Tristram Edgar Speaker, nicknamed "The Grey Eagle", was an American baseball player. Considered one of the best offensive and defensive center fielders in the history of Major League Baseball, he compiled a career batting average of.345. His 792 career doubles represent an MLB career record, his 3,514 hits are fifth in the all-time hits list. Defensively, Speaker holds career records for assists, double plays, unassisted double plays by an outfielder, his fielding glove was known as the place "where triples go to die."After playing in the minor leagues in Texas and Arkansas, Speaker debuted with the Boston Red Sox in 1907. He became the regular center fielder by 1909 and led the Red Sox to World Series championships in 1912 and 1915. In 1915, Speaker's batting average dropped to.322 from.338 the previous season. As player-manager for Cleveland, he led the team to its first World Series title. In ten of his eleven seasons with Cleveland, he finished with a batting average greater than.350. Speaker resigned as Cleveland's manager in 1926 after he and Ty Cobb faced game fixing allegations.
During his managerial stint in Cleveland, Speaker introduced the platoon system in the major leagues. Speaker played with the Washington Senators in 1927 and the Philadelphia Athletics in 1928 became a minor league manager and part owner, he held several roles for the Cleveland Indians. Late in life, Speaker led a short-lived indoor baseball league, ran a wholesale liquor business, worked in sales and chaired Cleveland's boxing commission, he was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1937. He was named 27th in the Sporting News 100 Greatest Baseball Players and was included in the Major League Baseball All-Century Team. Speaker was born on April 4, 1888, in Hubbard, Texas, to Nancy Poer Speaker; as a youth, Speaker broke his arm. In 1905, Speaker played a year of college baseball for Fort Worth Polytechnic Institute. Newspaper reports have held that Speaker suffered a football injury and nearly had his arm amputated around this time, he worked on a ranch before beginning his professional baseball career.
Speaker's abilities drew the interest of Doak Roberts, owner of the Cleburne Railroaders of the Texas League, in 1906. After losing several games as a pitcher, Speaker converted to outfielder to replace a Cleburne player, struck in the head with a pitch, he batted.318 for the Railroaders. Speaker's mother opposed his participation in the major leagues, saying that they reminded her of slavery. Though she relented, for several years Mrs. Speaker questioned why her son had not stayed home and entered the cattle or oil businesses, he performed well for the Texas League's Houston Buffaloes in 1907, but his mother stated that she would never allow him to go to the Boston Americans. Roberts sold the youngster to the Americans for $750 or $800. Speaker played in seven games for the Americans in 1907, with three hits in 19 at bats for a.158 average. In 1908, Boston Americans owner John I. Taylor changed the team's name to the Boston Red Sox after the bright socks in the team's uniform; that year, the club traded Speaker to the Little Rock Travelers of the Southern League in exchange for use of their facilities for spring training.
Speaker batted.350 for the Travelers and his contract was repurchased by the Red Sox. He logged a.224 batting average in 116 at bats. Speaker became the regular starting center fielder for Boston in 1909 and light-hitting Denny Sullivan was sold to the Cleveland Naps. Speaker hit.309 in 143 games. Defensively, Speaker was involved in 12 double plays, leading the league's outfielders, had a.973 fielding percentage, third among outfielders. In 1910 the Red Sox signed left fielder Duffy Lewis. Speaker and Harry Hooper formed Boston's "Million-Dollar Outfield", one of the finest outfield trios in baseball history. Speaker was the star of the Million-Dollar Outfield, he ran fast enough that he could stand close to second base giving the team a fifth infielder, but he still caught the balls hit to center field. In 1910 and 1911, Boston finished fourth in the American League standings. Speaker's best season came in 1912, he led the American League in doubles and home runs. He set career highs with 222 hits, 136 runs, 580 at-bats, 52 stolen bases.
Speaker's stolen base tally was a team record until Tommy Harper stole 54 bases in 1973. He batted his.567 slugging percentage was the highest of his dead-ball days. Speaker set a major league single-season record with three hitting streaks of twenty or more games, he became the first major leaguer to hit 50 doubles and steal 50 bases in the same season. In August, Speaker's mother unsuccessfully attempted to convince him to come home. In Fenway Park's first game, Speaker drove in the winning run in the 11th inning, giving Boston the 7–6 win; the 1912 Red Sox won the AL pennant, finishing 14 games ahead of the Washington Senators and 15 games ahead of the Philadelphia Athletics. In the 1912 World Series, Speaker led the Red Sox to their second World Series title by defeating John McGraw's New York Giants. After the second game was called on account of darkness and ended in a tie, the series went to eight games; the Red Sox won the final game after Fred Snodgrass dropped an easy fly ball and failed to go after a Speaker pop foul.
After the pop foul, Sp
A spokesman, spokeswoman or spokesperson is someone engaged or elected to speak on behalf of others. In the present media-sensitive world, many organizations are likely to employ professionals who have received formal training in journalism, public relations and public affairs in this role in order to ensure that public announcements are made in the most appropriate fashion and through the most appropriate channels to maximize the impact of favorable messages, to minimize the impact of unfavorable messages. Celebrity spokesmen such as popular local and national sports stars or television and film stars are chosen as spokespeople for commercial advertising; as of August 2017, Kayleigh McEnany and Michael Tyler served as spokesmen of the RNC and DNC, respectively. Unlike an individual giving a personal testimonial, it is the job of a spokesperson to faithfully represent and advocate for the organization's positions when these conflict with his/her own opinion; as a result, spokespeople are selected from experienced, long-time employees or other people who are known to support the organization's goals.
A corporation may be represented in public by its chief executive officer, chairman or president, chief financial officer, counsel or external legal advisor. In addition, on a day-to-day level and for more routine announcements, the job may be delegated to the corporate communications or investor relations departments, who will act as spokespeople. In the particle physics community, large collaborations of physicists elect one spokespeople or leader of the collaboration; the spokesperson in such cases is the lead scientist of the collaboration, not a public speaker. Each collaboration chooses the roles and responsibilities of the spokesperson for internal purposes, but spokespeople have defined roles for liaising with the host laboratory and/or funding agencies. Brand ambassador Press agent Press secretary Press service
Public speaking is the process or act of performing a speech to a live audience. Public speaking is understood as formal, face-to-face speaking of a single person to a group of listeners. Traditionally, public speaking is considered to be apart of the art of persuasion; the act can accomplish particular purposes including to inform, to persuade, to entertain. Additionally, differing methods and rules can be utilized according to the speaking situation. Public speaking developed in Rome and Latin America. Prominent thinkers in these countries influenced the development and evolutionary history of public speaking; this art form has been impacted by the contributions of women. Technology continues to transform the art of public speaking through new available technology such as videoconferencing, multimedia presentations, other nontraditional forms. Public speaking can serve the purpose of transmitting information, telling a story, motivating people to act or some combination of those; this type of speech is deliberately structured with three general purposes: to inform, to persuade and to entertain.
Knowing when public speaking is most effective and how it is done properly is a key part in understanding the importance of it. Public speaking for business and commercial events is done by professionals; these speakers can be contracted independently, through representation by a speakers bureau, or by other means. Public speaking plays a large role in the professional world. Although there is evidence of public speech training in ancient Egypt, the first known piece on oratory, written over 2,000 years ago, came from ancient Greece; this work elaborated on principles drawn from the practices and experiences of ancient Greek orators. Aristotle was one of the first recorded teachers of oratory to use definitive models, his emphasis on oratory led to oration becoming an essential part of a liberal arts education during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The classical antiquity works written by the ancient Greeks capture the ways they taught and developed the art of public speaking thousands of years ago.
In classical Greece and Rome, rhetoric was the main component of composition and speech delivery, both of which were critical skills for citizens to use in public and private life. In ancient Greece, citizens spoke on their own behalf rather than having professionals, like modern lawyers, speak for them. Any citizen who wished to succeed in court, in politics or in social life had to learn techniques of public speaking. Rhetorical tools were first taught by a group of rhetoric teachers called Sophists who are notable for teaching paying students how to speak using the methods they developed. Separately from the Sophists, Socrates and Aristotle all developed their own theories of public speaking and taught these principles to students who wanted to learn skills in rhetoric. Plato and Aristotle taught these principles in schools that they founded, The Academy and The Lyceum, respectively. Although Greece lost political sovereignty, the Greek culture of training in public speaking was adopted identically by the Romans.
In the political rise of the Roman Republic, Roman orators copied and modified the ancient Greek techniques of public speaking. Instruction in rhetoric developed into a full curriculum, including instruction in grammar, preliminary exercises, preparation of public speeches in both forensic and deliberative genres; the Latin style of rhetoric was influenced by Cicero and involved a strong emphasis on a broad education in all areas of humanistic study in the liberal arts, including philosophy. Other areas of study included the use of wit and humor, the appeal to the listener's emotions, the use of digressions. Oratory in the Roman empire, though less central to political life than in the days of the Republic, remained significant in law and became a big form of entertainment. Famous orators became like celebrities in ancient Rome—very wealthy and prominent members of society; the Latin style was the primary form of oration until the beginning of the 20th century. After World War II, the Latin style of oration began to grow out of style as the trend of ornate speaking became seen as impractical.
This cultural change had to do with the rise of the scientific method and the emphasis on a "plain" style of speaking and writing. Formal oratory is much less ornate today than it was in the Classical Era. Despite the shift in style, the best-known examples of strong public speaking are still studied years after their delivery. Among these examples are: Pericles' Funeral Oration in 427 BCE addressing those who died during the Peloponnesian War Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address in 1863 Sojourner Truth's identification of racial issues in "Ain't I a Woman? Mahatma Gandhi's message of nonviolent resistance in India, which in turn inspired Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech at the Washington Monument in 1963. Throughout the 18th and 19th century, women were banned to speak publicly in the courtroom, the senate floor, the pulpit, it was improper for women to be heard in a public setting. An exception to this custom was the Quaker religion that allowed women to public speak in meetings of the church.
Frances Wright was known as one of the first female public speakers of the united states. She advocated for equal education for women and men through the press. African American Maria Stewart said to be the second female speaker of the United States, lectured in Boston in front of both men and women just 4 years after Wri
The Speaker is a 2009 British television series, broadcast on BBC Two. It is a talent show type series; the show is narrated by Jane Horrocks. The three judges are stand-up comedian Jo Brand, former basketball player and psychologist John Amaechi and Jeremy Stockwell. Regional auditions were held in London, Glasgow and Manchester. 160 young people were invited to auditions after sending in videos of themselves speaking. The participants had to be aged between 14 and 18. Only 5 participants are allowed through to the next round for each region in episodes 1 & 2; the 20 who get through are reduced to 8 after a number of challenges in episode 3. The first episode aired on 7 April 2009; the first episode featured the Glasgow and London auditions, while the second show included the Manchester and Cardiff auditions. The Speaker at BBC Programmes
A loudspeaker is an electroacoustic transducer. The most used type of speaker in the 2010s is the dynamic speaker, invented in 1925 by Edward W. Kellogg and Chester W. Rice; the dynamic speaker operates on the same basic principle as a dynamic microphone, but in reverse, to produce sound from an electrical signal. When an alternating current electrical audio signal is applied to its voice coil, a coil of wire suspended in a circular gap between the poles of a permanent magnet, the coil is forced to move back and forth due to Faraday's law of induction, which causes a diaphragm attached to the coil to move back and forth, pushing on the air to create sound waves. Besides this most common method, there are several alternative technologies that can be used to convert an electrical signal into sound; the sound source must be amplified or strengthened with an audio power amplifier before the signal is sent to the speaker. Speakers are housed in a speaker enclosure or speaker cabinet, a rectangular or square box made of wood or sometimes plastic.
The enclosure's materials and design play an important role in the quality of the sound. Where high fidelity reproduction of sound is required, multiple loudspeaker transducers are mounted in the same enclosure, each reproducing a part of the audible frequency range. In this case the individual speakers are referred to as "drivers" and the entire unit is called a loudspeaker. Drivers made for reproducing high audio frequencies are called tweeters, those for middle frequencies are called mid-range drivers, those for low frequencies are called woofers. Smaller loudspeakers are found in devices such as radios, portable audio players and electronic musical instruments. Larger loudspeaker systems are used for music, sound reinforcement in theatres and concerts, in public address systems; the term "loudspeaker" may refer to individual transducers or to complete speaker systems consisting of an enclosure including one or more drivers. To adequately reproduce a wide range of frequencies with coverage, most loudspeaker systems employ more than one driver for higher sound pressure level or maximum accuracy.
Individual drivers are used to reproduce different frequency ranges. The drivers are named subwoofers; the terms for different speaker drivers differ, depending on the application. In two-way systems there is no mid-range driver, so the task of reproducing the mid-range sounds falls upon the woofer and tweeter. Home stereos use the designation "tweeter" for the high frequency driver, while professional concert systems may designate them as "HF" or "highs"; when multiple drivers are used in a system, a "filter network", called a crossover, separates the incoming signal into different frequency ranges and routes them to the appropriate driver. A loudspeaker system with n separate frequency bands is described as "n-way speakers": a two-way system will have a woofer and a tweeter. Loudspeaker driver of the type pictured are termed "dynamic" to distinguish them from earlier drivers, or speakers using piezoelectric or electrostatic systems, or any of several other sorts. Johann Philipp Reis installed an electric loudspeaker in his telephone in 1861.
Alexander Graham Bell patented his first electric loudspeaker as part of his telephone in 1876, followed in 1877 by an improved version from Ernst Siemens. During this time, Thomas Edison was issued a British patent for a system using compressed air as an amplifying mechanism for his early cylinder phonographs, but he settled for the familiar metal horn driven by a membrane attached to the stylus. In 1898, Horace Short patented a design for a loudspeaker driven by compressed air. A few companies, including the Victor Talking Machine Company and Pathé, produced record players using compressed-air loudspeakers. However, these designs were limited by their poor sound quality and their inability to reproduce sound at low volume. Variants of the system were used for public address applications, more other variations have been used to test space-equipment resistance to the loud sound and vibration levels that the launching of rockets produces; the first experimental moving-coil loudspeaker was invented by Oliver Lodge in 1898.
The first practical moving-coil loudspeakers were manufactured by Danish engineer Peter L. Jensen and Edwin Pridham in 1915, in Napa, California. Like previous loudspeakers these used horns to amplify the sound produced by a small diaphragm. Jensen was denied patents. Being unsuccessful in selling their product to telephone companies, in 1915 they changed their target market to radios and public address systems, named their product Magnavox. Jensen was, for years after the invention of a part owner of The Magnavox Company; the moving-coil principle used today in speakers was patented in 1924 by Chester W. Rice and Edward W. Kellogg; the key difference between previous attempts and the patent by Rice and Kell
Voice acting is the art of performing voice-overs or providing voices to represent a character or to provide information to an audience or user. Examples include animated, off-stage, off-screen or non-visible characters in various works, including feature films, dubbed foreign language films, animated short films, television programs, radio or audio dramas, video games, puppet shows, amusement rides and documentaries. Voice acting is done for small handheld audio games. Performers are called voice artists or voice talent, their roles may involve singing, although a second voice actor is sometimes cast as the character's singing voice. Voice acting is recognised in Britain as a specialized dramatic profession, chiefly owing to the BBC's long tradition of radio drama. Voice artists are used to record the individual sample fragments played back by a computer in an automated announcement; the voices for animated characters are provided by voice actors. For live action productions, voice acting involves reading the parts of computer programs, radio dispatchers, or other characters who never appear on screen.
With a radio drama or Compact Disc drama, there is more freedom in voice acting, because there is no need to match a dub to the original actors, or to match an animated character. Producers and agencies are on the look out for many styles of voices such as booming voices, which may be perfect for more dramatic productions or cute, young sounding voices that are perfect for trendier markets; some just sound like regular, everyday people and all of these voices have their place in the Voiceover world, provided they are used and in the right context. In the context of voice acting, narration is the use of spoken commentary to convey a story to an audience. A narrator is a personal character or a non-personal voice that the creator of the story develops to deliver information to the audience about the plot; the voice actor who plays the narrator is responsible for performing the scripted lines assigned to the narrator. In traditional literary narratives, narration is a required story element. One of the most common uses for voice acting is within commercial advertising.
The voice actor is hired to voice a message associated with the advertisement. This has different subgenres; the subgenres are all different styles in their own right. For example, television commercials tend to be voiced with a narrow, flat inflection pattern, whereas radio commercials tend to be voiced with a wide inflection pattern in an over-the-top style. Markerters and advertisers use voiceover all over their projects, from radio, to TV, to online and more! Total advertising spend in the UK is forecast to be £21.8 billion in 2017. Voiceover used in commercial adverts is the only area of voice acting where de-breathing is used. De-breathing means artificially removing breaths from the recorded voice; this is done to stop the audience being distracted in any way from the commercial message, being put across. Dub localization is a type of voice-over, it is the practice of voice-over translation altering a foreign language film, art film or television series by voice actors. Voice-over translation is an audiovisual translation technique, in which, unlike in Dub localization, actor voices are recorded over the original audio track, which can be heard in the background.
This method of translation is most used in documentaries and news reports to translate words of foreign-language interviewees. Automated dialogue replacement is the process of re-recording dialogue by the original actor after the filming process to improve audio quality or reflect dialogue changes. ADR is used to change original lines recorded on set to clarify context, improve diction or timing, or to replace an accented vocal performance. In the UK, it is called "post-synchronization" or "post-sync". Voice artists are used to record the individual sample fragments played back by a computer in an automated announcement. At its simplest, each recording consists of a short phrase, played back when necessary, e.g. the "Mind the gap" announcement introduced by London Underground in 1969. In a more complicated system, such as a speaking clock, the announcement is re-assembled from fragments such as "minutes past" "eighteen" and "p.m." For example, the word "twelve" can be used for both "Twelve O'Clock" and "Six Twelve."
Automated announcements can include on-hold messages on phone systems and location-specific announcements in tourist attractions. Seiyū occupations include performing roles in anime, audio dramas and video games, performing voice-overs for dubs of non-Japanese movies, providing narration to documentaries and similar programs; because the animation industry in Japan is so prolific, voice actors in Japan are able to have full-time careers as voice-over artists. Japanese voice actors are able to take greater charge of their careers than voice actors in other countries. Japan has 130 voice acting schools and troupes of voice actors, who work for a specific broadcast company or talent agency, they attract their own appreciators and fans, who watch shows to hear their favorite actor or actress. Many Japanese voice actors branch into music singing the opening or closing themes of shows in which their character stars, or become involved in non-animated side projects such as audio dram
HMS Speaker (D90)
HMS Speaker, a Ruler-class escort carrier, based on a "C3" hull, was the Bogue-class USS Delgada, transferred to the United Kingdom under the Lend-Lease program. These ships were all larger and had a greater aircraft capacity than all the preceding American built escort carriers, they were all laid down as escort carriers and not converted merchant ships. All the ships had a complement of 646 men and an overall length of 492 feet 3 inches, a beam of 69 feet 6 inches and a draught of 25 ft 6 in. Propulsion was provided by one shaft, two boilers and a steam turbine giving 9,350 shaft horsepower, which could propel the ship at 16.5 knots. Aircraft facilities were a small combined bridge–flight control on the starboard side, two aircraft lifts 43 feet by 34 feet, one aircraft catapult and nine arrestor wires. Aircraft could be housed in the 260 feet by 62 feet hangar below the flight deck. Armament comprised: two 4"/50, 5"/38 or 5"/51 Dual Purpose guns in single mounts, sixteen 40 mm Bofors anti-aircraft guns in twin mounts and twenty 20 mm Oerlikon anti-aircraft cannons in single mounts.
They had a maximum aircraft capacity of twenty-four aircraft which could be a mixture of Grumman Martlet, Vought F4U Corsair or Hawker Sea Hurricane fighter aircraft and Fairey Swordfish or Grumman Avenger anti-submarine aircraft. Delgada was launched 20 February 1943 by the Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation, Washington. Sykes and reclassified CVE-40 on 15 July 1943, she was transferred to the United Kingdom under Lend-Lease on 20 November 1943, served as HMS Speaker. After the loading of equipment, familiarisation by the Royal Navy sailing crew and a day's steaming trials, Speaker was accepted, she was formally commissioned on 20 November 1943, when the White Ensign was hoisted at a ceremony attended by the builders and the U. S. Naval authorities, by 6 December she was ready to sail; as delivered, these carriers required modifications to conform to British standards and the initial works were done at Burrards at Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. These included extending the flight deck, fitting redesigned Rying controls and fighter direction layout, modifications to hangar and store rooms, extra safety measures, oiling at sea arrangements and other internal communications, extra wireless and radio facilities, ship black-out arrangements and other necessary items.
After working up off Vancouver, a passage through the Panama Canal on 8 March 1944, further works at Norfolk and loading crated aircraft and passengers at Staten Island, New York, Speaker sailed for Liverpool on 8 March. She arrived on 8 April, she returned to the U. S. to perform a second aircraft ferry run. On 17 May, she was at Greenock awaiting orders. Now required to be an assault aircraft carrier, supporting army operations, she underwent further modifications at the Caledon Shipbuilding & Engineering Company, Dundee. While waiting for her squadron of Hellcats to complete their training, Speaker filled in as a training carrier from 16 October to 14 December. Nearly 1,500 landings were made by Fairey Barracuda, Fairey Swordfish and Curtiss Helldiver aircraft. In late December, Squadron 1840 embarked with Mk. III Hellcats. Speaker sailed from the Clyde for Gibraltar and the Mediterranean on 11 January 1945, in company with HMS Slinger, HMS Khedive and three destroyers. While passing through the Mediterranean, the flotilla flew an anti-submarine search off North Africa after a reported sighting by a merchantman, but without success.
The flotilla continued on to join the Eastern Fleet at Ceylon. They paused at Alexandria and refuelled at Aden. Flying practice continued en one aircraft and pilot being lost in an accident in the Red Sea. At Colombo, where they arrived on 4 February and Slinger were ordered onward to join the British Pacific Fleet at Sydney, Australia. While off Western Australia, the two carriers assisted in a search for survivors of a troopship sinking, they arrived at Sydney on 23 February. Eight of Speaker's aircraft and pilots were transferred to HMS Indomitable. While in port and maintenance were completed and crew enjoyed shore leave in local homes. Speaker left Sydney on 9 March for the BPF forward base at Manus Island, via the Jomard Passage, where she joined the search for survivors of USS Robert Sylvester. After a short and bleak stay, now part of 30th Aircraft Carrier Squadron, they sailed on 18 March with Striker and an escort led by HMS Kempenfelt, their role was to provide air cover for the British fuelling area during Operation Iceberg.
The escort for the "logistic" force were British and Australian destroyers, sloops and corvettes. Despite the routine nature of the duty and the lack of combat action, the morale of the logistic force and its escorts remained high. On 23 May, the BPF retired to Leyte, for replenishment and Speaker's remaining pilots and aircraft, some maintenance personnel, were transferred to Indomitable to boost front-line strength. Speaker was transferred to be a replenishment carrier, with a supply of replacement aircraft for the fleet's operational losses and receiving "flyable duds" for repair and injured crew for treatment on the hospital ship Oxfordshire. Operation Iceberg completed in mid-May and the BPF returned to Sydney for repairs and shore leave for