1. Diana, Princess of Wales – Diana, Princess of Wales, was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, who is the eldest child and heir apparent of Queen Elizabeth II. Diana was born into a family of British nobility with royal ancestry and was the child and third daughter of John Spencer, Viscount Althorp. She grew up in Park House, situated on the Sandringham estate, in 1975, after her father inherited the title of Earl Spencer, she became known as Lady Diana Spencer. She came to prominence in February 1981 when her engagement to Prince Charles was announced and her wedding to the Prince of Wales on 29 July 1981, held at St Pauls Cathedral, reached a global television audience of over 750 million people. While married, Diana bore the titles Princess of Wales, Duchess of Cornwall, Duchess of Rothesay, the marriage produced two sons, the princes William and Harry, who were then respectively second and third in the line of succession to the British throne. As Princess of Wales, Diana undertook royal duties on behalf of the Queen and she was celebrated for her charity work and for her support of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines. She was involved with dozens of charities including Londons Great Ormond Street Hospital for children, Diana remained the object of worldwide media scrutiny during and after her marriage, which ended in divorce on 28 August 1996. Media attention and public mourning were extensive after her death in a car crash in Paris on 31 August 1997, Diana was born on 1 July 1961, in Park House, Sandringham, Norfolk. She was the fourth of five children of John Spencer, Viscount Althorp, the Spencer family has been closely allied with the British Royal Family for several generations. Both of Dianas grandmothers had served as ladies-in-waiting to Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, on 30 August 1961, Diana was baptised at St. Mary Magdalene Church, Sandringham, with wealthy commoners as godparents. Diana had three siblings, Sarah, Jane, and Charles and her infant brother, John, died shortly after his birth one year before Diana was born. The desire for an added strain to the Spencers marriage. Diana grew up in Park House, situated on the Sandringham estate, the Spencers leased the house from its owner, Queen Elizabeth II. The Royal Family frequently holidayed at the neighbouring Sandringham House, and Diana played with Princes Andrew, Diana was seven years old when her parents divorced. Her mother later had an affair with Peter Shand Kydd and married him in 1969, Diana lived with her mother in London during her parents separation in 1967, but during that years Christmas holidays, Lord Althorp refused to let Diana return to London with Lady Althorp. Shortly afterwards he won custody of Diana with support from his former mother-in-law, Ruth Roche, in 1972, Lord Althorp began a relationship with Raine, Countess of Dartmouth, the only daughter of Alexander McCorquodale and Dame Barbara Cartland. They married at Caxton Hall, London in 1976, as an upper-class child at the time, Diana was first educated under the supervision of her governess, Gertrude Allen. She began her education at Silfield Private School in Gayton, Norfolk, and moved to Riddlesworth Hall School, an all-girls boarding school near DissDiana, Princess of Wales – The Princess of Wales raising money for cancer research in Chicago, Illinois, June 1996
2. British Columbia – British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, with a population of more than four million people located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. British Columbia is also a component of the Pacific Northwest and the Cascadia bioregion, along with the U. S. states of Idaho, Oregon, Washington and Alaska. The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria, established in 1843, subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Port Moody is named after him, in 1866, Vancouver Island became part of the colony of British Columbia, and Victoria became the united colonys capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the province of Canada. Its Latin motto is Splendor sine occasu, the capital of British Columbia remains Victoria, the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for the Queen who created the original European colonies. The largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the largest in Western Canada, in October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371. British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871, First Nations, the original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Today there are few treaties and the question of Aboriginal Title, notably, the Tsilhqotin Nation has established Aboriginal title to a portion of their territory, as a result of the recent Supreme Court of Canada decision. BCs economy is diverse, with service producing industries accounting for the largest portion of the provinces GDP and it is the endpoint of transcontinental railways, and the site of major Pacific ports that enable international trade. Though less than 5% of its vast 944,735 km2 land is arable and its climate encourages outdoor recreation and tourism, though its economic mainstay has long been resource extraction, principally logging, farming, and mining. Vancouver, the provinces largest city and metropolitan area, also serves as the headquarters of many western-based natural resource companies and it also benefits from a strong housing market and a per capita income well above the national average. The Northern Interior region has a climate with very cold winters. The climate of Vancouver is by far the mildest winter climate of the major Canadian cities, the provinces name was chosen by Queen Victoria, when the Colony of British Columbia, i. e. the Mainland, became a British colony in 1858. The current southern border of British Columbia was established by the 1846 Oregon Treaty, British Columbias land area is 944,735 square kilometres. British Columbias rugged coastline stretches for more than 27,000 kilometres and it is the only province in Canada that borders the Pacific Ocean. British Columbias capital is Victoria, located at the tip of Vancouver Island. Only a narrow strip of the Island, from Campbell River to Victoria, is significantly populated, much of the western part of Vancouver Island and the rest of the coast is covered by thick, tall and sometimes impenetrable temperate rainforestBritish Columbia – Strait of Georgia, near Vancouver.
3. Belfast – Belfast is the capital and largest city of Northern Ireland, the second largest on the island of Ireland, and the heart of the tenth largest Primary Urban Area in the United Kingdom. On the River Lagan, it had a population of 286,000 at the 2011 census and 333,871 after the 2015 council reform, Belfast was granted city status in 1888. Belfast played a key role in the Industrial Revolution, and was an industrial centre until the latter half of the 20th century. It has sustained a major aerospace and missiles industry since the mid 1930s, industrialisation and the inward migration it brought made Belfast Irelands biggest city at the beginning of the 20th century. Today, Belfast remains a centre for industry, as well as the arts, higher education, business, and law, additionally, Belfast city centre has undergone considerable expansion and regeneration in recent years, notably around Victoria Square. Belfast is served by two airports, George Best Belfast City Airport in the city, and Belfast International Airport 15 miles west of the city. Although the county borough of Belfast was created when it was granted city status by Queen Victoria in 1888, the site of Belfast has been occupied since the Bronze Age. The Giants Ring, a 5, 000-year-old henge, is located near the city, Belfast remained a small settlement of little importance during the Middle Ages. The ONeill clan had a presence in the area, in the 14th century, Cloinne Aodha Buidhe, descendants of Aodh Buidhe ONeill built Grey Castle at Castlereagh, now in the east of the city. Conn ONeill of the Clannaboy ONeills owned vast lands in the area and was the last inhabitant of Grey Castle, evidence of this period of Belfasts growth can still be seen in the oldest areas of the city, known as the Entries. Belfast blossomed as a commercial and industrial centre in the 18th and 19th centuries, industries thrived, including linen, rope-making, tobacco, heavy engineering and shipbuilding, and at the end of the 19th century, Belfast briefly overtook Dublin as the largest city in Ireland. The Harland and Wolff shipyards became one of the largest shipbuilders in the world, in 1886 the city suffered intense riots over the issue of home rule, which had divided the city. In 1920–22, Belfast became the capital of the new entity of Northern Ireland as the island of Ireland was partitioned, the accompanying conflict cost up to 500 lives in Belfast, the bloodiest sectarian strife in the city until the Troubles of the late 1960s onwards. Belfast was heavily bombed during World War II, in one raid, in 1941, German bombers killed around one thousand people and left tens of thousands homeless. Apart from London, this was the greatest loss of life in a raid during the Blitz. Belfast has been the capital of Northern Ireland since its establishment in 1921 following the Government of Ireland Act 1920 and it had been the scene of various episodes of sectarian conflict between its Catholic and Protestant populations. These opposing groups in conflict are now often termed republican and loyalist respectively. The most recent example of conflict was known as the Troubles – a civil conflict that raged from around 1969 to 1998Belfast – Top: Skyline of Belfast Middle top left to right, Queen's University Belfast, Albert Memorial Clock, Belfast, The Boat, Titanic Belfast Bottom left to right: Belfast City Hall, view of Belfast with Samson and Goliath.
4. Corcovado – Corcovado, meaning hunchback in Portuguese, is a mountain in central Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The 710-metre granite peak is located in the Tijuca Forest, a national park and it is sometimes confused with nearby Sugarloaf Mountain. Corcovado hill lies just west of the city center but is wholly within the city limits and it is known worldwide for the 38-metre statue of Jesus atop its peak, entitled Cristo Redentor or Christ the Redeemer. The railway uses three electrically powered trains, with a capacity of 540 passengers per hour. The rail trip takes approximately 20 minutes and departs every 20 minutes, due to its limited passenger capacity, the wait to board at the entry station can take several hours. The year-round schedule is 8,30 to 18,30, from the train terminus and road, the observation deck at the foot of the statue is reached by 223 steps, or by elevators and escalators. Among the most popular year-round tourist attractions in Rio, the Corcovado railway, access roads, the most popular attraction of Corcovado mountain is the statue and viewing platform at its peak, drawing over 300,000 visitors per year. From the peaks platform the panoramic view includes downtown Rio, Sugarloaf Mountain, the Lagoa Rodrigo de Freitas, Copacabana and Ipanema beaches, Estádio do Maracanã, cloud cover is common in Rio and the view from the platform is often obscured. Sunny days are recommended for optimal viewing, an additional attraction of the mountain is rock climbing. The south face had 54 climbing routes in 1992, the easiest way starts from Park Lage. The Corcovado is also a symbol of the Brazilian culture, the peak of Corcovado is a big granite dome, which describes a generally vertical rocky formation. It is claimed to be the highest such formation in Brazil, the second highest being Pedra Agulha, situated near to the town of Pancas in Espírito SantoCorcovado – Corcovado (Monte Cristo)
5. Coronation Street – Coronation Street is a British soap opera created by Granada Television and shown on ITV since 9 December 1960. In the shows history, the street was built in the early 1900s. The show typically airs five times a week, Monday and Friday 7. 30–8 pm &8. 30–9 pm and Wednesday 7. 30–8 pm, however this varies due to sport or around Christmas. From late 2017 the show will air six times a week, the programme was conceived in 1960 by scriptwriter Tony Warren at Granada Television in Manchester. Warrens initial kitchen sink drama proposal was rejected by the stations founder Sidney Bernstein, within six months of the shows first broadcast, it had become the most-watched programme on British television, and is now a significant part of British culture. The show has one of the most lucrative programmes on British commercial television, underpinning the success of Granada Television. Coronation Street is made by Granada Television at MediaCity Manchester and shown in all ITV regions, on 17 September 2010, it became the worlds longest-running TV soap opera in production. On 23 September 2015, Coronation Street was broadcast live to mark ITVs 60th anniversary, Coronation Street is noted for its depiction of a down-to-earth working class community combined with light-hearted humour, and strong characters. The first episode was aired on 9 December 1960 at 7 pm, Granada Television had commissioned only 13 episodes, and some inside the company doubted the show would last beyond its planned production run. Despite the criticism, viewers were drawn into the serial. The programme also made use of Northern English language and dialect, affectionate local terms like eh, nowt, and by eck. became widely heard on British television for the first time. Early episodes told the story of student Kenneth Barlow, who had won a place at university, the character was one of the few to have experienced life outside of Coronation Street. In some ways this predicts the growth of globalisation, and the decline of similar communities, in an episode from 1961, Barlow declares, You cant go on just thinking about your own street these days. Were living with people on the side of the world. Theres more to worry about than Elsie Tanner and her boyfriends, Roache is the only remaining member of the original cast, which makes him the longest-serving actor in Coronation Street, and in British and global soap history. At the centre of early stories, there was Ena Sharples, caretaker of the Glad Tidings Mission Hall, and her friends, timid Minnie Caldwell. Headstrong Ena often clashed with Elsie Tanner, whom she believed espoused a dauntlessly loose set of morals, Elsie resented Enas interference and gossip, which most of the time had little basis in reality. In April 1961, Jed Stone made his first appearance and returned the year in 1962Coronation Street – Ken Barlow in the first episode of Coronation Street, 1960
6. Catherine of Aragon – The daughter of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, Catherine was three years old when she was betrothed to Arthur, Prince of Wales, heir apparent to the English throne. They married in 1501, but Arthur died five months later on 2 April 1502, in 1507, she held the position of ambassador of the Aragonese Crown in England, the first female ambassador in European history. Catherine subsequently married Arthurs younger brother, the recently ascended Henry VIII, for six months in 1513, she served as regent of England while Henry VIII was in France. During that time the English won the Battle of Flodden, an event in which Catherine played an important part with a speech about English courage. He sought to have their marriage annulled, setting in motion a chain of events led to Englands schism with the Catholic Church. When Pope Clement VII refused to annul the marriage, Henry defied him by assuming supremacy over religious matters, in 1533 their marriage was consequently declared invalid and Henry married Anne on the judgement of clergy in England, without reference to the Pope. Catherine refused to accept Henry as Supreme Head of the Church in England and considered herself the Kings rightful wife and queen, despite this, she was acknowledged only as Dowager Princess of Wales by Henry. After being banished from court, she lived out the remainder of her life at Kimbolton Castle, English people held Catherine in high esteem, and her death set off tremendous mourning. The controversial book The Education of a Christian Woman by Juan Luis Vives, such was Catherines impression on people that even her enemy, Thomas Cromwell, said of her, If not for her sex, she could have defied all the heroes of History. She successfully appealed for the lives of the involved in the Evil May Day. Catherine also won widespread admiration by starting an extensive programme for the relief of the poor and she was a patron of Renaissance humanism, and a friend of the great scholars Erasmus of Rotterdam and Thomas More. Catherine was born at the Archbishops Palace in Alcalá de Henares near Madrid and she was the youngest surviving child of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile. Catherine was quite short in stature with red hair, wide blue eyes, a round face. Consequently, she was cousin of her father-in-law, Henry VII of England. Catherine was educated by a tutor, Alessandro Geraldini, who was a clerk in Holy Orders and she studied arithmetic, canon and civil law, classical literature, genealogy and heraldry, history, philosophy, religion, and theology. She had a religious upbringing and developed her Roman Catholic faith that would play a major role in later life. She learned to speak, read and write in Spanish and Latin and she was also taught domestic skills, such as cooking, dancing, drawing, embroidery, good manners, lace-making, music, needlepoint, sewing, spinning, and weaving. The great scholar Erasmus later said that Catherine loved good literature which she had studied with success since childhoodCatherine of Aragon – Portrait by Lucas Hornebolte
7. Diana (mythology) – In Roman mythology, Diana was the goddess of the hunt, the moon, and nature being associated with wild animals and woodland, and having the power to talk to and control animals. She was eventually equated with the Greek goddess Artemis, though she had an independent origin in Italy, Diana was worshipped in ancient Roman religion and is revered in Roman Neopaganism and Stregheria. Diana was known to be the goddess of childbirth and women. She was one of the three goddesses, along with Minerva and Vesta, who swore never to marry. Oak groves were especially sacred to her as were deer, according to mythology, Diana was born with her twin brother, Apollo, on the island of Delos, daughter of Jupiter and Latona. She made up a triad with two other Roman deities, Egeria the water nymph, her servant and assistant midwife, and Virbius, the woodland god. Diana is a form developed from an ancient *divios, corresponding to later divus, dius, as in Dius Fidius, Dea Dia. It is rooted in Indoeuropean *dyw, meaning sky or daylight, from which also derived the name of Vedic god Dyaus and the Latin deus, dies. On the Tablets of Pylos a theonym διϝια is supposed as referring to a deity precursor of Artemis, Modern scholars mostly accept the identification. The ancient Latin writers Varro and Cicero considered the etymology of Dīāna as allied to that of dies, the persona of Diana is complex and contains a number of archaic features. According to Georges Dumézil it falls into a subset of celestial gods. Such gods, while keeping the original features of celestial divinities, the celestial character of Diana is reflected in her connection with light, inaccessibility, virginity, and her preference for dwelling on high mountains and in sacred woods. Diana therefore reflects the world in its sovereignty, supremacy, impassibility. At the same time, however, she is seen as active in ensuring the succession of kings and these functions are apparent in the traditional institutions and cults related to the goddess. This ever open succession reveals the character and mission of the goddess as a guarantor of kingly status through successive generations. Her function as bestower of authority to rule is also attested in the story related by Livy in which a Sabine man who sacrifices a heifer to Diana wins for his country the seat of the Roman empire. Diana was also worshipped by women who wanted to be pregnant or who, once pregnant and this form of worship is attested in archeological finds of votive statuettes in her sanctuary in the nemus Aricinum as well as in ancient sources, e. g. Ovid. According to Dumezil the forerunner of all gods is an Indian epic hero who was the image of the Vedic god DyausDiana (mythology) – The Diana of Versailles, a 2nd-century Roman version in the Greek tradition of iconography
8. David Beckham – David Robert Joseph Beckham, OBE is an English former professional footballer. He is the first English player to win titles in four countries, England, Spain. He announced his retirement in May 2013 after a 20-year career and he was inducted into the English Football Hall of Fame in 2008. A global ambassador for the sport, Beckham is regarded as a British cultural icon, Beckhams professional club career began with Manchester United, where he made his first-team debut in 1992 aged 17. With United, he won the Premier League title six times, the FA Cup twice, and he then played four seasons with Real Madrid, winning the La Liga championship in his final season with the club. In July 2007 Beckham signed a contract with Major League Soccer club LA Galaxy. While a Galaxy player, he spent two spells in Italy with Milan in 2009 and 2010. He was the first British footballer to play 100 UEFA Champions League games, in international football, Beckham made his England debut on 1 September 1996 at the age of 21. He was captain for six years, earning 58 caps during his tenure and he made 115 career appearances in total, appearing at three FIFA World Cup tournaments, in 1998,2002 and 2006, and two UEFA European Championship tournaments, in 2000 and 2004. Beckham has consistently ranked among the highest earners in football, and in 2013 he was listed as the player in the world. He has been married to Victoria Beckham since 1999 and they have four children and he has been a UNICEF UK ambassador since 2005, and in 2015 he launched 7, The David Beckham UNICEF Fund. In 2014, MLS announced Beckham and a group of investors would own a team in Miami. Beckham was born at Whipps Cross University Hospital in Leytonstone, London and he is the son of Sandra Georgina, a hairdresser, and David Edward Alan Ted Beckham, a kitchen fitter, who married at the London Borough of Hackney in 1969. He has a sister, Lynne Georgina, and a younger sister. He regularly played football in Ridgeway Park, Chingford, as a child, in a 2007 interview, Beckham said that, At school whenever the teachers asked, What do you want to do when youre older. Id say, I want to be a footballer, and theyd say, No, what do you really want to do, for a job. But that was the only thing I ever wanted to do, Beckhams maternal grandfather was Jewish, and Beckham has referred to himself as half Jewish and wrote in his autobiography Ive probably had more contact with Judaism than with any other religion. In his book Both Feet on the Ground, he stated that growing up he attended every week with his parentsDavid Beckham – Beckham at the 2014 Wimbledon Championships
9. ECHELON – The U. S. intelligence community uses many code names. At that time, according to Newsham, the code name ECHELON was NSAs term for the network itself. The software programs were called SILKWORTH and SIRE, a satellite named VORTEX intercepted communications. An image available on the internet of a fragment apparently torn from a job description shows Echelon listed along with other code names. Newsham told a member of the U. S. Congress that the calls of Strom Thurmond. Congressional investigators determined that targeting of U. S. political figures would not occur by accident, in 1996, a detailed description of ECHELON was provided by New Zealand journalist Nicky Hager in his 1996 book Secret Power – New Zealands Role in the International Spy Network. Two years later, Hagers book was cited by the European Parliament in a report titled An Appraisal of the Technology of Political Control, in March 1999, for the first time in history, the Australian government admitted that news reports about the top secret UKUSA Agreement were true. In 2000, James Woolsey, the former Director of the U. S, Central Intelligence Agency, confirmed that U. S. intelligence uses interception systems and keyword searches to monitor European businesses. Lawmakers in the United States feared that the ECHELON system could be used to monitor U. S. citizens, according to The New York Times, the ECHELON system has been shrouded in such secrecy that its very existence has been difficult to prove. Critics said the ECHELON system emerged from the Cold War as a Big Brother without a cause, the programs capabilities and political implications were investigated by a committee of the European Parliament during 2000 and 2001 with a report published in 2001. In July 2000, the Temporary Committee on the ECHELON Interception System was established by the European parliament to investigate the surveillance network and it was chaired by the Portuguese politician Carlos Coelho, who was in charge of supervising investigations throughout 2000 and 2001. Central Intelligence Agency U. S. Department of Commerce U. S. National Security Agency All meetings were cancelled by the U. S. government, according to a BBC correspondent in May 2001, The US Government still refuses to admit that Echelon even exists. In July 2001, the Temporary Committee on the ECHELON Interception System released its final report, on 5 September 2001, the European Parliament voted to accept the committees report. FROSTING had two sub-programs, TRANSIENT, for intercepting Soviet satellite transmissions, and ECHELON, for intercepting Intelsat satellite transmissions, the EP report concluded that it seemed likely that ECHELON is a method of sorting captured signal traffic, rather than a comprehensive analysis tool. During World War II and through the 1950s, high-frequency radio was used for military and diplomatic communication. The rise of communications satellites in the 1960s presented new possibilities for intercepting international communications. In 1966, the first Intelsat satellite was launched into orbit, from 1970 to 1971, the Government Communications Headquarters of Britain began to operate a secret signal station at Morwenstow, near Bude in Cornwall, England. The station intercepted satellite communications over the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, soon afterwards, the U. S. National Security Agency built a second signal station at Yakima, near Seattle, for the interception of satellite communications over the Pacific OceanECHELON – A radome at RAF Menwith Hill, a site with satellite uplink capabilities believed to be used by ECHELON.
10. Elvis Costello – Declan Patrick MacManus, better known by his stage name Elvis Costello, is an English musician, singer-songwriter, and record producer. His critically acclaimed album, My Aim Is True, was released in 1977. Shortly after recording it, he formed the Attractions as his backing band and his second album, This Years Model, was released in 1978, and was ranked number 11 by Rolling Stone on its list of the best albums from 1967–1987. His third album, Armed Forces, was released in 1979 and his first three albums all appeared on Rolling Stones list of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. Costello and the Attractions toured and recorded together for the part of a decade. Much of Costellos work since has been as a solo artist, steeped in wordplay, the vocabulary of Costellos lyrics is broad. His music has drawn on many genres, one critic described him as a pop encyclopaedia. He has won awards in his career, including a Grammy Award. In 2003, Costello and the Attractions were inducted into the Rock, in 2004, Rolling Stone ranked Costello number 80 on their list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. Costello has co-written several original songs for motion pictures, including God Give Me Strength from Grace of My Heart, for the latter, Costello was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Song and the Grammy Award for Best Song Written for Visual Media. Costello was born in 25 August 1954 at St Marys Hospital, London, the son of Lilian Alda and Ross MacManus, Costello lived in Twickenham, attending Archbishop Myers R. C. School, which is now St Marks Catholic Secondary School, in neighbouring Hounslow, with a musically inclined father, Costellos first broadcast recording was with his father in a television commercial for R. Whites Lemonade. His father wrote and sang the song, Costello provided backing vocals, the advertisement won a silver award at the 1974 International Advertising Festival. Costello moved with his Liverpool-born mother to Birkenhead, Cheshire, in 1971, there, he formed his first band, a folk duo called Rusty, with Allan Mayes. After completing secondary school at St. Francis Xaviers College he moved back to London where he formed a band called Flip City. They were active from 1974 through to early 1976, around this time, Costello adopted the stage name D. P. His father had performed under the name Day Costello, and Elvis has said in interviews that he took this name as a tribute to his father and he worked for a short period as a computer operator at the Midland Bank computer centre in Bootle. He continued to write songs and began looking for a recording contractElvis Costello – Costello at the 2012 Riot Fest, Chicago
11. History of the Falkland Islands – The history of the Falkland Islands goes back at least five hundred years, with active exploration and colonisation only taking place in the 18th century. Nonetheless, the islands have been a matter of controversy, as they have been claimed by the French, British, Spaniards, the islands were uninhabited when discovered by Europeans. France established a colony on the islands in 1764, in 1765, a British captain claimed the islands for Britain. In early 1770 a Spanish commander arrived from Argentina with five ships and 1400 soldiers forcing the British to leave Port Egmont, Britain and Spain almost went to war over the islands, but the British government decided that it should withdraw its presence from many overseas settlements in 1774. Spain, which had a garrison at Puerto Soledad on East Falklands, in 1833, the British returned to the Falkland Islands. Argentina invaded the islands on 2 April 1982, the British responded with an expeditionary force that forced the Argentines to surrender. While Amerindians from Patagonia could have visited the Falklands, the islands were uninhabited when discovered by Europeans. Recent discoveries of arrowheads in Lafonia as well as the remains of a wooden canoe provide evidence that the Yaghan people of Tierra del Fuego may have made the journey to the islands. It is not known if these are evidence of one-way journeys, however, it is not certain that the discovery predates arrival of Europeans. A Patagonian Missionary Society mission station was founded on Keppel Island in 1856, yahgan Indians were at this station from 1856 to 1898 so this may be the source of the artifacts that have been found. The presence of the warrah, Dusicyon australis, has often cited as evidence of pre-European occupation of the islands.7 million years ago. This means it is likely that the warrah arrived in the islands long before humans, the islands had no native trees when discovered but there is some ambiguous evidence of past forestation, that may be due to wood being transported by oceanic currents from Patagonia. All modern trees have been introduced by Europeans, an archipelago in the region of the Falkland Islands appeared on Portuguese maps from the early 16th century. Researchers Pepper and Pascoe cite the possibility that an unknown Portuguese expedition may have sighted the islands, maps from this period show islands known as the Sanson islands in a position that could be interpreted as the Falklands. On 9 August 1592 a severe storm battered his ship, and Davis drifted under bare masts, Davis did not provide the latitude of these islands, indicating they were 50 leagues away from the Patagonian coast. However, the latitude given was off by at least 3 degrees, errors in the latitude measured can be attributed to a simple mistake reading a cross staff divided into minutes meaning the latitude measured could be 50°48. The description of bonfires can also be attributed to fires caused by lightning. In 1925, Conor OBrian analysed the voyage of Hawkins and concluded that the land he could have sighted was Steeple Jason IslandHistory of the Falkland Islands – Map of the modern Falkland Islands
12. Giuseppe Verdi – Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi was an Italian opera composer. Verdi was born near Busseto to a family of moderate means. Verdi came to dominate the Italian opera scene after the era of Bellini, Donizetti and Rossini, whose works influenced him. In his early operas Verdi demonstrated a sympathy with the Risorgimento movement which sought the unification of Italy and he also participated briefly as an elected politician. He surprised the world by returning, after his success with the opera Aida. The baptismal register, prepared on 11 October 1813, lists his parents Carlo, additionally, it lists Verdi as being born yesterday, but since days were often considered to begin at sunset, this could have meant either 9 or 10 October. Verdi himself, following his mother, always celebrated his birthday on 9 October, Verdi had a younger sister, Giuseppa, who died aged 17 in 1833. From the age of four, Verdi was given lessons in Latin and Italian by the village schoolmaster, Baistrocchi. After learning to play the organ, he showed so much interest in music that his parents provided him with a spinet. Verdis gift for music was apparent by 1820–21 when he began his association with the local church, serving in the choir, acting as an altar boy for a while. After Baistrocchis death, Verdi, at the age of eight, Carlo Verdi was energetic in furthering his sons education. something which Verdi tended to hide in later life. He picture emerges of youthful precocity eagerly nurtured by a father and of a sustained, sophisticated. Verdi returned to Busseto regularly to play the organ on Sundays, at age 11, Verdi received schooling in Italian, Latin, the humanities, and rhetoric. By the time he was 12, he began lessons with Ferdinando Provesi, maestro di cappella at San Bartolomeo, director of the music school. This information comes from the Autobiographical Sketch which Verdi dictated to the publisher Giulio Ricordi late in life, in 1879, written, understandably, with the benefit of hindsight, it is not always reliable when dealing with issues more contentious than those of his childhood. The other director of the Philharmonic Society was Antonio Barezzi, a grocer and distiller. The young Verdi did not immediately become involved with the Philharmonic, by June 1827, he had graduated with honours from the Ginnasio and was able to focus solely on music under Provesi. By 1829–30, Verdi had established himself as a leader of the Philharmonic, none of us could rival him reported the secretary of the organisation, Giuseppe DemaldèGiuseppe Verdi – Giuseppe Verdi Portrait by Giovanni Boldini, 1886
13. Prince Harry – Prince Henry of Wales, KCVO, familiarly known as Prince Harry, is the younger son of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Diana, Princess of Wales. After an education at schools in the United Kingdom and spending parts of his gap year in Australia and Lesotho, Harry chose a military career, undergoing officer training at RMA Sandhurst. He was commissioned as a cornet into the Blues and Royals, serving temporarily with his brother, in 2007–2008, he served for 77 days in Helmand, Afghanistan, but was pulled out following publication of his presence there by an Australian magazine. He returned to Afghanistan for a 20-week deployment in 2012–2013 with the Army Air Corps and he left the army in June 2015. Harry launched the Invictus Games in 2014, and remains patron of its Foundation and he also gives patronage to several other organisations, including the HALO Trust, the London Marathon Charitable Trust, and Walking With The Wounded. Harry was born at St Marys Hospital in Paddington, London, on 15 September 1984 at 4,20 pm and he was baptised on 21 December 1984 at St Georges Chapel, Windsor Castle, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Runcie. His godparents are Prince Andrew, Lady Sarah Armstrong-Jones, Carolyn Bartholomew, Bryan Organ, Gerald Ward and Celia, Harry began to accompany his parents on official visits at an early age, his first overseas tour was with his parents to Italy in 1985. Harrys parents divorced in 1996, and his mother died following a car accident in Paris the following year, Harry and William were staying with their father at Balmoral at the time, and the Prince of Wales told his sons about their mothers death. Like his father and brother, Harry was educated at independent schools and he started at Jane Mynors nursery school and the pre-preparatory Wetherby School, both in London. Following this, he attended Ludgrove School, and, after passing the exams, was admitted to Eton College. In June 2003, Harry completed his education at Eton with two A-Levels, having decided to drop history of art after AS level and he excelled in sports, particularly polo and rugby union. Passing two A-levels, Harry was eligible to apply for a commission in the British Army. One of Harrys former teachers, Sarah Forsyth, has assessed that Harry was a weak student, both Eton and Harry denied the claims. While a tribunal made no ruling on the claim, it accepted the prince had received help in preparing his A-level expressive project. After school, Harry took a gap year, during which he spent time in Australia, working on a cattle station and he also travelled to Lesotho, where he worked with orphaned children and produced the documentary film The Forgotten Kingdom. Harry entered the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst on 8 May 2005, where he was known as Officer Cadet Wales, and joined the Alamein Company. Within a year, in April 2006, Harry completed his training and was commissioned as a Cornet in the Blues and Royals. He was given the service number 564673, on 13 April 2008, when he reached two years seniority, Harry was promoted to lieutenantPrince Harry – Prince Harry during the Invictus Games in London, September 2014
14. Irish diaspora – The Irish diaspora refers to Irish people and their descendants who live outside Ireland. This is more than the population of Ireland at its peak in the 1840s of 8.5 million. The poorest of them went to Great Britain, especially Liverpool, after 1840, emigration from Ireland became a massive, relentless, and efficiently managed national enterprise. In 1890 40% of Irish-born people were living abroad, by the 21st century, an estimated 80 million people worldwide claimed some Irish descent, which includes more than 36 million Americans who claim Irish as their primary ethnicity. As recently as the half of the nineteenth century, the majority of Irish emigrants spoke Irish as their first language. This had social and cultural consequences for the cultivation of the language abroad, the language continues to be cultivated abroad by a small minority as a literary and social medium. Joe McHugh is the Republic of Irelands Minister of State for the Diaspora, the term Irish diaspora is open to many interpretations. It has been argued the idea of an Irish diaspora, as distinct from the old identification of Irishness with Ireland itself, was influenced by the advent of global mobility and modernity. Irishness could now be identified with dispersed individuals and groups of Irish descent, but many of those individuals were the product of complex ethnic intermarriage in America and elsewhere, complicating the idea of a single line of descent. Irishness might then rely primarily on identification with an Irish diaspora. The Government of Ireland defines the Irish diaspora as all persons of Irish nationality who habitually reside outside of the island of Ireland and this includes Irish citizens who have emigrated abroad and their children, who are Irish citizens by descent under Irish law. It also includes their grandchildren in cases where they were registered as Irish citizens in the Foreign Births Register held in every Irish diplomatic mission, under this legal definition, the Irish diaspora is considerably smaller—some 3 million persons, of whom 1.2 million are Irish-born emigrants. This is still a large ratio for any country, however, the usage of Irish diaspora is generally not limited by citizenship status, thus leading to an estimated membership of up to 80 million persons—the second and more emotive definition. The right to register as an Irish citizen terminates at the third generation and this contrasts with citizenship law in Italy, Israel, Japan and other countries which practice jus sanguinis or otherwise permit members of the diaspora to register as citizens. There are people of Irish descent abroad who reject inclusion in an Irish diaspora and they may see the diasporic label as something used by the Irish government for its own purposes. The Attacotti, who were recruited into the Roman army. Following the withdrawal of the Roman army, the Irish began increasing their footholds in Britain, in time, the Irish colonies became independent, merged with the Pictish kingdom, and formed the basis of modern Scotland. The traditionally Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland are still referred to in the Gaelic language as a Ghàidhealtachd, Irish monks, and the Celtic church, pioneered a wave of Irish emigration into Great Britain, and continental EuropeIrish diaspora – 'Emigrants Leave Ireland', engraving by Henry Doyle (1827–1892), from Mary Frances Cusack's Illustrated History of Ireland, 1868
15. John Major – Sir John Major, KG, CH, PC is a British politician who served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1990 to 1997. A cabinet minister from 1987, he served Margaret Thatcher in the Treasury, Major was Member of Parliament for Huntingdon from 1979 to 2001. He is currently the oldest living former Prime Minister, following the death of Thatcher on 8 April 2013, at the beginning of his premiership, Major presided over British participation in the Gulf War in March 1991 and negotiated the Maastricht Treaty in December 1991. Shortly after this, even though a supporter of the ERM. This event led to a loss of confidence in Conservative economic policies, Major went on to lose the 1997 general election months later, in one of the largest electoral defeats since the Great Reform Act of 1832. After defeat, Major resigned as Prime Minister and was succeeded as Leader of the Conservative Party by William Hague and he went on to retire from active politics, leaving the House of Commons at the 2001 general election. Major was born in 1943 at St Helier Hospital in Sutton, Surrey and he was christened John Roy Major but only John was recorded on his birth certificate. He used his name until the early 1980s. He attended primary school at Cheam Common and from 1954 he attended Rutlish School, in 1955, with his fathers garden ornaments business in decline, the family moved to Brixton. He also credited a chance meeting with former Prime Minister Clement Attlee on the Kings Road shortly afterwards, Major left school at the age of 16 in 1959 with three O-levels in History, English Language and English Literature. He later gained three more O-levels by correspondence course, in the British Constitution, Mathematics and Economics, Majors first job was as a clerk in the insurance brokerage firm Pratt & Sons in 1959. Major joined the Young Conservatives in Brixton at this time, Major was almost 19 years old when his father died at the age of 82 on 27 March 1962. His mother died eight and a years later in September 1970 at the age of 65. After Major became Prime Minister it was misreported that his failure to get a job as a bus conductor resulted from his failing to pass a maths test and he had in fact passed all of the necessary tests but had been passed over owing to his height. After a period of unemployment, Major started working at the London Electricity Board in 1963 which is incidentally his successor as Prime Minister, Tony Blair. He later decided to undertake a course in banking. Major took up a post as an executive at the Standard Chartered Bank in May 1965 and he was sent to work in Jos, Nigeria, by the bank in 1967 and he nearly died in a car accident there. Major was interested in politics from an early age, encouraged by fellow Conservative Derek Stone, he started giving speeches on a soap-box in Brixton MarketJohn Major – Major in October 2014
16. Kylie Minogue – Kylie Ann Minogue, OBE, often known simply as Kylie, is an Australian singer, songwriter, dancer and actress. She achieved recognition starring in the Australian soap opera Neighbours, where she played tomboy mechanic Charlene Robinson, since then, Minogue has been a recording artist and has achieved commercial success and critical acclaim in the entertainment industry. Minogue has been recognised with several nicknames including Princess of Pop. She is recognised as the highest-selling Australian artist of all time by the Australian Recording Industry Association, born and raised in Melbourne, Australia, Minogue has for many years worked and lived in London. She signed to PWL in 1987 and released her first studio album Kylie the next year, in 1992, she left PWL and signed with Deconstruction Records and where she created her self-titled studio album and Impossible Princess, both of which received positive reviews from critics. Returning to more mainstream dance-oriented music, Minogue signed to Parlophone and her 2001 single Cant Get You Out of My Head became one of the most successful singles during the 2000s, selling over ten million units. It is recognised as her song and was named the catchiest song ever by Yahoo. Her album Fever was a hit in countries, including the United States. In 2005, while Minogue was on her Showgirl, The Greatest Hits Tour, after treatment, she resumed the tour under the title Showgirl, The Homecoming Tour, which critics viewed as a triumph. Minogue resumed work as an actress and appeared in the films Moulin Rouge, Jack & Diane, and Holy Motors. In 2014, she appeared as a judge on the series of The Voice UK. Her other ventures include product endorsements, children books and fashion, as of 2015, Minogue has had worldwide record sales of more than 80 million. She has mounted several successful and critically acclaimed concert world tours and she was appointed OBE by Charles, Prince of Wales in 2008. She was appointed by the French government as a Chevalier of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres for her contribution to the enrichment of French culture, Minogue was awarded an honorary Doctor of Health Science degree by Anglia Ruskin University for her work in raising awareness for breast cancer. In November 2011, on the 25th anniversary of the ARIA Music Awards, in December 2016, Billboard ranked her as the 18th most successful dance artist of all-time. Kylie was born to Ronald Charles Minogue and Carol Ann Jones in Melbourne, Australia and her father is a fifth generation Australian, and has Irish ancestry, while her mother came from Maesteg, Wales. Jones had lived in Wales until age ten when her mother and father, Millie and Denis Jones, just before Kylies birth, Ron qualified as an accountant and worked through several jobs while Carol worked as a professional dancer. Kylies younger brother, Brendan, is a cameraman in Australia, while her younger sister Dannii Minogue is also a singerKylie Minogue – Minogue at an amfAR event, 2015
17. Kangol – Kangol is a British clothing company famous for its headwear. Founded in the 1920s, by Jewish Polish World War I veteran Jacques Spreiregen, Kangol produced hats for workers, golfers, and especially soldiers. In 1938, Spreiregen, who was working in London as an importer, opened a factory at Cleator, Cumbria and they were the major beret suppliers to the armed forces during World War II, including famously Field Marshal Montgomery. During and after the war, Kangol berets were the height of fashion, the company also supplied uniformed organizations such as the Scout Association. The Kangaroo logo was adopted by Kangol in 1983 because Americans were always asking where they could get the Kangaroo hat, no Kangol hat has ever actually been manufactured in Australia. I. G. The brand was popularized even more by the 1991 movie New Jack City, the release of more consciously stylish products in the 1990s such as the furgora Spitfire, was helped by its presence upon the head of Samuel L. Jackson in 1997. Kevin Eubanks, bandleader for The Tonight Show with Jay Leno, in 2009, Eminem wore the Cotton Twill Army Cap Kangol hat on his Beautiful video. Kangol has been owned by Sports Direct since 2006, when acquired the brand from private equity fund August Equity Trust. Licences to manufacture and sell Kangol apparel have been sold to different companies including D2. The global rights to Kangol hats have been held by American hatmakers Bollman Hat Company since 2002 and it was announced in February 2009 that Bollman were reviewing their worldwide operations, putting 33 jobs and the future of the Kangol head office in Cleator in doubt. On 6 April 2009, it was announced that the factory would be converted to a warehouse with the loss of 25 jobs. Only seven employees now remain employed at the original site. However, hats will continue to be made at their sites in Eastern Europe, slick Rick references Kangol in his songs La Di Da Di and Mona Lisa. Boogie Boys 1980s hip hop band, reference Kangol in their song A Fly Girl, the lyrics line reads, Girls look fly in Kangols. Wesley Snipes as Nino Brown and his gang, the Cash Money Brothers, Samuel L. Jackson as Ordell Robbie wore a Kangol back to front in the movie Jackie Brown. Tyler James Williams as Chris is shown wearing a Kangol hat in the show Everybody Hates Chris in two episodes called Everybody Hates DJs and Everybody Hates Gambling, rapper Dana Dane tells a story of how his straw hat turns into a Kangol in his song, Cinderfella Dana Dane. The movie Straight Outta Compton features a scene where Ice Cube gets into a dispute with a New York rapper, Official website Official store Bollman Hats official site Working for Kangol—BBC Cumbria Making a Beret for Bette Davis—BBC CumbriaKangol – General Montgomery, wearing his iconic Kangol beret
18. Mohamed Al-Fayed – Mohamed Al-Fayed is an Egyptian business magnate. Fayeds business interests include ownership of Hôtel Ritz Paris and formerly Harrods Department Store, Al-Fayed sold his ownership of Fulham F. C. to Shahid Khan in 2013. Fayed has four siblings, Ali, Salah, Soaad and Safia, Fayeds eldest son, Dodi, from his first marriage to Samira Khashoggi, died in a car crash in Paris with Diana, Princess of Wales and driver Henri Paul on 31 August 1997. Fayed married Finnish socialite and former model Heini Wathén in 1985, with whom he has four children, Jasmine, Karim, Camilla, in 2013, Fayeds wealth was estimated at US$1.4 billion, making him the 1, 031st-richest person in the world in 2013. Born on 27 January 1929 in Bakos, Alexandria, Egypt and he was married for two years, from 1954 to 1956, to Samira Khashoggi. Fayed worked for his wifes brother, Saudi Arabian arms dealer, Fayeds addition of Al- to his name, which implies aristocratic origins, has led to Private Eye nicknaming him the Phoney Pharaoh. According to his biographer Tom Bower, Fayed also claimed to have come from a town named Fayed after his family, Fayed and his brothers founded a shipping company in Egypt before moving its headquarters to Genoa, Italy with additional offices in London. Around 1964 Fayed entered a relationship with Haitian leader François Duvalier, known as Papa Doc Duvalier. He also associated with the geologist George de Mohrenschildt, Fayed terminated his stay in Haiti six months later when a sample of crude oil provided by Haitian associates proved to be low-grade molasses. It was then that Fayed moved to England where he lived in central London, in the mid 1960s, Fayed met the ruler of Dubai, Sheikh Rashid al Makhtoum who entrusted Fayed with helping transform Dubai. Fayed introduced British companies like the Costain Group, Bernard Sunley & Sons and he also became a financial adviser to the then Sultan of Brunei Omar Ali Saifuddien III, in 1966. Fayed set up IMS in 1968 in Dubai and he briefly joined the board of the mining conglomerate Lonrho in 1975 but left after a disagreement. In 1979, Fayed bought The Ritz hotel in Paris, France for US$30 million. In 1984, Fayed and his brothers purchased a 30 percent stake in House of Fraser, a group included the famous London store Harrods, from Roland Tiny Rowland. In 1985, he and his brothers bought the remaining 70 percent of House of Fraser for £615m, Rowland claimed the Fayed brothers had lied about their background and wealth and put pressure on the government to investigate them. A Department of Trade and Industry inquiry into the Fayeds was launched, the DTIs subsequent report was critical, but no action was taken against the Fayeds, and while many believed the contents of the report, others felt it was politically motivated. In 1998, Rowland accused Fayed of stealing papers and jewels from his Harrods safe deposit box, Fayed was arrested, but the charges were dropped. Fayed settled the dispute with a payment to his widow, he sued the Metropolitan Police for false arrest in 2002Mohamed Al-Fayed – Fayed in 2011
19. Nancy Reagan – Nancy Davis Reagan was an American actress, and the wife of the 40th President of the United States, Ronald Reagan. She served as the First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989 and she was born in New York City. After her parents separated, she lived in Maryland with an aunt and she moved to Chicago when her mother remarried in 1929, and later took the name Davis from her stepfather. As Nancy Davis, she was a Hollywood actress in the 1940s and 1950s, Night into Morning, and Donovans Brain. In 1952, she married Ronald Reagan, who was president of the Screen Actors Guild. Reagan was the First Lady of California when her husband was Governor from 1967 to 1975, Reagan became First Lady of the United States in January 1981, following her husbands victory in the 1980 presidential election. She was criticized early in his first term, largely due to her decision to replace the White House china and she aimed to restore a Kennedy-esque glamour to the White House following years of lax formality, and her interest in high-end fashion garnered much attention as well as criticism. She championed recreational drug prevention causes by founding the Just Say No drug awareness campaign and she had a strong influence on her husband, and played a role in a few of his personnel and diplomatic decisions. The Reagans retired to their home in Bel Air, Los Angeles, Reagan devoted most of her time to caring for her husband, who was diagnosed with Alzheimers disease in 1994, until his death at the age of 93 on June 5,2004. Reagan remained active within the Reagan Library and in politics, particularly in support of stem cell research. Anne Frances Robbins was born on July 6,1921, at Sloane Hospital for Women and she was the only child of Kenneth Seymour Robbins, a farmer turned car salesman who had been born into a once-prosperous family, and his actress wife, radio actress Edith Prescott Luckett. Her godmother was silent-film-star Alla Nazimova, from birth, she was commonly called Nancy. She lived her first two years in Flushing, Queens, in New York City, in a house on Roosevelt Avenue between 149th and 150th Streets. Her parents separated soon after her birth and were divorced in 1928, after their separation, her mother traveled the country to pursue acting jobs and Reagan was raised in Bethesda, Maryland, for six years by her aunt, Virginia Luckett, and uncle, Audley Gailbraith. Nancy later described longing for her mother during those years, My favorite times were when Mother had a job in New York, in 1929, her mother married Loyal Edward Davis, a prominent conservative neurosurgeon who moved the family to Chicago. Nancy and her stepfather got along well, she later wrote that he was a man of great integrity who exemplified old-fashioned values. He formally adopted her in 1935, and she would refer to him as her father. At the time of the adoption, her name was changed to Nancy DavisNancy Reagan – First Lady Nancy Reagan in 1983
20. Nostradamus – Michel de Nostredame, usually Latinised as Nostradamus, was a French physician and reputed seer who published collections of prophecies that have since become widely famous. He is best known for his book Les Propheties, the first edition of which appeared in 1555, the earliest ancestor who can be identified on the paternal side is Astruge of Carcassonne, who died about 1420. Michels known siblings included Delphine, Jean, Pierre, Hector, Louis, Bertrand, Jean II, at the age of 15 Nostredame entered the University of Avignon to study for his baccalaureate. After little more than a year, he was forced to leave Avignon when the university closed its doors during an outbreak of the plague, after leaving Avignon, Nostredame, by his own account, traveled the countryside for eight years from 1521 researching herbal remedies. In 1529, after years as an apothecary, he entered the University of Montpellier to study for a doctorate in medicine. The expulsion document, BIU Montpellier, Register S2 folio 87, however, some of his publishers and correspondents would later call him Doctor. After his expulsion, Nostredame continued working, presumably still as an apothecary, in 1531 Nostredame was invited by Jules-César Scaliger, a leading Renaissance scholar, to come to Agen. There he married a woman of uncertain name, who bore him two children, in 1534 his wife and children died, presumably from the plague. After their deaths, he continued to travel, passing through France, finally, in 1547, he settled in Salon-de-Provence in the house which exists today, where he married a rich widow named Anne Ponsarde, with whom he had six children—three daughters and three sons. But it seems he could have dabbled in horoscopes, necromancy, scrying, following popular trends, he wrote an almanac for 1550, for the first time Latinising his name from Nostredame to Nostradamus. He was so encouraged by the success that he decided to write one or more annually. Taken together, they are known to have contained at least 6,338 prophecies, as well as at least eleven annual calendars, all of them starting on 1 January and not, as is sometimes supposed, in March. When obliged to attempt this himself on the basis of the tables of the day, he frequently made errors. He then began his project of writing a book of one thousand mainly French quatrains, for technical reasons connected with their publication in three installments, the last fifty-eight quatrains of the seventh Century have not survived in any extant edition. The quatrains, published in a book titled Les Propheties, received a reaction when they were published. Some people thought Nostradamus was a servant of evil, a fake, or insane, catherine de Médicis, wife of King Henry II of France, was one of Nostradamus greatest admirers. After reading his almanacs for 1555, which hinted at unnamed threats to the family, she summoned him to Paris to explain them. In 1538 he came into conflict with the Church in Agen after an Inquisitor visited the area looking for Anti-Catholic viewsNostradamus – Nostradamus: original portrait by his son Cesar
21. New Age – The New Age is a term applied to a range of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices that developed in Western nations during the 1970s. Precise scholarly definitions of the New Age differ in their emphasis, although analytically often considered to be religious, those involved in it typically prefer the designation of spiritual and rarely use the term New Age themselves. Many scholars of the subject refer to it as the New Age movement, although others contest this term, such prominent occult influences include the work of Emanuel Swedenborg and Franz Mesmer, as well as the ideas of Spiritualism, New Thought, and Theosophy. Although the exact origins of the phenomenon remain contested, it is agreed that it developed in the 1970s and it expanded and grew largely in the 1980s and 1990s, in particular within the United States. By the start of the 21st century, the term New Age was increasingly rejected within this milieu, despite its highly eclectic nature, a number of beliefs commonly found within the New Age have been identified. Theologically, the New Age typically adopts a belief in a form of divinity which imbues all of the universe. There is thus a strong emphasis on the authority of the self. This is accompanied by a belief in a wide variety of semi-divine non-human entities, such as angels and masters, with whom humans can communicate. There is also a focus on healing, particularly using forms of alternative medicine. Those involved in the New Age have been primarily from middle, the New Age has generated criticism from established Christian organisations as well as modern Pagan and indigenous communities. From the 1990s onward, the New Age became the subject of research by scholars of religious studies. The New Age phenomenon has proved difficult to define, with much scholarly disagreement as to its scope, the scholars Steven J. Sutcliffe and Ingvild Sælid Gilhus have even suggested that it remains among the most disputed of categories in the study of religion. According to Hammer, this New Age was a fluid and fuzzy cultic milieu and he thus argued against the idea that the New Age could be considered a unified ideology or Weltanschauung, although he believed that it could be considered a more of less unified movement. Conversely, various scholars have suggested that the New Age is insufficiently homogenous to be regarded as a singular movement. There is no authority within the New Age phenomenon that can determine what counts as New Age. Many of those groups and individuals who could analytically be categorised as part of the New Age reject the term New Age in reference to themselves, some even express active hostility to the term. Rather than terming themselves New Agers, those involved in this milieu commonly describe themselves as spiritual seekers, other figures have argued that the sheer diversity of the New Age renders it too problematic for such use. In discussing the New Age, academics have varyingly referred to New Age spirituality and those involved in the New Age rarely consider it to be religion—negatively associating that term solely with organized religion—and instead describe their practices as spiritualityNew Age – A New Age Rainbow Gathering in Bosnia, 2007
22. President of Ireland – The President of Ireland is the head of state of Ireland and the Supreme Commander of the Irish Defence Forces. The President holds office for seven years, and can be elected for a maximum of two terms, unless a candidate runs unopposed, the President is directly elected by the people. The presidency is largely a ceremonial office, but the President does exercise certain limited powers with absolute discretion, the President acts as a representative of the Irish state. Former President Mary McAleese described the office as the guardian of the constitution, the Presidents official residence is Áras an Uachtaráin, which is located in the Phoenix Park in Dublin. The office was established by the Constitution of Ireland in 1937, the current president is His Excellency Michael D Higgins, who was elected on 29 October 2011. His inauguration was held on 11 November 2011, President Higgins is a veteran left-wing politician and human rights campaigner. As a member of the Labour Party, he has served in both houses of the Oireachtas, President Higgins is also a poet and speaks the Irish language fluently. The Constitution of Ireland provides for a system of government. The President is formally one of three parts of the Oireachtas, which also comprises Dáil Éireann and Seanad Éireann, unlike most other parliamentary democracies, the President is not even the nominal chief executive. Rather, executive authority is vested in the Government. The Government is obliged, however, to keep the President generally informed on matters of domestic, most of the functions of the President may be carried out only in accordance with the strict instructions of the Constitution, or the binding advice of the Government. The President does, however, possess certain personal powers that may be exercised at his or her discretion, the main functions are prescribed by the Constitution, Appoints the government The President formally appoints the Taoiseach and other ministers, and accepts their resignations. The Taoiseach is appointed upon the nomination of the Dáil, ministers are dismissed on the advice of the Taoiseach and the Taoiseach must, unless there is a dissolution of the Dáil, resign upon losing the confidence of the house. Appoints the judiciary The President appoints the judges to all Courts of the Republic of Ireland, convenes and dissolves the Dáil This power is exercised on the advice of the Taoiseach, government or Dáil approval is not needed. The President may only refuse a dissolution when a Taoiseach has lost the confidence of the Dáil, signs bills into law The President cannot veto a bill that the Dáil and the Seanad have adopted. However, he/she may refer it to the Supreme Court to test its constitutionality, if the Supreme Court upholds the bill, the President must sign it. If, however, it is found to be unconstitutional, the President will decline to give assent, represents the state in foreign affairs This power is exercised only on the advice of the Government. The President accredits ambassadors and receives the letters of credence of foreign diplomats, ministers sign international treaties in the Presidents namePresident of Ireland – Incumbent Michael D. Higgins since 11 November 2011
23. Rajiv Gandhi – Rajiv Ratna Gandhi was the Prime Minister of India, serving from 1984 to 1989. He took office after the 1984 assassination of his mother, Prime Minister Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi, Gandhi was a scion of the politically powerful Nehru–Gandhi family, which had been associated with the Indian National Congress party. For much of his childhood, his maternal grandfather Jawaharlal Nehru was Prime Minister, Gandhi attended college in the United Kingdom. He returned to India in 1966 and became a pilot for the state-owned Indian Airlines. In 1968 he married Sonia Gandhi, the couple settled in Delhi to a life with their children Rahul. For much of the 1970s, his mother was prime minister and his brother Sanjay a MP, despite this, after Sanjays death in an aeroplane crash in 1980, Gandhi reluctantly entered politics at the behest of Indira. The following year he won his brothers Parliamentary seat of Amethi, as part of his political grooming, Rajiv was made a general secretary of the Congress party and given significant responsibility in organising the 1982 Asian Games. On the morning of 31 October 1984, his mother was assassinated by two of her bodyguards, later day, Gandhi was appointed Prime Minister. His leadership was tested over the few days as organised mobs rioted against the Sikh community. That December, an almost nationwide sympathy vote for the Congress party helped it win its largest Lok Sabha majority to date,411 seats out of 542. Rajiv Gandhis period in office was mired in controversies, perhaps the greatest crises were the Bhopal disaster, in mid-1987 the Bofors scandal damaged his corruption-free image and resulted in a major defeat for his party in the 1989 election. Gandhi remained Congress President until the elections in 1991, while campaigning for the elections, he was assassinated by a suicide bomber from the LTTE. His widow Sonia became the president of the Congress party in 1998 and his son Rahul is a Member of Parliament and Vice President of the Congress. In 1991 the Indian government posthumously awarded Gandhi the Bharat Ratna, at the India Leadership Conclave in 2009, the Revolutionary Leader of Modern India award was conferred posthumously on Gandhi. Rajiv Gandhi was born in Bombay on 20 August 1944 to Indira, in 1951, Rajiv and Sanjay were admitted to Shiv Niketan school, where the teachers said Rajiv was shy and introverted, and greatly enjoyed painting and drawing. At the age of six, he underwent surgery on his tonsils and he was admitted to the Welham Boys School and Doon School in 1954, where Sanjay joined him two years later. Rajiv was sent to London in 1961 to study A-levels, in 1962, he was offered a place at Trinity College, Cambridge, to study engineering. Rajiv stayed at Cambridge until 1965, but did not finish his degree, Gandhi returned to India in 1966, the year his mother became Prime MinisterRajiv Gandhi – Rajiv Gandhi
24. Viz (comics) – Viz is a popular British comic magazine founded in 1979 by Chris Donald. It parodies British comics of the period, notably The Beano and The Dandy. It also sends up tabloid newspapers, with mockeries of articles, occasionally, it satirises current events and politicians, but has no particular political standpoint. Its success in the early 1990s led to the appearance of numerous rivals crudely copying the format Viz pioneered and it once enjoyed being the third most popular magazine in the UK, but ABC-audited sales have since dropped, to an average of 50,750 per issue in 2014. Editor Chris Donald himself cannot remember exactly where the name of the magazine comes from, what had begun as a few pages, photocopied and sold to friends, became a publishing phenomenon. To meet the demand, and to make up for Brownlows diminishing interest in contributing, after a few years of steady sales, mostly in the North East of England, circulation had grown to around 5,000. As the magazines popularity grew, the bedroom became too small, Donald also hired another freelance artist, Simon Thorp, whose work had impressed him. For over a decade, these four would be the nucleus of Viz, in 1985, a deal was signed with Virgin Books to publish the comic nationally every two months. In 1987, the Virgin director responsible for Viz, John Brown, set up his own publishing company, John Brown Publishing, sales exceeded a million by the end of 1989, making Viz for a time one of the biggest-selling magazines in the country. Inevitably, a number of imitations of Viz were launched, but these never matched the original in popularity, and rarely in quality. In June 2001, the comic was acquired as part of a £6.4 million deal by I Feel Good, a company belonging to ex-Loaded editor James Brown, in 2003, it changed hands again when IFG were bought out by Dennis Publishing. Soon after, Simon Donald quit his role as co-editor, in an attempt to develop a career in television. For a complete list, see List of Viz comic strips Many Viz characters have featured in long-running strips, becoming known in their own right. Others are based on stereotypes of British culture, mostly via working class characters, such as Biffa Bacon, Cockney Wanker, in addition to this, the comic also contains plenty of in jokes referring to people and places in and around Newcastle upon Tyne. These very often have extremely surreal or bizarre storylines, and often feature celebrities, the latter type often follows the style of Enid Blyton and other popular childrens adventure stories of the 1950s. The one-off strips often have ludicrously alliterative and/or rhyming titles, for example, Reverend Milos Lino Rhino, Maxs Laxative Saxophone Taxi, some strips are built entirely around absurd puns, such as Noahs Arse and Feet and Two Reg. Most of the stories take place in the town of Fulchester. Fulchester was originally the setting of the British TV programme Crown Court before the name was adopted by the Viz team, billy the Fish plays for Fulchester United F. CViz (comics) – Cover of Issue 199
25. 1964 – January – The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland is dissolved. Senator Barry Goldwater announces that he seek the Republican nomination for President. In the first meeting between leaders of the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches since the 15th century, Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras I of Constantinople meet in Jerusalem. January 7 – A British firm, the Leyland Motor Corp. announces the sale of 450 buses to the Cuban government, January 8 – In his first State of the Union Address, U. S. President Lyndon Johnson declares a War on Poverty. S. The Beatles is released by Chicagos Vee-Jay Records to get the jump on Capitol Records release of Meet the Beatles, the two record companies fight over Vee-Jays release of this album in court. January 11 – United States Surgeon General Luther Terry reports that smoking may be hazardous to ones health, January 12 Zanzibar Revolution, The predominantly Arab government of Zanzibar is overthrown by African nationalist rebels, a United States Navy destroyer evacuates 61 U. S. citizens. Routine U. S. naval patrols of the South China Sea begin, January 13 – In Manchester, New Hampshire, 14-year-old Pamela Mason is murdered. Edward Coolidge is tried and convicted of the crime, but the conviction is set aside by the landmark Fourth Amendment case Coolidge vs, opens in New Yorks St. James Theatre. John Glenn, the first American to orbit the Earth, resigns from NASA, January 17 John Glenn announces that he will seek the Democratic nomination for U. S. Roald Dahls Charlie and the Chocolate Factory is published by Alfred A. Knopf and it will later be published by George Allen & Unwin in the United Kingdom on November 23. January 18 – Plans to build the New York City World Trade Center are announced, January 20 – Meet the Beatles. The first Beatles album from Capitol Records in the United States, is released ten days after Chicagos Vee-Jay Records releases Introducing, the two record companies battle it out in court for months, eventually coming to a conclusion. January 22 – Kenneth Kaunda is inaugurated as the first Prime Minister of Northern Rhodesia, January 23 Pope Paul VI institutes the World Day of Prayer for Vocations. During this celebration the Pope reminds the universal Church that still today salvation comes to everyone and it continues to be celebrated every Fourth Sunday of Easter also known as Good Shepherd Sunday. Arthur Millers After the Fall opens Off-Broadway, a semi-autobiographical work, it arouses controversy over his portrayal of late ex-wife Marilyn Monroe. January 27 France and the Peoples Republic of China announce their decision to establish diplomatic relations, Senator Margaret Chase Smith,66, announces her candidacy for the Republican presidential nomination. January 28 – A U. S. Air Force jet training plane that strays into East Germany is shot down by Soviet fighters near Erfurt, January 29–February 9 – The 1964 Winter Olympics are held in Innsbruck, Austria. January 29 The Soviet Union launches 2 scientific satellites, Elektron I and II, Ranger 6 is launched by NASA, on a mission to carry television cameras and crash-land on the Moon1964 – January 8: U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson 's War on Poverty
26. 1990s – The 1990s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1,1990, and ended on December 31,1999. Culturally, the 1990s are characterized by the rise of multiculturalism and alternative media, movements such as grunge, the rave scene and hip hop spread around the world to young people during that decade, aided by then-new technology such as cable television and the World Wide Web. The United States also saw a revival in the use of the death penalty in the 1990s. The dot-com bubble of 1997–2000 brought wealth to some entrepreneurs before its crash between 2000 and 2001, New ethnic conflicts emerged in Africa, the Balkans, and the Caucasus, the former two which led to the Rwandan and Bosnian genocides, respectively. Zaire is renamed the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Second Congo War starts in 1998 in central Africa and includes 50 different cultures and 7 different nations. The Gulf War – Iraq was left in debt after the 1980s war with Iran. President Saddam Hussein accused Kuwait of flooding the market with oil, as a result, on 2 August 1990, Iraqi forces invaded and conquered Kuwait. The UN immediately condemned the action, and a force led by the United States was sent to the Persian Gulf. Aerial bombing of Iraq began in January 1991, and a month later, in the aftermath of the war, the Kurds in the north of Iraq and the Shiites in the south rose up in revolt, and Saddam Hussein barely managed to hold onto power. Until the US invasion in 2003, Iraq was cut off much of the world. The Chechen wars break out in the 1990s, The First Chechen War – the conflict was fought between the Russian Federation and the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, during the war Russian forces largely recaptured the separatist region of Chechnya. The campaign largely reversed the outcome of the First Chechen War, the Kargil War – In May 1999, Pakistan sent troops covertly to occupy strategic peaks in Kashmir. A month later the Kargil War with India results in a fiasco for Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif. The incident leads to a coup in October, in which Sharif is ousted by Army Chief Pervez Musharraf. This conflict remains the only war fought between two declared nuclear powers, the Kosovo War, War between Albanian separatists and Yugoslav military and Serb paramilitary forces in Kosovo begin in 1996 and escalates in 1998 with increasing reports of atrocities taking place. After weeks of bombing, Yugoslavia submits to NATOs demands and NATO forces occupy Kosovo, the Yugoslav Wars would become notorious for numerous war crimes and human rights violations such as ethnic cleansing and genocide committed by all sides. Ten-Day War – a brief conflict between Slovenian TO and the Yugoslav Peoples Army following Slovenias declaration of independence. Bosnian War – the war involved several ethnically defined factions within Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats as well as a smaller Bosniak faction led by Fikret Abdić1990s – The Gulf War.
27. 1984 – January 1 Brunei becomes a fully independent state. Bell System in the United States is broken up, January 5 – President Ronald Reagan nominates Elizabeth Dole as U. S. Secretary of Transportation. January 7 – Brunei becomes the member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. January 10 The United States and the Vatican restore full diplomatic relations, the Victoria Agreement is signed–institutionalising the Indian Ocean Commission. January 18 – The Mitsui Miike coal mine explosion at Ōmuta, Fukuoka, Japan, January 22 – The national release of the iconic 1984 advertisement January 24 – Apple Computer places the Macintosh personal computer on sale in the United States. February 1 – Medicare comes into effect in Australia, february 3 Dr. John Buster and the research team at Harbor–UCLA Medical Center announce historys first embryo transfer from one woman to another, resulting in a live birth. STS-41-B, Space Shuttle Challenger is launched on the 10th Space Shuttle mission, february 7 – Astronauts Bruce McCandless II and Robert L. Stewart make the first untethered space walk. February 8–19 – The 1984 Winter Olympics are held in Sarajevo, february 13 – Konstantin Chernenko succeeds the late Yuri Andropov as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. February 26 – The United States Marine Corps pulls out of Beirut, february 29 – Canadian prime minister, Pierre Trudeau, announces his retirement. March 5 – Iran accuses Iraq of using weapons, the United Nations condemns their use on March 30. March 6 – A year-long strike action begins in the British coal industry, March 14 – Sinn Féins Gerry Adams and three others are seriously injured in a gun attack by the Ulster Volunteer Force. March 16 – The United States Central Intelligence Agency station chief in Beirut, William Francis Buckley, is kidnapped by the Islamic Jihad Organization and later dies in captivity. March 22 – Teachers at the McMartin Preschool in Manhattan Beach, California are charged with Satanic ritual abuse of the school children, March 23 – General Rahimuddin Khan becomes the first man in Pakistans history to rule over two of its provinces, after becoming interim Governor of Sindh. March 25 Pope John Paul II consecrates the world to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, in Fátima, the Institute of the Incarnate Word is founded under Fr. April 1 – Death of Marvin Gaye, Marvin Gaye is shot to death by his father, april 2 – Indian Squadron Leader Rakesh Sharma is launched into space, aboard the Soyuz T-11. April 4 – U. S. President Ronald Reagan calls for a ban on chemical weapons. April 9 – The 56th Academy Awards, hosted by Johnny Carson, are held at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion, terms of Endearment wins Best Picture and 4 other Academy Awards. April 12 – Palestinian gunmen take Israeli bus number 300 hostage, Israeli special forces storm the bus, freeing the hostages1984 – Diretas Já demonstration held in São Paulo.
28. 2000s (decade) – The 2000s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1,2000, and ended on December 31,2009. The growth of the Internet contributed to globalization during the decade, in the English-speaking world, a name for the decade was never universally accepted in the same manner as for decades such as the 80s, the 90s, etc. Orthographically, the decade can be written as the 2000s or the 00s, some people read 2000s as two-thousands, and thus simply refer to the decade as the Two-Thousands, the Twenty Hundreds, or the Twenty-ohs. Some read it as the 00s, while others referred to it as the Zeros, on January 1,2000, the BBC listed the noughties, as a potential moniker for the new decade. This has become a name for the decade in the UK and Australia. Others have advocated the term the aughts, a widely used at the beginning of the 20th century for its first decade. The American Dialect Society holds an annual poll for word of the year. For 2009, the winner in the least likely to succeed category was Any name of the decade 2000–2009, such as, Noughties, Aughties, Oughties, etc. When the 20- is dropped, the years within the decade are usually referred to as starting with an oh. The option aught-seven, for reason, has never caught on idiomatically. When the 20- is retained, two options are available in speech, both of which have idiomatic currency, two thousand seven in American English or twenty-oh-seven, during the 2000s decade, it was more common to hear the first pattern than the second. The War on Terror and War in Afghanistan began after the September 11 attacks in 2001, the International Criminal Court was formed in 2002. A United States-led coalition invaded Iraq, and the Iraq War led to the end of Saddam Husseins rule as Iraqi President, Al-Qaeda and affiliated Islamist militant groups performed terrorist acts throughout the decade. These acts included the 2004 Madrid train bombings, 7/7 London bombings in 2005, the European Union expanded its sanctions amid Irans failure to comply with its transparency obligations under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and United Nations resolutions. Additional armed conflict occurred in the Middle East, including between Israel and Hezbollah, then with Israel and Hamas, cooperative international rescue missions by many countries from around the world helped in efforts by the most affected nations to rebuild and recover from the devastation. An enormous loss of life and property came in 2005. The resulting political fallout was severely damaging to the George W. Bush administration because of its failure to act promptly and effectively. In 2008, Barack Obama was elected President of the United States, the campaigns were launched by the United States, with support from NATO and other allies, following the September 11,2001 attacks that were carried out by al-Qaeda2000s (decade) – The World Trade Center in New York City as seen on September 11, 2001. Flight 175 has just flown into the South Tower.
29. 1997 – January 17 – A Delta II rocket carrying a military GPS payload explodes, shortly after liftoff from Cape Canaveral. January 18 – In northwest Rwanda, Hutu militia members kill 6 Spanish aid workers,3 soldiers, january 19 – Yasser Arafat returns to Hebron after more than 30 years, and joins celebrations over the handover of the last Israeli-controlled West Bank city. January 20 – Bill Clinton is sworn in for a term as President of the United States. January 22 – Madeleine Albright becomes the first female Secretary of State, january 23 – Mir Aimal Kasi is sentenced to death for a 1993 assault rifle attack outside CIA headquarters that killed 2 and wounded 3. January 27 – It is revealed that French museums had nearly 2,000 pieces of art that had been stolen by Nazis, february 4 On their way to Lebanon,2 Israeli troop-transport helicopters collide, killing 73. After at first contesting the results, Serbian President Slobodan Milošević recognizes opposition victories in the November 1996 elections, British Home Secretary Michael Howard informs Moors Murderer Myra Hindley that she will never be released from prison. Mr. Howard has made the decision in agreement with a made by his predecessor David Waddington in 1990. February 5 The so-called Big Three banks in Switzerland announce the creation of a $71 million fund to aid Holocaust survivors, morgan Stanley and Dean Witter Reynolds investment banks announce a $10 billion merger. February 10 The United States Army suspends Gene C, mcKinney, Sergeant Major of the Army, its top-ranking enlisted soldier, after hearing allegations of sexual misconduct. Sandline affair, Australian newspapers publish stories that the government of Papua New Guinea has brought mercenaries onto Bougainville Island, february 13 STS-82, Tune-up and repair work on the Hubble Space Telescope is started by astronauts from the Space Shuttle Discovery. The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above 7,000 for the first time, february 22 – In Roslin, Scotland, scientists announce that an adult sheep named Dolly had been successfully cloned, and was born in July 1996. February 23 – A small fire occurs on the Russian space station Mir, february 27 – Divorce becomes legal in the Republic of Ireland. February 28 – North Hollywood shootout, Two robbers wearing kevlar body armor armed with AK-47s containing armor-piercing bullets injure 17 police officers, the incident sparks debate on the appropriate firepower for United States patrol officers to have available in similar situations in the future. March 4 – U. S. President Bill Clinton bans federal funding for any research on human cloning, march 6 Pablo Picassos Tête de Femme is stolen from a London gallery. In Sri Lanka, Tamil Tigers overrun a military base and kill more than 200, march 13 Indias Missionaries of Charity chooses Sister Nirmala to succeed Mother Teresa as its leader. The National Peoples Congress of the Peoples Republic of China creates a new Chongqing Municipality, the Phoenix Lights, a series of UFOs, are seen over Phoenix, Arizona. March 16 – Sandline affair, On Bougainville Island, soldiers of commander Jerry Singirok arrest Tim Spicer and his mercenaries of the Sandline International. March 18 – The tail of a Russian An-24 charter plane breaks off while en route to Turkey, causing the plane to crash, killing all 50 on board, and resulting in the grounding of all An-24s1997 – The funeral cortege of Diana, Princess of Wales, en route to Westminster Abbey from Kensington Palace.
30. 1996 – January 3 – Motorola introduces the Motorola StarTAC Wearable Cellular Telephone, the worlds smallest and lightest mobile phone to date. January 4 – Hosni Mubarak, the president of Egypt, appoints a new government in response to accusations of corruption in the elections in late 1995. January 5 – Hamas operative Yahya Ayyash is assassinated by an Israeli Shabak-planted, january 7 – One of the worst blizzards in American history hits the eastern states, killing more than 150 people. Philadelphia receives a record 30.7 inches of snowfall, New York Citys public schools close for the first time in 18 years, january 8 – A Zairean cargo plane crashes into a crowded market in the center of the capital Kinshasa, killing 300. January 9–January 20 – Serious fighting breaks out between Russian soldiers and rebel fighters in Chechnya, january 11 – Ryutaro Hashimoto, leader of the Liberal Democratic Party, becomes Prime Minister of Japan. January 13 – Italys prime minister, Lamberto Dini, resigns after the failure of all-party talks to confirm him, New talks are initiated by president Oscar Luigi Scalfaro to form a new government. January 14 – Jorge Sampaio is elected president of Portugal, january 16 – President of Sierra Leone Valentine Strasser is deposed by the chief of defence, Julius Maada Bio. Bio promises to power following elections scheduled for February. The North Cape Barge is pulled along with it and leaks 820,000 gallons of heating oil. An Indonesian ferry sinks off the tip of Sumatra, drowning more than 100 people. January 20 – Yasser Arafat is re-elected president of the Palestinian Authority, january 21 – France undertakes its last nuclear weapon test. January 22 – Andreas Papandreou, Prime Minister of Greece, resigns due to health problems, january 24 – Polish Premier Józef Oleksy resigns amid charges that he spied for Moscow. He is replaced by Włodzimierz Cimoszewicz, january 26 – Whitewater scandal, U. S. First Lady Hillary Clinton testifies before a grand jury, january 27 – Colonel Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara deposes the first democratically elected president of Niger, Mahamane Ousmane, in a military coup. January 29 President Jacques Chirac announces an end to French nuclear testing. Fire destroys La Fenice, Venices opera house, january 30 – Irish National Liberation Army leader Gino Gallagher is killed in an internal feud. January 30–February 5 – Sarah Balabagan is caned in the United Arab Emirates, january 31 Colombo Central Bank bombing, an explosives-filled truck rams into the gates of the Central Bank in Colombo, Sri Lanka, killing at least 86 and injuring 1,400. An explosion in Shaoyang, China kills 122 and injures over 400 when 10 short tons of dynamite in an explosives warehouse underneath an apartment building detonate1996 – Yasser Arafat