendeau broached a myriad of topics, from nationalism, to World War II, to federalism, to separatism and bilingualism/biculturalism, but always from the same platform. Laurendeau subscribed to tenets of Christian humanism throughout his long career, he was concerned for the good of the collective and suspicious of those who wished to concentrate power in the hands of the few. Additionally, Laurendeau believed that though Quebec constituted a minority in Canada, their position as a unique province with a unique culture were to be respected and not undermined by a central power based in Ottawa. In 1942, Laurendeau entered into politics in opposition to conscription, as a member of the Ligue pour la défense du Canada, his primary reason for doing so was that Prime Minister Mackenzie King had promised conscription would not become national policy, only to put a plebiscite to Canadians to determine whether or not he might revoke his promise and retain their favour.
Laurendeau took part in the founding of the centre-left party Bloc populaire Canadien, soon became its provincial leader while Maxime Raymond was its federal leader. Laurendeau was a Member of the Legislative Assembly of Quebec from 1944 to 1948 in Montréal-Laurier electoral district. In 1947, Laurendeau became associate editor-in-chief of Le Devoir and, in 1957, became its editor-in-chief; as editor, he was known first for his battles against Maurice Duplessis and as a leading spokesman for the rising national identity of Quebec during the Quiet Revolution. His editorial column of November 18, 1958, Maurice Duplessis à l'Assemblée nationale: la théorie du roi nègre was cited by Quebecers of all political stripes for years afterwards; this piece compared the status of Duplessis in Quebec in Canada to that of an indigenous ruler in an imperial colony, the parallel being that violations of civil rights and liberties, perpetrated by Duplessis, were tolerated by English Canadians. In the colonial case, the same would hold true though such violations would not be tolerated by colonists in their imperial lands of origin.
Laurendeau is known for having popularized the word "joual". From 1953 to 1961, he was the host of the television show Pays et Merveilles broadcast by Radio-Canada. From 1963 until his death, Laurendeau served as co-chair, along with Davidson Dunton, of the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism, a position that brought him considerable criticism from his nationalist colleagues; the stress caused by this criticism was blamed for Laurendeau's early death by historian Charles Godin. In many of his publications, Laurendeau attached particular importance to the education and future of youth. Schools were named in his honour in Saint-Hubert, in LaSalle, in Ottawa. "Biography". Dictionnaire des parlementaires du Québec de 1792 à nos jours. National Assembly of Quebec. Bouvier, Félix. André Laurendeau, LIDEC, Montréal, 1996. Horton, Donald. André Laurendeau, French-Canadian Nationalist, 1912-1968, Oxf
McGill University is a public research university in Montreal, Canada. It was established in 1821 by royal charter, granted by King George IV; the university bears the name of James McGill, a Montreal merchant from Scotland whose bequest in 1813 formed the university's precursor, McGill College. McGill's main campus is at Mount Royal in downtown Montreal, with the second campus situated in Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue on the Montreal Island, 30 kilometres west of the main campus; the university is one of two universities outside the United States who are members of the Association of American Universities and it is the only Canadian member of the Global University Leaders Forum within the World Economic Forum. McGill offers degrees and diplomas in over 300 fields of study, with the highest average admission requirements of any Canadian university. Most students are enrolled in the five largest faculties, namely Arts, Medicine and Management. McGill counts among its alumni 12 Nobel laureates and 145 Rhodes Scholars, both the most of any university in Canada, as well as five astronauts, the incumbent prime minister and two former prime ministers of Canada, the incumbent Governor General of Canada, 14 justices of the Canadian Supreme Court, at least eight foreign leaders, 28 foreign ambassadors, over eight dozen members of the Canadian Parliament, United States Congress, British Parliament, other national legislatures, several billionaires, nine Academy Award winners, 11 Grammy Award winners, four Pulitzer Prize winners, two Presidential Medal of Freedom recipients, at least 16 Emmy Award winners, 28 Olympic medalists, all of varying nationalities.
McGill alumni were instrumental in inventing or organizing football and ice hockey. McGill University or its alumni founded several major universities and colleges, including the Universities of British Columbia and Alberta, the Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Dawson College; the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning was created in 1801 under an Act of the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada, An Act for the establishment of Free Schools and the Advancement of Learning in this Province. In 1816 the RIAL was authorized to operate two new Royal Grammar Schools, in Quebec City and in Montreal; this was a turning point for public education in Lower Canada as the schools were created by legislation, the District Public Schools Act of 1807, which showed the government's willingness to support the costs of education and the salary of a schoolmaster. This was an important first step in the creation of nondenominational schools; when James McGill died in 1813 his bequest was administered by the RIAL.
Of the original two Royal Grammar Schools, in 1846 one closed and the other merged with the High School of Montreal. By the mid-19th century the RIAL had lost control of the other eighty-two grammar schools it had administered. However, in 1853 it took over the High School of Montreal from the school's board of directors and continued to operate it until 1870. Thereafter, its sole remaining purpose was to administer the McGill bequest on behalf of the private college; the RIAL continues to exist today. Since the revised Royal Charter of 1852, The Trustees of the RIAL comprise the Board of Governors of McGill University. James McGill, born in Glasgow, Scotland on 6 October 1744, was a successful merchant in Quebec, having matriculated into the University of Glasgow in 1756. Soon afterwards, McGill left for North America to explore the business opportunities there. Between 1811 and 1813, he drew up a will leaving his "Burnside estate", a 19-hectare tract of rural land and 10,000 pounds to the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning.
On McGill's death in December 1813, the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning, established in 1801 by an Act of the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada, added the establishing of a University pursuant to the conditions of McGill's will to its original function of administering elementary education in Lower Canada. As a condition of the bequest, the land and funds had to be used for the establishment of a "University or College, for the purposes of Education and the Advancement of Learning in the said Province." The will specified a private, constituent college bearing his name would have to be established within 10 years of his death. On March 31, 1821, after protracted legal battles with the Desrivières family, McGill College received a royal charter from King George IV; the Charter provided the College should be deemed and taken as a University, with the power of conferring degrees. Although McGill College received its Royal Charter in 1821, it was inactive until 1829 when the Montreal Medical Institution, founded in 1823, became the college's first academic unit and Canada's first medical school.
The Faculty of Medicine granted its first degree, a Doctorate of Medicine and Surgery, in 1833. The Faculty of Medicine remained the school's only functioning faculty until 1843, when the Faculty of Arts commenced teaching in the newly constructed Arts Building and East Wing; the university historically has strong links with the Canadian Grenadier Guards, a military regiment in which James McGill served as Lieutenant-Colonel. This title is m