The Sioux known as Očhéthi Šakówiŋ, are groups of Native American tribes and First Nations peoples in North America. The term can refer to any ethnic group within the Great Sioux Nation or to any of the nation's many language dialects; the modern Sioux consist of two major divisions based on language divisions: the Dakota and Lakota. The Santee Dakota reside in the extreme east of the Dakotas and northern Iowa; the Yankton and Yanktonai Dakota, collectively referred to by the endonym Wičhíyena, reside in the Minnesota River area. They are considered to be the middle Sioux, have in the past been erroneously classified as Nakota; the actual Nakota are the Stoney of Western Canada and Montana. The Lakota called Teton, are the westernmost Sioux, known for their hunting and warrior culture. Today, the Sioux maintain many separate tribal governments scattered across several reservations and reserves in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Montana in the United States; the Sioux people refer to the Great Sioux Nation as the Očhéthi Šakówiŋ, meaning "Seven Council Fires").
Each fire is a symbol of an oyate. Today the seven nations that comprise the Očhéthi Šakówiŋ are the Thítȟuŋwaŋ, Bdewákaŋthuŋwaŋ, Waȟpéthuŋwaŋ, Waȟpékhute, Sisíthuŋwaŋ and Iháŋkthuŋwaŋ and Iháŋkthuŋwaŋna, they are referred to as the Lakota or Dakota as based upon dialect differences. In any of the dialects, Lakota or Dakota translates to mean "friend" or "ally" referring to the alliances between the bands; the name "Sioux" was adopted in English by the 1760s from French. It is abbreviated from Nadouessioux, first attested by Jean Nicolet in 1640; the name is sometimes said to be derived from an Ojibwe exonym for the Sioux meaning "little snakes". The spelling in -x is due to the French plural marker; the Proto-Algonquian form *na·towe·wa, meaning "Northern Iroquoian", has reflexes in several daughter languages that refer to a small rattlesnake. An alternative explanation is derivation from an exonym na·towe·ssiw, from a verb *-a·towe· meaning "to speak a foreign language"; the current Ojibwe term for the Sioux and related groups is Bwaanag, meaning "roasters".
This refers to the style of cooking the Sioux used in the past. In recent times, some of the tribes have formally or informally reclaimed traditional names: the Rosebud Sioux Tribe is known as the Sičháŋǧu Oyáte, the Oglala use the name Oglála Lakȟóta Oyáte, rather than the English "Oglala Sioux Tribe" or OST; the alternative English spelling of Ogallala is considered improper. The Sioux comprise three related language groups: Eastern Dakota Santee Sisseton Western Dakota Yankton Yanktonai Lakota The earlier linguistic three-way division of the Sioux language identified Lakota and Nakota as dialects of a single language, where Lakota = Teton, Dakota = Santee-Sisseton and Nakota = Yankton-Yanktonai. However, the latest studies show that Yankton-Yanktonai never used the autonym Nakhóta, but pronounced their name the same as the Santee; these studies identify Assiniboine and Stoney as two separate languages, with Sioux being the third language. Sioux has three similar dialects: Western Dakota and Eastern Dakota.
Assiniboine and Stoney speakers refer to themselves as Nakhóda. The term Dakota has been applied by anthropologists and governmental departments to refer to all Sioux groups, resulting in names such as Teton Dakota, Santee Dakota, etc; this was because of the misrepresented translation of the Ottawa word from which Sioux is derived. The Sioux are divided into three ethnic groups, the larger of which are divided into sub-groups, further branched into bands; the earliest known European record of the Sioux identified them in Minnesota and Wisconsin. After the introduction of the horse in the early 18th century, the Sioux dominated larger areas of land—from present day Central Canada to the Platte River, from Minnesota to the Yellowstone River, including the Powder River country; the Sioux maintain many separate tribal governments scattered across several reservations and communities in North America: in the Dakotas, Minnesota and Montana in the United States. Today, many Sioux live outside their reservations.
The Santee migrated north and westward from the Southeastern United States, first into Ohio to Minnesota. Some came up from area of South Carolina; the Santee River was named after them, some of their ancestors' ancient earthwork mounds have survived along the portion of the dammed-up river that forms Lake Marion. In the past, they were a Woodland people who thrived on hunting and farming. Migrations of Ojibwe from the east in the 17th and 18th centuries, with muskets supplied by the French and British, pushed the Dakota further into Minnesota and west and southward; the US gave the name "Dakota Territory"
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry and housing. A metro area comprises multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, boroughs, towns, suburbs, districts and nations like the eurodistricts; as social and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions. Metropolitan areas include one or more urban areas, as well as satellite cities and intervening rural areas that are socioeconomically tied to the urban core measured by commuting patterns. In the United States, the concept of the metropolitan statistical area has gained prominence. Metropolitan areas may themselves be part of larger megalopolises. For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the regiopolis and regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006.
In the United States, the term micropolitan statistical area is used. A metropolitan area combines an urban agglomeration with zones not urban in character, but bound to the center by employment or other commerce; these outlying zones are sometimes known as a commuter belt, may extend well beyond the urban zone, to other political entities. For example, New York on Long Island is considered part of the New York metropolitan area. In practice, the parameters of metropolitan areas, in both official and unofficial usage, are not consistent. Sometimes they are little different from an urban area, in other cases they cover broad regions that have little relation to a single urban settlement. Population figures given for one metro area can vary by millions. There has been no significant change in the basic concept of metropolitan areas since its adoption in 1950, although significant changes in geographic distributions have occurred since and more are expected; because of the fluidity of the term "metropolitan statistical area," the term used colloquially is more "metro service area," "metro area," or "MSA" taken to include not only a city, but surrounding suburban and sometimes rural areas, all which it is presumed to influence.
A polycentric metropolitan area contains multiple urban agglomerations not connected by continuous development. In defining a metropolitan area, it is sufficient that a city or cities form a nucleus with which other areas have a high degree of integration. See the many lists of metropolitan areas itemized at § Lists of metropolitan areas; the Australian Bureau of Statistics defines Greater Capital City Statistical Areas as the areas of functional extent of the seven state capitals and the Australian Capital Territory. GCCSAs replaced "Statistical Divisions" used until 2011. In Brazil, metropolitan areas are called "metropolitan regions"; each State defines its own legislation for the creation and organization of a metropolitan region. The creation of a metropolitan region is not intended for any statistical purpose, although the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics uses them in its reports, their main purpose is to allow for a better management of public policies of common interest to all cities involved.
They don't have political, electoral or jurisdictional power whatsoever, so citizens living in a metropolitan region do not elect representatives for them. Statistics Canada defines a census metropolitan area as an area consisting of one or more adjacent municipalities situated around a major urban core. To form a CMA, the metropolitan area must have a population of at least 100,000, at least half within the urban core. To be included in the CMA, adjacent municipalities must have a high degree of integration with the core, as measured by commuter flows derived from census data. In Chinese, there used to be no clear distinction between "megalopolis" and "metropolitan area" until National Development and Reform Commission issued Guidelines on the Cultivation and Development of Modern Metropolitan Areas on Feb 19, 2019, in which a metropolitan area was defined as "an urbanized spatial form in a megalopolis dominated by supercity or megacity, or a large metropolis playing a leading part, within the basic range of 1-hour commute area."
The European Union's statistical agency, has created a concept named Larger Urban Zone. The LUZ represents an attempt at a harmonised definition of the metropolitan area, the goal was to have an area from a significant share of the resident commute into the city, a concept known as the "functional urban region". France's national statistics institute, the INSEE, names an urban core and its surrounding area of commuter influence an aire urbaine; this statistical method applies to agglomerations of all sizes, but the INSEE sometimes uses the term aire métropolitaine to refer to France's largest aires urbaines. In German definition, metropolian areas are eleven most densely populated areas in the Federal Republic of Germany, they comprise the major German cities and their surrounding catchment areas and form the political and cultural centres of the country. For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the Regiopolis and regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006.
In India, a metropolitan city is defin
Gold mining is the resource extraction of gold by mining. It is impossible to know the exact date that humans first began to mine gold, but some of the oldest known gold artifacts were found in the Varna Necropolis in Bulgaria; the graves of the necropolis were built between 4700 and 4200 BC, indicating that gold mining could be at least 7000 years old. A group of German and Georgian archaeologists claims the Sakdrisi site in southern Georgia, dating to the 3rd or 4th millennium BC, may be the world's oldest known gold mine. Bronze age gold objects are plentiful in Ireland and Spain, there are several well known possible sources. Romans used hydraulic mining methods, such as hushing and ground sluicing on a large scale to extract gold from extensive alluvial deposits, such as those at Las Medulas. Mining was under the control of the state but the mines may have been leased to civilian contractors some time later; the gold served as the primary medium of exchange within the empire, was an important motive in the Roman invasion of Britain by Claudius in the first century AD, although there is only one known Roman gold mine at Dolaucothi in west Wales.
Gold was a prime motivation for the campaign in Dacia when the Romans invaded Transylvania in what is now modern Romania in the second century AD. The legions were led by the emperor Trajan, their exploits are shown on Trajan's Column in Rome and the several reproductions of the column elsewhere. Under the Eastern Roman Empire Emperor Justinian's rule, gold was mined in the Balkans, Armenia and Nubia. In the area of the Kolar Gold Fields in Bangarpet Taluk, Kolar District of Karnataka state, gold was first mined prior to the 2nd and 3rd century AD by digging small pits; the Champion reef at the Kolar gold fields was mined to a depth of 50 metres during the Gupta period in the fifth century AD. During the Chola period in the 9th and 10th century AD, the scale of the operation grew; the metal continued to be mined by the eleventh century kings of South India, the Vijayanagara Empire from 1336 to 1560, by Tipu Sultan, the king of Mysore state and the British. It is estimated; the mining of the Hungarian deposit around Kremnica was the largest of the Medieval period in Europe.
During the 19th century, numerous gold rushes in remote regions around the globe caused large migrations of miners, such as the California Gold Rush of 1849, the Victorian Gold Rush, the Klondike Gold Rush. The discovery of gold in the Witwatersrand led to the Second Boer War and the founding of South Africa; the Carlin Trend of Nevada, U. S. was discovered in 1961. Official estimates indicate that total world gold production since the beginning of civilization has been around 6,109,928,000 troy ounces and total gold production in Nevada is 2.5% of that, ranking Nevada as one of the Earth's primary gold producing regions. As of 2017, the world's largest gold producer by far was China with 429.4 tonnes in that year. The second-largest producer, mined 289.0 tonnes in the same year, followed by Russia with 273 tonnes. Despite the decreasing gold content of ores, the production is increasing; this can be achieved with industrial installations, new process, like hydrometallurgy. Placer mining is the technique.
Placer deposits are composed of loose material that makes tunneling difficult, so most means of extracting it involve the use of water or dredging. Gold panning is a manual technique of separating gold from other materials. Wide, shallow pans are filled with gravel that may contain gold; the pan is shaken, sorting the gold from the gravel and other material. As gold is much denser than rock, it settles to the bottom of the pan; the panning material is removed from stream beds at the inside turn in the stream, or from the bedrock shelf of the stream, where the density of gold allows it to concentrate, a type called placer deposits. Gold panning is the easiest and quickest technique for searching for gold, but is not commercially viable for extracting gold from large deposits, except where labor costs are low or gold traces are substantial. Panning is marketed as a tourist attraction on former gold fields. Before large production methods are used, a new source must be identified and panning is useful to identify placer gold deposits to be evaluated for commercial viability.
Using a sluice box to extract gold from placer deposits has long been a common practice in prospecting and small-scale mining. A sluice box is a man made channel with riffles set in the bottom; the riffles are designed to create dead zones in the current to allow gold to drop out of suspension. The box is placed in the stream to channel water flow. Gold-bearing material is placed at the top of the box; the material is carried by the current through the volt where gold and other dense material settles out behind the riffles. Less dense material flows out of the box as tailings. Larger commercial placer mining operations employ screening plants, or trommels, to remove the larger alluvial materials such as boulders and gravel, before concentrating the remainder in a sluice box or jig plant; these operations include diesel powered, earth moving equipment, including excavators, wheel loaders, rock trucks. Although this method has been replaced by modern m
South Dakota is a U. S. state in the Midwestern region of the United States. It is named after the Lakota and Dakota Sioux Native American tribes, who compose a large portion of the population and dominated the territory. South Dakota is the seventeenth largest by area, but the fifth smallest by population and the 5th least densely populated of the 50 United States; as the southern part of the former Dakota Territory, South Dakota became a state on November 2, 1889 with North Dakota. Pierre is the state capital and Sioux Falls, with a population of about 187,200, is South Dakota's largest city. South Dakota is bordered by the states of North Dakota, Iowa, Nebraska and Montana; the state is bisected by the Missouri River, dividing South Dakota into two geographically and distinct halves, known to residents as "East River" and "West River". Eastern South Dakota is home to most of the state's population, the area's fertile soil is used to grow a variety of crops. West of the Missouri, ranching is the predominant agricultural activity, the economy is more dependent on tourism and defense spending.
Most of the Native American reservations are in West River. The Black Hills, a group of low pine-covered mountains sacred to the Sioux, are in the southwest part of the state. Mount Rushmore, a major tourist destination, is there. South Dakota has a temperate continental climate, with four distinct seasons and precipitation ranging from moderate in the east to semi-arid in the west; the state's ecology features species typical of a North American grassland biome. Humans have inhabited the area for several millennia, with the Sioux becoming dominant by the early 19th century. In the late 19th century, European-American settlement intensified after a gold rush in the Black Hills and the construction of railroads from the east. Encroaching miners and settlers triggered a number of Indian wars, ending with the Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890. Key events in the 20th century included the Dust Bowl and Great Depression, increased federal spending during the 1940s and 1950s for agriculture and defense, an industrialization of agriculture that has reduced family farming.
While several Democratic senators have represented South Dakota for multiple terms at the federal level, the state government is controlled by the Republican Party, whose nominees have carried South Dakota in each of the last 13 presidential elections. Dominated by an agricultural economy and a rural lifestyle, South Dakota has sought to diversify its economy in areas to attract and retain residents. South Dakota's history and rural character still influence the state's culture. South Dakota is in the north-central United States, is considered a part of the Midwest by the U. S. Census Bureau; the culture and geography of western South Dakota have more in common with the West than the Midwest. South Dakota has a total area of 77,116 square miles, making the state the 17th largest in the Union. Black Elk Peak named Harney Peak, with an elevation of 7,242 ft, is the state's highest point, while the shoreline of Big Stone Lake is the lowest, with an elevation of 966 ft. South Dakota is bordered to the north by North Dakota.
The geographical center of the U. S. is 17 miles west of Castle Rock in Butte County. The North American continental pole of inaccessibility is between Allen and Kyle, 1,024 mi from the nearest coastline; the Missouri River is the longest river in the state. Other major South Dakota rivers include the Cheyenne, Big Sioux, White Rivers. Eastern South Dakota has many natural lakes created by periods of glaciation. Additionally, dams on the Missouri River create four large reservoirs: Lake Oahe, Lake Sharpe, Lake Francis Case, Lewis and Clark Lake. South Dakota can be divided into three regions: eastern South Dakota, western South Dakota, the Black Hills; the Missouri River serves as a boundary in terms of geographic and political differences between eastern and western South Dakota. The geography of the Black Hills, long considered sacred by Native Americans, differs from its surroundings to such an extent it can be considered separate from the rest of western South Dakota. At times the Black Hills are combined with the rest of western South Dakota, people refer to the resulting two regions divided by the Missouri River as West River and East River.
Eastern South Dakota features higher precipitation and lower topography than the western part of the state. Smaller geographic regions of this area include the Coteau des Prairies, the Dissected Till Plains, the James River Valley; the Coteau des Prairies is a plateau bordered on the east by the Minnesota River Valley and on the west by the James River Basin. Further west, the James River Basin is low, flat eroded land, following the flow of the James River through South Dakota from north to south; the Dissected Till Plains, an area of rolling hills and fertile soil that covers much of Iowa and Nebraska, extends into the southeastern corner of South Dakota. Layers deposited during the Pleistocene epoch, starting around two million years ago, cover most of eastern South Dakota; these are the youngest rock and sediment layers in the state, the product of several successive periods of glaciation which deposited a large amount of rocks and soil, known as till, over the area. The Great Plains cover most of the western two-thirds of South Dakota.
West of the Missouri Rive
The Passion Play or Easter pageant is a dramatic presentation depicting the Passion of Jesus Christ: his trial and death. It is a traditional part of Lent in several Christian denominations in Catholic tradition; the development of the Passion Play was about the same as that of the Easter Drama. It originated in the ritual of the Church, which prescribes, among other things, that the Gospel on Good Friday should be sung in parts divided among various persons. On, the Passion Play made its appearance, first in Latin in vernacular languages; the Benedictbeurn Passion Play is still composed of Latin ritual sentences in prose and of church hymns, being designed to be sung, resembles an oratorio. Yet this oldest of the Passion Plays shows a tendency to break away from the ritual and to adopt a more dramatic form; this evolution is shown by the interpolation of free translations of church hymns and of German verses not pertaining to such hymns, as well as by the appearance of Mary and Mary Magdalene in the action.
From these humble beginnings the Passion Play developed rapidly, since in the fourteenth century it was at a stage of development which could not have been reached except by repeated practice. From this second period we have the Vienna Passion, the St. Gall Passion, the oldest Frankfort Passion, the Maestricht Passion. All four Plays, as they are called, are written in rhyme, principally in German; the Vienna Passion embraces the entire history of the Redemption, begins with the revolt and fall of Lucifer. The oldest Frankfort Passion play, that of Canon Baldemar von Peterwell, the production of which required two days, was more profusely elaborated than the other Passion Plays of this period. Of this play only the Ordo sive Registrum has come down to us, a long roll of parchment for the use of the director, containing stage directions and the first words of the dialogues; the plays based on this list of directions lead us to the period in which the Passion Play reached its highest development.
During this period the Frankfort Passion Play, the Alsfelder, the Friedberger originated. Connected with this group are the Eger, the Donaueschingen, Augsburg and Lucerne Passion Plays, in which the whole world drama, beginning with the creation of man and brought down to the coming of the Holy Ghost, is exhibited, and, produced with great splendour as late as 1583. Nearly all these Passion Plays have some relation to those coming from the Tyrol, some contributing to, others taking from, that source. These, are founded upon the Tyrolese Passion play which originated during the transition period of the fourteenth to the fifteenth century. Historian J. E. Wackernell, with the aid of the plays that have reached us, has reconstructed this period. In Tyrol the Passion Plays received elaborate cultivation. Here, the innovation of placing the female roles in the hands of women was introduced, which innovation did not become general until during the seventeenth century; the magnificent productions of the Passion Plays during the fifteenth century are connected with the growth and increasing self-confidence of the cities, which found its expression in noble buildings and municipal, in gorgeous public festivals.
The artistic sense and the love of art of the citizens had, in co-operation with the clergy, called these plays into being, the wealth of the citizens provided for magnificent productions of them on the public squares, whither they migrated after expulsion from the churches. The citizens and civil authorities considered it a point of honour to render the production as rich and diversified as possible. Ordinarily the preparations for the play were in the hands of a spiritual brotherhood, the play itself being considered a form of worship. People of the most varied classes took part in the production, the number of actors was as high as two hundred and greater. If was undoubtedly no small task to drill the performers since the stage arrangements were still primitive; the stage was a wooden structure as broad as it was long, elevated but above the ground and open on all sides. A house formed the background. Under the balcony three crosses were erected. Sometimes the stage was divided into three sections by doors.
Along the sides of the stage, taken lengthwise, stood the houses required for the production. The entrance into Hell was pictured by the mouth of a monster, through which the Devil and the souls captured or released during the plays passed back and forth; the actors entered in solemn procession, led by musicians or by a præcursor, took their stand at the places appointed them. They remained on the stage all through the performance; as each actor finished speaking, he returned to his place. The audience looked on from the windows of neighbouring houses. Platforms, called "bridges", were erected around the stage in the form of an amphitheatre; the scenery was the background of old time middle east. There were no side scenes, c
Lead, South Dakota
Lead is a city in Lawrence County, South Dakota, United States. The population was 3,124 at the 2010 census. Lead is located in the Black Hills near the Wyoming state line; the city was founded on July 10, 1876, after the discovery of gold. The city was named for the lodes of the deposits of valuable ores, it is the site of the Homestake Mine, the largest and most productive gold mine in the Western Hemisphere before closing in January 2002. By 1910, Lead had a population of 8,382. Lead was founded as a company town by the Homestake Mining Company, which ran the nearby Homestake Mine. Phoebe Hearst, wife of George Hearst, one of the principals, was instrumental in making Lead more livable, she established the Hearst Free Public Library in town, in 1900 the Hearst Free Kindergarten. Phoebe Hearst and Thomas Grier, the Homestake Mine superintendent, worked together to create the Homestake Opera House and Recreation Center for the benefit of miner workers and their families. Phoebe Hearst donated to Lead's churches, provided college scholarships to the children of mine and mill workers.
In the early 1930s, due to fear of cave-ins of the miles of tunnels under Lead's Homestake Mine, many of the town's buildings located in the bottom of a canyon were moved further uphill to safer locations. Lead and the Homestake Mine have been selected as the site of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory, a proposed NSF facility for low-background experiments on neutrinos, dark matter, other nuclear physics topics, as well as biology and mine engineering studies. In 1974, most of Lead was added to the National Register of Historic Places under the name of the "Lead Historic District". Over four hundred buildings and 580 acres were included in the historic district, which has boundaries equivalent to the city limits. Lead is located at 44°21′3″N 103°45′57″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.06 square miles, all of it land. Lead has been assigned the ZIP code 57754 and the FIPS place code 36220. Lead's proximity to Deadwood, South Dakota leads to the two cities being collectively named "Lead-Deadwood".
Two prominent man-made features of Lead's geography are the giant open cut, used for surface gold mining by the Homestake Mine, the resulting ridge nearby built with the non-producing material from the cut. Lead has a humid continental climate with warm summers and cold snowy winters with the typical variable temperatures of the western Great Plains, its high elevation in the Black Hills makes Lead one of the wettest places in South Dakota and among the snowiest places in the contiguous United States with a mean snowfall of 145 inches or 3.68 metres. During the cold and snowy winter of 1993–94, a whopping 364.7 inches of snow fell and three years snowfall totalled 324.0 inches. However, frequent chinook winds mean that most of the enormous snowfall melts during the winter: the highest snow cover on record is 73 inches on March 1, 1998 – during a storm that totalled 114.6 inches or 2.91 metres of snow over six days ending March 2. Mean snow depth in January is only 7 inches or 0.18 metres and the median less at 5 inches or 0.13 metres.
15.4 mornings can be expected to fall to or below 0 °F, with the average window for zero temperatures being December 7 to March 3. The coldest temperature has been −40 °F or −40 °C on February 8, 1936. During the spring, weather becomes changeable with frequent severe storms: the first maximum of at least 70 °F or 21.1 °C can be expected on April 17, but the last spring freeze does not occur until May 24. The spring is the wettest season owing to the frequent storms, with the wettest month of May 1965 seeing 14.84 inches of precipitation. The wettest year – and a South Dakota calendar year record – has been 2013 with 49.52 inches and the driest 1936 with 12.84 inches. Summers are warm in the afternoon, but mornings are pleasantly cool: frost-level temperatures occurred in July 1921 and in the Augusts of 1910 and 1911, with August 1910 seeing a freak snowstorm of 1.5 inches or 0.04 metres. The hottest temperature has been 101 °F on July 1936 during a notorious Plains heat wave. Precipitation is lower in summer than in spring, declines further into the fall and winter as temperature cool.
Fall weather is variable in temperature as is the spring. As of the census of 2010, there were 3,124 people, 1,420 households, 828 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,516.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,694 housing units at an average density of 822.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.6% White, 0.3% African American, 2.0% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.4% from other races, 2.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.9% of the population. There were 1,420 households of which 27.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.6% were married couples living together, 13.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.7% were non-families. 35.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.82. The median age in the city was 40.5 y
A market garden is the small-scale production of fruits and flowers as cash crops sold directly to consumers and restaurants. The diversity of crops grown on a small area of land from under one acre to a few acres, or sometimes in greenhouses distinguishes it from other types of farming; such a farm on a larger scale is sometimes called a truck farm. A market garden is a business that provides a wide range and steady supply of fresh produce through the local growing season. Unlike large, industrial farms, which practice monoculture and mechanization, many different crops and varieties are grown and more manual labor and gardening techniques are used; the small output requires selling through such local fresh produce outlets as on-farm stands, farmers' markets, community-supported agriculture subscriptions and independent produce stores. Market gardening and orchard farming are related to horticulture, which concerns the growing of fruits and vegetables. Traditionally, "market garden" was used to contrast farms devoted to raising vegetables and berries, a specialized type of farming, with the larger branches of grain and orchard fruit farming.
Such operations were not small-scale. Indeed, many were large, commercial farms that were called "gardens" not because of size, but because English-speaking farmers traditionally referred to their vegetable plots as "gardens": in English whether in common parlance or in anthropological or historical scholarship, husbandry done by the hoe is customarily called "gardening" and husbandry done by the plough as "farming" regardless of the scale of either. A "market garden" was a vegetable plot, the produce of which the farmer used to sell as opposed to use to feed his or her family. Market gardens are close to the markets, i.e. cities, that they serve. The word'truck' in Truck farms does not refer to the transportation truck, derived from Latin for wheel, but rather from the old north French word troquer, which means "barter" or "exchange"; the use for vegetables raised for market can be traced back to 1784 and truck farms to 1866. Selling to the wholesale market earns 10–20% of the retail price, but direct-to-consumer selling earns 100%.
Although variable, a conventional farm may return a few hundred to a few thousand dollars per acre but an efficient market garden can earn in the $10,000–15,000 per acre range, or higher. However, the size of a market garden has a practical upper bound based on this model, but with conventional farming can farm vast areas because access to a direct market is not a requirement. Larger market gardens sell to such local food outlets as supermarkets, food cooperatives, community-supported agriculture programs, farmers' markets, fresh food wholesalers, any other higher-volume channels that benefit from buying a range of vegetables from a single supplier, their freshness allowing for a premium over the revenue from the supermarkets and other local suppliers. A larger market garden can by mixed crop production maintain a sales alternative to the wholesale commodity-style channels used by farms that specialize in high volumes of a limited number of crops. Relying on cities for markets, can have drawbacks.
For example, in England, south Sussex was famous for growing tomatoes for the London market that were delivered by train. The arrival of railways in the 19th century at first stimulated growth of market gardens in certain areas by providing quick access to the city, but it allowed commuting residents to move there and turn many market garden areas into suburbs. Urban sprawl still eats up farmland in urban regions. Buying the rights to develop farmland from the farmers solved this problem in Suffolk County, New York. In some more affluent countries, including Australia and the United States, market gardening is rated as a high social utility occupation, it is taken up by recent immigrant groups for one or two generations, until they can accumulate capital and trade skills. The succession of dominant market garden groups in Australia, for example, was – from the early 19th century Anglo-Celtic, people from German-speaking countries, Chinese southern European migrants from Italy and Yugoslavia southeast Asian migrant and refugee communities following the Vietnam War, such as the Vietnamese and Cambodians.
Involvement in a market garden lets immigrant groups who otherwise have few marketable skills apart from their labour, become involved in the market economy. Benefits are that it does not rely on education or language, it adapts well to providing work for extended family groups, in large market growing regions wider community support networks. Sharing of knowledge and experience within communities reduces risks, supports a network of other trades such as carriers, market agents, heavy machinery contractors, contract farm labour. Market-gardening land is relatively cheap and allows immigrants to purchase land with an accompanying residence, far more than in urban settings. However, like all agriculture it risks crop failure, market collapse and competition from industrialised broad-acre farming and'fresh-frozen' imported produce. Other risks are from hazards such as pesticide use where the market gardeners are not trained in their use or able to read product information. Another consequence is marginalisation of the succeeding generation where they are relied upon as the fittest and strongest to succeed in continuing the farm rather than pu