1. Aleister Crowley – Aleister Crowley was an English occultist, ceremonial magician, poet, painter, novelist, and mountaineer. He founded the religion of Thelema, identifying himself as the prophet entrusted with guiding humanity into the Æon of Horus in the early 20th century, a prolific writer, he published widely over the course of his life. Born to a wealthy Plymouth Brethren family in Royal Leamington Spa, Warwickshire and he was educated at the University of Cambridge, where he focused his attentions on mountaineering and poetry, resulting in several publications. Some biographers allege that here he was recruited into a British intelligence agency, in 1898 he joined the esoteric Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, where he was trained in ceremonial magic by Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers and Allan Bennett. Moving to Boleskine House by Loch Ness in Scotland, he went mountaineering in Mexico with Oscar Eckenstein, before studying Hindu and Buddhist practices in India. Announcing the start of the Æon of Horus, The Book declared that its followers should Do what thou wilt, in 1907, he and George Cecil Jones co-founded a Thelemite order, the A∴A∴, through which they propagated the religion. Thelemite groups were established in Britain, Australia, and North America, in 1920 he established the Abbey of Thelema, a religious commune in Cefalù, Sicily where he lived with various followers. His libertine lifestyle led to denunciations in the British press, and he divided the following two decades between France, Germany, and England, and continued to promote Thelema until his death. Crowley gained widespread notoriety during his lifetime, being a recreational drug experimenter, bisexual and he was denounced in the popular press as the wickedest man in the world and a Satanist. Crowley has remained an influential figure over Western esotericism and the counter-culture. In 2002, a BBC poll ranked him as the seventy-third greatest Briton of all time, Crowley was born as Edward Alexander Crowley at 30 Clarendon Square in Royal Leamington Spa, Warwickshire, on 12 October 1875. His father, Edward Crowley, was trained as an engineer and his mother, Emily Bertha Bishop, came from a Devonshire-Somerset family and had a strained relationship with her son, she described him as the Beast, a name that he revelled in. The couple had married at Londons Kensington Registry Office in November 1874. Crowleys father was particularly devout, spending his time as a preacher for the sect and reading a chapter from the Bible to his wife. Following the death of their daughter in 1880, in 1881 the Crowleys moved to Redhill. At the age of 8, Crowley was sent to H. T, habershons evangelical Christian boarding school in Hastings, and then to Ebor preparatory school in Cambridge, run by the Reverend Henry dArcy Champney, whom Crowley considered a sadist. In March 1887, when Crowley was 11, his father died of tongue cancer, Crowley described this as a turning point in his life, and he always maintained an admiration of his father, describing him as his hero and his friend. Inheriting a third of his fathers wealth, he began misbehaving at school and was punished by ChampneyAleister Crowley – Aleister Crowley, c. 1912
2. Afterlife – The afterlife is the concept of a realm, or the realm itself, in which an essential part of an individuals identity or consciousness continues to exist after the death of the body. Belief in an afterlife, which may be naturalistic or supernatural, is in contrast to the belief in oblivion after death, in this latter view, such rebirths and deaths may take place over and over again continuously until the individual gains entry to a spiritual realm or Otherworld. Major views on the afterlife derive from religion, esotericism and metaphysics, in metaphysical models, theists generally believe some type of afterlife awaits people when they die. Members of some generally non-theistic religions, tend to believe in an afterlife, the Sadducees were an ancient Jewish sect that generally believed that there was a God but no afterlife. Reincarnation refers to a concept found among Hindus, Buddhists, Jains, Sikhs, Rosicrucians, Theosophists, Spiritists. Reincarnation is also a belief described in Kabbalistic Judaism as gilgul neshamot and this succession leads toward an eventual liberation. One consequence of reincarnationist beliefs is that our current lives are both afterlife and a beforelife, according to those beliefs events in our current life are consequences of actions taken in previous lives, or Karma. In most denominations, heaven is a condition of reward for the righteous to go after they die, traditionally defined as eternal union with God. In contrast to heaven, hell is a condition of punishment and torment for the wicked, traditionally defined as eternal separation from God and confinement with other sinful souls and fallen angels. So they are seen as existing in a state of natural. In other Christian denominations it has described as an intermediate place or state of confinement in oblivion. The notion of purgatory is associated particularly with the Catholic Church, the tradition of the church, by reference to certain texts of scripture, speaks of a cleansing fire although it is not always called purgatory. Anglicans of the Anglo-Catholic tradition generally also hold to the belief, traditional African religions are diverse in their beliefs in an afterlife. For each soul remains distinct and each represents a new soul. In some societies like the Mende, multiple beliefs coexist, the Mende believe that people die twice, once during the process of joining the secret society, and again during biological death after which they become ancestors. However, some Mende also believe that people are created by God they live ten consecutive lives. One cross-cultural theme is that the ancestors are part of the world of the living, interacting with it regularly, the afterlife played an important role in Ancient Egyptian religion, and its belief system is one of the earliest known in recorded history. When the body died, parts of its known as kaAfterlife
3. Angle – In planar geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays, called the sides of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle. Angles formed by two rays lie in a plane, but this plane does not have to be a Euclidean plane, Angles are also formed by the intersection of two planes in Euclidean and other spaces. Angles formed by the intersection of two curves in a plane are defined as the angle determined by the tangent rays at the point of intersection. Similar statements hold in space, for example, the angle formed by two great circles on a sphere is the dihedral angle between the planes determined by the great circles. Angle is also used to designate the measure of an angle or of a rotation and this measure is the ratio of the length of a circular arc to its radius. In the case of an angle, the arc is centered at the vertex. In the case of a rotation, the arc is centered at the center of the rotation and delimited by any other point and its image by the rotation. The word angle comes from the Latin word angulus, meaning corner, cognate words are the Greek ἀγκύλος, meaning crooked, curved, both are connected with the Proto-Indo-European root *ank-, meaning to bend or bow. Euclid defines a plane angle as the inclination to each other, in a plane, according to Proclus an angle must be either a quality or a quantity, or a relationship. In mathematical expressions, it is common to use Greek letters to serve as variables standing for the size of some angle, lower case Roman letters are also used, as are upper case Roman letters in the context of polygons. See the figures in this article for examples, in geometric figures, angles may also be identified by the labels attached to the three points that define them. For example, the angle at vertex A enclosed by the rays AB, sometimes, where there is no risk of confusion, the angle may be referred to simply by its vertex. However, in geometrical situations it is obvious from context that the positive angle less than or equal to 180 degrees is meant. Otherwise, a convention may be adopted so that ∠BAC always refers to the angle from B to C. Angles smaller than an angle are called acute angles. An angle equal to 1/4 turn is called a right angle, two lines that form a right angle are said to be normal, orthogonal, or perpendicular. Angles larger than an angle and smaller than a straight angle are called obtuse angles. An angle equal to 1/2 turn is called a straight angle, Angles larger than a straight angle but less than 1 turn are called reflex anglesAngle – An angle enclosed by rays emanating from a vertex.
4. Acts of the Apostles – The Acts of the Apostles, often referred to simply as Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament, it tells of the founding of the Christian church and the spread of its message to the Roman Empire. Acts and the Gospel of Luke make up a work, Luke–Acts, by the same anonymous author. The first part, the Gospel of Luke, tells how God fulfilled his plan for the salvation through the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth. Acts continues the story of Christianity in the 1st century, beginning with Jesuss Ascension to Heaven, the early chapters, set in Jerusalem, describe the Day of Pentecost and the growth of the church in Jerusalem. Initially the Jews are receptive to the Christian message, but soon turn against the followers of Jesus. Rejected by the Jews, under the guidance of the Apostle Peter the message is taken to the Gentiles. The later chapters tell of Pauls conversion, his mission in Asia Minor and the Aegean, and finally his imprisonment in Rome, the title Acts of the Apostles was first used by Irenaeus in the late 2nd century. It is not known whether this was a title or one invented by Irenaeus, it does seem clear, however. The Gospel of Luke and Acts make up a work which scholars call Luke–Acts. The author is not named in either volume. )He admired Paul, the earliest possible date for the composition of Acts is set by the events with which it ends, Pauls imprisonment in Rome c.63 AD, but an early date is now rarely put forward. In either case there is evidence that it was still being revised well into the 2nd century. Luke aligned his work, Luke–Acts, to the narratives which many others had written, Acts, the second part, is widely thought of as a history, but it lacks exact analogies in Hellenistic or Jewish literature. The title Acts of the Apostles would seem to identify it with the telling of the deeds and achievements of great men. By and large the sources for Acts can only be guessed at, but Luke would have had access to the Septuagint, the gospel of Mark and the collection of sayings of Jesus called the Q source. )There are also points of contacts with 1 Peter, the Letter to the Hebrews, and 1 Clement. Other sources can only be inferred from internal evidence—the traditional explanation of the three we passages, for example, is that they represent eye-witness accounts, the search for such inferred sources was popular in the 19th century, but by the mid-20th it had largely been abandoned. Acts was read as a history of the early church well into the post-Reformation era. The mid-19th century scholar Ferdinand Baur suggested that Luke had re-written history to present a united Peter and Paul, Baur continues to have enormous influence, but today there is less interest in determining Lukes historical accuracy than in understanding his theological program. Luke was written to be read aloud to a group of Jesus-followers gathered in a house to share the Lords supper, the author assumes an educated Greek-speaking audience, but directs his attention to specifically Christian concerns rather than to the Greco-Roman world at largeActs of the Apostles – Books of the New Testament
5. Astrology – Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events. Throughout most of its history astrology was considered a tradition and was common in academic circles, often in close relation with astronomy, alchemy, meteorology. It was present in political circles, and is mentioned in works of literature, from Dante Alighieri and Geoffrey Chaucer to William Shakespeare, Lope de Vega. Astrology thus lost its academic and theoretical standing, and common belief in it has largely declined, Astrology is now recognized to be pseudoscience. The word astrology comes from the early Latin word astrologia, which derives from the Greek ἀστρολογία—from ἄστρον astron, astrologia later passed into meaning star-divination with astronomia used for the scientific term. Many cultures have attached importance to astronomical events, and the Indians, Chinese, the majority of professional astrologers rely on such systems. Astrology has been dated to at least the 2nd millennium BCE, with roots in systems used to predict seasonal shifts. A form of astrology was practised in the first dynasty of Mesopotamia, Chinese astrology was elaborated in the Zhou dynasty. Hellenistic astrology after 332 BCE mixed Babylonian astrology with Egyptian Decanic astrology in Alexandria, Alexander the Greats conquest of Asia allowed astrology to spread to Ancient Greece and Rome. In Rome, astrology was associated with Chaldean wisdom, after the conquest of Alexandria in the 7th century, astrology was taken up by Islamic scholars, and Hellenistic texts were translated into Arabic and Persian. In the 12th century, Arabic texts were imported to Europe, major astronomers including Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler and Galileo practised as court astrologers. Astrological references appear in literature in the works of such as Dante Alighieri and Geoffrey Chaucer. Throughout most of its history, astrology was considered a scholarly tradition and it was accepted in political and academic contexts, and was connected with other studies, such as astronomy, alchemy, meteorology, and medicine. At the end of the 17th century, new concepts in astronomy. Astrology thus lost its academic and theoretical standing, and common belief in astrology has largely declined, Astrology, in its broadest sense, is the search for meaning in the sky. This was a first step towards recording the Moons influence upon tides and rivers, by the 3rd millennium BCE, civilisations had sophisticated awareness of celestial cycles, and may have oriented temples in alignment with heliacal risings of the stars. Scattered evidence suggests that the oldest known references are copies of texts made in the ancient world. The Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa thought to be compiled in Babylon around 1700 BCE, a scroll documenting an early use of electional astrology is doubtfully ascribed to the reign of the Sumerian ruler Gudea of LagashAstrology
6. Angles – The Angles were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Great Britain in the post-Roman period. They founded several of the kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England, and their name is the root of the name England, the name comes from the district of Angeln, an area located on the Baltic shore of what is now Schleswig-Holstein. The name of the Angles may have been first recorded in Latinised form, as Anglii and it is thought to derive from the name of the area they originally inhabited, Angeln in modern German, Angel in Danish. This name has been hypothesised to originate from the Germanic root for narrow, meaning the Narrow, i. e. the Schlei estuary, the root would be angh, tight. Another theory is that the name meant hook, as in angling for fish, Julius Pokorny, Gregory the Great in an epistle simplified the Latinised name Anglii to Angli, the latter form developing into the preferred form of the word. The country remained Anglia in Latin, the earliest recorded mention of the Angles may be in chapter 40 of Tacituss Germania written around AD98. Tacitus describes the Anglii as one of the more remote Suebic tribes compared to the Semnones and Langobardi and he grouped the Angles with several other tribes in that region, the Reudigni, Aviones, Varini, Eudoses, Suarini and Nuitones. These were all living behind ramparts of rivers and woods and therefore inaccessible to attack, the Eudoses are the Jutes, these names probably refer to localities in Jutland or on the Baltic coast. The majority of scholars believe that the Anglii lived on the coasts of the Baltic Sea and these Suevi Angili would have been in Lower Saxony or near it, but they are not coastal. The three Suebic peoples are separated from the coastal Chauci, and Saxones, by a series of tribes including, Ptolemy describes the coast to the east of the Saxons as inhabited by the Farodini, a name not known from any other sources. Owing to the uncertainty of this passage, there has been speculation regarding the original home of the Anglii. The ethnic names of Frisians and Warines are also attested in these Saxon districts, a second possible solution is that these Angles of Ptolemy are not those of Schleswig at all. According to Julius Pokorny the Angri- in Angrivarii, the -angr in Hardanger and the Angl- in Anglii all come from the root meaning bend. In other words, the similarity of the names is strictly coincidental, on the other hand, Gudmund Schütte, in his analysis of Ptolemy, believes that the Angles have simply been moved by an error coming from Ptolemys use of imperfect sources. Bede states that the Anglii, before coming to Great Britain, dwelt in a land called Angulus, similar evidence is given by the Historia Brittonum. Danish tradition has preserved record of two governors of Schleswig, father and son, in their service, Frowinus and Wigo, from whom the royal family of Wessex claimed descent. During the 5th century, the Anglii invaded Great Britain, after which time their name does not recur on the continent except in the title of Suevi Angili. The Angles are the subject of a legend about Pope Gregory I, as the story would later be told by the Anglo-Saxon monk and historian Bede, Gregory was struck by the unusual appearance of the slaves and asked about their backgroundAngles – Manuscript of Bede
7. Angels in art – Angels have appeared in works of art since early Christian art, and they have been a popular subject for Byzantine and European paintings and sculpture. As a matter of theology, they are beings who do not eat or excrete and are genderless. In 19th-century art, especially art, this traditional convention is sometimes abandoned. Specific ideas regarding how to portray angels began to develop in the early Church, since angels are defined as pure spirits, the lack of a defined form has allowed artists wide latitude for creativity. Daniel 8,15 describes Gabriel as appearing in the likeness of man, such anthropomorphic descriptions of an angel are consistent with previous descriptions of angels, as in Genesis 19,5. They were usually depicted in the form of young men, the earliest known representation of angels with wings is on what is called the Princes Sarcophagus, discovered at Sarigüzel, near Istanbul, in the 1930s, and attributed to the time of Theodosius I. Flying winged angels, very often in pairs flanking a central figure or subject, are derivations in visual terms from pairs of winged Victories in classical art, in this same period, Saint John Chrysostom explained the significance of angels wings, They manifest a natures sublimity. That is why Gabriel is represented with wings, not that angels have wings, but that you may know that they leave the heights and the most elevated dwelling to approach human nature. Accordingly, the attributed to these powers have no other meaning than to indicate the sublimity of their nature. From then on Christian art generally represented angels with wings, as in the cycle of mosaics in the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore and they often appear in the pendentives of domes or semi-domes of churches. Angels appear in Byzantine art in mosaics and icons, artists found some of their inspiration from winged Greek figures such as Victory. They also drew from imperial iconography, court eunuchs could rise to positions of authority in the Empire. They performed ceremonial functions and served as trusted messengers and those castrated in childhood developed a distinctive skeletal structure, lacked full masculine musculature, body hair and beards. As officials, they would wear a white tunic decorated with gold, brown suggests that Byzantine artists drew, consciously or not, on this iconography of the court eunuch. Daniel 10, 5-6 describes an angel as clothed in linen, Angels, especially the archangel Michael, who were depicted as military-style agents of God, came to be shown wearing Late Antique military uniform. The basic military dress it is worn in pictures into the Baroque period and beyond in the West. Other angels came to be depicted in long robes. Medieval depictions of angels borrow from the Byzantine, in the French Hours of Anne of Brittany, Gabriel wears a dalmaticAngels in art – Song of the Angels (1881) William-Adolphe Bouguereau (1825-1905)
8. Saint Titus – Titus was an early Christian missionary and Church leader, a companion and disciple of Paul the Apostle, mentioned in several of the Pauline epistles including the Epistle to Titus. He is believed to be a Gentile converted to Christianity by Paul and, according to tradition, Titus brought a fundraising letter from Paul to Corinth, to collect for the poor in Jerusalem. Later, on Crete, Titus appointed presbyters in every city and remained there into his old age, dying in Gortyna, Titus was a Greek, apparently from Antioch, who is said to have studied Greek philosophy and poetry in his early years. He seems to have converted by Paul, whereupon he served as Pauls secretary. In the year 49, Titus accompanied Paul to the held at Jerusalem. During this journey, Titus served as the courier for what is known as the Severe Letter. After meeting success on this mission, Titus journeyed north and met Paul in Macedonia, Titus then returned to Corinth with a larger entourage, carrying 2 Corinthians with him. Paul joined Titus in Corinth later, from Corinth, Paul then sent Titus to organize the collections of alms for the Christians at Jerusalem. Titus was therefore a troubleshooter, peacemaker, administrator, and missionary, early church tradition holds that Paul, after his release from his first imprisonment in Rome, stopped at the island of Crete to preach. The necessities of other churches requiring his presence elsewhere, he ordained his disciple Titus as bishop of that island, chrysostom says that this is an indication of the esteem St. Paul held for Titus. Paul summoned Titus from Crete to join him at Nicopolis in Epirus, the New Testament does not record his death. The theory proposes that a number of passages—1 Cor,2,13,7,6, 13-14,12,18, and Acts 19. 22—all refer to the same journey of a single individual, Titus-Timothy. 2 Timothy seems to dispute this, by claiming that Titus has gone to Dalmatia, the fact that Paul made a point of circumcising Timothy but refused to circumcise Titus indicates that they are different men. The feast day of Titus was not included in the Tridentine Calendar, when added in 1854, it was assigned to 6 February. In 1969, the Roman Catholic Church assigned the feast to 26 January so as to celebrate the two disciples of Paul, Titus and Timothy, the day after the feast of the Conversion of St. Paul. The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America celebrates these two, together with Silas, on the same date, the Orthodox Church commemorates him on 25 August and on 4 January. His relics, now consisting of only his skull, are venerated in the Church of St. Titus, Heraklion, St. Titus is the patron saint of the United States Army Chaplain Corps. The Corps has established the Order of Titus Award, the Order of Titus is awarded for meritorious contributions to the unique and highly visible Unit Ministry Team Observer Controller ProgramSaint Titus – Titus
9. Apollos – Apollos was a 1st century Alexandrian Jewish Christian mentioned several times in the New Testament. A contemporary and co-worker of Paul the Apostle, he played an important role in the development of the churches of Ephesus. The differences between the two understandings probably related to baptism with the Holy Spirit, since Apollos knew only the baptism of John, and they said, No, we have not even heard that there is a Holy Spirit. And he said, Into what then were you baptized, and Paul said, John baptized with the baptism of repentance, telling the people to believe in the one who was to come after him, that is, Jesus. 5 On hearing this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus, and when Paul had laid his hands on them, the Holy Spirit came on them, and they began speaking in tongues and prophesying. Acts 19, 2-6 Before Pauls arrival, Apollos had moved from Ephesus to Achaia and was living in Corinth, Pauls First Epistle to the Corinthians mentions Apollos as an important figure at Corinth. Paul describes Apollos role at Corinth, I planted, Apollos watered, Pauls Epistle refers to a schism between four parties in the Corinthian church, of which two attached themselves to Paul and Apollos respectively, using their names. It is possible, though, that, as Msgr, ronald Knox suggests, the parties were actually two, one claiming to follow Paul, the other claiming to follow Apollos. It is surely probable that the adherents of St. Paul alleged in defence of his orthodoxy the fact that he was in agreement with, and in some sense commissioned by. What reply was the faction of Apollos to make, Paul states that the schism arose because of the Corinthians immaturity in faith. There is no indication that Apollos favored or approved an overestimation of his person, Paul urged him to go to Corinth at the time, but Apollos refused, stating that he would come later when he had an opportunity. Apollos is mentioned one time in the New Testament. In the Epistle to Titus, the recipient is exhorted to speed Zenas the lawyer, less probable traditions assign to him the bishop of Duras, or of Iconium in Phrygia, or of Caesarea. Martin Luther and some scholars have proposed Apollos as the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews. Both Apollos and Barnabas were Jewish Christians with sufficient intellectual authority, the Pulpit Commentary treats Apollos authorship of Hebrews as generally believed. Other than this, there are no surviving texts attributed to Apollos. Apollos origin in Alexandria has led to speculations that he would have preached in the style of Philo. Theologian Jerome Murphy-OConnor, for example, commented, It is difficult to imagine that an Alexandrian Jew. could have escaped the influence of Philo, particularly since the latter seems to have been especially concerned with education and preachingApollos – Epaphroditus, Sosthenes, Apollos, Cephas and Caesar
10. Anthony the Great – Saint Anthony or Antony was a Christian monk from Egypt, revered since his death as a saint. He is distinguished from other saints named Anthony by various epithets, Anthony the Great, Anthony of Egypt, Anthony the Abbot, Anthony of the Desert, Anthony the Anchorite, and Anthony of Thebes. For his importance among the Desert Fathers and to all later Christian monasticism and his feast day is celebrated on January 17 among the Orthodox and Catholic churches and on Tobi 22 in the Egyptian calendar used by the Coptic Church. The biography of Anthonys life by Athanasius of Alexandria helped to spread the concept of Christian monasticism and he is often erroneously considered the first Christian monk, but as his biography and other sources make clear, there were many ascetics before him. Anthony was, however, the first to go into the wilderness, Anthony is appealed to against infectious diseases, particularly skin diseases. In the past, many afflictions, including ergotism, erysipelas. Anthony was born in Coma in Lower Egypt in AD251 to wealthy landowner parents, when he was about 18 years old, his parents died and left him with the care of his unmarried sister. Shortly thereafter, he decided to follow the Evangelical counsel of Jesus which reads, If you want to be perfect, go, sell what you have and give to the poor, and you will have treasures in heaven. Anthony gave away some of his familys lands to his neighbors, sold the remaining property and he then left to live an ascetic life, placing his sister with a group of Christian virgins, a sort of proto-convent. For the next fifteen years, Anthony remained in the area, there are various legends associating Anthony with pigs, one is that he worked as a swineherd during this period. Anthony is sometimes considered the first monk, and the first to initiate solitary desertification, philo opined that this class of persons may be met with in many places, for both Greece and barbarian countries want to enjoy whatever is perfectly good. Christian ascetics such as Thecla had likewise retreated to isolated locations at the outskirts of cities, Anthony is notable for having decided to surpass this tradition and headed out into the desert proper. He left for the alkaline Nitrian Desert on the edge of the Western Desert about 95 km west of Alexandria and he remained there for 13 years. According to Athanasius, the devil fought Anthony by afflicting him with boredom, laziness, and the phantoms of women, after that, he moved to a tomb, where he resided and closed the door on himself, depending on some local villagers who brought him food. When the devil perceived his ascetic life and his worship, he was envious and beat him mercilessly. When his friends from the village came to visit him and found him in this condition. After he recovered, he made an effort and went back into the desert to a farther mountain by the Nile called Pispir. There he lived strictly enclosed in an old abandoned Roman fort for some 20 years, according to Athanasius, the devil again resumed his war against Anthony, only this time the phantoms were in the form of wild beasts, wolves, lions, snakes, and scorpionsAnthony the Great – A Coptic icon, showing, in the lower left, St. Anthony with St. Paul the First Hermit
11. Bigfoot – Bigfoot is a simian-like creature of American folklore that is said to inhabit forests, especially in the Pacific Northwest. Bigfoot is usually described as a large, hairy, bipedal humanoid, the term sasquatch is an Anglicized derivative of the Halkomelem word sásqets. Scientists discount the existence of Bigfoot and consider it to be a combination of folklore, misidentification, occasional new reports of sightings sustain a small group of self-described investigators. Many reports of sightings are attributed to being various animals, particularly black bears, individuals claiming to have seen Bigfoot describe it as a large, hairy, muscular, bipedal ape-like creature, roughly 2–3 metres covered in hair described as black, dark brown, or dark reddish. Some descriptions include details such as eyes, a pronounced brow ridge. The top of the head has been described as rounded and crested, the creature has been reported as having a strong, unpleasant smell. The enormous footprints for which the creature is named are claimed to be as large as 24 inches long and 8 inches wide. Some footprint casts have also contained claw marks, making it likely that they came from animals, such as bears. Proponents of Bigfoots existence claim that the creature is omnivorous and mainly nocturnal, wild men stories are found among the indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast. Ecologist Robert Pyle argues that most cultures have human-like giants in their folk history, each language had its own name for the creature featured in the local version of such legends. Many names meant something along the lines of wild man or hairy man, although other names described common actions it was said to perform, such as eating clams or shaking trees. A story told to Charles Hill-Tout by Chief Mischelle of the Nlakapamux at Lytton, British Columbia in 1898 gives another Salishan variant of the name, members of the Lummi tell tales about Tsemekwes, the local version of Bigfoot. The stories are similar to other in the general descriptions of Tsemekwes. Some regional versions contained more nefarious creatures, the stiyaha or kwi-kwiyai were a nocturnal race that children were told not to say the names of lest the monsters hear and come to carry off a person—sometimes to be killed. In 1847, Paul Kane reported stories by the people about skoocooms. Less-menacing versions exist, such as the one recorded by Reverend Elkanah Walker, in 1840, Walker, a Protestant missionary, recorded stories of giants among the Native Americans living near present-day Spokane, Washington. The Indians said that these giants lived on and around the peaks of nearby mountains, local stories were compiled by Indian Agent J. W. Burns in a series of Canadian newspaper articles in the 1920s recounting stories told to him by the StsAiles people of Chehalis and others. The StsAiles maintain, as do other indigenous peoples of the region, according to StsAiles eyewitness accounts, the Sasquatch prefer to avoid white men, and speak the Lillooet language of the people at Port Douglas, British Columbia at the head of Harrison LakeBigfoot – Frame 352 from 1967 Patterson–Gimlin film; some claim it shows a Bigfoot, and others a man in a gorilla suit.
12. Book of Revelation – Its title is derived from the first word of the text, written in Koine Greek, apokalypsis, meaning unveiling or revelation. The Book of Revelation is the apocalyptic document in the New Testament canon. The author names himself in the text as John, but his identity remains a point of academic debate. Modern scholarship generally takes a different view, and many consider that nothing can be known about the author except that he was a Christian prophet, Some modern scholars characterise Revelations author as a putative figure whom they call John of Patmos. The bulk of traditional sources date the book to the reign of the emperor Domitian, the book spans three literary genres, the epistolary, the apocalyptic, and the prophetic. It begins with John, on the island of Patmos in the Aegean and he then describes a series of prophetic visions, including figures such as the Whore of Babylon and the Beast, culminating in the Second Coming of Jesus. The title is taken from the first word of the book in Koine Greek, ἀποκάλυψις apokalypsis, the author names himself as John, but it is currently considered unlikely that the author of Revelation was also the author of the Gospel of John. All that is known is that this John was a Jewish Christian prophet, probably belonging to a group of such prophets and his precise identity remains unknown, and modern scholarship commonly refers to him as John of Patmos. 70 AD is the date of writing according to Martha Himmelfarb in the recently published Blackwell series. Revelation is an apocalyptic prophecy with an epistolary introduction addressed to seven churches in the Roman province of Asia, Apocalypse means the revealing of divine mysteries, John is to write down what is revealed and send it to the seven churches. The entire book constitutes the letter—the letters to the seven churches are introductions to the rest of the book. While the dominant genre is apocalyptic, the author himself as a Christian prophet, Revelation uses the word in various forms twenty-one times. The predominant view is that Revelation alludes to the Old Testament although it is difficult among scholars to agree on the number of allusions or the allusions themselves. Revelation rarely quotes directly from the Old Testament, almost every verse alludes to or echoes older scriptures. Over half of the stem from Daniel, Ezekiel, Psalms. He very frequently combines multiple references, and again the style makes it impossible to be certain to what extent he did so consciously. Revelation was the last book accepted into the Christian biblical canon and it was considered tainted because the heretical sect of the Montanists relied on it and doubts were raised over its Jewishness and authorship. Dionysius, bishop of Alexandria, disciple of Origen wrote that the Book of Revelation could have been written by Cerinthus although he himself did not adopt the view that Cerinthus was the writer and he regarded the Apocalypse as the work of an inspired man but not of an ApostleBook of Revelation – Books of the New Testament
13. Barnabas – Barnabas /ˈbɑːrnəbəs/, born Joseph, was an early Christian, one of the prominent Christian disciples in Jerusalem. According to Acts 4,36 Barnabas was a Cypriot Jew, named an apostle in Acts 14,14, he and Paul the Apostle undertook missionary journeys together and defended Gentile converts against the Judaizers. They traveled together making more converts, and participated in the Council of Jerusalem, Barnabas and Paul successfully evangelized among the God-fearing Gentiles who attended synagogues in various Hellenized cities of Anatolia. Barnabas story appears in the Acts of the Apostles, and Paul mentions him in some of his epistles, Tertullian named him as the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, but this and other attributions are conjecture. Clement of Alexandria and some scholars have ascribed the Epistle of Barnabas to him, although the date, place, and circumstances of his death are historically unverifiable, Christian tradition holds that Barnabas was martyred at Salamis, Cyprus, in AD61. He is traditionally identified as the founder of the Cypriot Orthodox Church, the feast day of Barnabas is celebrated on June 11. Barnabas is usually identified as the cousin of Mark the Evangelist on the basis of Colossians 4, some traditions hold that Aristobulus of Britannia, one of the Seventy Disciples, was the brother of Barnabas. His Hellenic Jewish parents called him Joseph, but when he sold all his goods and gave the money to the apostles in Jerusalem, they gave him a new name and this name appears to be from the Aramaic בר נביא, bar naḇyā, meaning the son prophet. However, the Greek text of the Acts 4,36 explains the name as υἱός παρακλήσεως, hyios paraklēseōs, a similar link between ”prophecy” and ”encouragement” is found in Paul’s letter to the Corinthians. Barnabas appears mainly in Acts, a Christian history of the early Christian church and he also appears in several of Pauls epistles. When the future Apostle Paul returned to Jerusalem after his conversion, easton, in his Bible Dictionary, supposes that they had been fellow students in the school of Rabbi Gamaliel. The successful preaching of Christianity at Antioch to non-Jews led the church at Jerusalem to send Barnabas there to oversee the movement and he found the work so extensive and weighty that he went to Tarsus in search of Paul, an admirable colleague, to assist him. Paul returned with him to Antioch and labored with him for a whole year, at the end of this period, the two were sent up to Jerusalem with contributions from the church at Antioch for the relief of the poorer Christians in Judea. They returned to Antioch taking John Mark with them, the cousin or nephew of Barnabas, later, they went to Cyprus and some of the principal cities of Pamphylia, Pisidia, and Lycaonia. Paul appears as the more eloquent missionary, whence the Lystrans regarded him as Hermes, returning from this first missionary journey to Antioch, they were again sent up to Jerusalem to consult with the church there regarding the relation of Gentiles to the church. This matter having been settled, they returned again to Antioch, after they had returned to Antioch from the Jerusalem council, they spent some time there. Peter came and associated freely there with the Gentiles, eating them, until criticized for this by some disciples of James. Upon their remonstrances, Peter yielded apparently through fear of displeasing them, Paul considered that they walked not uprightly according to the truth of the gospel and upbraided them before the whole churchBarnabas – Icon of Saint Barnabas
14. Babylon 5 – The first season premiered in the US on January 26,1994, and the series ultimately ran for the intended five seasons. Set between the years 2257 and 2262, it depicts a future where Earth has sovereign states, colonies within the solar system, and beyond, make up the Earth Alliance, and contact has been made with other spacefaring species. The ensemble cast portray alien ambassadorial staff and humans assigned to the 5-mile -long Babylon 5 space station, a center for trade and diplomacy. Not appearing on American television since 2003, it continues to be shown in international markets such as Fox in the UK, the TV4-ScifFi Channel in Sweden, excepting movie rights, which are retained by Straczynski, all production rights for the franchise are owned by Warner Bros. At the beginning of the series, five dominant civilizations are presented, the Shadows and their various allies are malevolent species who appear later in the series. Several dozen less powerful species from the League of Non-Aligned Worlds appear, including the Drazi, Brakiri, Vree, Markab, the stations first three predecessors were sabotaged or accidentally destroyed before their completion. The fourth station, Babylon 4, vanished without a trace twenty-four hours after it fully operational. The television series takes its name from the Babylon 5 space station, located in the Epsilon Eridani star system, Babylon 5 is an ONeill cylinder five miles long and a half-mile to a mile in diameter. Living areas accommodate the various species, providing differing atmospheres and gravities. Human visitors to the sectors are shown using breathing equipment. The five seasons of the series each correspond to one fictional sequential year in the period 2258–2262, each season shares its name with an episode that is central to that seasons plot. As the series starts, the Babylon 5 station is welcoming ambassadors from various races in the galaxy, during 2258, Commander Jeffrey Sinclair is in charge of the station. Much of the story revolves around his gradual discovery that it was his capture by the Minbari at the Battle of the Line which ended the war against Earth. Upon capturing Sinclair, the Minbari came to believe that he was the reincarnation of Valen, meanwhile, tensions between the Centauri Republic, which is an empire in decline, and the Narn Regime, a former dominion which rebelled and gained freedom, are increasing. As part of these struggles, Mollari makes a deal with an ally to strike back at the Narn. It is gradually revealed that Ambassador Delenn is a member of the mysterious and powerful Grey Council, towards the end of 2258, she begins the transformation into a Minbari-human hybrid, ostensibly to build a bridge between the humans and Minbari. The year ends with the death of Earth Alliance president Luis Santiago, the death is officially ruled an accident, but some members of the military, including the staff of Babylon 5, believe it to be an assassination. At the beginning of 2259, Captain John Sheridan replaces Sinclair as the governor of the station after Sinclair is reassigned as ambassador to MinbarBabylon 5 – Season 4 poster
15. Bermuda Triangle – Most reputable sources dismiss the idea that there is any mystery. Cruise ships and pleasure craft regularly sail through the region, and commercial, popular culture has attributed various disappearances to the paranormal or activity by extraterrestrial beings. Documented evidence indicates that a significant percentage of the incidents were spurious, inaccurately reported, subsequent writers did not necessarily follow this definition. Some writers gave different boundaries and vertices to the triangle, with the area varying from 1,300,000 to 3,900,000 km2. Consequently, the determination of which occurred inside the triangle depends on which writer reported them. The United States Board on Geographic Names does not recognize the Bermuda Triangle, the earliest suggestion of unusual disappearances in the Bermuda area appeared in a September 17,1950 article published in The Miami Herald by Edward Van Winkle Jones. Sands article was the first to lay out the triangular area where the losses took place. Flight 19 alone would be covered again in the April 1962 issue of American Legion magazine, in it, author Allan W. Eckert wrote that the flight leader had been heard saying, We are entering white water, nothing seems right. We dont know where we are, the water is green and he also wrote that officials at the Navy board of inquiry stated that the planes flew off to Mars. Sands article was the first to suggest an element to the Flight 19 incident. In the February 1964 issue of Argosy, Vincent Gaddis article The Deadly Bermuda Triangle argued that Flight 19, the next year, Gaddis expanded this article into a book, Invisible Horizons. Lawrence David Kusche, author of The Bermuda Triangle Mystery, Solved argued that claims of Gaddis and subsequent writers were often exaggerated. Kusches research revealed a number of inaccuracies and inconsistencies between Berlitzs accounts and statements from eyewitnesses, participants, and others involved in the initial incidents, Kusche also argued that a large percentage of the incidents that sparked allegations of the Triangles mysterious influence actually occurred well outside it. Kusche concluded that, The number of ships and aircraft reported missing in the area was not significantly greater, proportionally speaking, than in any other part of the ocean. In an area frequented by cyclones, the number of disappearances that did occur were, for the most part, neither disproportionate, unlikely. The numbers themselves had been exaggerated by sloppy research, a boats disappearance, for example, would be reported, but its eventual return to port may not have been. Some disappearances had, in fact, never happened, one plane crash was said to have taken place in 1937 off Daytona Beach, Florida, in front of hundreds of witnesses, a check of the local papers revealed nothing. The legend of the Bermuda Triangle is a mystery, perpetuated by writers who either purposely or unknowingly made use of misconceptions, faulty reasoningBermuda Triangle – False-color image of the Gulf Stream flowing north through the western Atlantic Ocean. (NASA)
16. Cryptozoology – Cryptozoologists refer to these entities as cryptids. Because it does not follow the scientific method, cryptozoology is considered a pseudoscience by the academic world, as a field, cryptozoology originates from the works of colleagues Bernard Heuvelmans, a Belgian-French zoologist, and Ivan T. Sanderson, a Scottish zoologist. Notably, Heuvelmans published On the Track of Unknown Animals in 1955, similarly, Sanderson published a series of books that assisted in developing hallmarks of cryptozoology, including Abominable Snowmen, Legend Come to Life. The term cryptozoology dates from cryptozoologist circles from 1959 or before—Heuvelmans attributes the coinage of the term cryptozoology to Sanderson, patterned after cryptozoology, the term cryptid was coined in 1983 by cryptozoologist J. E. Wall in the September edition of the International Society of Cryptozoology Newsletter. According to Wall suggested that new terms be coined to replace sensational and my suggestion is cryptid, meaning a living thing having the quality of being hidden or unknown. The Oxford English Dictionary defines the noun cryptid as an animal whose existence or survival to the present day is disputed or unsubstantiated, any animal of interest to a cryptozoologist. While biologists regularly identify new species, cryptozoologists focus on creatures from the record and, in turn. Most famously, these include the Loch Ness Monster, Bigfoot, in their hunt for these entities, cryptozoologists may employ devices such as motion sensitive cameras, night vision equipment, and audio recording equipment. Cryptozoology, Gee says, can come in from the cold, however, cryptozoology is widely criticised for an array of reasons and is rejected by the academic world. There is a consensus from academics that cryptozoology is a pseudoscience. Ward says that Cryptozoology … is not valid science or even science at all, historian of science Brian Regal includes an entry for cryptozoology in his Pseudoscience, A Critical Encyclopedia. Regal says that as an endeavor, cryptozoology has been studied as much as cryptozoologists have sought hidden animals. In a 1992 issue of Folklore, folklorist Véronique Campion-Vincent says, beliefs in the existence of fabulous and supernatural animals are ubiquitous and timeless. In the continents discovered by Europe indigenous beliefs and tales have strongly influenced the perceptions of the conquered confronted by a new natural environment. The belief self-perpetuates today through multiple observations enhanced by the media and encouraged by the local population, Campion-Vincent says that four currents can be distinguished in the study of mysterious animal appearances, Forteans, occultists, folklorists, and cryptozoologists. Paleontologist George Gaylord Simpson listed cryptozoology among the examples of human gullibility, along with creationism, Humans are the most inventive, deceptive, and gullible of all animals. Only those characteristics can explain the belief of some humans in creationism, in the arrival of UFOs with extraterrestrial beings, … In several respects the discussion and practice of cryptozoology sometimes, although not invariably, has demonstrated both deception and gullibility. An example seems to merit the old Latin saying I believe because it is incredible, although Tertullian, its author, list of cryptozoologists, a list of notable cryptozoologists International Society of Cryptozoology, a defunct society dedicated to cryptozoology Peter DendleCryptozoology – An okapi at Walt Disney 's Animal Kingdom, symbol of the defunct International Society of Cryptozoology
17. Standard works – The standard works of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints are the four books that currently constitute its open scriptural canon. Under the LDS Churchs doctrine of continuing revelation, Latter-day Saints believe in the principle of revelation from God to his children, individual members are entitled to divine revelation for confirmation of truths, gaining knowledge or wisdom, meeting personal challenges, and so forth. Parents are entitled to revelation for raising their families, members are encouraged to ponder these revelations and pray to determine for themselves the truthfulness of doctrine. The Doctrine and Covenants teaches that all things must be done in order and this applies to adding new scripture. There are several instances of this happening in the LDS Church, April 6,1830, When the church was organized it is presumed that the Bible and Book of Mormon were unanimously accepted as scripture. June 9,1830, First conference of the Church, The Articles and Covenants of the Church of Christ, if the Bible and Book of Mormon were not sustained on April 6th then they were by default when the Articles and Covenants were sustained. August 17,1835, Select revelations from Joseph Smith were unanimously accepted as scripture and these were later printed in the Doctrine and Covenants. October 10,1880, The Pearl of Great Price was unanimously accepted as scripture, october 6,1890, Official Declaration 1 was accepted unanimously as scripture. It later began to be published in the Doctrine and Covenants, April 3,1976, Two visions were accepted as scripture and added to the Pearl of Great Price. September 30,1978, Official Declaration 2 was accepted unanimously as scripture and it immediately was added to the Doctrine and Covenants. When a doctrine undergoes this procedure, the LDS Church treats it as the word of God, and it is used as a standard to compare other doctrines. Lee taught, It is not to be thought that every word spoken by the General Authorities is inspired, or that they are moved upon by the Holy Ghost in everything they speak, now you keep that in mind. And if he says something that contradicts what is found in the works, you may know by that same token that it is false. In 2010 this was written into the churchs Handbook, which directs official church policy, a Spanish version, with a similar format and using a slightly revised version of the 1909 Reina-Valera translation, was published in 2009. Latter-day Saints in other non-English speaking areas may use other versions of the Bible, though the Bible is part of the LDS canon and members believe it to be the word of God, they believe that omissions and mistranslations are present in even the earliest known manuscripts. They claim that the errors in the Bible have led to incorrect interpretations of certain passages, thus, as church founder Joseph Smith explained, the church believes the Bible to be the word of God as far as it is translated correctly. The church teaches that he most reliable way to measure the accuracy of any biblical passage is not by comparing different texts, however, it is still printed in every version of the King James Bible published by the church. Although the Apocrypha was part of the 1611 edition of the KJV, Joseph Smith taught that while the contemporary edition of the Apocrypha was not to be relied on for doctrine, it was potentially useful when read with a spirit of discernmentStandard works – Quadruple Combination format of the Standard Works
18. Christmas – In several countries, celebrating Christmas Eve on December 24 has the main focus rather than December 25, with gift-giving and sharing a traditional meal with the family. Although the month and date of Jesus birth are unknown, by the fourth century the Western Christian Church had placed Christmas on December 25. Today, most Christians celebrate on December 25 in the Gregorian calendar and this is not a disagreement over the date of Christmas as such, but rather a preference of which calendar should be used to determine the day that is December 25. Although it is not known why December 25 became a date of celebration, December 25 was the date the Romans marked as the winter solstice, the shortest, and therefore darkest day of the year. Jesus was identified with the Sun based on an Old Testament verse, the date is exactly nine months following Annunciation, when the conception of Jesus is celebrated. Finally, the Romans had a series of pagan festivals near the end of the year, so Christmas may have been scheduled at this time to appropriate, or compete with, one or more of these festivals. The celebratory customs associated in various countries with Christmas have a mix of pre-Christian, Christian, the economic impact of Christmas has grown steadily over the past few centuries in many regions of the world. Christmas is a form of Christs mass. It is derived from the Middle English Cristemasse, which is from Old English Crīstesmæsse, crīst is from Greek Khrīstos, a translation of Hebrew Māšîaḥ, Messiah, meaning anointed, and mæsse is from Latin missa, the celebration of the Eucharist. The form Christenmas was also used, but is now considered archaic and dialectal, it derives from Middle English Cristenmasse. In addition to Christmas, the holiday has been known by other names throughout its history. The Anglo-Saxons referred to the feast as midwinter, or, more rarely, Nativity, meaning birth, is from Latin nātīvitās. In Old English, Gēola referred to the corresponding to December and January. Noel entered English in the late 14th century and is from the Old French noël or naël, itself ultimately from the Latin nātālis, the canonical gospels of Luke and Matthew both describe Jesus as being born in Bethlehem in Judea, to a virgin mother. In the Gospel of Luke account, Joseph and Mary travel from Nazareth to Bethlehem for the census and it says that angels proclaimed him a savior for all people, and shepherds came to adore him. In the Matthew account, magi follow a star to Bethlehem to bring gifts to Jesus, King Herod orders the massacre of all the boys less than two years old in Bethlehem, but the family flees to Egypt and later settles in Nazareth. The Nativity stories of Matthew and Luke are prominent in the gospels, the first recorded Christmas celebration was in Rome in 336. Christmas played a role in the Arian controversy of the fourth century, the feast regained prominence after 800, when Charlemagne was crowned emperor on Christmas DayChristmas – A depiction of the Nativity of Jesus with a Christmas tree backdrop
19. Conan the Barbarian – The character was created by writer Robert E. Howard in 1932 via a series of fantasy stories published in Weird Tales magazine. Conan the Barbarian was created by Robert E. Howard in a series of stories published in Weird Tales magazine in 1932. For months, Howard had been in search of a new character to market to the burgeoning pulp outlets of the early 1930s, in October 1931, he submitted the short story People of the Dark to Clayton Publications new magazine, Strange Tales of Mystery and Terror. Some Howard scholars believe this Conan to be a forerunner of the famous character. In February 1932, Howard vacationed at a town on the lower Rio Grande. During this trip, he conceived the character of Conan and also wrote the poem Cimmeria. Having digested these prior influences after he returned from his trip, Howard rewrote a rejected story, replacing his existing character Kull of Atlantis with his new hero, and retitling it The Phoenix on the Sword. Howard also wrote The Frost-Giants Daughter, inspired by the Greek myth of Daphne, although The Frost-Giants Daughter was rejected, the magazine accepted The Phoenix on the Sword after it received the requested polishing. The Phoenix on the Sword appeared in Weird Tales cover-dated December 1932, editor Farnsworth Wright subsequently prompted Howard to write an 8, 000-word essay for personal use detailing the Hyborian Age, the fictional setting for Conan. Using this essay as his guideline, Howard began plotting The Tower of the Elephant, the publication and success of The Tower of the Elephant would spur Howard to write many more Conan stories for Weird Tales. By the time of Howards suicide in 1936, he had written 21 complete stories,17 of which had been published, following Howards death, the copyright of the Conan stories passed through several hands. Eventually, under the guidance of L. Sprague de Camp and Lin Carter, the stories were edited, revised, for roughly forty years, the original versions of Howards Conan stories remained out of print. In 1977 the publisher Berkley Books issued three volumes using the earliest published form of the texts from Weird Tales, but these failed to displace the edited versions. In the 1980s and 1990s, the holders of the Conan franchise permitted Howards stories to go out of print entirely. The Gollancz edition mostly used the versions of the stories as published in Weird Tales, in 2003, another British publisher, Wandering Star Books, made an effort both to restore Howards original manuscripts and to provide a more scholarly and historical view of the Conan stories. It published hardcover editions in England, which were republished in the United States by the Del Rey imprint of Ballantine Books. The first book, Conan of Cimmeria, Volume One includes Howards notes on his fictional setting, as well as letters and this was followed by Conan of Cimmeria, Volume Two and Conan of Cimmeria, Volume Three. These three volumes combined include all of the original, unedited Conan stories, the various stories of Conan the Barbarian occur in the fictional Hyborian Age, set after the destruction of Atlantis and before the rise of the known ancient civilizationsConan the Barbarian – A map of Robert E. Howard's Hyborian Age.
20. Chakra – In Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism, a chakra is thought to be an energy point or node in the subtle body. Chakras are believed to be part of the body, not the physical body. Nadi are believed to be channels in the body through which the life force or vital energy moves. Various scriptural texts and teachings present a different number of chakras and its believed that there are many chakras in the subtle human body, according to the tantric texts, but there are seven chakras that are considered to be the most important ones. The word Chakra derives from the Sanskrit word meaning wheel, as well as circle and cycle and its described by many as a spinning wheel of light. Of the 88,000 chakras within the body, seven are considered of PRINCIPAL importance and are referred to as the major chakras. In rituals, there are different cakrasādhanās in which adherents assemble, according to the Niruttaratantra, chakras in the sense of assemblies are of 5 types. The term chakra is used to denote yantras s, variously known as trikoṇa-cakra, aṣṭakoṇa-cakra. Different nerve plexuses within the body, in Buddhism, the Sanskrit term cakra is used in a different sense of circle, referring to the conception of rebirth consisting of six states in which beings may be reborn. Breath channels of yogic practices are mentioned in the classical Upanishads, the texts and teachings present different numbers of chakras. Also, different physical structures are considered chakras, david Gordon White thus emphasises, In fact, there is no standard system of the chakras. Every school, sometimes every teacher within each school, has had his own chakra system, the following features are common, They form part of the body, along with the breath channels, and the winds. They are located along the central channel, two side channels cross the centre channel at the location of the chakras. They possess a number of petals or spokes and they are generally associated with a mantra seed-syllable, and often with a variety of colours and deities. There are believed to be 7 major chakras, david Gordon White traces the modern popularity of the Hindu seven chakra system to Arthur Avalons The Serpent Power, which was Avalons translation of a late work, the Satcakranirupana. In actuality, there are models and systems present in Hindu tantric literature. Kundalini is a feature of Hindu chakra systems, Chakras play an important role in the main surviving branch of Indian Vajrayana, Tibetan Buddhism. The Vajrayana system states that the channel begins at the point of the third eye like of lord Shiva, curves up to the crown of the headChakra – From an 1899 Yoga manuscript in the Braj Bhasa language.
21. Constantine the Great – Constantine the Great, also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor from 306 to 337 AD. Constantine was the son of Flavius Valerius Constantius, a Roman Army officer and his father became Caesar, the deputy emperor in the west, in 293 AD. Constantine was sent east, where he rose through the ranks to become a military tribune under the emperors Diocletian, in 305, Constantius was raised to the rank of Augustus, senior western emperor, and Constantine was recalled west to campaign under his father in Britannia. As emperor, Constantine enacted many administrative, financial, social, the government was restructured and civil and military authority separated. A new gold coin, the solidus, was introduced to combat inflation and it would become the standard for Byzantine and European currencies for more than a thousand years. He called the First Council of Nicaea in 325, at which the Nicene Creed was adopted by Christians, in military matters, the Roman army was reorganised to consist of mobile field units and garrison soldiers capable of countering internal threats and barbarian invasions. The age of Constantine marked an epoch in the history of the Roman Empire. He built a new residence at Byzantium and renamed the city Constantinople after himself. It would later become the capital of the Empire for over one thousand years and his more immediate political legacy was that, in leaving the empire to his sons, he replaced Diocletians tetrarchy with the principle of dynastic succession. His reputation flourished during the lifetime of his children and centuries after his reign, the medieval church upheld him as a paragon of virtue while secular rulers invoked him as a prototype, a point of reference, and the symbol of imperial legitimacy and identity. Beginning with the Renaissance, there were more critical appraisals of his due to the rediscovery of anti-Constantinian sources. Critics portrayed him as a tyrant, trends in modern and recent scholarship attempted to balance the extremes of previous scholarship. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, built on his orders at the site of Jesus tomb in Jerusalem. The Papal claim to power in the High Middle Ages was based on the supposed Donation of Constantine. He is venerated as a saint by Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Catholics, though Constantine has historically often been referred to as the First Christian Emperor, scholars debate his actual beliefs or even his actual comprehension of the Christian faith itself. Constantine was a ruler of major importance, and he has always been a controversial figure, the fluctuations in Constantines reputation reflect the nature of the ancient sources for his reign. These are abundant and detailed, but have strongly influenced by the official propaganda of the period. There are no surviving histories or biographies dealing with Constantines life, the nearest replacement is Eusebius of Caesareas Vita Constantini, a work that is a mixture of eulogy and hagiographyConstantine the Great – Colossal marble head of Emperor Constantine the Great, Roman, 4th century, located at the Capitoline Museums, in Rome.
22. Clement of Alexandria – Titus Flavius Clemens, known as Clement of Alexandria to distinguish him from the earlier Clement of Rome, was a Christian theologian who taught at the Catechetical School of Alexandria. A convert to Christianity, he was a man who was familiar with classical Greek philosophy. As his three works demonstrate, Clement was influenced by Hellenistic philosophy to a greater extent than any other Christian thinker of his time, and in particular by Plato. His secret works, which exist only in fragments, suggest that he was familiar with pre-Christian Jewish esotericism and Gnosticism. In one of his works he argued that Greek philosophy had its origin among non-Greeks, among his pupils were Origen and Alexander of Jerusalem. Clement is usually regarded as a Church Father and he is venerated as a saint in Coptic Christianity, Ethiopian Christianity and Anglicanism. He was previously revered in the Roman Catholic Church, but his name was removed from the Roman Martyrology in 1586 by Pope Sixtus V on the advice of Baronius, neither Clements birthdate or birthplace is known with any degree of certainty. It is conjectured that he was born in around 150, according to Epiphanius Scholasticus, he was born in Athens, but there is also a tradition of an Alexandrian birth. His parents were pagans, and Clement was a convert to Christianity, in the Protrepticus he displays an extensive knowledge of Greek mythology and mystery religions, which could only have arisen from the practice of his familys religion. Having rejected paganism as a man due to its perceived moral corruption, he travelled in Greece, Asia Minor, Palestine. Clements journeys were primarily a religious undertaking, in around 180, Clement reached Alexandria, where he met Pantaenus, who taught at the Catechetical School of Alexandria. Eusebius suggests that Pantaenus was the head of the school, Clement studied under Pantaenus, and was ordained to the priesthood by Pope Julian before 189. Otherwise, virtually nothing is known of Clements life in Alexandria and he may have been married, a conjecture supported by his writings. During the Severian persecutions of 202–203, Clement left Alexandria, in 211, Alexander of Jerusalem wrote a letter commending him to the Church of Antioch, which may imply that Clement was living in Cappadocia or Jerusalem at that time. The date and location of his death are unknown, three of Clements major works have survived in full, and they are collectively referred to as the trilogy, the Protrepticus – written c. The Stromata – written c.198 – c, the Protrepticus is, as its title suggests, an exhortation to the pagans of Greece to adopt Christianity, and within it Clement demonstrates his extensive knowledge of pagan mythology and theology. It is chiefly important due to Clements exposition of religion as an anthropological phenomenon, after a short philosophical discussion, it opens with a history of Greek religion in seven stages. Clement suggests that at first, men believed the SunClement of Alexandria – Clement from Les vrais pourtraits et vies des hommes illustres grecz, latins et payens (1584) by André Thévet
23. Comic fantasy – Comic fantasy is a subgenre of fantasy that is primarily humorous in intent and tone. Usually set in imaginary worlds, comic fantasy often includes puns on and it is sometimes known as low fantasy in contrast to high fantasy, which is primarily serious in intent and tone. The subgenre rose in the nineteenth century, elements of comic fantasy can be found in such nineteenth century works as some of Hans Christian Andersens fairy tales, Charles Dickens Christmas Books, and Lewis Carrolls Alice books. The first writer to specialize in the subgenre was F. Anstey in novels such as Vice Versa, ansteys work was popular enough to inspire several imitations, including E. Nesbits light-hearted childrens fantasies, The Phoenix and the Carpet and The Story of the Amulet. Another American writer in a vein was Thorne Smith, whose works were popular and influential. According to Lin Carter, T. H. Whites works exemplify comic fantasy, L. Sprague de Camp, the overwhelming bulk of de Camps fantasy was comic. Pratt and de Camp were among several contributors to Unknown Worlds, the work of Fritz Leiber also appeared in Unknown Worlds, including his Fafhrd and the Gray Mouser stories, a jocose take on the sword and sorcery subgenre. There are also comic-strips/graphic novels in the fantasy genre, including Chuck Whelons Pewfell series. Other recent authors in the genre include Toby Frost, Stuart Sharp, Nicholas Andrews, and DC Farmer, the subgenre has also been represented in television, such as in the television series I Dream of Jeannie, Kröd Mändoon. Examples on radio are the BBCs Hordes of the Things and ElvenQuest, comic fantasy films can either be parodies, comedies with fantastical elements or animatedComic fantasy – Fantasy
24. Catharism – Catharism was a Christian dualist or Gnostic revival movement that thrived in some areas of Southern Europe, particularly northern Italy and southern France, between the 12th and 14th centuries. The followers were known as Cathars and are now remembered for a prolonged period of persecution by the Catholic church which did not recognise their belief as truly Christian. It appeared in Europe in the Languedoc region of France in the 11th century, the beliefs are believed to have been brought from Persia or the Byzantine Empire. Cathar beliefs varied between communities, because Catharism was initially taught by ascetic priests who had set few guidelines, the Catholic Church denounced its practices including the Consolamentum ritual, by which Cathar individuals were baptized and raised to the status of perfect. Though the term Cathar has been used for centuries to identify the movement, in Cathar texts, the terms Good Men or Good Christians are the common terms of self-identification. The idea of two Gods or principles, one being good and the evil, was central to Cathar beliefs. All visible matter, including the body, was created by this evil god. This was the antithesis to the monotheistic Catholic Church, whose principle was that there was only one God. From the beginning of his reign, Pope Innocent III attempted to end Catharism by sending missionaries and by persuading the local authorities to act against them. In 1208 Innocents papal legate Pierre de Castelnau was murdered while returning to Rome after excommunicating Count Raymond VI of Toulouse, who, in his view, was too lenient with the Cathars. Pope Innocent III then abandoned the option of sending Catholic missionaries and jurists, declared Pierre de Castelnau a martyr and launched the Albigensian Crusade which all but ended Catharism. The origins of the Cathars beliefs are unclear, but most theories agree they came from the Byzantine Empire, mostly by the trade routes and spread from the First Bulgarian Empire to the Netherlands. The name of Bulgarians was also applied to the Albigensians, and that there was a substantial transmission of ritual and ideas from Bogomilism to Catharism is beyond reasonable doubt. St John Damascene, writing in the 8th century AD, also notes of a sect called the Cathari, in his book On Heresies. He says of them, They absolutely reject those who marry a second time, conclusions about Cathar ideology continue to be fiercely debated with commentators regularly accusing their opponents of speculation, distortion and bias. There are a few texts from the Cathars themselves which were preserved by their opponents which give a glimpse of the workings of their faith. One large text which has survived, The Book of Two Principles, elaborates the principles of theology from the point of view of some of the Albanenses Cathars. Cathars, in general, formed a party in opposition to the Catholic ChurchCatharism – This portrays the story of a disputation between Saint Dominic and the Cathars (Albigensians), in which the books of both were thrown on a fire and St Dominic's books were miraculously preserved from the flames. Painting by Pedro Berruguete
25. Clairvoyance – The term clairvoyance is the alleged ability to gain information about an object, person, location or physical event through extrasensory perception. Any person who is claimed to have such ability is said accordingly to be a clairvoyant. Claims for the existence of paranormal and psychic abilities such as clairvoyance have not been supported by scientific evidence published in high impact peer reviewed journals. Parapsychology explores this possibility, but the existence of the paranormal is not accepted by the scientific community, Parapsychology, including the study of clairvoyance, is an example of pseudoscience. Pertaining to the ability of clear-sightedness, clairvoyance refers to the ability to see persons. Throughout history, there have been numerous places and times in which people have claimed themselves or others to be clairvoyant, jesus Christ in the gospels is also recorded as being able to know things that were far removed from His immediate human perception. In most of cases, however, the ability to see things was attributed to a higher power. In Jainism, clairvoyance is regarded as one of the five kinds of knowledge, the beings of hell and heaven are said to possess clairvoyance by birth. According to Jain text Sarvārthasiddhi, this kind of knowledge has been called avadhi as it ascertains matter in downward range or knows objects within limits. The earliest record of somnambulistic clairvoyance is credited to the Marquis de Puységur, a follower of Franz Mesmer, early researchers of clairvoyance included William Gregory, Gustav Pagenstecher, and Rudolf Tischner. Clairvoyance experiments were reported in 1884 by Charles Richet, playing cards were enclosed in envelopes and a subject put under hypnosis attempted to identify them. The subject was reported to have successful in a series of 133 trials. Pickering reported an experiment in which they tested 36 subjects over 23,384 trials which did not obtain above chance scores. Ivor Lloyd Tuckett and Joseph McCabe analyzed early cases of clairvoyance, in 1919, the magician P. T. Selbit staged a séance at his own flat in Bloomsbury. The spiritualist Arthur Conan Doyle attended the séance and declared the clairvoyance manifestations to be genuine, a significant development in clairvoyance research came when J. B. Rhine, a parapsychologist at Duke University, introduced a methodology, with a standard statistical approach to analyzing data. A number of psychological departments attempted to repeat Rhines experiments with failure, W. S. Cox from Princeton University with 132 subjects produced 25,064 trials in a playing card ESP experiment. Cox concluded There is no evidence of extrasensory perception either in the man or of the group investigated or in any particular individual of that groupClairvoyance – An experiment in sensory deprivation aiming to stimulate clairvoyance
26. Doctrine and Covenants – The Doctrine and Covenants is a part of the open scriptural canon of several denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement. The doctrine portion of the book, however, has been removed by both the LDS Church and the Community of Christ, controversy has existed between the two largest denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement over some sections added to the 1876 LDS edition, attributed to founder Smith. Whereas the LDS Church believes these sections to have been revelations to Smith, the Doctrine and Covenants was first published in 1835 as a later version of the Book of Commandments, which had been partially printed in 1833. This earlier book contained 65 early revelations to church leaders, including Joseph Smith, before many copies of the book could be printed, the printing press and most of the printed copies were destroyed by a mob in Missouri. On September 24,1834, a committee was appointed by the assembly of the church to organize a new volume containing the most significant revelations. This committee of Presiding Elders, consisting of Smith, Cowdery, Sidney Rigdon, the committee eventually organized the book into two parts, a Doctrine part and a Covenants part. The Doctrine part of the book consisted of a course now called the Lectures on Faith. The lectures were a series of doctrinal courses used in the School of the Prophets which had recently completed in Kirtland. According to the committee, these lectures were included in the compilation in consequence of their embracing the important doctrine of salvation. The Covenants part of the book, labeled Covenants and Commandments of the Lord, to his servants of the church of the Latter Day Saints, each of the 103 revelations was assigned a section number, however, section 66 was mistakenly used twice. Thus, the sections of the work were numbered only to 102. The book was first introduced to the body in a general conference on August 17,1835. Smith and Williams, two of the Presiding Elders on the committee, were absent, but Cowdery and Rigdon were present. At the end of the conference, the church by a unanimous vote agreed to accept the compilation as the doctrine and covenants of their faith and to make arrangements for its printing. In 1835, the book was printed and published under the title Doctrine and Covenants of the Church of the Latter Day Saints, together the LDS Churchs scriptures are referred to as the standard works. In 1844, the church added eight sections not included in the 1835 edition, in the current edition, these added sections are numbered 103,105,112,119,124,127,128, and 135. Previous editions had been divided into verses with the early versifications generally following the structure of the original text. It was with the 1876 edition that the currently used versification was first employed, preside over my priesthood to live plural marriage in order to qualify to hold their church positionsDoctrine and Covenants – Title page of the 1921 LDS edition
27. Delroy Lindo – Delroy George Lindo is a British-American actor and theatre director. Lindo has been nominated for Tony and Screen Actors Guild awards and has won a Satellite Award, Lindo starred as Alderman Ronin Gibbons in the TV series The Chicago Code and as Winter on the series Believe, which premiered in 2014. Delroy Lindo was born in 1952 in Eltham, south-east London and he was brought up in nearby Lewisham and got interested in acting as a child in a Nativity play. His mother was a nurse and his father worked in various jobs, as a teenager, he and his mother moved to Toronto, Ontario, Canada. When he was sixteen, they moved to San Francisco, at the age of 24, Lindo started acting studies at the American Conservatory Theater, graduating in 1979. Lindos film debut came in 1976 with the British comedy Find the Lady and he quit film for 10 years to concentrate on theatre acting. In 1982 he debuted on Broadway in Master Harold. and the Boys, by 1988 Lindo had earned a Tony nomination for his portrayal of Herald Loomis in August Wilsons Joe Turners Come and Gone. Lindo returned to film in the 1990s, acting alongside Rutger Hauer and Joan Chen in the science fiction film Salute of the Jugger. Although he had turned down Spike Lee for a role in his debut Do the Right Thing, Lee cast him as Woody Carmichael in the drama Crooklyn, which brought him notice. Other films in which he has starring roles are Barry Sonnenfelds Get Shorty, Ron Howards Ransom and Soul of the Game, as a character actor, Lindo has readily taken on roles as treacherous bad guys as well as those of trustworthy professionals. In 1998 Lindo co-starred as African-American explorer Matthew Henson, in the TV film Glory & Honor and it portrayed his nearly 20-year partnership with Commander Robert Peary in Arctic exploration and their effort to find the Geographic North Pole in 1909. He received a Satellite Award as best actor, Lindo continues to work in television and was most recently seen on the short-lived NBC drama Kidnapped. Lindo played an angel in the comedy film A Life Less Ordinary, in which Dan Hedaya played the angel Gabriel and he guest-starred on The Simpsons in the episode Brawl in the Family, playing a similar character named Gabriel. Lindo had a role in the 1995 science fiction/action film Congo. Lindo was not credited for the role, but one of his lines in the film, Lindo said he made the film in honour of his parents, who had similarly moved to London in those years. In 2007, Lindo began an association with Berkeley Repertory Theatre in Berkeley, California, in the autumn of 2008, Lindo revisited August Wilsons play, Joe Turners Come and Gone, directing a production at the Berkeley Rep. In 2010, he played the role of elderly seer Bynum in David Lans production of Joe Turner at the Young Vic Theatre in London, Lindo is poised to play Marcus Garvey in an upcoming biopic of the black nationalist historical figure. Delroy Lindo at the Internet Movie Database Delroy Lindo at the Internet Broadway DatabaseDelroy Lindo – Lindo on March 29, 2008
28. Dragon – A dragon is a legendary creature, typically scaled or fire-spewing and with serpentine, reptilian or avian traits, that features in the myths of many cultures around world. The two most well-known cultural traditions of dragon are The European dragon, derived from European folk traditions and ultimately related to Balkans, most are depicted as reptilian creatures with animal-level intelligence, and are uniquely six-limbed. The Chinese dragon, with counterparts in Japan, Korea and other East Asian, most are depicted as serpentine creatures with above-average intelligence, and are quadrupeds. The two traditions may have evolved separately, but have influenced each other to a certain extent, the English word dragon and Latin word draco derives from Greek δράκων, dragon, serpent of huge size, water-snake. The Greek and Latin term referred to any great serpent, not necessarily mythological, a dragon is a mythological representation of a reptile. In antiquity, dragons were mostly envisaged as serpents, but since the Middle Ages, it has become common to them with legs. Dragons are usually shown in modern times with a body like a huge lizard, the European dragon has bat-like wings growing from its back. A dragon-like creature with wings but only a pair of legs is known as a wyvern. The association of the serpent with a monstrous opponent overcome by a deity has its roots in the mythology of the Ancient Near East, including Canaanite, Hittite. Humbaba, the fire-breathing dragon-fanged beast first described in the Epic of Gilgamesh, is described as a dragon with Gilgamesh playing the part of dragon-slayer. The folk-lore motif of the dragon guarding gold may have come from earlier Bronze Age customs of introducing serpents to village granaries to deter rats or mice. Although dragons occur in many legends around the world, different cultures have varying stories about monsters that have been grouped together under the dragon label, some dragons are said to breathe fire or to be poisonous, such as in the Old English poem Beowulf. They are commonly portrayed as serpentine or reptilian, hatching from eggs and they are sometimes portrayed as hoarding treasure. Some myths portray them with a row of dorsal spines, European dragons are more often winged, while Chinese dragons resemble large snakes. Dragons can have a number of legs, none, two, four, or more when it comes to early European literature. Dragons are often held to have spiritual significance in various religions. In many Asian cultures, dragons were, and in some still are, revered as representative of the primal forces of nature, religion. They are associated with wisdom—often said to be wiser than humans—and longevity and they are commonly said to possess some form of magic or other supernatural power, and are often associated with wells, rain, and riversDragon – Sculpture of Mario the Magnificent, the dragon mascot of Drexel University, by Eric Berg
29. Devil – The Devil is, according to Christianity, the primary opponent of God. Islam identifies the Devil with all those who oppose Allah, some non-Abrahamic religions contain figures similar to the Devil, such as the Buddhist demon Mara and the Zoroastrian spirit Angra Mainyu. The Modern English word devil descends from the Middle English devel, from Old English dēofol, that in turn represents an early Germanic borrowing of Latin diabolus. This in turn was borrowed from Ancient Greek Greek, διάβολος, slanderer, from Greek, διαβάλλειν to slander, διά- across, through + βάλλειν to hurl, probably akin to the Sanskrit gurate he lifts up. In the New Testament, Satan occurs more than 30 times in passages alongside diábolos, in mainstream Judaism there is no concept of a devil as in mainstream Christianity or Islam. Texts make no direct link between the serpent that tempts Eve in the Garden of Eden in Genesis and the references to Satan are in Zechariah. For the Hasidim of the century, ha-satan was Baal Davar. In the Book of Wisdom, the devil is represented as the one who brought death into the world, a similar story is found in 1 Enoch, however, in that book, the leader of the Grigori is called Semjâzâ. In the apocryphal literature, Satan rules over a host of angels, mastema, who induced God to test Abraham through the sacrifice of Isaac, is identical with Satan in both name and nature. The Book of Enoch contains references to Sathariel, thought also to be Sataniel and Satanel, the similar spellings mirror that of his angelic brethren Michael, Raphael, Uriel and Gabriel, previous to his expulsion from Heaven. In mainstream Christianity the devil is usually referred to as Satan, some modern Christians consider the devil to be an angel who, along with one-third of the angelic host rebelled against God and has consequently been condemned to the Lake of Fire. He is described as hating all humanity, opposing God, spreading lies, other modern Christians consider the devil in the Bible to refer figuratively to human sin and temptation and to any immoral human system. Satan is often identified as the serpent who convinced Eve to eat the fruit, thus. He is also identified as the dragon in the Book of Revelation, beelzebub is originally the name of a Philistine god but is also used in the New Testament as a synonym for Satan. A corrupted version, Belzeboub, appears in The Divine Comedy, in Islam the Devil is referred to as Iblis or sometimes the Shaytan. Etymologically, Iblis means the desperate in Arabic, thus, the name Iblis can be seen as a sobriquet given to Shaitan after falling from Grace. The primary characteristic of the Devil, besides hubris, is that he has no other than the power to cast evil suggestions into the hearts of men and women. He was of the jinn and departed from the command of his Lord, then will you take him and his descendants as allies other than Me while they are enemies to youDevil – Depiction of the devil as seen in the Codex Gigas.
30. Dr. Seuss – Theodor Seuss Geisel was an American writer, cartoonist, animator, book publisher, and artist best known for authoring childrens books under the pen name Dr. Seuss. His work includes several of the most popular books of all time, selling over 600 million copies. Geisel adopted his Dr. Seuss pen name during his university studies at Dartmouth College and he left Oxford in 1927 to begin his career as an illustrator and cartoonist for Vanity Fair, Life, and various other publications. He also worked as an illustrator for advertising campaigns, most notably for Flit and Standard Oil and he published his first childrens book And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street in 1937. After the war, Geisel focused on books, writing classics such as If I Ran the Zoo. If I Ran the Circus, The Cat in the Hat and he published over 60 books during his career, which have spawned numerous adaptations, including 11 television specials, four feature films, a Broadway musical, and four television series. He won the Lewis Carroll Shelf Award in 1958 for Horton Hatches the Egg, Geisels birthday, March 2, has been adopted as the annual date for National Read Across America Day, an initiative on reading created by the National Education Association. Geisel was born and raised in Springfield, Massachusetts, the son of Henrietta, all four of his grandparents were German immigrants. His father managed the brewery and was later appointed to supervise Springfields public park system by Mayor John A. Denison after the brewery closed because of Prohibition. Mulberry Street in Springfield, made famous in Dr. Seuss first childrens book And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street, is less than a mile southwest of his home on Fairfield Street. He enrolled at Springfield Central High School in 1917 and graduated in 1921 and he took an art class as a freshman and later became manager of the school soccer team. Geisel attended Dartmouth College, graduating in 1925, at Dartmouth, he joined the Sigma Phi Epsilon fraternity and the humor magazine Dartmouth Jack-O-Lantern, eventually rising to the rank of editor-in-chief. While at Dartmouth, he was caught drinking gin with nine friends in his room, at the time, the possession and consumption of alcohol was illegal under Prohibition laws, which remained in place between 1920 and 1933. As a result of this infraction, Dean Craven Laycock insisted that Geisel resign from all extracurricular activities, to continue work on the Jack-O-Lantern without the administrations knowledge, Geisel began signing his work with the pen name Seuss. He was encouraged in his writing by professor of rhetoric W. Benfield Pressey, upon graduating from Dartmouth, he entered Lincoln College, Oxford intending to earn a PhD in English literature. At Oxford, he met Helen Palmer, who encouraged him to give up becoming an English teacher in favor of pursuing drawing as a career. Making use of his time in Europe, he pitched a series of cartoons called Eminent Europeans to Life magazine and his first nationally published cartoon appeared in the July 16,1927 issue of The Saturday Evening Post. This single $25 sale encouraged Geisel to move from Springfield to New York City, later that year, Geisel accepted a job as writer and illustrator at the humor magazine Judge, and he felt financially stable enough to marry HelenDr. Seuss – Geisel in 1957, holding The Cat in the Hat, which inaugurated his Beginner Books