1. French Riviera – The Côte dAzur, often known in English as the French Riviera, is the Mediterranean coastline of the southeast corner of France, also including the sovereign state of Monaco. There is no boundary, but it is usually considered to extend from the Italian border in the east to Saint-Tropez, Hyères, Toulon. This coastline was one of the first modern resort areas and it began as a winter health resort for the British upper class at the end of the 18th century. In the summer, it played home to many members of the Rothschild family. After World War II, it became a popular tourist destination and convention site, many celebrities, such as Elton John and Brigitte Bardot, have homes in the region. Officially, the Côte dAzur is home to 163 nationalities with 83,962 foreign residents and its largest city is Nice, which has a population of 347,060. The city is the center of a communauté urbaine – Nice-Côte dAzur – bringing together 24 communes, Nice is home to Nice Côte dAzur Airport, Frances third-busiest airport, which is on an area of partially reclaimed coastal land at the western end of the Promenade des Anglais. A second airport at Mandelieu was once the commercial airport. The A8 autoroute runs through the region, as does the old main road known as the Route nationale 7. Trains serve the region and inland to Grasse, with the TGV Sud Est service reaching Nice-Ville station in five. The French Riviera has a population of more than two million. The region has 35,000 students, of whom 25 percent are working toward a doctorate, the French Riviera is a major yachting and cruising area with several marinas along its coast. As a tourist center, French Riviera benefits from 310 to 330 days of sunshine per year,115 kilometres of coastline, the name Côte dAzur was given to the coast by the writer Stéphen Liégeard in his book, La Côte d’azur, published in December 1887. Liégeard was born in Dijon, in the French department of Côte-dOr, the term French Riviera is typical of English use. It was built by analogy with the term Italian Riviera, which extends east of the French Riviera. As early as the 19th century, the British referred to the region as the Riviera or the French Riviera, usually referring to the part of the coast. Originally, riviera is an Italian noun which means coastline, in Occitan and French, the only usual names are Còsta dAzur in Occitan and Côte dAzur in French. A name like French Riviera is unusual and sounds odd, it could work as a word-to-word translation of the British point of viewFrench Riviera – The lighthouse of Nice, on the French Riviera
2. Alfred Hitchcock – Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock KBE was an English film director and producer, at times referred to as The Master of Suspense. He pioneered many elements of the suspense and psychological thriller genres and he had a successful career in British cinema with both silent films and early talkies and became renowned as Englands best director. Hitchcock moved to Hollywood in 1939, and became a US citizen in 1955 and he also fashioned for himself a recognisable directorial style. Hitchcocks stylistic trademarks include the use of movement that mimics a persons gaze. In addition, he framed shots to maximise anxiety, fear, or empathy and his work often features fugitives on the run alongside icy blonde female characters. Prior to 1980, there had long been talk of Hitchcock being knighted for his contribution to film, Hitchcock later received his knighthood from Queen Elizabeth II in the 1980 New Year Honours. Hitchcock directed more than fifty films in a career spanning six decades and is often regarded as one of the most influential directors in cinematic history. His flair was for narrative, cruelly withholding crucial information and engaging the emotions of the audience like no one else, Hitchcocks first thriller, The Lodger, A Story of the London Fog, helped shape the thriller genre in film. His 1929 film, Blackmail, is cited as the first British sound feature film, while Rear Window, Vertigo, North by Northwest. Alfred Joseph Hitchcock was born on 13 August 1899 in Leytonstone and he was the second son and the youngest of three children of William Hitchcock, a greengrocer and poulterer, and Emma Jane Hitchcock. He was named after his fathers brother, Hitchcock was raised as a Roman Catholic, and sent to Salesian College, Battersea, and the Jesuit grammar school St Ignatius College in Stamford Hill, London. His parents were both of half-English and half-Irish ancestry and he often described a lonely and sheltered childhood that was worsened by his obesity. Around age five, Hitchcock recalled that to him for behaving badly. This incident implanted a lifelong fear of policemen in Hitchcock, and such harsh treatment, sources vary on Hitchcocks performance in school. Gene Adair reports that by most accounts, Alfred was only an average, or slightly above-average, however, McGilligan writes that Hitchcock certainly excelled academically. When Hitchcock was 15, his father died, in that same year, he left St. Ignatius to study at the London County Council School of Engineering and Navigation in Poplar, London. After leaving, he became a draftsman and advertising designer with a company called Henleys. Hitchcock joined a regiment of the Royal Engineers in 1917Alfred Hitchcock – Studio publicity photo, circa 1955.
3. Claude Auchinleck – Field Marshal Sir Claude John Eyre Auchinleck GCB, GCIE, CSI, DSO, OBE was a British Army commander during the Second World War. He was a soldier who spent much of his military career in India. He served as Commander-in-Chief India until Partition in 1947, when he assumed the role of Supreme Commander of all British forces in India and Pakistan until late 1948. Born at 89 Victoria Road in Aldershot, the son of Colonel John Auchinleck and Mary Auchinleck, Auchinleck attended Eagle House School at Crowthorne and then Wellington College on scholarships. He was promoted to lieutenant on 21 April 1905 and then spent the two years in Tibet and Sikkim before moving to Benares in 1907 where he caught diphtheria. After briefly serving with the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers at Aldershot he returned Benares in 1909, Auchinleck saw active service in the First World War and was deployed with his regiment to defend the Suez Canal, in February 1915 he was in action against the Turks at Ismaïlia. His regiment moved into Aden to counter the Turkish threat there in July 1915, the 6th Indian Division, of which the 62nd Punjabis were a part, was landed at Basra on 31 December 1915 for the Mesopotamian campaign. In July 1916 Auchinleck was promoted acting major and made second in command of the regiment. He took part in a series of attacks on the Turks at the Battle of Hanna in January 1916 and was one of the few British officers in his regiment to survive these actions. He became acting commanding officer of his regiment in February 1917 and led his regiment at the Second Battle of Kut in February 1917, Auchinleck attended the Staff College, Quetta between 1920 and 1921. He married Jessie Stewart in 1921, Jessie had been born in 1900 in Tacoma, Washington, to Alexander Stewart, head of the Blue Funnel Line that plied the west coast of the United States. When he died about 1919, their mother took her, her twin brother Alan and her younger brother Hepburne back to Bun Rannoch, holidaying at Grasse on the French Riviera, Auchinleck, who was on leave from India at the time, met Jessie on the tennis courts. She was a high-spirited, blue-eyed beauty, things moved quickly, and they were married within five months. Sixteen years younger than Auchinleck, Jessie became known as the little American girl in India and he attended the Imperial Defence College in 1927 and, having been promoted to lieutenant-colonel on 21 January 1929 he was appointed to command his regiment. Promoted to full colonel on 1 February 1930 with seniority from 15 November 1923, he became an instructor at the Staff College, Quetta in February 1930 where he remained until April 1933. On leaving his command in April 1936 Auchinleck was on the unemployed list until September 1936 when he was appointed Deputy Chief of the General Staff. He was then appointed to command the Meerut District in India in July 1938 and he received promotion to acting lieutenant-general on 1 February 1940 and to the substantive rank of lieutenant-general on 16 March 1940. In May 1940 Auchinleck took over command of the Anglo-French ground forces in Norway, Montgomery later wrote, In the 5th Corps I first served under AuchinleckClaude Auchinleck – Sir Claude Auchinleck in July 1941
4. Honeymoon – A honeymoon is the traditional holiday taken by newlyweds to celebrate their marriage in intimacy and seclusion. Today, honeymoons are often celebrated in destinations considered exotic or romantic and this is the period when newly wed couples take a break to share some private and intimate moments that helps establish love in their relationship. This privacy in turn is believed to ease the comfort zone towards a physical relationship, the earliest term for this in English was hony moone, which was recorded as early as 1546. In Western culture, the custom of a couple going on a holiday together originated in early 19th century Great Britain. Upper-class couples would take a tour, sometimes accompanied by friends or family. The practice soon spread to the European continent and was known as voyage à la façon anglaise in France from the 1820s onwards, honeymoons in the modern sense became widespread during the Belle Époque, as one of the first instances of modern mass tourism. This came about in spite of initial disapproval by contemporary medical opinion, the most popular honeymoon destinations at the time were the French Riviera and Italy, particularly its seaside resorts and romantic cities such as Rome, Verona or Venice. Typically honeymoons would start on the night they were married, with the couple leaving midway through the reception to catch a train or ship. In Jewish traditions, honeymoons are often put off seven days to allow for the seven nights of feasting if the visits to friends, the Oxford English Dictionary offers no etymology, but gives examples dating back to the 16th century. The Merriam-Webster dictionary reports the etymology as from the idea that the first month of marriage is the sweetest. In ancient times honeymoon referred to the time of year when bee honey was ripe and this was usually around the Summer solstice by end June. A honeymoon can also be the first, sweetest moments a newly-wed couple spend together and this, the first known literary reference to the honeymoon, was penned in 1552, in Richard Huloets Abecedarium Anglico Latinum. It was believed that by faithfully drinking mead for that first month, the woman would “bear fruit”, there are many words of similar meaning in other languages. The Sinhalese form translates as Madhu Samaya, the French form translates as moon of honey, as do the Spanish, Romanian, Nepali Portuguese and Italian equivalents. The Welsh word for honeymoon is mis mêl, which means honey month, the Persian word is ماه عسل māh-e asal which means both honey moon and honey month. The same applies to the word ay in the Turkish equivalent, in Hungarian language it is called honey weeksHoneymoon – Newlyweds leaving for their honeymoon boarding a Trans-Canada Air Lines' plane, Montreal, 1946
5. Italo Calvino – Italo Calvino was an Italian journalist and writer of short stories and novels. His best known include the Our Ancestors trilogy, the Cosmicomics collection of short stories. Admired in Britain, Australia and the United States, he was the most-translated contemporary Italian writer at the time of his death, Italo Calvino was born in Santiago de las Vegas, a suburb of Havana, Cuba, in 1923. His father, Mario, was a tropical agronomist and botanist who also taught agriculture and floriculture, born 47 years earlier in Sanremo, Italy, Mario Calvino had emigrated to Mexico in 1909 where he took up an important position with the Ministry of Agriculture. In an autobiographical essay, Italo Calvino explained that his father had been in his youth an anarchist, in 1917, Mario left for Cuba to conduct scientific experiments, after living through the Mexican Revolution. Calvinos mother, Eva Mameli, was a botanist and university professor, a native of Sassari in Sardinia and 11 years younger than her husband, she married while still a junior lecturer at Pavia University. Born into a family, Eva was a pacifist educated in the religion of civic duty. In 1925, less than two years after Calvinos birth, the returned to Italy and settled permanently in Sanremo on the Ligurian coast. Calvinos brother Floriano, who became a distinguished geologist, was born in 1927, the family divided their time between the Villa Meridiana, an experimental floriculture station which also served as their home, and Marios ancestral land at San Giovanni Battista. The vast forests and luxuriant fauna omnipresent in Calvinos early fiction such as The Baron in the Trees derives from this legacy, in an interview, Calvino stated that San Remo continues to pop out in my books, in the most diverse pieces of writing. He and Floriano would climb the tree-rich estate and perch for hours on the branches reading their favorite adventure stories. Both verbose by nature, possessed of an ocean of words, in each others presence we became mute, would walk in silence side by side along the road to San Giovanni. A fan of Rudyard Kiplings The Jungle Book as a child, fascinated by American movies and cartoons, he was equally attracted to drawing, poetry, and theatre. Other legacies include the beliefs in Freemasonry, Republicanism with elements of Anarchism and Marxism. Austere freethinkers with a hatred of the ruling National Fascist Party, Eva. Italo attended the English nursery school St Georges College, followed by a Protestant elementary private school run by Waldensians, the two teenagers formed a lasting friendship, Calvino attributing his political awakening to their university discussions. Seated together on a flat stone in the middle of a stream near our land, he. Eva managed to delay her sons enrolment in the Partys armed scouts, the Balilla Moschettieri, and then arranged that he be excused, as a non-Catholic, from performing devotional acts in ChurchItalo Calvino – Italo Calvino
6. Monaco – Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco, is a sovereign city-state and microstate, located on the French Riviera in Western Europe. France borders the country on three sides while the other side borders the Mediterranean Sea, Monaco has an area of 2.02 km2 and a population of about 38,400 according to the last census of 2015. With 19,009 inhabitants per km², it is the second smallest, Monaco has a land border of 5.47 km, a coastline of 3.83 km, and a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m. The highest point in the country is a pathway named Chemin des Révoires on the slopes of Mont Agel, in the Les Révoires Ward. Monacos most populous Quartier is Monte Carlo and the most populous Ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins, through land reclamation, Monacos land mass has expanded by twenty percent, in 2005, it had an area of only 1.974 km2. Monaco is known as a playground for the rich and famous, in 2014, it was noted about 30% of the population was made up of millionaires, more than in Zürich or Geneva. Monaco is a principality governed under a form of constitutional monarchy, although Prince Albert II is a constitutional monarch, he wields immense political power. The House of Grimaldi have ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, the official language is French, but Monégasque, Italian, and English are widely spoken and understood. The states sovereignty was recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861. Despite Monacos independence and separate foreign policy, its defense is the responsibility of France, however, Monaco does maintain two small military units. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with the opening of the countrys first casino, Monte Carlo, since then, Monacos mild climate, scenery, and gambling facilities have contributed to the principalitys status as a tourist destination and recreation center for the rich. In more recent years, Monaco has become a major banking center and has sought to diversify its economy into services and small, high-value-added, the state has no income tax, low business taxes, and is well known for being a tax haven. It is also the host of the street circuit motor race Monaco Grand Prix. Monaco is not formally a part of the European Union, but it participates in certain EU policies, including customs, through its relationship with France, Monaco uses the euro as its sole currency. Monaco joined the Council of Europe in 2004 and it is a member of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. Monacos name comes from the nearby 6th-century BC Phocaean Greek colony, according to an ancient myth, Hercules passed through the Monaco area and turned away the previous gods. As a result, a temple was constructed there, the temple of Hercules Monoikos, because the only temple of this area was the House of Hercules, the city was called Monoikos. It ended up in the hands of the Holy Roman Empire, an ousted branch of a Genoese family, the Grimaldi, contested it for a hundred years before actually gaining controlMonaco – Statue of Francesco Grimaldi, " Il Malizia " ("the Cunning"), disguised as a monk with a dagger hidden under the cloak of his habit. However, he was ousted by the Genoese just four years later. The Grimaldi family purchased Monaco from the Crown of Aragon in 1419.
7. Paul Robeson – Paul Leroy Robeson was an American bass singer and actor who became involved with the Civil Rights Movement. He became politically involved in response to the Spanish Civil War, fascism and his advocacy of anti-imperialism, affiliation with communism, and criticism of the United States government caused him to be blacklisted during the McCarthy era. In 1915 Robeson won a scholarship to Rutgers College, where he was twice named a consensus All-American and was the class valedictorian. Almost eighty years later, he was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame and he received his LL. B. from Columbia Law School, while playing in the National Football League. At Columbia, he sang and acted in productions, and, after graduating, he became a figure in the Harlem Renaissance with performances in The Emperor Jones. Robeson first appeared outside the US in 1928 in the London premier of Show Boat, Robeson next appeared as Othello in London before becoming an international cinema star during the 1930s through roles in Show Boat and Sanders of the River. He became increasingly attuned to the sufferings of people of other cultures, despite being warned of his economic ruin if he became politically active, he set aside his theatrical career to advocate the cause of the Republican forces of the Spanish Civil War. He then became active in the Council on African Affairs, during World War II, he supported Americas war efforts and won accolades for his portrayal of Othello on Broadway. However, his history of supporting pro-Soviet policies brought scrutiny from the FBI, after the war ended, the CAA was placed on the Attorney Generals List of Subversive Organizations and Robeson was investigated during the age of McCarthyism. Due to his decision not to recant his public advocacy of pro-Soviet policies, he was denied a passport by the U. S. State Department and he moved to Harlem and published a periodical critical of United States policies. His right to travel was restored by the 1958 United States Supreme Court decision, Kent v. Dulles. In the early 1960s he retired and lived the years of his life privately in Philadelphia. Paul Robeson was born in Princeton, New Jersey, in 1898, to Reverend William Drew Robeson and his mother was from a prominent Quaker family of mixed ancestry, African, Anglo-American, and Lenape. Robeson had three brothers, William Drew, Jr. Reeve, and Ben, and one sister, in 1900, a disagreement between William and white financial supporters of Witherspoon arose with apparent racial undertones, which were prevalent in Princeton. William, who had the support of his entirely black congregation, the loss of his position forced him to work menial jobs. Three years later when Robeson was six, his mother, who was nearly blind, William found a stable parsonage at the St. Thomas A. M. E. Zion in 1910, where Robeson would fill in for his father during sermons when he was called away. His athletic dominance elicited racial taunts which he ignored, prior to his graduation, he won a statewide academic contest for a scholarship to Rutgers. He took a job as a waiter in Narragansett Pier, Rhode IslandPaul Robeson – Robeson in 1942
8. Piri Reis – Ahmed Muhiddin Piri, better known as Piri Reis, was an Ottoman admiral, geographer, and cartographer. He gained fame as a cartographer when a part of his first world map was discovered in 1929 at the Topkapı Palace in Istanbul. His world map is the oldest known Turkish atlas showing the New World, Piri Reis map is centered on the Sahara at the latitude of the Tropic of Cancer. In 1528, Piri Reis drew a world map, of which a small fragment still survives. According to his text, he had drawn his maps using about 20 foreign charts. For many years, little was known about the identity of Piri Reis, the exact date of his birth is unknown. His fathers name was Hacı Mehmed Piri, the honorary and informal Islamic title Hadji in Piris and his fathers names indicate that they both had completed the Hajj by going to Mecca during the dedicated annual period. When his uncle Kemal Reis died in 1511, Piri returned to Gelibolu, by 1516, he was again at sea as a ship captain in the Ottoman fleet. He took part in the 1516–17 Ottoman conquest of Egypt, in 1524 he captained the ship that took the Ottoman Grand Vizier Pargalı İbrahim Pasha to Egypt. In 1547, Piri had risen to the rank of Reis as the Commander of the Ottoman Fleet in the Indian Ocean and Admiral of the Fleet in Egypt, headquartered in Suez. On 26 February 1548 he recaptured Aden from the Portuguese, followed in 1552 by the sack of Muscat, which Portugal had occupied since 1507, and the strategically important island of Kish. Turning further east, Piri Reis attempted to capture the island of Hormuz in the Strait of Hormuz, at the entrance of the Persian Gulf, unsuccessfully. When the Portuguese turned their attention to the Persian Gulf, Piri Reis occupied the Qatar peninsula to deprive the Portuguese of suitable bases on the Arabian coast and he then returned to Egypt, an old man approaching the age of 90. When he refused to support the Ottoman Vali of Basra, Kubad Pasha, in campaign against the Portuguese in the northern Persian Gulf. Several warships and submarines of the Turkish Navy have been named after Piri Reis, Piri Reis is the author of the Kitāb-ı Baḥrīye, or Book of the Sea, one of the most famous cartographical works of the period. The work was first published in 1521, and it was revised in 1524-1525 with additional information, the revised edition had a total of 434 pages containing 290 maps. Ptolemys Geographia had been translated in Turkish after an order of Mehmed II some decades before. Special emphasis is given to the discoveries in the New World by Christopher Columbus and those of Vasco da Gama and the other Portuguese seamen on their way to India, the second section is entirely composed of portolan charts and cruise guidesPiri Reis – Piri Reis bust at Mersin Naval Museum.
9. Pablo Picasso – Pablo Ruiz y Picasso, also known as Pablo Picasso, was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France. Picasso demonstrated extraordinary artistic talent in his years, painting in a naturalistic manner through his childhood. During the first decade of the 20th century, his style changed as he experimented with different theories, techniques, Picassos work is often categorized into periods. Much of Picassos work of the late 1910s and early 1920s is in a neoclassical style and his later work often combines elements of his earlier styles. Ruiz y Picasso were included for his father and mother, respectively, born in the city of Málaga in the Andalusian region of Spain, he was the first child of Don José Ruiz y Blasco and María Picasso y López. His mother was of one quarter Italian descent, from the territory of Genoa, though baptized a Catholic, Picasso would later on become an atheist. Picassos family was of middle-class background and his father was a painter who specialized in naturalistic depictions of birds and other game. For most of his life Ruiz was a professor of art at the School of Crafts, Picasso showed a passion and a skill for drawing from an early age. According to his mother, his first words were piz, piz, a shortening of lápiz, from the age of seven, Picasso received formal artistic training from his father in figure drawing and oil painting. Ruiz was an academic artist and instructor, who believed that proper training required disciplined copying of the masters. His son became preoccupied with art to the detriment of his classwork, the family moved to A Coruña in 1891, where his father became a professor at the School of Fine Arts. On one occasion, the father found his son painting over his sketch of a pigeon. In 1895, Picasso was traumatized when his sister, Conchita. After her death, the moved to Barcelona, where Ruiz took a position at its School of Fine Arts. Picasso thrived in the city, regarding it in times of sadness or nostalgia as his true home, Ruiz persuaded the officials at the academy to allow his son to take an entrance exam for the advanced class. This process often took students a month, but Picasso completed it in a week, the student lacked discipline but made friendships that would affect him in later life. His father rented a room for him close to home so he could work alone, yet he checked up on him numerous times a day. Picassos father and uncle decided to send the young artist to Madrids Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, at age 16, Picasso set off for the first time on his own, but he disliked formal instruction and stopped attending classes soon after enrolmentPablo Picasso – Picasso in 1908
10. Robert Louis Stevenson – Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson was a Scottish novelist, poet, essayist, and travel writer. His most famous works are Treasure Island, Kidnapped, Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, a literary celebrity during his lifetime, Stevenson now ranks as the 26th most translated author in the world. M. Barrie, and G. K. Chesterton, who said of him that he seemed to pick the word up on the point of his pen. Stevenson was born at 8 Howard Place, Edinburgh, Scotland, on 13 November 1850, to Thomas Stevenson, a lighthouse engineer. He was christened Robert Lewis Balfour Stevenson, at about age 18, Stevenson was to change the spelling of Lewis to Louis, and in 1873, he dropped Balfour. Lighthouse design was the profession, Thomass father was the famous Robert Stevenson. Indeed, even Thomass maternal grandfather, Thomas Smith, had been in the same profession, however, Roberts mothers family were not of the same profession. Margarets natal family, the Balfours, were gentry, tracing their lineage back to a certain Alexander Balfour who had held the lands of Inchyra in Fife in the fifteenth century. Margarets father, Lewis Balfour, was a minister of the Church of Scotland at nearby Colinton, and her siblings included the physician George William Balfour, Stevenson spent the greater part of his boyhood holidays in his maternal grandfathers house. Now I often wonder, wrote Stevenson, what I inherited from this old minister, I must suppose, indeed, that he was fond of preaching sermons, and so am I, though I never heard it maintained that either of us loved to hear them. Lewis Balfour and his daughter both had weak chests, so they often needed to stay in warmer climates for their health, Stevenson inherited a tendency to coughs and fevers, exacerbated when the family moved to a damp, chilly house at 1 Inverleith Terrace in 1851. The family moved again to the sunnier 17 Heriot Row when Stevenson was six years old, illness would be a recurrent feature of his adult life and left him extraordinarily thin. Contemporary views were that he had tuberculosis, but more recent views are that it was bronchiectasis or even sarcoidosis, Stevensons parents were both devout and serious Presbyterians, but the household was not strict in its adherence to Calvinist principles. His nurse, Alison Cunningham, was fervently religious. Her Calvinism and folk beliefs were a source of nightmares for the child. But she also cared for him tenderly in illness, reading to him from Bunyan, Stevenson recalled this time of sickness in The Land of Counterpane in A Childs Garden of Verses, dedicating the book to his nurse. In any case, his frequent illnesses often kept him away from his first school and he was a late reader, first learning at age seven or eight, but even before this he dictated stories to his mother and nurse. He compulsively wrote stories throughout his childhood and his father was proud of this interest, he had also written stories in his spare time until his own father found them and told him to give up such nonsense and mind your businessRobert Louis Stevenson – Robert Louis Stevenson
11. Rex Ingram (director) – For the African-American actor of the same name, see Rex Ingram. Rex Ingram was an Irish film director, producer, writer, director Erich von Stroheim once called him the worlds greatest director. Born Reginald Ingram Montgomery Hitchcock in Dublin, Ireland, he was educated at Saint Columbas College, near Rathfarnham and he spent much of his adolescence living in the Old Rectory, Kinnitty, Birr, County Offaly where his father was the Church of Ireland rector. He emigrated to the United States in 1911 and his brother Francis joined the British Army and fought during World War I where he was awarded the Military Cross and rose to the rank of Colonel. Ingram studied sculpture at the Yale University School of Art, where he contributed to campus humor magazine The Yale Record and he soon moved into film, first taking acting work from 1913 and then writing, producing and directing. His first work as producer-director was in 1916 on the romantic drama The Great Problem and he worked for Edison Studios, Fox Film Corporation, Vitagraph Studios, and then MGM, directing mainly action or supernatural films. In 1920, he moved to Metro, where he was under supervision of executive June Mathis, Mathis and Ingram would go on to make four films together, Hearts are Trump, The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, The Conquering Power, and Turn to the Right. It is believed the two were romantically involved, Ingram and Mathis had begun to grow distant when her new find, Rudolph Valentino, began to overshadow his own fame. Their relationship ended when Ingram eloped with Alice Terry in 1921, Ingram married twice, first to actress Doris Pawn in 1917, this ended in divorce in 1920. He then married Alice Terry in 1921, with whom he remained for the rest of his life and he and Terry relocated to the French Riviera in 1923. They formed a studio in Nice and made several films on location in North Africa, Spain. Amongst those who worked for Ingram at MGM on the Riviera during this period was the young Michael Powell, by Powells own account, Ingram was a major influence on him, especially in its themes in illusion, dreaming, magic and the surreal. David Lean said he was indebted to Ingram, MGM studio chief Dore Schary listed the top creative people in Hollywood as D. W. Griffith, Ingram, Cecil B. Carlos Clarens writes, AS Rex Ingrams films became more esoteric, the coming of sound forced him to relinquish his studios in Nice. Rather than equip them for talking pictures, he chose instead to travel, Rex Ingram made only one talkie, Baroud, filmed for Gaumont British Pictures in Morocco. The film was a not a success and Ingram left the film business, returning to Los Angeles to work as a sculptor. Interested in Islam as early as 1927, he converted to the faith in 1933, for his contribution to the motion picture industry he has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1651 Vine Street. Ingram died from a hemorrhage in North Hollywood on July 21,1950Rex Ingram (director) – Ingram, c. 1920
12. Richie Benaud – Richard Richie Benaud, OBE was an Australian cricketer who, after his retirement from international cricket in 1964, became a highly regarded commentator on the game. Benaud was a Test cricket all-rounder, blending leg spin bowling with lower-order batting aggression, along with fellow bowling all-rounder Alan Davidson, he helped restore Australia to the top of world cricket in the late 1950s and early 1960s after a slump in the early 1950s. In 1958 he became Australias Test captain until his retirement in 1964 and he became the first player to reach 200 wickets and 2,000 runs in Test cricket, arriving at that milestone in 1963. Gideon Haigh described him as perhaps the most influential cricketer and cricket personality since the Second World War, Benaud was born in Penrith, New South Wales, in 1930. He came from a family, with his younger brother John Benaud also going on to become an Australian Test cricketer. Lou later moved to Parramatta region in western Sydney, and played for Cumberland and it was here that Richie Benaud grew up, learning how to bowl leg breaks, googlies and topspinners under his fathers watch. Educated at Parramatta High School, Benaud made his first grade debut for Cumberland at age 16, in November 1948, at the age of 18, Benaud was selected for the New South Wales Colts, the state youth team. He scored 47 not out and took 3/37 in a win over Queensland. As a specialist batsman, he made his first class debut for New South Wales at the Sydney Cricket Ground against Queensland in the New Years match of the 1948–49 season. On a green pitch which was struck by a downpour on the day, Benauds spin was not used by Arthur Morris and he failed to make an impression with the bat in his only innings. Relegated to the Second XI after this match, he was struck in the head above the eye by a ball from Jack Daniel while batting against Victoria in Melbourne. He spent two weeks in hospital for the surgery and this was the only match he played for the second-string state team that summer. In his early career, Benaud was a batting all-rounder, marked by a looping backlift which made him suspect against fast bowling but allowed him to have a wide attacking stroke range. At the start of the 1949–50 season, he was still in the Second XI, Benaud was recalled to the New South Wales First XI in late December for the Christmas and New Years fixtures. With Ray Lindwall, Keith Miller and Ernie Toshack, three of Australias leading four bowlers from the 1948 Invincibles tour of England unavailable, Benaud bowled heavily in some matches. However, he did not have success in his five games. He took the wicket of Queensland batsman Bill Brown in his match of the season. Benaud erroneously recalled in an autobiography that this was his maiden wicket—it was his fourth—and described the ball as the worst I ever bowled and he had more success with the bat, scoring 93 and narrowly missing a century against South AustraliaRichie Benaud – Benaud in 1956
13. Lawrence Alma-Tadema – Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, OM, RA was a Dutch painter of special British denizenship. Born in Dronrijp, the Netherlands, and trained at the Royal Academy of Antwerp, Belgium, he settled in England in 1870, Lourens Alma Tadema was born on 8 January 1836 in the village of Dronrijp in the province of Friesland in the north of the Netherlands. The surname Tadema is an old Frisian patronymic, meaning son of Tade, while the names Lourens and he was the sixth child of Pieter Jiltes Tadema, the village notary, and the third child of Hinke Dirks Brouwer. His father had three sons from a previous marriage and his parents first child died young, and the second was Atje, Lourens sister, for whom he had great affection. The Tadema family moved in 1838 to the city of Leeuwarden. His father died when Lourens was four, leaving his mother with five children, Lourens, his sister and his mother had artistic leanings, and decided that drawing lessons should be incorporated into the childrens education. He received his first art training with a drawing master hired to teach his older half-brothers. It was intended that the boy would become a lawyer, diagnosed as consumptive and given only a short time to live, he was allowed to spend his remaining days at his leisure, drawing and painting. Left to his own devices he regained his health and decided to pursue a career as an artist, in 1852 he entered the Royal Academy of Antwerp in Belgium where he studied early Dutch and Flemish art, under Gustaf Wappers. During Alma-Tademas four years as a student at the Academy. Although de Taeye was not a painter, Alma-Tadema respected him and became his studio assistant. De Taeye introduced him to books that influenced his desire to portray Merovingian subjects early in his career and he was encouraged to depict historical accuracy in his paintings, a trait for which the artist became known. Under his guidance Alma-Tadema painted his first major work, The Education of the children of Clovis and this painting created a sensation among critics and artists when it was exhibited that year at the Artistic Congress in Antwerp. It is said to have laid the foundation of his fame, Alma-Tadema related that although Leys thought the completed painting better than he had expected, he was critical of the treatment of marble, which he compared to cheese. Alma-Tadema took this very seriously, and it led him to improve his technique and to become the worlds foremost painter of marble. Merovingian themes were the favourite subject up to the mid-1860s. It is perhaps in this series that we find the artist moved by the deepest feeling, however Merovingian subjects did not have a wide international appeal, so he switched to themes of life in ancient Egypt that were more popular. On these scenes of Frankish and Egyptian life Alma-Tadema spent great energy, in 1862 Alma-Tadema left Leyss studio and started his own career, establishing himself as a significant classical-subject European artistLawrence Alma-Tadema – Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema
14. Tourism – Tourism is travel for pleasure or business, also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours. Tourism may be international, or within the travellers country, Tourism can be domestic or international, and international tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a countrys balance of payments. Today, tourism is a source of income for many countries. International tourism receipts grew to US$1.03 trillion in 2011, the ITB Berlin is the worlds leading tourism trade fair. The word tourist was used by 1772 and tourism by 1811. It is formed from the tour, which is derived from Old English turian, from Old French torner, from Latin tornare, to turn on a lathe. Tourism is an important, even vital, source of income for many regions and it also creates opportunities for employment in the service sector of the economy associated with tourism. This is in addition to goods bought by tourists, including souvenirs, in 1936, the League of Nations defined a foreign tourist as someone traveling abroad for at least twenty-four hours. Its successor, the United Nations, amended this definition in 1945 and it includes movements for all purposes. In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities chosen and undertaken outside the home, in this context, travel has a similar definition to tourism, but implies a more purposeful journey. The terms tourism and tourist are sometimes used pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited, by contrast, traveler is often used as a sign of distinction. The sociology of tourism has studied the values underpinning these distinctions. International tourist arrivals reached 1.035 billion in 2012, up from over 996 million in 2011, the World Tourism Organization reports the following ten destinations as the most visited in terms of the number of international travellers in 2016. International tourism receipts grew to US$1.2 trillion in 2014, based upon air traffic, the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index reports the following cities as the top ten most popular destinations of international tourism worldwide. MasterCard reports the following cities as the top ten biggest earners on international tourism worldwide in 2015, as early as Shulgi, however, kings praised themselves for protecting roads and building waystations for travelers. During the Roman Republic, spas and coastal resorts such as Baiae were popular among the rich, pausanias wrote his Description of Greece in the 2nd century AD. In ancient China, nobles sometimes made a point of visiting Mount Tai and, on occasion, the Islamic hajj is still central to its faith and Chaucers Canterbury Tales and Wu Chengens Journey to the West remain classics of English and Chinese literature. The 10th- to 13th-century Song dynasty also saw secular travel writers such as Su Shi, under the Ming, Xu Xiake continued the practiceTourism – A tourist taking photographs and video at archaeological site
15. Tour de France – The Tour de France is an annual multiple stage bicycle race primarily held in France, while also occasionally making passes through nearby countries. The race was first organized in 1903 to increase sales for the newspaper LAuto, the race has been held annually since its first edition in 1903 except when it was stopped for the two World Wars. As the Tour gained prominence and popularity the race was lengthened, participation expanded from a primarily French field, as riders from all over the world began to participate in the race each year. The Tour is a UCI World Tour event, which means that the teams compete in the race are mostly UCI WorldTeams. Traditionally, the race is primarily in the month of July. The modern editions of the Tour de France consist of 21 day-long segments over a 23-day period, the race alternates between clockwise and counterclockwise circuits of France. The number of teams usually varies between 20 and 22, with nine riders in each, all of the stages are timed to the finish, the riders times are compounded with their previous stage times. The rider with the lowest aggregate time is the leader of the race, gaining a stage win is also a hotly contested competition, fought for by a specialist cycling sprinter on each team. The Tour de France was created in 1903, the roots of the Tour de France trace back to the emergence of two rival sports newspapers in the country. On the one hand was Le Vélo, the first and the largest daily newspaper in France which sold 80,000 copies a day. On the other was LAuto, which had been set-up by journalists and business-people including Comte Jules-Albert de Dion, Adolphe Clément, the new newspaper appointed Henri Desgrange as the editor. He was a prominent cyclist and owner with Victor Goddet of the velodrome at the Parc des Princes, De Dion knew him through his cycling reputation, through the books and cycling articles that he had written, and through press articles he had written for the Clément tyre company. LAuto was not the success its backers wanted, stagnating sales lower than the rival it was intended to surpass led to a crisis meeting on 20 November 1902 on the middle floor of LAutos office at 10 Rue du Faubourg Montmartre, Paris. The last to speak was the most junior there, the chief cycling journalist, Desgrange had poached him from Giffards paper. Lefèvre suggested a six-day race of the sort popular on the track, long-distance cycle races were a popular means to sell more newspapers, but nothing of the length that Lefèvre suggested had been attempted. If it succeeded, it would help LAuto match its rival and it could, as Desgrange said, nail Giffards beak shut. Desgrange and Lefèvre discussed it after lunch, Desgrange was doubtful but the papers financial director, Victor Goddet, was enthusiastic. He handed Desgrange the keys to the safe and saidTour de France – Maurice Garin, winner of the first Tour de France standing on the right. The man on the left is possibly Leon Georget (1903)
16. Woody Allen – Heywood Woody Allen is an American actor, writer, director, comedian, playwright, and musician whose career spans more than six decades. He worked as a writer in the 1950s, writing jokes and scripts for television. In the early 1960s, Allen began performing as a stand-up comedian, as a comedian, he developed the persona of an insecure, intellectual, fretful nebbish, which he maintains is quite different from his real-life personality. In 2004, Comedy Central ranked Allen in fourth place on a list of the 100 greatest stand-up comedians and he is often identified as part of the New Hollywood wave of filmmakers of the mid-1960s to late 1970s. Allen often stars in his films, typically in the persona he developed as a standup, some of the best-known of his over 40 films are Annie Hall, Manhattan, and Hannah and Her Sisters. In 2007 he said Stardust Memories, The Purple Rose of Cairo, critic Roger Ebert described Allen as a treasure of the cinema. Allen won four Academy Awards, three for Best Original Screenplay and one for Best Director and he also won nine British Academy of Film and Television Arts Awards. His screenplay for Annie Hall was named the funniest screenplay by the Writers Guild of America in its list of the 101 Funniest Screenplays, in 2011, PBS televised the film biography Woody Allen, A Documentary on the American Masters TV series. Allen was born Allan Stewart Konigsberg in Brooklyn, New York and he and his sister, Letty, were raised in Midwood, Brooklyn. He is the son of Nettie, a bookkeeper at her familys delicatessen, and Martin Konigsberg and his family was Jewish, his grandparents immigrated from Russia and Austria, and spoke Yiddish, Hebrew, and German. His parents were born and raised on the Lower East Side of Manhattan. His childhood was not particularly happy, his parents did not get along, Allen spoke German quite a bit in his early years. He would later joke that when he was young he was sent to inter-faith summer camps. While attending Hebrew school for eight years, he went to Public School 99 and to Midwood High School, at that time, he lived in an apartment at 968 East 14th Street. Unlike his comic persona, he was interested in baseball than school. He impressed students with his talent at card and magic tricks. To raise money, he wrote jokes for agent David O. Alber, at the age of 17, he legally changed his name to Heywood Allen and later began to call himself Woody Allen. According to Allen, his first published joke read, Woody Allen says he ate at a restaurant that had O. P. S and he was then earning more than both parents combinedWoody Allen – Allen in the 1970s
17. W. Somerset Maugham – William Somerset Maugham CH, better known as W. Somerset Maugham, was a British playwright, novelist and short story writer. He was among the most popular writers of his era and reputedly the highest-paid author during the 1930s, after losing both his parents by the age of 10, Maugham was raised by a paternal uncle who was emotionally cold. Not wanting to become a lawyer like other men in his family, the initial run of his first novel, Liza of Lambeth, sold out so rapidly that Maugham gave up medicine to write full-time. During and after the war, he travelled in India and Southeast Asia, all of these experiences were reflected in short stories. Maughams father, Robert Ormond Maugham, was a lawyer who handled the affairs of the British embassy in Paris. Since French law declared that all born on French soil could be conscripted for military service, his father arranged for Maugham to be born at the embassy. His grandfather, another Robert, had also been a prominent lawyer and co-founder of the Law Society of England and it was taken for granted that Maugham and his brothers would follow in their footsteps. His elder brother Viscount Maugham enjoyed a legal career and served as Lord Chancellor from 1938 to 1939. Maughams mother, Edith Mary, had tuberculosis, a condition for which her physician prescribed childbirth and she had Maugham several years after the last of his three older brothers, they were already enrolled in boarding school by the time he was three. Being the youngest, he was raised as an only child. Ediths sixth and final son died on 25 January 1882, one day after his birth, Edith died of tuberculosis six days later on 31 January at the age of 41. The early death of his mother left Maugham traumatized, he kept his mothers photograph by his bedside for the rest of his life, two years after Ediths death Maughams father died in France of cancer. Maugham was sent to the UK to be cared for by his uncle, Henry MacDonald Maugham, the move was damaging, as Henry Maugham proved cold and emotionally cruel. The boy attended The Kings School, Canterbury, which was difficult for him. He was teased for his bad English and his short stature, Maugham developed a stammer that stayed with him all his life, although it was sporadic, being subject to his moods and circumstances. Miserable both at his uncles vicarage and at school, the young Maugham developed a talent for making wounding remarks to those who displeased him and this ability is sometimes reflected in Maughams literary characters. At sixteen Maugham refused to continue at The Kings School and his uncle allowed him to travel to Germany, where he studied literature, philosophy and German at Heidelberg University. During his year in Heidelberg Maugham met and had an affair with John Ellingham BrooksW. Somerset Maugham – Maugham photographed by Carl Van Vechten in 1934
18. 1926 – January 1 Flooding of the Rhine River struck Cologne,50,000 were forced to evacuate their homes. Irelands first regular service, 2RN, began broadcasting. January 3 – Theodoros Pangalos declared himself dictator in Greece, January 6 – The airline Deutsche Luft Hansa was founded in Berlin. January 8 – Abdul-Aziz ibn Saud was crowned King of Hejaz and it was a precursor to Gosden and Corrells more popular later program, Amos n Andy. January 16 – A BBC comic radio play broadcast by Ronald Knox about a revolution caused a panic in London. January 21 – The Belgian Parliament accepted the Locarno Treaties, January 26 – Scottish inventor John Logie Baird demonstrated a mechanical television system for members of the Royal Institution and a reporter from The Times at his London laboratory. January 29 – Eugene ONeills The Great God Brown opened at the Greenwich Theatre, January 31 – British and Belgian troops left Cologne. February 1 – Land on Broadway and Wall Street in New York City was sold at a record $7 per sq inch, february 8 – Seán OCaseys The Plough and the Stars opened at the Abbey Theatre in Dublin. February 9 – Flooding hit London suburbs, february 12 – The Irish minister for Justice, Kevin OHiggins, appointed the Committee on Evil Literature. February 20 – The Berlin International Green Week debuted in Berlin, february 25 – Francisco Franco became General of Spain. March 6 – The Shakespeare Memorial Theatre in Stratford-upon-Avon is destroyed by fire, march 6 – The first commercial air route to South Africa is established by Alan Cobham. March 16 – Robert Goddard launches the first liquid-fuel rocket, at Auburn, march 23 – Éamon de Valera organises Fianna Fáil in Ireland. April 4 – Greek dictator Theodoros Pangalos won the election with 93. 3% of the vote. Turnout was light as the result was considered a foregone conclusion, april 7 – An assassination attempt against Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini fails. April 12 – By a vote of 45–41, the United States Senate unseats Iowa Senator Smith W. Brookhart and seats Daniel F. Steck, april 17 – Zhang Zuolins army captured Beijing. April 24 – Treaty of Berlin, Germany and the Soviet Union each pledged neutrality in the event of an attack on the other by a party for the next five years. April 25 – Rezā Khan was crowned Shah of Iran under the name Pahlevi, april 30 – African-American pilot Bessie Coleman was killed after falling 500 feet from an airplane. May 3 – Coal miners were locked out in Britain, may 4 – The United Kingdom general strike began at midnight in support of the coal strike1926 – March 16: Goddard with rocket in 1926.
19. 1887 – As of the start of 1887, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 11 – Louis Pasteurs anti-rabies treatment is defended in the Académie Nationale de Médecine by Dr. Joseph Grancher, january 20 – The United States Senate allows the Navy to lease Pearl Harbor as a naval base. January 21 The Amateur Athletic Union is formed, Brisbane receives a one-day rainfall of 465 millimetres – a record for any Australian capital city. January 24 – Battle of Dogali, Abyssinian troops defeat the Italians, january 28 In a snowstorm at Fort Keogh, Montana, USA, the largest snowflakes on record are reported. They are 15 inches wide and 8 inches thick, construction of the foundations of the Eiffel Tower starts in Paris, France. February 2 – In Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania, the first Groundhog Day is observed, february 4 – The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, as passed by the 49th United States Congress, is signed into law by President Grover Cleveland. February 5 – The Giuseppe Verdi opera Otello premieres at La Scala, february 8 – The Dawes Act, or the General Allotment Act, is enacted. February 23 – The French Riviera is hit by a large earthquake, february 26 – At the Sydney Cricket Ground, George Lohmann becomes the first bowler to take eight wickets in a Test innings. March 3 – Anne Sullivan begins teaching Helen Keller, march 4 – Gottlieb Daimler unveils his first automobile. March 7 – North Carolina State University is established as North Carolina College of Agriculture, march 13 – Chester Greenwood patents earmuffs. April 1 – Mumbai Fire Brigade is established, April 4 – Argonia, Kansas elects Susanna M. Salter as the first female mayor in the United States. April 9 – The Charter of Incorporation was approved for The Teutonia Maennerchor Hall in the East Allegheny neighborhood of Pittsburgh, April 10 – The Catholic University of America is founded on Easter Sunday. April 21 – Schnaebele incident – French/German border incident nearly leads to war between the two countries, April 20 – Occidental College is founded. May 3 – An earthquake hits Sonora, Mexico, may 9 – Buffalo Bills Wild West Show opens in London. May 14 – The cornerstone of the new Stanford University, in northern California, is laid, June 8 – Herman Hollerith receives a patent for his punched card calculator. June 18 – The Reinsurance Treaty is closed between Germany and Russia, June 21 The British Empire celebrates Queen Victorias Golden Jubilee, marking the 50th year of her reign. June 23 – The Rocky Mountains Park Act becomes law in Canada, creating that nations first national park, June 28 – Minot, North Dakota is incorporated as a city. June 29 – The United Retail Federation is established in Brisbane, july – James Blyth operates the first working wind turbine at Marykirk in Scotland1887 – January 6: Menelik II
20. Josiah Willard Gibbs – Josiah Willard Gibbs was an American scientist who made important theoretical contributions to physics, chemistry, and mathematics. His work on the applications of thermodynamics was instrumental in transforming physical chemistry into a rigorous inductive science, Gibbs also worked on the application of Maxwells equations to problems in physical optics. As a mathematician, he invented modern vector calculus, in 1863, Yale awarded Gibbs the first American doctorate in engineering. After a three-year sojourn in Europe, Gibbs spent the rest of his career at Yale, commentators and biographers have remarked on the contrast between Gibbss quiet, solitary life in turn of the century New England and the great international impact of his ideas. Though his work was almost entirely theoretical, the value of Gibbss contributions became evident with the development of industrial chemistry during the first half of the 20th century. According to Robert A. Gibbs was born in New Haven and he belonged to an old Yankee family that had produced distinguished American clergymen and academics since the 17th century. He was the fourth of five children and the son of Josiah Willard Gibbs and his wife Mary Anna. On his fathers side, he was descended from Samuel Willard, on his mothers side, one of his ancestors was the Rev. Jonathan Dickinson, the first president of the College of New Jersey, the elder Gibbs was generally known to his family and colleagues as Josiah, while the son was called Willard. Josiah Gibbs was a linguist and theologian who served as professor of sacred literature at Yale Divinity School from 1824 until his death in 1861, Willard Gibbs was educated at the Hopkins School and entered Yale College in 1854, aged 15. At Yale, Gibbs received prizes for excellence in mathematics and Latin and he remained at Yale as a graduate student at the Sheffield Scientific School. At age 19, soon after his graduation from college, Gibbs was inducted into the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, relatively few documents from the period survive and it is difficult to reconstruct the details of Gibbss early career with precision. After the death of his father in 1861, Gibbs inherited enough money to him financially independent. Recurrent pulmonary trouble ailed the young Gibbs and his physicians were concerned that he might be susceptible to tuberculosis and he also suffered from astigmatism, whose treatment was then still largely unfamiliar to oculists, so that Gibbs had to diagnose himself and grind his own lenses. He was not conscripted and he remained at Yale for the duration of the war, in 1861, Yale had become the first US university to offer a Ph. D. degree and Gibbss was only the fifth Ph. D. granted in the US in any subject. After graduation, Gibbs was appointed as tutor at the College for a term of three years, during the first two years he taught Latin and during the third natural philosophy. After his term as tutor ended, Gibbs traveled to Europe with his sisters, moving to Berlin, Gibbs attended the lectures taught by mathematicians Karl Weierstrass and Leopold Kronecker, as well as by chemist Heinrich Gustav Magnus. In August 1867, Gibbss sister Julia was married in Berlin to Addison Van Name, the newly married couple returned to New Haven, leaving Gibbs and his sister Anna in GermanyJosiah Willard Gibbs – Josiah Willard Gibbs
21. Cary Grant – Cary Grant was a British-American actor, known as one of classic Hollywoods definitive leading men. He began a career in Hollywood in the early 1930s, and became known for his accent, debonair demeanor. He became an American citizen in 1942, Born in Horfield, Bristol, Grant became attracted to theatre at a young age, and began performing with a troupe known as The Penders from the age of six. After attending Bishop Road Primary School and Fairfield Grammar School in Bristol, he toured the country as a stage performer and he established a name for himself in vaudeville in the 1920s and toured the United States before moving to Hollywood in the early 1930s. Along with the later Arsenic and Old Lace and I Was a Male War Bride, having established himself as a major Hollywood star, he was nominated twice for the Academy Award for Best Actor, for Penny Serenade and None but the Lonely Heart. In the 1940s and 1950s, Grant forged a relationship with the director Alfred Hitchcock, appearing in films such as Suspicion, Notorious, To Catch a Thief. Hitchcock admired Grant and considered him to have been the actor that he had ever loved working with. His comic timing and delivery made Grant what Premiere magazine considers to have quite simply. Grant was married five times, three of his marriages were elopements with actresses—Virginia Cherrill, Betsy Drake and Dyan Cannon and he has one daughter with Cannon, Jennifer Grant. After his retirement from acting in 1966, Grant pursued numerous business interests, representing cosmetics firm Fabergé. He was presented with an Honorary Oscar by his friend Frank Sinatra at the 42nd Academy Awards in 1970, in 1999, the American Film Institute named Grant the second greatest male star of Golden Age Hollywood cinema, after Humphrey Bogart. Grant was born Archibald Alec Leach on January 18,1904 at 15 Hughenden Road in the northern Bristol suburb of Horfield and he was the second child of Elias James Leach and Elsie Maria Leach. Elias, the son of a potter, worked as a tailors presser at a factory, while Elsie. Grants elder brother, John William Elias Leach, died of tuberculous meningitis, Grant considered himself to have been partly Jewish. He had an upbringing, his father was an alcoholic. Wanting the best for her son, Elsie taught Grant song and dance when he was four and she would occasionally take him to the cinema where he enjoyed the performances of Charlie Chaplin, Chester Conklin, Fatty Arbuckle, Ford Sterling, Mack Swain and Broncho Billy Anderson. Grant entered education when he was four-and-a-half and was sent to the Bishop Road Primary School, Bristol, another biographer, Geoffrey Wansell, notes that Elsie blamed herself bitterly for the death of Grants older brother John, and never recovered from it. Grant later acknowledged that his experiences with his fiercely independent mother affected his relationships with women later in lifeCary Grant – Promotional photo of Cary Grant for Suspicion (1941)
22. Beach – A beach is a landform along a body of water. It usually consists of particles, which are often composed of rock, such as sand, gravel, shingle, pebbles. The particles comprising a beach are occasionally biological in origin, such as shells or coralline algae. Some beaches have man-made infrastructure, such as posts, changing rooms. They may also have hospitality venues nearby, wild beaches, also known as undeveloped or undiscovered beaches, are not developed in this manner. Wild beaches can be valued for their beauty and preserved nature. Beaches typically occur in areas along the coast where wave or current action deposits, although the seashore is most commonly associated with the word beach, beaches are also found by lakes and alongside large rivers. Beach may refer to, small systems where rock material moves onshore, offshore, or alongshore by the forces of waves and currents, the former are described in detail below, the larger geological units are discussed elsewhere under bars. There are several parts to a beach that relate to the processes that form. The part mostly above water, and more or less influenced by the waves at some point in the tide, is termed the beach berm. The berm is the deposit of material comprising the active shoreline, the berm has a crest and a face — the latter being the slope leading down towards the water from the crest. At the very bottom of the face, there may be a trough, at some point the influence of the waves on the material comprising the beach stops, and if the particles are small enough, winds shape the feature. Where wind is the force distributing the grains inland, the deposit behind the beach becomes a dune and these geomorphic features compose what is called the beach profile. The beach profile changes seasonally due to the change in energy experienced during summer and winter months. In temperate areas where summer is characterised by calmer seas and longer periods between breaking wave crests, the profile is higher in summer. The gentle wave action during this season tends to transport sediment up the beach towards the berm where it is deposited, onshore winds carry it further inland forming and enhancing dunes. Conversely, the profile is lower in the storm season due to the increased wave energy. The removal of sediment from the berm and dune thus decreases the beach profileBeach – A sand and shingle beach
23. Grace Kelly – Grace Patricia Kelly was an American actress who became Princess of Monaco after marrying Prince Rainier III, in April 1956. In October 1953, she gained stardom from her performance in the film Mogambo, which won her a Golden Globe Award, subsequently, she had leading roles in five films, including The Country Girl, for which her deglamorized performance earned her an Academy Award for Best Actress. Kelly retired from acting at the age of 26 to marry Rainier and they had three children, Caroline, Albert II, and Stéphanie. Kelly retained her American roots, maintaining dual U. S. and she died on September 14,1982, a day after suffering a stroke while driving her car, which caused a crash. Kelly was born on November 12,1929, at Hahnemann University Hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to an affluent and influential family. Her father, Irish-American John B. Kelly Sr. had won three Olympic gold medals for sculling and owned a successful brickwork contracting company that was well-known on the East Coast. A registered Democrat, he was nominated to be mayor of Philadelphia for the 1935 election, in later years, he served on the Fairmount Park Commission and, during World War II, was appointed by President Roosevelt as National Director of Physical Fitness. Kellys mother was Philadelphia native Margaret Katherine Majer, the daughter of German immigrants, Margaret had taught physical education at the University of Pennsylvania and had been the first woman to coach womens athletics at the institution. She was noted for her beauty and modeled for a time in her youth, after marrying John B. Kelly in 1924, Margaret focused on being a housewife until all her children were of school age, following which she began actively participating in various civic organizations. Kelly had two siblings, Margaret and John Jr. and a younger sister, Elizabeth. The children were raised in the Roman Catholic faith, while attending Ravenhill Academy, a prestigious Catholic girls school, Kelly modeled fashions at local social events with her mother and sisters. In 1942, at the age of 12, she played the lead in Dont Feed the Animals, before graduating in May 1947 from Stevens School, a socially prominent private institution on Walnut Lane in the Northwest Philadelphia neighborhood of Germantown, she acted and danced. Her graduation yearbook listed her favorite actress as Ingrid Bergman and her favorite actor as Joseph Cotten, written in the Stevens Prophecy section was, Miss Grace P. Kelly – a famous star of stage and screen. Owing to her low mathematics scores, Kelly was rejected by Bennington College in July 1947, despite her parents initial disapproval, Kelly decided to pursue her dreams of being an actress. John was particularly displeased with her decision, he viewed acting as a cut above streetwalker. To start her career, she auditioned for the American Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York, although the school had already met its semester quota, she obtained an interview with the admission officer, Emile Diestel, and was admitted through the influence of George. She began her first term the following October, while at school, she lived in Manhattans Barbizon Hotel for Women, a prestigious establishment which barred men from entering after 10 pm, and she worked as a model to support her studies. Kelly worked diligently and practiced her speech by using a tape recorder and her early acting pursuits led her to the stage, most notably a Broadway debut in Strindbergs The Father alongside Raymond MasseyGrace Kelly – Kelly in 1956
24. Gary Cooper – Gary Cooper was an American film actor known for his natural, authentic, and understated acting style and screen performances. His career spanned thirty-five years, from 1925 to 1960, and he was a major movie star from the end of the silent film era through the end of the golden age of Classical Hollywood. His screen persona appealed strongly to men and women, and his range of performances included roles in most major movie genres. Coopers ability to project his own personality onto the characters he played contributed to his appearing natural, the screen persona he sustained throughout his career represented the ideal American hero. Cooper began his career as an extra and stunt rider. After establishing himself as a Western hero in his silent films, Cooper became a movie star in 1929 with his first sound picture. In the early 1930s, he expanded his heroic image to include more characters in adventure films and dramas such as A Farewell to Arms. In the postwar years, he portrayed more mature characters at odds with the world in such as The Fountainhead. In his final films, Cooper played non-violent characters searching for redemption in films such as Friendly Persuasion and he married New York debutante Veronica Balfe in 1933, and the couple had one daughter. Their marriage was interrupted by a three-year separation precipitated by Coopers love affair with Patricia Neal, Cooper received the Academy Award for Best Actor for his roles in Sergeant York and High Noon. He also received an Academy Honorary Award for his achievements in 1961. He was one of the top ten film personalities for twenty-three consecutive years, the American Film Institute ranked Cooper eleventh on its list of the twenty five greatest male stars of classic Hollywood cinema. Frank James Cooper was born on May 7,1901, at 730 Eleventh Avenue in Helena, Montana to English immigrants Alice and his father emigrated from Houghton Regis, Bedfordshire and became a prominent lawyer, rancher, and eventually a Montana Supreme Court justice. His mother emigrated from Gillingham, Kent and married Charles in Montana, in 1906, Charles purchased the 600-acre Seven-Bar-Nine cattle ranch about fifty miles north of Helena near the town of Craig on the Missouri River. Frank and his older brother Arthur spent their summers there and learned to ride horses, hunt, in April 1908, the Hauser Dam failed and flooded the Missouri River valley along portions of the Cooper property, but Cooper and his family were able to evacuate in time. Cooper attended Central Grade School in Helena, at Dunstable, Cooper studied Latin and French, and took several courses in English history. While he managed to adapt to the discipline of an English school and learned the requisite social graces, he never adjusted to the class structure. After completing confirmation classes, Cooper was baptized into the Anglican Church on December 3,1911, Coopers mother accompanied her sons back to the United States in August 1912, and Cooper resumed his education at Johnson Grammar School in HelenaGary Cooper – Gary Cooper, 1936
25. Grasse – Grasse is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department, on the French Riviera. The town is considered the capital of perfume. It obtained two flowers in the Concours des villes et villages fleuris contest and was made Ville dArt et dHistoire, three perfume factories offer daily tours and demonstrations, which draw in many of the regions visitors. In addition to the perfumeries, Grasses other main attraction is the Cathedral, dedicated to Notre Dame du Puy, in the interior, are three works by Rubens and one by Jean-Honoré Fragonard, a French painter native of the town. Other sights include, Saracen Tower, standing at 30m, the first festival was on August 3-4,1946. Decorated floats drive through the town, with women in skimpy costumes on board. Garlands of jasmine decorate the center, and the fire department fills a fire truck with jasmine-infused water to spray on the crowds. There are also fireworks, free parties, folk music groups, there is also an annual international exhibition of roses held in May each year. The Gare de Grasse railway station offers connections with Cannes, Nice, Grasse is the centre of the French perfume industry and is known as the worlds perfume capital. Many noses are trained or have spent time in Grasse to distinguish over 2,000 kinds of scent, Grasse produces over two-thirds of Frances natural aromas. This industry turns over more than 600 million euros a year, Grasses particular microclimate encouraged the flower farming industry. It is warm and sufficiently inland to be sheltered from the sea air, there is an abundance of water, thanks to its situation in the hills and the 1860 construction of the Siagne canal for irrigation purposes. The town is 350 m above sea level and 20 km from the Coast, jasmine, a key ingredient of many perfumes, was brought to southern France by the Moors in the 16th century. Twenty-seven tonnes of jasmine are now harvested in Grasse annually, there are numerous old parfumeries in Grasse, such as Galimard, Molinard and Fragonard, each with tours and a museum. The trade in leather and tanning work developed during the twelfth century around the canal that runs through the city. This activity produced a strong unpleasant odor, at the time of the Renaissance perfume manufacturers began production of gloves, handbags and belt, to meet the new fashion from Italy with the entourage of Queen Catherine de Medici. The countryside around the city began to grow fields of flowers, in 1614, the king recognized the new corporation of glovers perfumers. In the middle of the century, the perfumery was experiencing a very important developmentGrasse – A general view of Grasse
26. Nice – Nice is the fifth most populous city in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes département. The urban area of Nice extends beyond the city limits. Nice is about 13 kilometres from the principality of Monaco, the city is nicknamed Nice la Belle, which means Nice the Beautiful, which is also the title of the unofficial anthem of Nice, written by Menica Rondelly in 1912. The area of todays Nice contains Terra Amata, a site which displays evidence of a very early use of fire. Around 350 BC, Greeks of Marseille founded a permanent settlement and called it Nikaia, after Nike, through the ages, the town has changed hands many times. Its strategic location and port significantly contributed to its maritime strength, for centuries it was a dominion of Savoy, and was then part of France between 1792 and 1815, when it was returned to Piedmont-Sardinia until its re-annexation by France in 1860. The citys main seaside promenade, the Promenade des Anglais owes its name to visitors to the resort, for decades now, the picturesque Nicean surroundings have attracted not only those in search of relaxation, but also those seeking inspiration. The clear air and soft light have particularly appealed to some of Western cultures most outstanding painters, such as Marc Chagall, Henri Matisse, Niki de Saint Phalle and Arman. Their work is commemorated in many of the museums, including Musée Marc Chagall, Musée Matisse. Nice has the second largest hotel capacity in the country and it is one of its most visited cities and it also has the third busiest airport in France, after the two main Parisian ones. It is the capital city of the County of Nice. Nice was probably founded around 350 BC by the Greeks of Massalia, the ruins of Cemenelum are in Cimiez, now a district of Nice. In the 7th century, Nice joined the Genoese League formed by the towns of Liguria. In 729 the city repulsed the Saracens, but in 859 and again in 880 the Saracens pillaged and burned it, during the Middle Ages, Nice participated in the wars and history of Italy. As an ally of Pisa it was the enemy of Genoa, during the 13th and 14th centuries the city fell more than once into the hands of the Counts of Provence, but it regained its independence even though related to Genoa. The medieval city walls surrounded the Old Town, the landward side was protected by the River Paillon, which was later covered over and is now the tram route towards the Acropolis. The east side of the town was protected by fortifications on Castle Hill, another river flowed into the port on the east side of Castle Hill. Engravings suggest that the area was also defended by wallsNice – Nice Port
27. H.M.S. Pinafore – Pinafore, or, The Lass That Loved a Sailor is a comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and a libretto by W. S. Gilbert. It opened at the Opera Comique in London, on 25 May 1878 and ran for 571 performances, Pinafore was Gilbert and Sullivans fourth operatic collaboration and their first international sensation. The story takes place aboard the ship HMS Pinafore, the captains daughter, Josephine, is in love with a lower-class sailor, Ralph Rackstraw, although her father intends her to marry Sir Joseph Porter, the First Lord of the Admiralty. She abides by her fathers wishes at first, but Sir Josephs advocacy of the equality of humankind encourages Ralph and they declare their love for each other and eventually plan to elope. The captain discovers this plan, but, as in many of the Gilbert and Sullivan operas, drawing on several of his earlier Bab Ballad poems, Gilbert imbued this plot with mirth and silliness. The operas humour focuses on love between members of different social classes and lampoons the British class system in general, Pinafore also pokes good-natured fun at patriotism, party politics, the Royal Navy, and the rise of unqualified people to positions of authority. The title of the piece comically applies the name of a garment for girls and women, pinafores extraordinary popularity in Britain, America and elsewhere was followed by the similar success of a series of Gilbert and Sullivan works, including The Pirates of Penzance and The Mikado. Their works, later known as the Savoy operas, dominated the stage on both sides of the Atlantic for more than a decade and continue to be performed today. The structure and style of these operas, particularly Pinafore, were copied and contributed significantly to the development of modern musical theatre. In 1875, Richard DOyly Carte, who was managing the Royalty Theatre for Selina Dolaro, brought Gilbert and Sullivan together to write their second show. With this theatre company, Carte finally had the resources, after many failed attempts, to produce a new full-length Gilbert. This next opera was The Sorcerer, which opened in November 1877 and it too was successful, running for 178 performances. Sheet music from the show well, and street musicians played the melodies. Instead of writing a piece for production by a proprietor, as was usual in Victorian theatres, Gilbert, Sullivan. They were therefore able to choose their own cast of performers and they then tailored their work to the particular abilities of these performers. For until then no living soul had seen upon the stage such weird, eccentric, conjured into existence a hitherto unknown comic world of sheer delight. The success of The Sorcerer paved the way for another collaboration by Gilbert, Carte agreed on terms for a new opera with the Comedy Opera Company, and Gilbert began work on H. M. S. Pinafore before the end of 1877, Gilberts father had been a naval surgeon, and the nautical theme of the opera appealed to himH.M.S. Pinafore – Theatre poster, 1879
28. Provence – The largest city of the region is Marseille. The Romans made the region into the first Roman province beyond the Alps and called it Provincia Romana and it was ruled by the Counts of Provence from their capital in Aix-en-Provence until 1481, when it became a province of the Kings of France. While it has been part of France for more than five hundred years, it retains a distinct cultural and linguistic identity. The coast of Provence has some of the earliest known sites of habitation in Europe. Primitive stone tools dated to 1 to 1.05 million years BC were found in the Grotte du Vallonnet near Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, tools dating to the Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic were discovered in the Observatory Cave, in the Jardin Exotique of Monaco. The Paleolithic period in Provence saw great changes in the climate, with the arrival, at the beginning of the Paleolithic period, the sea level in western Provence was 150 meters higher than it is today. By the end of the Paleolithic, it had dropped 100 to 150 metres lower than sea level. The cave dwellings of the inhabitants of Provence were regularly inundated by the rising sea or left far from the sea. The changes in the sea led to one of the most remarkable discoveries of signs of early man in Provence. In 1985, a diver named Henri Cosquer discovered the mouth of a submarine cave 37 metres below the surface of the Calanque de Morgiou near Marseille, the entrance led to a cave above sea level. Inside, the walls of the Cosquer Cave are decorated with drawings of bison, seals, auks, horses and outlines of human hands, dating to between 27,000 and 19,000 BC. The end of the Paleolithic and beginning of the Neolithic period saw the sea settle at its present level, a warming of the climate and the retreat of the forests. The disappearance of the forests and the deer and other easily hunted game meant that the inhabitants of Provence had to survive on rabbits, snails, since they were settled in one place they were able to develop new industries. Inspired by the pottery from the eastern Mediterranean, in about 6000 BC they created the first pottery to be made in France. Around 6000 BC, a wave of new settlers from the east and they were farmers and warriors, and gradually displaced the earlier pastoral people from their lands. They were followed in about 2500 BC by another wave of people, also farmers, known as the Courronniens, traces of these early civilisations can be found in many parts of Provence. A Neolithic site dating to about 6,000 BC was discovered in Marseille near the Saint-Charles railway station, and a dolmen from the Bronze Age can be found near Draguignan. Between the 10th and 4th century BC the Ligures were found in Provence from Massilia as far as modern day Liguria and they were of uncertain origin, they may have been the descendants of the indigenous neolithic peoplesProvence – The historical province of Provence (orange) within the modern region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur in southeast France
29. William Wilberforce – William Wilberforce was an English politician, philanthropist, and a leader of the movement to eradicate the slave trade. A native of Kingston upon Hull, Yorkshire, he began his career in 1780. In 1785, he became an Evangelical Christian, which resulted in changes to his lifestyle. In 1787, he came into contact with Thomas Clarkson and a group of activists, including Granville Sharp, Hannah More. They persuaded Wilberforce to take on the cause of abolition, and he headed the parliamentary campaign against the British slave trade for twenty years until the passage of the Slave Trade Act of 1807. Wilberforce was convinced of the importance of religion, morality and education, in later years, Wilberforce supported the campaign for the complete abolition of slavery, and continued his involvement after 1826, when he resigned from Parliament because of his failing health. He was buried in Westminster Abbey, close to his friend William Pitt and his grandfather William had made the family fortune in the maritime trade with Baltic countries, and had twice been elected mayor of Hull. Wilberforce was a small, sickly and delicate child, with poor eyesight, in 1767 he began attending Hull Grammar School, at the time headed by a young, dynamic headmaster, Joseph Milner, who was to become a lifelong friend. Wilberforce profited from the atmosphere at the school until the death of his father in 1768 caused changes in his living arrangements. He attended an indifferent boarding school in Putney for two years and he spent his holidays in Wimbledon, where he grew extremely fond of his relatives. Wilberforce was heartbroken to be separated from his aunt and uncle and his family opposed a return to Hull Grammar School because the headmaster had become a Methodist, Wilberforce therefore continued his education at nearby Pocklington School from 1771 to 1776. Influenced by Methodist scruples, he initially resisted Hulls lively social life, in October 1776, at the age of 17, Wilberforce went up to St Johns College, Cambridge. The deaths of his grandfather and uncle in 1777 had left him independently wealthy, witty, generous and an excellent conversationalist, Wilberforce was a popular figure. He made many friends including the more studious future Prime Minister William Pitt, despite his lifestyle and lack of interest in studying he managed to pass his examinations and was awarded a B. A. in 1781 and an M. A. in 1788. Wilberforce began to consider a career while still at university. Pitt, already set on a career, encouraged Wilberforce to join him in obtaining a parliamentary seat. Free from financial pressures, Wilberforce sat as an independent, resolving to be no party man, Wilberforce attended Parliament regularly, but he also maintained a lively social life, becoming an habitué of gentlemens gambling clubs such as Goostrees and Boodles in Pall Mall, London. During the frequent government changes of 1781–1784, Wilberforce supported his friend Pitt in parliamentary debates, in autumn 1783, Pitt, Wilberforce and Edward Eliot, travelled to France for a six-week holiday togetherWilliam Wilberforce – William Wilberforce by Karl Anton Hickel, c. 1794
30. Christopher Lee – Sir Christopher Frank Carandini Lee CBE CStJ was an English character actor, singer, and author. With a career spanning nearly 70 years, Lee initially portrayed villains, Lee was knighted for services to drama and charity in 2009, received the BAFTA Fellowship in 2011, and received the BFI Fellowship in 2013. Lee considered his best performance to be that of Pakistans founder Muhammad Ali Jinnah in the biopic Jinnah and he frequently appeared opposite Peter Cushing in Hammer Horror films, and late in his career had roles in six Tim Burton films. The heavy metal follow-up Charlemagne, The Omens of Death was released on 27 May 2013 and he was honoured with the Spirit of Metal award at the 2010 Metal Hammer Golden Gods Awards ceremony. Lee died from complications of respiratory problems and heart failure on the morning of 7 June 2015, Lee was born in Belgravia, London, the son of Lieutenant Colonel Geoffrey Trollope Lee of the 60th Kings Royal Rifle Corps, and his wife, Countess Estelle Marie. Lees maternal great-grandfather was an Italian political refugee, whose wife and he had one sister, Xandra Carandini Lee. Lees parents separated when he was four and divorced two years later, during this time, his mother took him and his sister to Wengen in Switzerland. After enrolling in Miss Fishers Academy in Territet, he played his first role and they then returned to London, where Lee attended Wagners private school in Queens Gate, and his mother married Harcourt George St-Croix Rose, a banker and uncle of Ian Fleming. Fleming, author of the James Bond novels, thus became Lees step-cousin, the family moved to Fulham, living next door to the actor Eric Maturin. One night, he was introduced to Prince Yusupov and Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich, the assassins of Grigori Rasputin, when Lee was nine, he was sent to Summer Fields School, a preparatory school in Oxford whose pupils often later attended Eton. He continued acting in plays, though the laurels deservedly went to Patrick Macnee. Lee applied for a scholarship to Eton, where his interview was in the presence of the ghost story author M. R. James, sixty years later, Lee played the part of James for the BBC. His poor maths skills meant that he placed eleventh, and thus missed out on being a Kings Scholar by one place and his step-father was not prepared to pay the higher fees that being an Oppidan Scholar meant, and so he did not attend. Instead, Lee attended Wellington College, where he won scholarships in the classics, studying Ancient Greek, aside from a tiny part in a school play, he didnt act while at Wellington. He was a passable racquets player and fencer and a competent cricketer but did not do well at the sports played, hockey, football, rugby. He disliked the parades and weapons training and would always play dead as soon as possible during mock battles. Lee was frequently beaten at school, including once at Wellington for being beaten too often, though he accepted them as logical, at age 17, and with one year left at Wellington, the summer term of 1939 was his last. His step-father had gone bankrupt, owing £25,000 and his mother separated from Rose, and Lee had to get a job, his sister already working as a secretary for the Church of England Pensions BoardChristopher Lee – Lee at the 2013 Berlin International Film Festival
31. Leopold II of Belgium – Leopold II was the second King of the Belgians, known for the founding and exploitation of the Congo Free State as a private venture. Born in Brussels as the son of Leopold I and Louise of Orléans, he succeeded his father to the Belgian throne in 1865. His was the longest reign of any Belgian monarch and he died without surviving male issue, the current Belgian king descends from his nephew and successor, Albert I. Leopold was the founder and sole owner of the Congo Free State and he used explorer Henry Morton Stanley to help him lay claim to the Congo, an area now known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo. At the Berlin Conference of 1884–1885, the nations of Europe authorized his claim by committing the Congo Free State to improving the lives of the native inhabitants. From the beginning, however, Leopold essentially ignored these conditions and he ran the Congo using the mercenary Force Publique for his personal enrichment. He used great sums of the money from this exploitation for public and he donated the private buildings to the state before his death, to preserve them for Belgium. Under his regime millions of the Congolese people died, modern estimates range from 1 to 15 million, human rights abuses under his regime contributed significantly to these deaths. Leopold was born in Brussels on 9 April 1835 and he was the second child of the reigning Belgian monarch, Leopold I, and his second wife, Louise, the daughter of King Louis Philippe of France. The French Revolution of 1848, which spared Belgium, had forced Louis Philippe to flee to the United Kingdom, the royal families of Belgium and the United Kingdom were linked by numerous marriages, and were additionally both descended from the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Louis Philippe died two years later, in 1850, Leopolds fragile mother was deeply affected by the death of her father, and her health deteriorated. She died that year, when Leopold was 15 years old. Three years later, in 1853 at the age of 18, Marie Henriette was a cousin of Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria, and granddaughter of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor through her father, Austrian archduke Joseph. Marie Henriette was lively and energetic, and endeared herself to the people by her character and benevolence and she was also an accomplished artist and musician. She was passionate about horseback riding to the point that she would care for her horses personally, some joked about this marriage of a stableman and a nun, the shy and withdrawn Leopold referred to as the nun. Four children were born of marriage, three daughters and one son, also named Leopold. The younger Leopold died in 1869 at the age of nine from pneumonia after falling into a pond and his death was a source of great sorrow for King Leopold, who lost his only heir. The marriage had become unhappy, and the couple separated completely after a last attempt to have another son, in 1895 Marie Henriette retreated to SpaLeopold II of Belgium – Leopold II
32. Timeline of diving technology – The timeline of underwater technology is a chronological list of notable events in the history of underwater diving. There have been instances of men swimming or diving for combat, but they always had to hold their breath. About 500 BC, During a naval campaign the Greek Scyllis was taken aboard ship as prisoner by the Persian King Xerxes I, when Scyllis learned that Xerxes was to attack a Greek flotilla, he seized a knife and jumped overboard. The Persians could not find him in the water and presumed he had drowned, Scyllis made his way among all the ships in Xerxess fleet, cutting each ship loose from its moorings, he used a hollow reed as snorkel to remain unobserved. Then he swam nine miles to rejoin the Greeks off Cape Artemisium,1300 or earlier, Persian divers were using diving goggles with windows made of the polished outer layer of tortoiseshell. Some drawings, however, showed different kinds of snorkels and an air tank that presumably should have no external connections, other drawings showed a complete immersion kit, with a plunger suit which included a sort of mask with a box for air. The project was so detailed that it included a urine collector,1531, Guglielmo de Lorena dived on two of Caligulas sunken galleys using a diving bell from a design by Leonardo da Vinci. 1616, Franz Kessler built a diving bell. Around 1620, Cornelius Drebbel may have made a crude rebreather,1650, Otto von Guericke built the first air pump. 1715, the chevalier Pierre Rémy de Beauve, a French aristocrat who served as de la marine in Brest. De Beauves dress was equipped with a helmet and two hoses, one of them air-supplied from the surface by a bellows and the other one for evacuation of the exhaled air. The Englishman John Lethbridge, a merchant, invented a diving barrel. 1772, the first diving dress using a reservoir was successfully designed and built in 1772 by Sieur Fréminet. Fréminet called his invention machine hydrostatergatique and used it successfully for more than ten years in the harbours of Le Havre and Brest,1774, John Day became the first person known to have died in an underwater accident while testing a diving chamber in Plymouth Sound. 1776, David Bushnell invented the Turtle, first submarine to another ship. It was used in the American Revolution,1797, Karl Heinrich Klingert designed a full diving dress in 1797. This design consisted of a metal helmet and similarly large metal belt connected by leather jacket. 1798, in June F. W. Joachim, employed by Klingert,1800, Captain Peter Kreeft of Germany dived several times with his helmet diving equipment to show it to king Gustav IV Adolf of SwedenTimeline of diving technology – The oceanographer and biologist Emil Racoviță, here equipped with a standard diving dress. An underwater photograph taken by Louis Boutan (Banyuls-sur-Mer, south of France, 1899).
33. Regions of France – France is divided into 18 administrative regions, including 13 metropolitan regions and 5 overseas regions. The current legal concept of region was adopted in 1982, the term région was officially created by the Law of Decentralisation, which also gave regions their legal status. The first direct elections for representatives took place on 16 March 1986. In 2016, the number of regions was reduced from 27 to 18 through amalgamation, in 2014, the French parliament passed a law reducing the number of metropolitan regions from 22 to 13 with effect from 1 January 2016. However, the region of Upper and Lower Normandy is simply called Normandy. Permanent names were to be proposed by the new regional councils by 1 July 2016, the legislation defining the new regions also allowed the Centre region to officially change its name to Centre-Val de Loire with effect from January 2015. Two regions, Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes and Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, opted to retain their interim names, between 1982 and 2015, there were 22 regions in Metropolitan France. Before 2011, there were four regions, in 2011 Mayotte became the fifth. Regions lack separate legislative authority and therefore cannot write their own statutory law and they levy their own taxes and, in return, receive a decreasing part of their budget from the central government, which gives them a portion of the taxes it levies. They also have considerable budgets managed by a council made up of representatives voted into office in regional elections. A regions primary responsibility is to build and furnish high schools, in March 2004, the French central government unveiled a controversial plan to transfer regulation of certain categories of non-teaching school staff to the regional authorities. Critics of this plan contended that tax revenue was insufficient to pay for the costs. In addition, regions have considerable power over infrastructural spending, e. g. education, public transit, universities and research. This has meant that the heads of regions such as Île-de-France or Rhône-Alpes can be high-profile positions. Number of regions controlled by each coalition since 1986, Overseas region is a recent designation, given to the overseas departments that have similar powers to those of the regions of metropolitan France. Radio France Internationale in English Overseas regions Ministère de lOutre-Mer some explanations about the past and current developments of DOMs and TOMsRegions of France
34. Henri Matisse – Henri-Émile-Benoît Matisse was a French artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship. He was a draughtsman, printmaker, and sculptor, but is primarily as a painter. Although he was labelled a Fauve, by the 1920s he was increasingly hailed as an upholder of the classical tradition in French painting. His mastery of the language of colour and drawing, displayed in a body of work spanning over a half-century. Matisse was born in Le Cateau-Cambrésis, in the Nord department in northern France and he grew up in Bohain-en-Vermandois, Picardie, France. In 1887 he went to Paris to study law, working as an administrator in Le Cateau-Cambrésis after gaining his qualification. He first started to paint in 1889, after his mother brought him art supplies during a period of following an attack of appendicitis. He discovered a kind of paradise as he described it. In 1891 he returned to Paris to study art at the Académie Julian and became a student of William-Adolphe Bouguereau, initially he painted still lifes and landscapes in a traditional style, at which he achieved reasonable proficiency. Chardin was one of the painters Matisse most admired, as an art student he made copies of four of Chardins paintings in the Louvre, in 1896 and 1897, Matisse visited the Australian painter John Peter Russell on the island Belle Île off the coast of Brittany. Russell introduced him to Impressionism and to the work of van Gogh and he later said Russell was my teacher, and Russell explained colour theory to me. In 1896 Matisse exhibited five paintings in the salon of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts, with the model Caroline Joblau, he had a daughter, Marguerite, born in 1894. In 1898 he married Amélie Noellie Parayre, the two raised Marguerite together and had two sons, Jean and Pierre, Marguerite and Amélie often served as models for Matisse. In 1898, on the advice of Camille Pissarro, he went to London to study the paintings of J. M. W. Turner and then went on a trip to Corsica. Upon his return to Paris in February 1899, he worked beside Albert Marquet and met André Derain, Jean Puy, Matisse immersed himself in the work of others and went into debt from buying work from painters he admired. The work he hung and displayed in his home included a plaster bust by Rodin, a painting by Gauguin, a drawing by van Gogh, in Cézannes sense of pictorial structure and colour, Matisse found his main inspiration. Many of Matisses paintings from 1898 to 1901 make use of a Divisionist technique he adopted after reading Paul Signacs essay and his paintings of 1902–03, a period of material hardship for the artist, are comparatively somber and reveal a preoccupation with form. Having made his first attempt at sculpture, a copy after Antoine-Louis Barye, in 1899, he devoted much of his energy to working in clay, fauvism as a style began around 1900 and continued beyond 1910Henri Matisse – Henri Matisse, 1913, by Alvin Langdon Coburn
35. Harold Robbins – Harold Robbins was an American author of popular novels. One of the writers of all time, he penned over 25 best-sellers. He was raised by his father, who was a pharmacist, Robbins dropped out of high school in the late 1920s to work in a variety of jobs including errand boy, bookies runner and inventory clerk in a grocers. He was employed by Universal Pictures from 1940 to 1957, starting off as a clerk and his first book was Never Love a Stranger. The Dream Merchants was a novel about the American film industry, again, Robbins blended his own experiences with historical facts, melodrama, sex and action, into a fast-moving story. His 1952 novel, A Stone for Danny Fisher, was adapted into a 1958 motion picture King Creole, among his best-known books is The Carpetbaggers – featuring a loose composite of Howard Hughes, Bill Lear, Harry Cohn, and Louis B. The Carpetbaggers takes the reader from New York to California, from the prosperity of the industry to the glamor of Hollywood. Its sequel, The Raiders, was released in 1995 and he created the ABC television series The Survivors, starring Ralph Bellamy and Lana Turner. Robbins editors included Cynthia White and Michael Korda and his agent was Paul Gitlin. Since his death, several new books have published, written by ghostwriters and based on Robbinss own notes. In several of these books, Junius Podrug has been credited as co-writer, from the Hodder & Stoughton 2008 edition of The Carpetbaggers about the author section, Robbins was the playboy of his day and a master of publicity. He was a renowned novelist but tales of his own life even more fiction than his books. What is known is that with reported sales of 750 million. Rowling, earned and spent $50m during his lifetime, and was as much a part of the sexual and social revolution as the pill, Playboy and pot. In March 1965, he had three novels on the British paperback bestseller list – Where Love Has Gone at No.1, The Carpetbaggers at No.3 and his widow, Jann Robbins, has republished 12 of his most famous titles with AuthorHouse Publishing. His first wife, Lillian Machnivitz, was his school sweetheart. His second wife, Grace Palermo Robbins, whom he married in 1965 and divorced in the early 1990s, during his marriage to Grace, Robbinss hedonistic lifestyle became a source of notoriety. He subsequently married Jann Stapp in 1992, who was his wife until his death and he spent a great deal of time on the French Riviera and at Monte Carlo until his death from respiratory heart failure, at the age of 81 in Palm Springs, CaliforniaHarold Robbins – Harold Robbins (1979)
36. Salerno – Salerno listen is a city and comune in Campania and is the capital of the province of the same name. It is located on the Gulf of Salerno on the Tyrrhenian Sea, Salerno was an independent Lombard principality in the early Middle Ages. During this time, it became the site of the first medical school in the world, later, in 1694, the city was struck by several catastrophic earthquakes and plagues. After a period of Spanish rule which would last until the 18th century, in recent history the city hosted the King of Italy, who moved from Rome in 1943 after Italy negotiated a peace with the Allies in World War II. A brief so-called government of the South was then established in the town, some of the Allied landings during Operation Avalanche occurred near Salerno. Today Salerno is an important cultural centre in Campania and Italy and has had a long, a patron saint of Salerno is Saint Matthew, the Apostle, whose relics are kept here at the crypt of Salerno Cathedral. The area of what is now Salerno has been settled since pre-historical times. We know the Oscan-Etruscan city of Irna, situated across the Irno river and this settlement represented an important base for Etruscan trade with the Greek colonies of Posidonia and Elea. It was occupied by the Samnites around the 5th century BC as consequence of the Battle of Cumae as part of the Syracusan sphere of influence. With the Roman advance in Campania, Irna began to lose its importance, being supplanted by the new Roman colony of Salernum, developing around an initial castrum. The new city, which gradually lost its function in favour of its role as a trade center, was connected to Rome by the Via Popilia. Archaeological remains, although fragmentary, suggest the idea of a flourishing, under the Emperor Diocletian, in the late 3rd century AD, Salernum became the administrative centre of the Lucania and Bruttii province. Like many coastal cities of southern Italy, Salerno initially remained untouched by the newcomers and it subsequently became part of the Duchy of Benevento. Under the Lombard dukes Salerno enjoyed the most splendid period of its history, with Arechis II, Salerno became a centre of studies with its famous Medical School. The Lombard prince ordered the city to be fortified, the Castle on the Bonadies mountain had already been built with walls, in 839 Salerno declared independence from Benevento, becoming the capital of a flourishing principality stretching out to Capua, northern Calabria and Apulia up to Taranto. The coins minted in the city circulated in all the Mediterranean, however, the stability of the Principate was continually shaken by the Saracen attacks and, most of all, by internal struggles. In 1056, one of the numerous plots led to the fall of Guaimar and his weaker son Gisulf II succeeded him, but the decline of the principality had begun. In 1077 Salerno reached its zenith but soon lost all its territory to the Normans, on 13 December 1076, the Norman conqueror Robert Guiscard, who had married Guaimar IVs daughter Sikelgaita, besieged Salerno and defeated his brother-in-law GisulfSalerno – Panorama of Salerno
37. Chaim Soutine – Chaïm Soutine was a Russian painter of Belarusian Jewish origin. Soutine made a contribution to the expressionist movement while living in Paris. Soutine was born Chaim Sutin, in Smilavichy near Minsk, Belarus and he was the tenth of eleven children. From 1910 to 1913 he studied in Vilnius at the Vilna Academy of Fine Arts, in 1913, with his friends Pinchus Kremegne and Michel Kikoine, he emigrated to Paris, where he studied at the École des Beaux-Arts under Fernand Cormon. He soon developed a personal vision and painting technique. For a time, he and his friends lived at La Ruche, Modigliani painted Soutines portrait several times, most famously in 1917, on a door of an apartment belonging to Léopold Zborowski, who was their art dealer. Zborowski supported Soutine through World War I, taking the struggling artist with him to Nice to escape the possible German invasion of Paris, after the war Paul Guillaume, a highly influential art dealer, began to champion Soutines work. In 1923, in a showing arranged by Guillaume, the prominent American collector Albert C, barnes, bought 60 of Soutines paintings on the spot. Soutine once horrified his neighbours by keeping an animal carcass in his studio so that he could paint it, the stench drove them to send for the police, whom Soutine promptly lectured on the relative importance of art over hygiene. Theres a story that Marc Chagall saw the blood from the leak out onto the corridor outside Soutines room. Soutine painted 10 works in series, which have since become his most well-known. His carcass paintings were inspired by Rembrandts still life of the subject, Slaughtered Ox. Soutine produced the majority of his works from 1920 to 1929, soon afterwards France was invaded by German troops. As a Jew, Soutine had to escape from the French capital and he moved from one place to another and was sometimes forced to seek shelter in forests, sleeping outdoors. Suffering from an ulcer and bleeding badly, he left a safe hiding place for Paris in order to undergo emergency surgery. On August 9,1943, Chaim Soutine died of a perforated ulcer and he was interred in Cimetière du Montparnasse, Paris. In February 2007, a 1921 portrait of a man with a red scarf by Chaim Soutine sold for $17.2 million—a new record—at Sothebys London auction house. In May 2015, Le Bœuf, circa 1923, oil on canvas, some years after Soutines death, Roald Dahl placed him as a character in his short story SkinChaim Soutine – Chaim Soutine (with signature)
38. Eurovision Song Contest 1959 – The Eurovision Song Contest 1959 was the fourth edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest. It was held on Wednesday 11 March 1959 in Cannes, France, the contest was won by the Netherlands with the song Een beetje, performed by Teddy Scholten. This was their second and the first time a country had won the contest twice, willy van Hemert was also the lyricist of Net als toen, which won the Eurovision Song Contest 1957. Van Hemert was the first person to win the Eurovision Song Contest twice, the original building was built in 1949 and was located on the boulevard of Promenade de la Croisette, on the present site of the JW Marriott Cannes. A new rule was created for this Eurovision, ensuring that no professional publishers or composers were allowed in the national juries, Italy gave one point to France, no points to the UK and seven points to the Netherlands placing them just three points ahead of the UK. Something that occurred this year, but never again, was more than the winning entry was performed once again. The second and third placed songs, United Kingdom and France, were allowed to sing again at the end of the show, together with eventual winner, luxembourg withdrew from the contest for the first time. The United Kingdom returned after missing the previous contest and finished second for the first time, the UK would have 15 second-place finishes in the countrys history in the contest. Monaco made its debut in the contest, but came last, each performance had a conductor who maestro the orchestra. Birthe Wilke for Denmark, and Domenico Modugno for Italy, the table above shows the order in which votes were cast during the 1959 contest along with the spokesperson who was responsible for announcing the votes for their respective country. Each national broadcaster sent a commentator to the contest, in order to provide coverage of the contest in their own native language. Details of the commentators and the station for which they represented are also included in the table belowEurovision Song Contest 1959 – Palais des Festivals et des Congrès in Cannes, France - Host venue of the 1959 Eurovision Song Contest.
39. Var (department) – The Var is a department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur region in Provence in southeastern France. It takes its name from the river Var, which used to flow along its eastern boundary, Toulon is the largest city and administrative capital of the Var. Other important towns in the Var include Fréjus, Saint-Raphaël, Draguignan, Brignoles, Hyères, the Department of the Var was created at the time of the French Revolution, on March 4,1790, from a portion of the former Royal province of Provence. Its capital was originally Toulon, but this was moved to Grasse in 1793 to punish the Toulonnais for having handed the town to the British in 1793, subsequently the capital was moved to Brignoles in 1795, then to Draguignan in 1797. It was not returned to Toulon until 1974,1815 - Following the defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo the department was occupied by Austrian troops until November 1818. 1854 – The first railroad reaches Toulon and this move also shifted the Var River, which had given the department its name, to the new Department. 1884 – A cholera epidemic struck Toulon, the leader of the fight against the epidemic was Georges Clemenceau, a doctor and a member of the National Assembly for the Seine region. He was elected Deputy from the Var from 1888 to 1893 and Senator from 1902 to 1920, 1914–1918 – The First World War stimulates growth in shipyards and military industries in the region, but weakens the agricultural and food industry. 1942 – The German Army moves from Occupied France into the Unoccupied Zone, the French Fleet is sabotaged in Toulon Harbor to keep it from falling into German hands. The Maquis Vallier, a group of resistance fighters, is active. August 15,1944 – American and Free French forces land at Cap Nègre, at Trayas, at Saint-Tropez, at Sainte-Maxime, the Free French fleet arrived at Toulon on September 13. 1960s – About one hundred thousand French citizens were repatriated from Algeria following the Algerian War of Independence, the Department of the Var has a surface area of 6,032 km2, and 420 km of coastline, including the offshore islands. 56% of the Var is covered with forest and its geological formations are divided into two regions, one composed of limestone to the north-west of a line between Toulon and Draguignan, and of crystalline rock to the south-east. The department is in the foothills of the Alps and is largely mountainous, the major mountains include, Massif des Maures and Massif de lEsterel, along the coast, are made of quartz rock. The Sainte-Baume mountain ridge, which lies in the west, mountain of Lachens, in the northwest of the department, and the highest point in the Var. The Plateau of Canjuers is located in the northeast of the Var, in the south and west there are several plateaus, such as the plateau of Siou Blanc to the north of Toulon, which rise from 400 to 700 metres in altitude. The Canyon du Verdon, the gorges of the Verdon River, is a place for hikers, kayakers. The Îles dHyères is a group of three islands off Hyères The islands are named Porquerolles, Port-Cros, and Île du Levant, together, they make up an area of 26 km2Var (department) – The Place de la Liberté in Toulon
40. The Great Gatsby – The story primarily concerns the young and mysterious millionaire Jay Gatsby and his quixotic passion and obsession for the beautiful former debutante Daisy Buchanan. Progress was slow, with Fitzgerald completing his first draft following a move to the French Riviera in 1924 and his editor, Maxwell Perkins, felt the book was vague and persuaded the author to revise over the next winter. First published by Scribners in April 1925, The Great Gatsby received mixed reviews and sold poorly, in its first year, Fitzgerald died in 1940, believing himself to be a failure and his work forgotten. However, the experienced a revival during World War II. Today, The Great Gatsby is widely considered to be a literary classic, in 1998, the Modern Library editorial board voted it the 20th centurys best American novel and second best English-language novel of the same time period. Set on the prosperous Long Island of 1922, The Great Gatsby provides a social history of America during the Roaring Twenties within its fictional narrative. Fitzgerald educates his readers about the society of the Roaring Twenties by placing a timeless. Fitzgeralds visits to Long Islands north shore and his experience attending parties at mansions inspired The Great Gatsbys setting, today, there are a number of theories as to which mansion was the inspiration for the book. One possibility is Lands End, a notable Gold Coast Mansion where Fitzgerald may have attended a party, many of the events in Fitzgeralds early life are reflected throughout The Great Gatsby. Fitzgerald was a man from Minnesota, and like Nick, he was educated at an Ivy League school. Fitzgerald is also similar to Jay Gatsby, in that he fell in love while stationed far from home in the military, Fitzgerald became a second lieutenant, and was stationed at Camp Sheridan, in Montgomery, Alabama. There he met and fell in love with a wild seventeen-year-old beauty named Zelda Sayre, Zelda finally agreed to marry him, but her preference for wealth, fun, and leisure led her to delay their wedding until he could prove a success. Like Nick in The Great Gatsby, Fitzgerald found this new lifestyle seductive and exciting, in many ways, The Great Gatsby represents Fitzgeralds attempt to confront his conflicting feelings about the Jazz Age. Like Gatsby, Fitzgerald was driven by his love for a woman who symbolized everything he wanted, even as she led him toward everything he despised. In her book Careless People, Murder, Mayhem and the Invention of The Great Gatsby, based on her forensic search for clues, she asserts that the two victims in the Hall-Mills murder case inspired the characters who were murdered in The Great Gatsby. The main events of the novel take place in the summer of 1922, Nick Carraway, a Yale graduate and veteran of the Great War from the Midwest—who serves as the novels narrator—takes a job in New York as a bond salesman. Nick drives around the bay to East Egg for dinner at the home of his cousin, Daisy Fay Buchanan, and her husband, Tom and they introduce Nick to Jordan Baker, an attractive, cynical young golfer with whom Nick begins a romantic relationship. She reveals to Nick that Tom has a mistress, Myrtle Wilson, who lives in the valley of ashes, not long after this revelation, Nick travels to New York City with Tom and Myrtle to an apartment Tom keeps for his affairs with Myrtle and othersThe Great Gatsby – The Plaza Hotel in the early 1920s
41. Aix-en-Provence – Aix-en-Provence, or simply Aix, is a city-commune in the south of France, about 30 km north of Marseille. It is in the region of Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur, in the department of Bouches-du-Rhône, the population of Aix numbers approximately 143,000. Its inhabitants are called Aixois or, less commonly, Aquisextains, Aix was founded in 123 BC by the Roman consul Sextius Calvinus, who gave his name to its springs, following the destruction of the nearby Gallic oppidum at Entremont. In the 4th century AD it became the metropolis of Narbonensis Secunda and it was occupied by the Visigoths in 477. In the succeeding century, the town was plundered by the Franks and Lombards. Aix passed to the crown of France with the rest of Provence in 1487, and in 1501 Louis XII established there the parliament of Provence, in the 17th and 18th centuries, the town was the seat of the Intendance of Provence. Current archeological excavations in the Ville des Tours, a suburb of Aix, have unearthed the remains of a Roman amphitheatre. The city slopes gently north to south and the Montagne Sainte-Victoire can easily be seen to the east. Aixs position in the south of France gives it a warm climate and it has an average January temperature of 5 °C and a July average of 23 °C. It has an average of 300 days of sunshine and only 91 days of rain, while it is partially protected from the Mistral, Aix still occasionally experiences the cooler and gusty conditions it brings. Unlike most of France which has a climate, Aix-en-Provence has a Mediterranean climate. The Cours Mirabeau is a thoroughfare, planted with double rows of plane-trees, bordered by fine houses. It follows the line of the old city wall and divides the town into two sections. The new town extends to the south and west, the old town, with its narrow, along this avenue, which is lined on one side with banks and on the other with cafés, is the Deux Garçons, the most famous brasserie in Aix. Built in 1792, it has been frequented by the likes of Paul Cézanne, Émile Zola, the Cathedral of the Holy Saviour is situated to the north in the medieval part of Aix. The archbishops palace and a Romanesque cloister adjoin the cathedral on its south side, the Archbishopric of Aix is now shared with Arles. Among its other public institutions, Aix also has the second most important Appeal Court outside of Paris, the Hôtel de Ville, a building in the classical style of the middle of the 17th century, looks onto a picturesque square. It contains some fine woodwork and tapestries, at its side rises a handsome clock-tower erected in 1510Aix-en-Provence – The Round Fountain, or Three Graces, built in 1860
42. Cannes – Cannes is a city located on the French Riviera. It is a commune of France located in the Alpes-Maritimes department, and host city of the annual Cannes Film Festival, Midem, the city is known for its association with the rich and famous, its luxury hotels and restaurants, and for several conferences. On 3 November 2011 it also played host to the G20 organisation of industrialised nations, by the 2nd century BC, the Ligurian Oxybii established a settlement here known as Aegitna. Historians are unsure what the name means, the area was a fishing village used as a port of call between the Lérins Islands. In 69 AD, it became the scene of violent conflict between the troops of Otho and Vitellius, in the 10th century, the town was known as Canua. The name may derive from canna, a reed, Canua was probably the site of a small Ligurian port, and later a Roman outpost on Le Suquet hill, suggested by Roman tombs discovered here. Le Suquet housed an 11th-century tower which overlooked swamps where the city now stands, most of the ancient activity, especially protection, was on the Lérins Islands and the history of Cannes is closely tied to the history of the islands. An attack by the Saracens in 891, who remained until the end of the 10th century, the insecurity of the Lérins islands forced the monks to settle on the mainland, at the Suquet. Construction of a castle in 1035 fortified the city by then known as Cannes, one took a century to build. Around 1530, Cannes detached from the monks who had controlled the city for hundreds of years, during the 18th century, both the Spanish and British tried to gain control of the Lérins Islands but were chased away by the French. The islands were controlled by many, such as Jean-Honoré Alziary. They had many different purposes, at the end of the 19th century, henry Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux bought land at the Croix des Gardes and constructed the villa Eleonore-Louise. His work to improve living conditions attracted the English aristocracy, who built winter residences. At the end of the 19th century, several railways were completed, in Cannes, projects such as the Boulevard Carnot and the rue dAntibes were carried out. After the closure of the Casino des Fleurs, an establishment was built for the rich winter clientele. This casino was demolished and replaced by the new Palace in 1979, in the 20th century, new luxury hotels such as the Carlton, Majestic, Martinez, and JW Marriott Cannes were built. The city was modernised with a centre, a post office. There were fewer British and German tourists after the First World War, winter tourism gave way to summer tourism and the summer casino at the Palm Beach was constructedCannes – The Promenade de la Croisette and the port