1. George Clooney – George Timothy Clooney is an American actor, filmmaker, and activist. He has received three Golden Globe Awards for his work as an actor and two Academy Awards, one for acting in Syriana and the other for co-producing Argo, in 1999, he took the lead role in Three Kings, a well-received war satire set during the Gulf War. In 2001, Clooneys fame widened with the release of his biggest commercial success, the heist comedy remake Oceans Eleven, in 2013, he received the Academy Award for Best Picture for producing the political thriller Argo. He is the person who has been nominated for Academy Awards in six different categories. In 2009, Clooney was included in Times annual Time 100 as one of the Most Influential People in the World and he is also noted for his political activism, and has served as one of the United Nations Messengers of Peace since January 31,2008. He is also a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, Clooney was born in Lexington, Kentucky. His mother, Nina Bruce, was a beauty queen and city councilwoman and his father, Nick Clooney, is a former anchorman and game show host who hosted AMC for five years in the late 1990s. Clooney has Irish, German, and English ancestry and his maternal great-great-great-great-grandmother, Mary Ann Sparrow, was the half-sister of Nancy Lincoln, mother of President Abraham Lincoln. Clooney has a sister named Adelia. His aunt was the cabaret singer and actress Rosemary Clooney. Through Rosemary, his cousins include actors Miguel Ferrer, Rafael Ferrer, and Gabriel Ferrer, Clooney was raised a strict Roman Catholic, but said in 2006 that he does not know if he believes in Heaven, or even God. He has said, Yes, we were Catholic, big time, whole family and he began his education at the Blessed Sacrament School in Fort Mitchell, Kentucky. He attended St. Michaels School in Columbus, Ohio, then Western Row Elementary School in Mason, Ohio, from 1968 to 1974, and St. Susanna School in Mason, the Clooneys moved back to Kentucky when George was midway through the seventh grade. In middle school, Clooney developed Bells palsy, a condition that partially paralyzes the face, the malady went away within a year. In an interview with Larry King, he stated that yes and it takes about nine months to go away. It was the first year of school, which was a bad time for having half your face paralyzed. After his parents moved to Augusta, Kentucky, Clooney attended Augusta High School and he has stated that he earned all As and a B in school, and was an enthusiastic baseball and basketball player. He tried out to professional baseball with the Cincinnati Reds in 1977George Clooney – Clooney at a ceremony for John Wells in January 2012
2. Alfred Hitchcock – Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock KBE was an English film director and producer, at times referred to as The Master of Suspense. He pioneered many elements of the suspense and psychological thriller genres and he had a successful career in British cinema with both silent films and early talkies and became renowned as Englands best director. Hitchcock moved to Hollywood in 1939, and became a US citizen in 1955 and he also fashioned for himself a recognisable directorial style. Hitchcocks stylistic trademarks include the use of movement that mimics a persons gaze. In addition, he framed shots to maximise anxiety, fear, or empathy and his work often features fugitives on the run alongside icy blonde female characters. Prior to 1980, there had long been talk of Hitchcock being knighted for his contribution to film, Hitchcock later received his knighthood from Queen Elizabeth II in the 1980 New Year Honours. Hitchcock directed more than fifty films in a career spanning six decades and is often regarded as one of the most influential directors in cinematic history. His flair was for narrative, cruelly withholding crucial information and engaging the emotions of the audience like no one else, Hitchcocks first thriller, The Lodger, A Story of the London Fog, helped shape the thriller genre in film. His 1929 film, Blackmail, is cited as the first British sound feature film, while Rear Window, Vertigo, North by Northwest. Alfred Joseph Hitchcock was born on 13 August 1899 in Leytonstone and he was the second son and the youngest of three children of William Hitchcock, a greengrocer and poulterer, and Emma Jane Hitchcock. He was named after his fathers brother, Hitchcock was raised as a Roman Catholic, and sent to Salesian College, Battersea, and the Jesuit grammar school St Ignatius College in Stamford Hill, London. His parents were both of half-English and half-Irish ancestry and he often described a lonely and sheltered childhood that was worsened by his obesity. Around age five, Hitchcock recalled that to him for behaving badly. This incident implanted a lifelong fear of policemen in Hitchcock, and such harsh treatment, sources vary on Hitchcocks performance in school. Gene Adair reports that by most accounts, Alfred was only an average, or slightly above-average, however, McGilligan writes that Hitchcock certainly excelled academically. When Hitchcock was 15, his father died, in that same year, he left St. Ignatius to study at the London County Council School of Engineering and Navigation in Poplar, London. After leaving, he became a draftsman and advertising designer with a company called Henleys. Hitchcock joined a regiment of the Royal Engineers in 1917Alfred Hitchcock – Studio publicity photo, circa 1955.
3. Anthony Hopkins – Sir Philip Anthony Hopkins CBE, is a Welsh actor of film, stage, and television. In 1968, he got his break in film in The Lion in Winter, since 2016, he has starred in the critically acclaimed HBO television series Westworld. Along with his Academy Award, Hopkins has won three BAFTA Awards, two Emmys, and the Cecil B, in 1993, he was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II for services to the arts. He received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2003, Hopkins was born on New Years Eve 1937, in Margam, a suburb of Port Talbot, Glamorgan. His parents were Annie Muriel and Richard Arthur Hopkins, a baker and his school days were unproductive, he would rather immerse himself in art, such as painting and drawing, or playing the piano, than attend to his studies. In 1949, to discipline, his parents insisted he attend Jones West Monmouth Boys School in Pontypool. He remained there for five terms and was educated at Cowbridge Grammar School in the Vale of Glamorgan. Hopkins was influenced and encouraged by Welsh compatriot Richard Burton, whom he met at the age of 15, Hopkins promptly enrolled at the Royal Welsh College of Music & Drama in Cardiff, from which he graduated in 1957. After two years in the British Army doing his national service, he moved to London, where he trained at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art. Hopkins made his first professional appearance in the Palace Theatre, Swansea. In 1965, after years in repertory, he was spotted by Laurence Olivier. Hopkins became Oliviers understudy, and filled in when Olivier was struck with appendicitis during a production of August Strindbergs The Dance of Death, despite his success at the National, Hopkins tired of repeating the same roles nightly and yearned to be in films. He made his debut in a 1967 BBC broadcast of A Flea in Her Ear. His first starring role in a film came in 1964 in Changes, in 1968, he got his break in The Lion in Winter playing Richard I. Although Hopkins continued in theatre he gradually moved away from it to more established as a television. He portrayed Charles Dickens in the BBC television film The Great Inimitable Mr. Dickens in 1970, and Pierre Bezukhov in the BBCs mini series War and Peace. In 1972 he starred as British politician David Lloyd George in Young Winston, in 1980, he starred in The Elephant Man as the English doctor Sir Frederick Treves, who attends to Joseph Merrick, a severely deformed man in 19th century London. That year he starred opposite Shirley MacLaine in A Change of SeasonsAnthony Hopkins – Hopkins at the Toronto International Film Festival, September 2010
4. Bing Crosby – Harry Lillis Bing Crosby, Jr. was an American singer and actor. The first multimedia star, from 1931 to 1954 Crosby was a leader in sales, radio ratings. His early career coincided with technical recording innovations such as the microphone and this allowed him to develop a laid-back, intimate singing style that influenced many of the popular male singers who followed him, including Perry Como, Frank Sinatra, Dick Haymes, and Dean Martin. Also in 1948, the Music Digest estimated that Crosby recordings filled more than half of the 80,000 weekly hours allocated to recorded radio music, in 1963, Crosby received the first Grammy Global Achievement Award. He is one of only 33 people to have three stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, in the categories of motion pictures, radio, Crosby influenced the development of the postwar recording industry. He became the first performer to pre-record his radio shows and master his commercial recordings onto magnetic tape. In addition to his work with early tape recording, he helped to finance the development of videotape, bought television stations, bred racehorses, Crosby died at the age of 74 on October 14,1977, from a sudden heart attack in Alcobendas, Spain. Crosby was born on May 2,1903 in Tacoma, Washington, in 1906, Crosbys family moved to Spokane, and in 1913, Crosbys father built a house at 508 E. Sharp Avenue. The house now sits on the campus of Crosbys alma mater Gonzaga University and he was the fourth of seven children, brothers Larry, Everett, Ted, and Bob, and two sisters, Catherine and Mary Rose. His parents were Harry Lowe Crosby, Sr. a bookkeeper, Crosbys mother was a second generation Irish-American. In 1910, seven-year-old Harry Crosby Jr. was forever renamed, the Sunday edition of the Spokesman-Review published a feature called The Bingville Bugle. Written by humorist Newton Newkirk, The Bingville Bugle was a parody of a hillbilly newsletter filled with gossipy tidbits, minstrel quips, creative spelling, and mock ads. A neighbor, 15-year-old Valentine Hobart, shared Crosbys enthusiasm for The Bugle, and noting Crosbys laugh, took a liking to him, eventually, the last vowel was dropped and the nickname stuck. Crosby later described Jolsons delivery as electric, Crosby graduated from Gonzaga High School in 1920 and enrolled at Gonzaga University. He attended Gonzaga for three years, but did not earn a bachelors degree, as a freshman, he played on the universitys baseball team. The university granted him a doctorate in 1937. In 1923, Crosby was invited to join a new band composed of school students a few years younger than himself. Al Rinker, Miles Rinker, James Heaton, Claire Pritchard and Robert Pritchard, along with drummer Crosby, formed the Musicaladers, the group performed on Spokane radio station KHQ, but disbanded after two yearsBing Crosby – Bing Crosby, c. 1930s
5. Batman – Batman is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character was created by artist Bob Kane and writer Bill Finger, originally named the Bat-Man, the character is also referred to by such epithets as the Caped Crusader, the Dark Knight, and the Worlds Greatest Detective. Batmans secret identity is Bruce Wayne, a wealthy American playboy, philanthropist, after witnessing the murder of his parents Thomas Wayne and Martha Wayne as a child, he swore vengeance against criminals, an oath tempered by a sense of justice. Wayne trains himself physically and intellectually and crafts a bat-inspired persona to fight crime, Batman operates in the fictional Gotham City, with assistance from various supporting characters, including his butler Alfred, police commissioner Gordon, and vigilante allies such as Robin. A large assortment of villains make up Batmans rogues gallery, including his archenemy, Batman became popular soon after his introduction in 1939 and gained his own comic book title, Batman, the following year. As the decades went on, differing interpretations of the character emerged, the late 1960s Batman television series used a camp aesthetic, which continued to be associated with the character for years after the show ended. Various creators worked to return the character to his dark roots, the success of Warner Bros. live-action Batman feature films have helped maintain the publics interest in the character. The character has also intrigued psychiatrists, with trying to understand the characters psyche. In 2015, FanSided ranked Batman as number one on their list of 50 Greatest Super Heroes In Comic Book History. Kevin Conroy, Bruce Greenwood, Peter Weller, Anthony Ruivivar, Jason OMara, Batman has been portrayed in both film and television by Lewis Wilson, Robert Lowery, Adam West, Michael Keaton, Val Kilmer, George Clooney, Christian Bale, and Ben Affleck. In early 1939, the success of Superman in Action Comics prompted editors at National Comics Publications to request more superheroes for its titles, in response, Bob Kane created the Bat-Man. Collaborator Bill Finger recalled that Kane had an idea for a character called Batman, I went over to Kanes, and he had drawn a character who looked very much like Superman with kind of. Reddish tights, I believe, with boots, with a small domino mask, swinging on a rope. He had two wings that were sticking out, looking like bat wings. And under it was a big sign, the bat-wing-like cape was suggested by Bob Kane, inspired by Leonardo Da Vincis sketch of an ornithopter flying device as a child. Finger suggested giving the character a cowl instead of a domino mask, a cape instead of wings. Finger said he devised the name Bruce Wayne for the secret identity, Bruce Waynes first name came from Robert Bruce. Wayne, being a playboy, was a man of gentry, I searched for a name that would suggest colonialismBatman – First image of Batman in Action Comics #12, announcing the character's debut in the forthcoming Detective Comics #27
6. Billy Bob Thornton – Billy Bob Thornton is an American actor, filmmaker, singer, songwriter, and musician. In 2016, he starred in an Amazon original series, Goliath about a washed up attorney with a new case. He has been vocal about his disrespect for celebrity culture, choosing to keep his life out of the public eye, however, the attention of the media has proven unavoidable in certain cases, his marriage to Angelina Jolie being a notable example. Thornton has appeared in at least one film per year every year since 1991. Thornton has written a variety of films, usually set in the Southern United States and mainly co-written with Tom Epperson, including A Family Thing, after Sling Blade, he directed several other films, including Daddy and Them, All the Pretty Horses, and Jayne Mansfields Car. He was also nominated for an Emmy Award, four Golden Globes, in addition to film work, Thornton began a career as a singer-songwriter. He has released four albums and is the vocalist of a blues rock band The Boxmasters. His brother Jimmy Don wrote a number of songs, two of which Thornton has recorded on his solo albums, during his childhood, Thornton lived in numerous places in Arkansas, including Alpine, Mount Holly, and Malvern. He was raised a Methodist in a family in a shack that had neither electricity nor plumbing. He graduated from school in 1973. A good high school player, he tried out for the Kansas City Royals. After a short period laying asphalt for the Arkansas State Transportation Department, he attended Henderson State University to pursue studies in psychology, in the mid-1980s, Thornton settled in Los Angeles to pursue his career as an actor, with future writing partner Tom Epperson. He initially had a difficult time succeeding as an actor, and worked in telemarketing, offshore wind farming and he also played drums and sang with South African rock band Jack Hammer. While Thornton worked as a waiter for an event, he served film director. Thornton struck up a conversation with Wilder, who advised Thornton to consider a career as a screenwriter, thorntons first screen role was in 1980s South of Reno, where he played a small role as a counter man in a restaurant. He also made an appearance as a store clerk in the 1987 Matlock episode The Photographer. Another one of his screen roles was as a cast member on the CBS sitcom Hearts Afire. His role as the villain in 1992s One False Move, which he also co-wrote and he also had small roles in the 1990s films Indecent Proposal, On Deadly Ground, Bound by Honor, and TombstoneBilly Bob Thornton – Thornton receiving a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame on February 6, 2012
7. Burt Lancaster – Burton Stephen Burt Lancaster was an American film actor. Initially known for playing tough guys, Lancaster went on to success with more complex. He was nominated four times for Academy Awards and won once for his work in Elmer Gantry in 1960 and he also won a Golden Globe for that performance and BAFTA Awards for The Birdman of Alcatraz and Atlantic City. During the 1950s his production company Hecht-Hill-Lancaster was highly successful, making such as Marty, Trapeze, Sweet Smell of Success, Run Silent, Run Deep. The American Film Institute ranks Lancaster as #19 of the greatest male stars of classic Hollywood cinema, Lancaster was born in Manhattan, New York City, at his parents home at 209 East 106th Street, between Second and Third Avenues, today the site of Benjamin Franklin Plaza. Lancaster was the son of Elizabeth and James Henry Lancaster, who was a mailman, both of his parents were Protestants of working class origin. All of Lancasters grandparents were Ulster immigrants to the United States, the family believed themselves to be related to Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts. Before he graduated from DeWitt Clinton, his mother died of a cerebral hemorrhage, Lancaster was accepted by New York University with an athletic scholarship, but subsequently dropped out. At the age of 19, Lancaster met Nick Cravat, with whom he developed a lifelong partnership, together they learned to act in local theatre productions and circus arts at Union Settlement, one of the citys oldest settlement houses. They formed the acrobat duo Lang and Cravat in the 1930s, however, in 1939, an injury forced Lancaster to give up the profession, with great regret. He then found work, first as a salesman for Marshall Fields. He served with General Mark Clarks Fifth Army in Italy from 1943–45, although initially unenthusiastic about acting, after returning to New York from his Army service, Lancaster auditioned for a Broadway play and was offered a role. Wallis, who signed him to an eight-movie contract, Lancasters first filmed movie was Desert Fury. Fortunately for Lancaster, producer Mark Hellinger approached him to star in The Killers, in 1946, the tall, muscular actor won significant acclaim and appeared in two more films the following year. Subsequently, he played in a variety of films, especially in dramas, thrillers, and military and adventure films. In two, The Flame and the Arrow and The Crimson Pirate, a friend from his circus years, Nick Cravat, played a key supporting role, in 1953, Lancaster played one of his best-remembered roles with Deborah Kerr in From Here to Eternity. The American Film Institute acknowledged the iconic status of the scene from film in which Deborah Kerr. The organization named it one of AFIs top 100 Most Romantic Films of all time, Lancaster won the 1960 Academy Award for Best Actor, a Golden Globe Award, and the New York Film Critics Award for his performance in Elmer GantryBurt Lancaster – in Desert Fury (1947)
8. Batman (1989 film) – Batman is a 1989 American superhero film directed by Tim Burton and produced by Jon Peters, based on the DC Comics character of the same name. It is the first installment of Warner Bros. initial Batman film series, the film stars Michael Keaton as Bruce Wayne/Batman, alongside Jack Nicholson, Kim Basinger, Robert Wuhl, Pat Hingle, Billy Dee Williams, Michael Gough and Jack Palance. In the film, Batman is widely believed to be an urban legend until he goes to war with a rising criminal mastermind known as the Joker. After Burton was hired as director in 1986, Steve Englehart, Batman was not greenlit until after the success of Burtons Beetlejuice. Numerous A-list actors were considered for the role of Batman before Keaton was cast, Keatons casting caused a controversy since, by 1988, he had become typecast as a comedic actor and many observers doubted he could portray a serious role. Nicholson accepted the role of the Joker under strict conditions dictated a high salary. The tone and themes of the film were influenced in part by Alan Moore and Brian Bollands The Killing Joke, filming took place at Pinewood Studios from October 1988 to January 1989. The budget escalated from $30 million to $48 million, while the 1988 Writers Guild of America strike forced Hamm to drop out, uncredited rewrites were performed by Warren Skaaren, Charles McKeown and Jonathan Gems. Batman was a critical and financial success, earning over $400 million in box office totals and it was the fifth-highest-grossing film in history at the time of its release. The film received several Saturn Award nominations and a Golden Globe nomination, as Gotham City approaches its bicentennial, Mayor Borg orders district attorney Harvey Dent and police commissioner James Gordon to make the city safer. Meanwhile, reporter Alexander Knox and photojournalist Vicki Vale begin to investigate rumors of a vigilante nicknamed Batman who is targeting the citys criminals, Batmans alter-ego is Bruce Wayne, a billionaire industrialist who, as a child, witnessed his parents murder at the hands of a psychotic robber. At a fundraiser for the bicentennial in Wayne Manor, Bruce meets and falls for Vale, however, the evening is cut short as Bruce is alerted to Commissioner Gordons sudden departure due to police business and leaves to investigate as Batman. Mob boss Carl Grissom, who has already been targeted by Dent, with the help of corrupt police lieutenant Max Eckhardt, Grissom sets Napier up to be killed in a raid at Axis Chemicals. However, Grissoms plan is foiled with the arrival of Commissioner Gordon, in the ensuing shootout, Napier kills Eckhardt, but Batman suddenly appears and, in a struggle, Napier is knocked into a vat of chemicals. Batman escapes and Napier is presumed dead, as Batman returns to his life as Bruce Wayne, Napier is revealed to have survived the accident, but left horribly disfigured with chalk white skin, emerald green hair, and a ruby red grin. Driven insane, Napier calls himself the Joker, killing Grissom, the Joker begins to terrorize Gotham City by lacing hygiene products with Smilex, a deadly chemical which causes victims to die laughing with the same maniacal grin as the Joker. Whilst searching for information on Batman, the Joker also falls for Vale and he lures her to the Gotham Museum of Art, but Batman arrives and rescues her. They escape in the Batmobile, but are pursued by the Jokers men, Batman takes Vicki to the Batcave, where he gives her information from his research on Smilex that will allow the citys residents to protect themselves from the toxinBatman (1989 film) – Theatrical release poster
9. Batman Returns – Batman Returns is a 1992 American superhero film, directed and produced by Tim Burton, based on the DC Comics character Batman. It is the installment of Warner Bros. initial Batman film series. The film introduces the characters of Max Shreck, a business tycoon who teams up with the Penguin to take over Gotham City. Burton originally did not want to direct another Batman film because of his mixed emotions toward the film in 1989. Warner Bros. developed a script with writer Sam Hamm which had the Penguin, Burton agreed to return after they granted him more creative control and replaced Hamm with Daniel Waters. Wesley Strick did a rewrite, removing the characters of Harvey Dent and Robin. Annette Bening was originally cast as Catwoman but became pregnant and was replaced with Pfeiffer, filming for Batman Returns started in June 1991 at Warner Bros. Batman Returns was released on June 19,1992, the film was nominated for Academy Awards for Best Visual Effects and Best Makeup, as well as two BAFTA awards. Batman Returnss budget was $80 million and it grossed $266.8 million worldwide, on a snowy Christmas night, Tucker and Esther Cobblepot throw their deformed infant child Oswald into Gotham River, fearing he would become a menace to society after attacking their pet cat. His crib floats to a zoo and is found by a flock of penguins who raise him as one of their own. 33 years later, three years after the defeat of the Joker, during the lighting of Gotham Citys Christmas tree, a former sideshow freak, Cobblepot explains his desire to become a respected citizen of Gotham and blackmails Shreck into helping him. Meanwhile, Shrecks secretary, Selina Kyle, inadvertently discovers her bosss plan to illegally monopolize Gothams supply of electricity, to protect his secrets, Shreck pushes her out of his office window. Falling through several canopies, Kyle miraculously survives but lies unconscious in an alley, a group of cats swarm around her and she suddenly regains consciousness. Shreck arranges for one of Cobblepots men to kidnap the Mayors infant son, as a reward, Cobblepot is given access to the Gotham City Archives, where he learns his real name, and that he is the last surviving member of his family. Meanwhile, the Mayor, persuaded by Wayne, refuses to give Shreck a construction permit for his power plant, Cobblepot orders his gang to attack downtown Gotham, ruining the Mayors reputation and giving Shreck the opportunity to propose Cobblepot as a replacement. Batman confronts Cobblepot, but Catwoman appears while firebombing Shrecks department store, after a fight in which Batman knocks her off a building, Catwoman survives by landing in a truck full of kitty litter. While traversing the rooftops to find the Ice Princess, Penguins goons disassemble the Batmobile, distracted by Catwoman, Batman is unable to stop Cobblepot from attacking the Princess using a swarm of captive bats. She falls to her death before Batman tries to save her, when Catwoman rejects Cobblepots amorous advances, he responds by attacking her with his motorized helicopter umbrellaBatman Returns – Theatrical release poster
10. Charlie Chaplin – Sir Charles Spencer Charlie Chaplin, KBE was an English comic actor, filmmaker, and composer who rose to fame during the era of silent film. Chaplin became an icon through his screen persona the Tramp and is considered one of the most important figures in the history of the film industry. His career spanned more than 75 years, from childhood in the Victorian era until a year before his death in 1977, Chaplins childhood in London was one of poverty and hardship. As his father was absent and his mother struggled financially, he was sent to a workhouse twice before the age of nine, when he was 14, his mother was committed to a mental asylum. Chaplin began performing at an age, touring music halls and later working as a stage actor. At 19, he was signed to the prestigious Fred Karno company, Chaplin was scouted for the film industry and began appearing in 1914 for Keystone Studios. He soon developed the Tramp persona and formed a fan base. Chaplin directed his own films from a stage and continued to hone his craft as he moved to the Essanay, Mutual. By 1918, he was one of the figures in the world. In 1919, Chaplin co-founded the distribution company United Artists, which gave him control over his films. His first feature-length was The Kid, followed by A Woman of Paris, The Gold Rush and he refused to move to sound films in the 1930s, instead producing City Lights and Modern Times without dialogue. Chaplin became increasingly political, and his film, The Great Dictator. The 1940s were a decade marked with controversy for Chaplin, and he was accused of communist sympathies, while his involvement in a paternity suit and marriages to much younger women caused scandal. An FBI investigation was opened, and Chaplin was forced to leave the United States and he abandoned the Tramp in his later films, which include Monsieur Verdoux, Limelight, A King in New York, and A Countess from Hong Kong. Chaplin wrote, directed, produced, edited, starred in and he was a perfectionist, and his financial independence enabled him to spend years on the development and production of a picture. His films are characterised by slapstick combined with pathos, typified in the Tramps struggles against adversity, many contain social and political themes, as well as autobiographical elements. In 1972, as part of an appreciation for his work. He continues to be held in regard, with The Gold Rush, City Lights, Modern TimesCharlie Chaplin – Publicity portrait, circa 1920
11. Casey at the Bat – Casey at the Bat, A Ballad of the Republic Sung in the Year 1888 is a baseball poem written in 1888 by Ernest Thayer. First published in The San Francisco Examiner on June 3,1888 and it has become one of the best-known poems in American literature. The poem was published anonymously. A baseball team from the town of Mudville is losing by two runs in its last inning. Both the team and its fans believe they can win if Casey, Mudvilles star player, however, Casey is scheduled to be the fifth batter of the inning, and the first two batters fail to get on base. The next two batters are perceived to be weak hitters with little chance of reaching base to allow Casey a chance to bat, surprisingly, Flynn hits a single, and Blake follows with a double that allows Flynn to reach third base. Both runners are now in scoring position and Casey represents the potential winning run, Casey is so sure of his abilities that he does not swing at the first two pitches, both called strikes. On the last pitch, the overconfident Casey strikes out swinging, ending the game, the text is filled with references to baseball as it was in 1888, which in many ways is not far removed from todays version. As a work, the poem encapsulates much of the appeal of baseball and it also has a fair amount of baseball jargon that can pose challenges for the uninitiated. This is the poem as it originally appeared in The Daily Examiner. After publication, various versions with minor changes were produced, Thayer said he chose the name Casey after a non-player of Irish ancestry he once knew, and it is open to debate who, if anyone, he modeled the character after. One candidate is National League player Mike King Kelly, who became famous when Boston paid Chicago a record $10,000 for him and he had a personality that fans liked to cheer or jeer. After the 1887 season, Kelly went on a tour to San Francisco. Thayer, who wrote Casey in 1888, covered the San Francisco leg for the San Francisco Examiner, Thayer, in a letter he wrote in 1905, mentions Kelly as showing impudence in claiming to have written the poem. Aside from omitting the first five verses, the changes from the original are substitutions of Kelly for Casey. Sportswriter Leonard Koppett claimed in a 1979 article that the published poem omits 18 lines penned by Thayer which change the theme of the poem. Hopper became known as an orator of the poem, and recited it more than 10,000 times before his death, on stage in the early 1890s, baseball star Kelly recited the original Casey a few dozen times and not the parody. Kelly recited this in a sing-song, school-boy fashion, upon Kellys death, a writer would say he gained considerable notoriety by his ludicrous rendition of Casey at the Bat, with which he concluded his turn’ at each performanceCasey at the Bat – Tim Wiles, Director of Research at the Baseball Hall of Fame Library in Cooperstown, frequently dresses up as Casey to recite the poem.
12. Cecil B. DeMille – Cecil Blount DeMille was an American filmmaker. Between 1913 and 1956, he made a total of 70 features and he is acknowledged as a founding father of the cinema of the United States and the most commercially successful producer-director in film history. His films were distinguished by their scale and by his cinematic showmanship. He made silent films of every genre, social dramas, comedies, Westerns, farces, morality plays, DeMille began his career as a stage actor in 1900. He later moved to writing and directing stage productions, some with Jesse Lasky, DeMilles first film, The Squaw Man, was also the first feature film shot in Hollywood. Its interracial love story made it a hit and it put Hollywood on the map. The continued success of his productions led to the founding of Paramount Pictures with Lasky and his first biblical epic, The Ten Commandments, was both a critical and financial success, it held the Paramount revenue record for twenty-five years. In 1927 he directed The King of Kings, a biography of Jesus of Nazareth, the Sign of the Cross was the first sound film to integrate all aspects of cinematic technique. Cleopatra was his first film to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture, after more than thirty years in film production, DeMille reached the pinnacle of his career with Samson and Delilah, a biblical epic which did an all-time record business. Along with biblical and historical narratives, he directed films oriented toward neo-naturalism. He went on to receive his first nomination for the Academy Award for Best Director for his circus drama The Greatest Show on Earth and his last and most famous film, The Ten Commandments, is currently the sixth-highest-grossing film of all time, adjusted for inflation. He was also the first recipient of the Golden Globe Cecil B, DeMille Award, which was later named in his honor. There are several variants of DeMilles surname and his familys Dutch surname was originally spelled de Mil and then became de Mille. As an adult, he adopted the spelling DeMille for professional purposes, the family name de Mille was used by his children Cecilia, John, Richard, and Katherine. DeMilles brother William and his daughters, Margaret and Agnes, as well as DeMilles granddaughter, Cecilia de Mille Presley, Cecil Blount DeMille was born in Ashfield, Massachusetts, while his parents were vacationing there, and grew up in Washington, North Carolina. His father, Henry Churchill de Mille, was a North Carolina-born dramatist and lay reader in the Episcopal Church and his mother was Matilda Beatrice DeMille, whose parents were both of German Jewish heritage. She emigrated from England with her parents in 1871 when she was 18, Beatrice grew up in a middle-class English household. DeMilles mother was related to British politician Herbert Louis Samuel, DeMilles parents met as members of a music and literary society in New YorkCecil B. DeMille – Cecil B. DeMille, c. 1920
13. Chaim Topol – Chaim Topol, mononomously known as Topol, is an Israeli theatrical and film performer, singer, actor, comedian, voice artist, writer and producer. He is best known for his role as Tevye the dairyman in the production of Fiddler on the Roof on both stage and film and he has been nominated for an Academy Award and a Tony Award, and has won two Golden Globe Awards. Topol was born in Tel Aviv in 1935 in what was then British mandated Palestine, to Rel and he first practiced acting in amateur theatrical plays staged by the Israeli Army. Subsequently he established his own troupe in Tel Aviv. The film was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, in 1966, Topol made his first English-language screen appearance as Abou Ibn Kaqden in the big-budget Mickey Marcus biopic Cast a Giant Shadow. He came to greatest prominence in the role of Tevye the milkman in the musical show Fiddler on the Roof. After a major success on the West End stage, he starred in the 1971 film version. In 1972, Topol won a Golden Globe Award and was nominated for a Best Actor Oscar for his performance in the film and he was on active service with the Israeli Army at the time, but was granted permission to attend the awards ceremonies. In 1976, Topol originated the role of the baker, Amiable, in the new musical The Bakers Wife. In 1983, he reprised the role of Tevye in a London revival of Fiddler on the Roof, in the late 1980s, he played the role in a touring United States production. He was by then the age of the character. Also, the playing his wife, Golde, in that production – Rosalind Harris – had played his eldest daughter, Tzeitel. Topol again played Tevye in a 1994 London revival, which became a touring production and he has since played the part in various productions including stages in Europe, Australia, and Japan. His most recent film roles were in Left Luggage in the role of Mr. Apfelschnitt, in November 2005, Topol reprised Tevye in an Australian production at the Capitol Theatre in Sydney. In April 2006, he followed Sydney with a Brisbane production at the Lyric Theatre, finally, in June of that year, he brought his Tevye to Her Majestys Theatre in Melbourne. In April 2007, he played the role in Wellington, New Zealand, in September 2008, Topol played the part of Honore in Gigi at the Open Air Theatre in Regents Park, London. On January 20,2009, Topol began a tour of Fiddler on the Roof as Tevye, opening in Wilmington, Delaware. He was forced to withdraw from the tour owing to a shoulder injury and his autobiography, Chaim Topol on Topol, was published in London and IsraelChaim Topol – Chaim Topol, Lex Goudsmit, and Norman Jewison (1971)
14. Drew Barrymore – Drew Blythe Barrymore is an American actress, author, director, model and producer. She is a member of the Barrymore family of American stage and film actors, Barrymore began acting on television, and soon transitioned to film with roles in E. T. the Extra-Terrestrial and Irreconcilable Differences. Following a turbulent childhood that was marked by drug and alcohol abuse with two stints in rehab, she wrote her autobiography, Little Girl Lost and she appeared in a string of hit films, including Poison Ivy, Boys on the Side, Scream and Ever After. She has also co-starred with Adam Sandler in The Wedding Singer,50 First Dates, Other acting credits include Music and Lyrics, Hes Just Not That Into You, Going the Distance and Miss You Already. Barrymore won the Screen Actors Guild Award and the Golden Globe Award for her portrayal of Little Edie in Grey Gardens, Barrymore currently stars with Timothy Olyphant in the Netflix comedy series Santa Clarita Diet. She was named an Ambassador Against Hunger for the UN World Food Programme, since then, she has donated over $1 million to the program. A recipient of a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, Barrymore was born in Culver City, California, to actor John and Jaid, an aspiring actress. Barrymores mother was born in a displaced persons camp in Brannenburg, West Germany and her parents divorced in 1984, when she was nine years old. She is one of four children with a half-brother, John and her godfather is Steven Spielberg while her godmother is Anna Strasberg, Lee Strasbergs widow. Meanwhile, Barrymore is the god-daughter of director Steven Spielberg, Barrymore recounted in her 1989 autobiography, Little Girl Lost, early memories of her abusive father, who left the family when Barrymore was six months old. They never had anything resembling a significant relationship and seldom spoke to each other, Barrymore grew up on Poinsetta Place in West Hollywood until the age of 7, when she moved to Sherman Oaks. In her 2015 memoir Wildflower, she says she talks like a girl because she grew up in Sherman Oaks. She moved back to West Hollywood upon becoming emancipated at 14, Barrymore attended elementary school at Fountain Day School in West Hollywood and Country School. In the wake of her stardom, Barrymore endured a notoriously troubled childhood. Her nightlife and constant partying became a subject with the media. She was in rehab at the age of fourteen, where she spent eighteen months in an institution for the mentally ill, a suicide attempt, also at age fourteen, put her back in rehab, followed by a three-month stay with singer David Crosby and his wife. The stay was precipitated, Crosby said, because she needed to be some people that were committed to sobriety. Barrymore later described this period of her life in her autobiography, after a successful juvenile court petition for emancipation, she moved into her own apartment at the age of fifteenDrew Barrymore – Barrymore at the Blended Berlin premiere, May 2014
15. Doris Day – Doris Day is a retired American actress and singer, and continuing animal welfare activist. After she began her career as a big band singer in 1939, her popularity increased with her first hit recording Sentimental Journey, in 1948, Day was given a key part in the film Romance on the High Seas, despite not having any acting experience. Its director, Michael Curtiz, gave her the part since she looked like the All-American Girl and it led to a 20-year career in film, including a string of musicals and romantic comedies beginning in the 1950s. She starred with leading men such as Clark Gable in Teachers Pet, Rock Hudson in Pillow Talk and Send Me No Flowers, Cary Grant in That Touch of Mink and she was usually one of the top 10 singers between 1951 and 1966. As an actress, she became the biggest female star in the early 1960s. In 2011 – well into her late 80s – she released her 29th studio album, My Heart, among her awards, Day has received the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award and a Legend Award from the Society of Singers. She has been Oscar nominated six times, and in 1989 was given the Cecil B, deMille Award for lifetime achievement in motion pictures. In 2004, she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom followed in 2011 by the Los Angeles Film Critics Associations Career Achievement Award. Doris Mary Ann Kappelhoff was born on April 3,1922, in Cincinnati, Ohio, the daughter of Alma Sophia, a housewife, and William Joseph Kappelhoff, All of her grandparents were German immigrants. The youngest of three siblings, she had two brothers, Richard and Paul, several years older. Due to her fathers alleged infidelity, her parents separated and she developed an early interest in dance, and in the mid-1930s formed a dance duo with Jerry Doherty that performed locally in Cincinnati. A car accident on October 13,1937, injured her legs, while recovering, Day started to sing along with the radio and discovered a talent she did not know she had. But the one radio voice I listened to above others belonged to Ella Fitzgerald. There was a quality to her voice that fascinated me, and Id sing along with her, trying to catch the subtle ways she shaded her voice, observing her daughter rekindled Almas interest in show business, and she decided to give Doris singing lessons. She engaged a teacher, Grace Raine, after three lessons, Raine told Alma that young Doris had tremendous potential, which led Alma to give her daughter three lessons a week for the price of one. Years later, Day said that Raine had the biggest effect on her singing style, during her radio performances, Day first caught the attention of Barney Rapp, who was looking for a girl vocalist and asked if Day would like to audition for the job. According to Rapp, he had auditioned about 200 singers when Day got the job, while working for Rapp in 1939, she adopted the stage surname Day, at Rapps suggestion. Rapp felt that Kappelhoff was too long for marquees, and he admired her rendition of the song Day After Day, after working with Rapp, Day worked with bandleaders Jimmy James, Bob Crosby, and Les BrownDoris Day – Publicity photo, 1957
16. David Beckham – David Robert Joseph Beckham, OBE is an English former professional footballer. He is the first English player to win titles in four countries, England, Spain. He announced his retirement in May 2013 after a 20-year career and he was inducted into the English Football Hall of Fame in 2008. A global ambassador for the sport, Beckham is regarded as a British cultural icon, Beckhams professional club career began with Manchester United, where he made his first-team debut in 1992 aged 17. With United, he won the Premier League title six times, the FA Cup twice, and he then played four seasons with Real Madrid, winning the La Liga championship in his final season with the club. In July 2007 Beckham signed a contract with Major League Soccer club LA Galaxy. While a Galaxy player, he spent two spells in Italy with Milan in 2009 and 2010. He was the first British footballer to play 100 UEFA Champions League games, in international football, Beckham made his England debut on 1 September 1996 at the age of 21. He was captain for six years, earning 58 caps during his tenure and he made 115 career appearances in total, appearing at three FIFA World Cup tournaments, in 1998,2002 and 2006, and two UEFA European Championship tournaments, in 2000 and 2004. Beckham has consistently ranked among the highest earners in football, and in 2013 he was listed as the player in the world. He has been married to Victoria Beckham since 1999 and they have four children and he has been a UNICEF UK ambassador since 2005, and in 2015 he launched 7, The David Beckham UNICEF Fund. In 2014, MLS announced Beckham and a group of investors would own a team in Miami. Beckham was born at Whipps Cross University Hospital in Leytonstone, London and he is the son of Sandra Georgina, a hairdresser, and David Edward Alan Ted Beckham, a kitchen fitter, who married at the London Borough of Hackney in 1969. He has a sister, Lynne Georgina, and a younger sister. He regularly played football in Ridgeway Park, Chingford, as a child, in a 2007 interview, Beckham said that, At school whenever the teachers asked, What do you want to do when youre older. Id say, I want to be a footballer, and theyd say, No, what do you really want to do, for a job. But that was the only thing I ever wanted to do, Beckhams maternal grandfather was Jewish, and Beckham has referred to himself as half Jewish and wrote in his autobiography Ive probably had more contact with Judaism than with any other religion. In his book Both Feet on the Ground, he stated that growing up he attended every week with his parentsDavid Beckham – Beckham at the 2014 Wimbledon Championships
17. David Bowie – David Robert Jones, known professionally as David Bowie, was an English singer, songwriter and actor. He was a figure in music for over five decades, regarded by critics and musicians as an innovator. His career was marked by reinvention and visual presentation, his music, during his lifetime, his record sales, estimated at 140 million worldwide, made him one of the worlds best-selling music artists. In the UK, he was awarded nine platinum album certifications, eleven gold and eight silver, in the US, he received five platinum and seven gold certifications. He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996, born in Brixton, South London, Bowie developed an interest in music as a child, eventually studying art, music and design before embarking on a professional career as a musician in 1963. Space Oddity became his first top-five entry on the UK Singles Chart after its release in July 1969, after a period of experimentation, he re-emerged in 1972 during the glam rock era with his flamboyant and androgynous alter ego Ziggy Stardust. The character was spearheaded by the success of his single Starman and album The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars, in 1976, Bowie starred in the cult film The Man Who Fell to Earth and released Station to Station. Heroes and Lodger followed, each reached the UK top five. He then reached his peak in 1983 with Lets Dance. Throughout the 1990s and 2000s, Bowie continued to experiment with styles, including industrial. He stopped concert touring after 2004, and his last live performance was at a charity event in 2006, in 2013, Bowie returned from a decade-long recording hiatus with the release of The Next Day. He remained musically active until he died of cancer two days after the release of his final album, Blackstar. David Robert Jones was born on 8 January 1947, in Brixton, south London and his mother, Margaret Mary Peggy, was born in Kent, and had Irish ancestry, she worked as a waitress. His father, Haywood Stenton John Jones, from Yorkshire, was an officer for the childrens charity Barnardos. The family lived at 40 Stansfield Road, near the border of the south London areas of Brixton, Bowie attended Stockwell Infants School until he was six years old, acquiring a reputation as a gifted and single-minded child—and a defiant brawler. In 1953, Bowie moved with his family to the suburb of Bromley and his voice was considered adequate by the school choir, and he demonstrated above-average abilities in playing the recorder. Upon listening to Little Richards song Tutti Frutti, Bowie would later say, presleys impact on him was likewise emphatic, I saw a cousin of mine dance to. Hound Dog and I had never seen her get up and be moved so much by anything and it really impressed me, the power of the musicDavid Bowie – Bowie during the Heathen Tour in 2002
18. Dubbing (filmmaking) – The process usually takes place on a dub stage. After sound editors edit and prepare all necessary tracks, the mixer or mixers proceed to balance all of the elements. In the past, dubbing was practiced primarily in musicals when the actor had a singing voice. Today, dubbing enables the screening of material to a mass audience in countries where viewers do not speak the same language as the performers in the original production. Films, videos, and sometimes video games are dubbed into the local language of a foreign market. In foreign distribution, dubbing is common in theatrically released films, television films, television series, cartoons, the insertion of voice actor performances for animation, such as computer-generated imagery or animated cartoons, is often referred to as ADR although it generally does not replace existing dialogue. In conventional film production, a sound mixer records dialogue during filming. During post-production, a sound editor, or ADR supervisor, reviews all of the dialogue in the film. ADR is recorded during an ADR session, which place in a specialized sound studio. The actor, usually the original actor from the set, views the scene with the original sound, over the course of multiple takes, the actor performs the lines while watching the scene, the most suitable take becomes the final version. The ADR process does not always take place in a post-production studio, the process may be recorded on location, with mobile equipment. Sometimes, a different actor than the actor on set is used during ADR. One famous example is the Star Wars character Darth Vader portrayed by David Prowse, in post-production and it provides a more precise guide for the actors, directors, and technicians, and can be used to complement the traditional ADR method. The rythmo band is projected in the studio and scrolls in perfect synchronization with the picture, Studio time is used more efficiently, since with the aid of scrolling text, picture, and audio cues, actors can read more lines per hour than with ADR alone. With ADR, actors can average 10–12 lines per hour, while rythmo band can facilitate the reading of 35-50 lines per hour, However, the preparation of a rythmo band is a time-consuming process involving a series of specialists organized in a production line. VideoDubber, a startup company from Israel, developed an automated dubbing SaaS platform that enables automated dubbing of video content to over 40 languages using digitized voices. It was the first to dub a full TV channel using this technology for a Spanish cable provider in July 2015, Media Movers, Inc. a dubbing company, has developed a piece of proprietary software that can automatically sync ADR/dubbed tracks with pre-defined algorithms. TM Systems received Emmy awards in 2002 and 2007 for their dubbing and subtitling software, Dubbing is often used to localize a foreign movieDubbing (filmmaking) – Dubbing studio
19. Danny Kaye – David Daniel Kaminsky, better known by his screen name Danny Kaye, was an American actor, singer, dancer, comedian, and musician. His performances featured physical comedy, idiosyncratic pantomimes, and rapid-fire novelty songs, Kaye starred in 17 movies, notably Wonder Man, The Kid from Brooklyn, The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, The Inspector General, Hans Christian Andersen, White Christmas, and The Court Jester. His films were popular, especially his performances of songs and favorites such as Inchworm. He was the first ambassador-at-large of UNICEF in 1954 and received the French Legion of Honour in 1986 for his years of work with the organization, david Daniel Kaminsky was born to Ukrainian Jewish immigrants in Brooklyn on January 18,1911. Kaye was the youngest of three born to Jacob and Clara Nemerovsky Kaminsky. Jacob and Clara and their two sons, Larry and Mac, left Dnipropetrovsk two years before his birth, he was the son born in the United States. His mother died when he was in his early teens, not long after his mothers death, Kaye and his friend Louis ran away to Florida. Kaye sang while Louis played the guitar, the pair eked out a living for a while, when Kaye returned to New York, his father did not pressure him to return to school or work, giving his son the chance to mature and discover his own abilities. Kaye said that as a boy he had wanted to be a surgeon. He held a succession of jobs after leaving school, as a jerk, insurance investigator. Most ended with his being fired and he lost the insurance job when he made an error that cost the insurance company $40,000. The dentist who hired him to look after his office at lunch hour did the same when he found Kaye using his drill on the office woodwork and he learned his trade in his teenage years in the Catskills as a tummler in the Borscht Belt. Kayes first break came in 1933 when he joined the Three Terpsichoreans and they opened in Utica, New York, where he used the name Danny Kaye for the first time. The act toured the United States, then performed in Asia with the show La Vie Paree, the troupe left for a six-month tour of the Far East on February 8,1934. While they were in Osaka, Japan, a hit the city. The hotel where Kaye and his colleagues stayed suffered heavy damage, the strong wind hurled a piece of the hotels cornice into Kayes room, had he been hit, he might well have been killed. By performance time that evening, the city was in the grip of the storm, there was no power, and the audience was restless and nervous. To calm them, Kaye went on stage, holding a flashlight to illuminate his face, the experience of trying to entertain audiences who did not speak English inspired him to the pantomime, gestures, songs, and facial expressions that eventually made his reputationDanny Kaye – Danny Kaye
20. Ernst Kaltenbrunner – Ernst Kaltenbrunner was an Austrian-born senior official of Nazi Germany during World War II. An Obergruppenführer in the Schutzstaffel, between January 1943 and May 1945 he held the offices of Chief of the Reich Main Security Office and he was the highest-ranking member of the SS to face trial at the first Nuremberg trials. He was found guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity, born in Ried im Innkreis, Austria, Kaltenbrunner was the son of a lawyer, and was educated at the Realgymnasium in Linz. After Gymnasium, Kaltenbrunner went on to obtain his degree in law at Graz University in 1926. He worked at a law firm in Salzburg for a year before opening his own law office in Linz and he had deep scars on his face from dueling in his student days, although some sources attribute them to an automobile accident. On 14 January 1934, Kaltenbrunner married Elisabeth Eder who was from Linz, in addition to the children from his marriage, Kaltenbrunner had twins, Ursula and Wolfgang, with his long-time mistress Gisela Gräfin von Westarp. All the children survived the war, on 18 October 1930, Kaltenbrunner joined the Nazi Party as NSDAP member number 300,179. In 1931, he was the Bezirksredner for the Nazi Party in Oberösterreich and he went on to join the SS on 31 August 1931, his SS number was 13,039. He first became a Rechtsberater for the party in 1929 and later held this position for SS Abschnitt VIII beginning in 1932. That same year, he began working at his fathers law practice, in January 1934, Kaltenbrunner was briefly jailed at the Kaisersteinbruch detention camp with other National Socialists for conspiracy by the Engelbert Dollfuss government. While there he led a strike which forced the government to release 490 of the party members. In 1935, he was jailed again on suspicion of high treason and this charge was dropped, but he was sentenced to six months imprisonment for conspiracy and he lost his license to practice law. From mid-1935 Kaltenbrunner was head of the illegal SS Abschnitt VIII in Linz and was considered a leader of the Austrian SS, to provide Heinrich Himmler, Reinhard Heydrich and Heinz Jost with new information, Kaltenbrunner repeatedly made trips to Bavaria. Hiding on a train and on a ship traveled to Passau, he would return with money. Kaltenbrunner was arrested again in 1937, by Austrian authorities on charges of being head of the illegal Nazi Party organisation in Oberösterreich. Controlled from behind the scenes by Himmler, Kaltenbrunner still led, albeit clandestinely, then on 21 March 1938, he was promoted to SS-Brigadeführer. He was a member of the Reichstag from 10 April 1938 until 8 May 1945, amid all this activity, he also helped establish the concentration camp at Mauthausen near Linz. On 11 September 1938, Kaltenbrunner was promoted to the rank of SS-Gruppenführer, also in 1938, he was appointed High SS and police leader for Donau, which was the primary SS command in AustriaErnst Kaltenbrunner – Obergruppenführer und General der Polizei und Waffen-SS Dr. Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Chief of the RSHA and President of Interpol.
21. Elie Wiesel – Eliezer Elie Wiesel KBE was a Romanian-born American Jewish writer, professor, political activist, Nobel Laureate and Holocaust survivor. He was the author of 57 books, written mostly in French and English, including Night, along with writing, he was a professor of the humanities at Boston University, which created the Elie Wiesel Center for Jewish Studies in his honor. He was involved with Jewish causes, and helped establish the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, in his political activities he also campaigned for victims of oppression in places like South Africa and Nicaragua and genocide in Sudan. He publicly condemned the 1915 Armenian genocide and remained a defender of human rights during his lifetime. He had been described as the most important Jew in America by the Los Angeles Times and he was a founding board member of the New York Human Rights Foundation and remained active throughout his life. Elie Wiesel was born in Sighet, Maramureș in the Carpathian Mountains in Romania and his parents were Sarah Feig and Shlomo Wiesel. At home, Wiesels family spoke Yiddish most of the time, but also German, Hungarian, Wiesels mother, Sarah, was the daughter of Dodye Feig, a celebrated Vizhnitz Hasid and farmer from a nearby village. Dodye was active and trusted within the community, Wiesels father, Shlomo, instilled a strong sense of humanism in his son, encouraging him to learn Hebrew and to read literature, whereas his mother encouraged him to study the Torah. Wiesel has said his father represented reason while his mother Sarah promoted faith, Wiesel was instructed that his genealogy traced back to Rabbi Schlomo, son of Yitzhak, and was a descendant of Rabbi Yeshayahu ben Abraham Horovitz ha-Levi, an author. Wiesel had three siblings—older sisters Beatrice and Hilda, and younger sister, Tzipora, Beatrice and Hilda survived the war and were reunited with Wiesel at a French orphanage. They eventually emigrated to North America, with Beatrice moving to Montreal, Quebec, Tzipora, Shlomo, and Sarah did not survive the Holocaust. In March 1944, Germany occupied Hungary which extended the Holocaust into that country, immediately after they were sent to Auschwitz, his mother and his younger sister were murdered. Wiesel and his father were selected to perform labor so long as they remained able-bodied, Wiesel and his father were later deported to the concentration camp at Buchenwald. Until that transfer, he admitted to Oprah Winfrey, his motivation for trying to survive Auschwitz was knowing that his father was still alive, I knew that if I died. After they were taken to Buchenwald, his father died before the camp was liberated, in Night, Wiesel recalled the shame he felt when he heard his father being beaten and was unable to help. Wiesel was tattooed with inmate number A-7713 on his left arm, the camp was liberated by the U. S. Third Army on April 11,1945, when they were just prepared to be evacuated from Buchenwald and this home was subsequently moved to Taverny and operated until 1947. Afterwards Wiesel traveled to Paris where he learned French and studied literature, philosophy and he heard lectures by philosopher Martin Buber and existentialist Jean-Paul Sartre and he spent his evenings reading works by Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Franz Kafka, and Thomas MannElie Wiesel – Wiesel at the 2012 Time 100
22. Frank Sinatra – Francis Albert Sinatra was an American singer, actor, and producer who was one of the most popular and influential musical artists of the 20th century. He is one of the music artists of all time. Born in Hoboken, New Jersey, to Italian immigrants, Sinatra began his career in the swing era with bandleaders Harry James. Sinatra found success as a solo artist after he signed with Columbia Records in 1943 and he released his debut album, The Voice of Frank Sinatra, in 1946. Sinatras professional career had stalled by the early 1950s, and he turned to Las Vegas and his career was reborn in 1953 with the success of From Here to Eternity, with his performance subsequently winning an Academy Award and Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor. Sinatra released several critically lauded albums, including In the Wee Small Hours, Come Fly with Me, Only the Lonely and Nice n Easy. Sinatra left Capitol in 1960 to start his own label, Reprise Records. It was followed by 1968s collaboration with Duke Ellington, using his Las Vegas shows as a home base, he toured both within the United States and internationally until a short time before his death in 1998. Sinatra forged a successful career as a film actor. After winning an Academy Award for From Here to Eternity, he starred in The Man with the Golden Arm and he appeared in various musicals such as On the Town, Guys and Dolls, High Society, and Pal Joey, winning another Golden Globe for the latter. Toward the end of his career, he associated with playing detectives. Sinatra would later receive the Golden Globe Cecil B, on television, The Frank Sinatra Show began on ABC in 1950, and he continued to make appearances on television throughout the 1950s and 1960s. While Sinatra never formally learned how to read music, he had a natural, intuitive understanding of it, a perfectionist, renowned for his impeccable dress sense and cleanliness, he always insisted on recording live with his band. His bright blue eyes earned him the popular nickname Ol Blue Eyes, Sinatra led a colorful personal life, and was often involved in turbulent affairs with women, such as with his second wife Ava Gardner. He went on to marry Mia Farrow in 1966 and Barbara Marx in 1976, Sinatra had several violent confrontations, usually with journalists he felt had crossed him, or work bosses with whom he had disagreements. He was honored at the Kennedy Center Honors in 1983, was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by Ronald Reagan in 1985, Sinatra was also the recipient of eleven Grammy Awards, including the Grammy Trustees Award, Grammy Legend Award and the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. After his death, American music critic Robert Christgau called him the greatest singer of the 20th century, Francis Albert Sinatra was born on December 12,1915, in an upstairs tenement at 415 Monroe Street in Hoboken, New Jersey. He was the child of Italian immigrants Antonino Martino Marty SinatraFrank Sinatra – Sinatra in 1957
23. George Lucas – George Walton Lucas Jr. is an American filmmaker and entrepreneur. He is best known as the creator of the Star Wars and Indiana Jones franchises, as well as the founder of Lucasfilm and he was the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Lucasfilm, before selling it to The Walt Disney Company in 2012. Upon graduating from the University of Southern California in 1967, Lucas co-founded American Zoetrope with fellow filmmaker Francis Ford Coppola, Lucas wrote and directed THX1138, based on his earlier student short Electronic Labyrinth, THX1138 4EB, which was a critical success but a financial failure. His next work as a writer-director was the film, American Graffiti, inspired by his teen years in early 1960s Modesto, California, the film was critically and commercially successful, and received five Academy Award nominations including Best Picture. Following the first Star Wars film, Lucas produced and co-wrote the following installments in the trilogy, The Empire Strikes Back, along with Steven Spielberg, Lucas co-created and wrote the Indiana Jones films Raiders of the Lost Ark, Temple of Doom, and The Last Crusade. Lucas also produced and/or wrote a variety of films through Lucasfilm in the 1980s and 1990s, Lucas also returned to directing with the Star Wars prequel trilogy, consisting of The Phantom Menace, Attack of the Clones, and Revenge of the Sith. He later collaborated on the story for the Indiana Jones sequel Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, five of Lucass seven features are among the 100 highest-grossing movies at the North American box office, adjusted for ticket-price inflation. Lucas is one of the American film industrys most financially successful filmmakers, Lucas is considered a significant figure in the New Hollywood era. Lucas was born and raised in Modesto, California, the son of Dorothy Ellinore Lucas and George Walton Lucas and he is of German, Swiss-German, English, Scottish, and distant Dutch and French descent. Growing up, Lucas had a passion for cars and motor racing, on June 12,1962, while driving his souped-up Autobianchi Bianchina, another driver broadsided him, flipping over his car, nearly killing him, causing him to lose interest in racing as a career. He attended Modesto Junior College, where he studied anthropology, sociology and he also began shooting with an 8 mm camera, including filming car races. At this time, Lucas and his friend John Plummer became interested in Canyon Cinema, screenings of underground, avant-garde 16 mm filmmakers like Jordan Belson, Stan Brakhage, and Bruce Conner. Lucas and Plummer also saw classic European films of the time, including Jean-Luc Godards Breathless, François Truffauts Jules et Jim, thats when George really started exploring, Plummer said. Through his interest in racing, Lucas met renowned cinematographer Haskell Wexler, another race enthusiast. Wexler, later to work with Lucas on several occasions, was impressed by Lucas talent, George had a very good eye, and he thought visually, he recalled. Lucas then transferred to the University of Southern California School of Cinematic Arts, USC was one of the earliest universities to have a school devoted to motion picture film. During the years at USC, Lucas shared a room with Randal Kleiser. Along with classmates such as Walter Murch, Hal Barwood, and John Milius and he also became good friends with fellow acclaimed student filmmaker and future Indiana Jones collaborator, Steven SpielbergGeorge Lucas – Lucas in 2009
24. Gene Kelly – Eugene Curran Gene Kelly was an American dancer, actor, singer, film director, producer and choreographer. He was known for his energetic and athletic dancing style, his looks. Best known today for his performances in such as An American in Paris, Anchors Aweigh. He starred in musical films throughout the 1940s, including For Me and My Gal, Du Barry Was a Lady, Thousands Cheer, The Three Musketeers. In his later career, he starred in two films outside the genre, Inherit the Wind and What a Way to Go. Throughout his career, he directed films, most notably the 1969 film Hello. His many innovations transformed the Hollywood musical and he is credited with almost single-handedly making the ballet form commercially acceptable to film audiences, Kelly received an Academy Honorary Award in 1952 for his career achievements. He later received lifetime achievement awards in the Kennedy Center Honors, in 1999, the American Film Institute also numbered him 15th in their Greatest Male Stars of Classic Hollywood cinema list. Kelly was born in the East Liberty neighborhood of Pittsburgh and he was the third son of James Patrick Joseph Kelly, a phonograph salesman, and his wife Harriet Catherine Curran. His father was born in Peterborough, Ontario, Canada, to an Irish-Canadian family and his maternal grandfather was an immigrant from Derry, Ireland, and his maternal grandmother was of German ancestry. When he was eight, Kellys mother enrolled him and his brother James in dance classes and they both rebelled, as recalled by Kelly, We didnt like it much and were continually involved in fistfights with the neighborhood boys who called us sissies. I didnt dance again until I was fifteen, at one time his childhood dream was to play shortstop for the hometown Pittsburgh Pirates. By the time he decided to dance, he was an accomplished sportsman and he attended St. Raphael Elementary School in the Morningside neighborhood of Pittsburgh and graduated from Peabody High School at age sixteen. He entered Pennsylvania State College as a major, but the 1929 crash forced him to work to help his family. He created dance routines with his younger brother Fred to earn money in local talent contests. They also performed in local nightclubs, in 1931, Kelly enrolled at the University of Pittsburgh to study economics, joining the Phi Kappa Theta fraternity. He became involved in the universitys Cap and Gown Club, which staged original musical productions, after graduating in 1933, he continued to be active with the Cap and Gown Club, serving as the director from 1934 to 1938. Kelly was admitted to the University of Pittsburgh Law School and his family opened a dance studio in the Squirrel Hill neighborhood of PittsburghGene Kelly – Kelly in 1943
25. Gene Hackman – Eugene Allen Gene Hackman is a retired American actor and novelist. In a career spanning five decades, Hackman was nominated for five Academy Awards, winning Best Actor in The French Connection and he won three Golden Globes and two BAFTAs. He first came to fame in 1967 with his performance as Buck Barrow in Bonnie and Clyde, in which he gained his first Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actor. His film roles during the 1990s featured, Unforgiven, The Firm, Crimson Tide, Get Shorty, The Birdcage, and Enemy of the State Later roles included, Behind Enemy Lines, and The Royal Tenenbaums. Hackmans final film appearance to date was the romantic comedy Welcome to Mooseport in 2004, Hackman was born in San Bernardino, California, the son of Eugene Ezra Hackman and Anna Lyda Elizabeth. He has Pennsylvania Dutch, English, and Scottish ancestry, his mother was born in Lambton, according to a plaque in a city park, he worked for a time as a dog catcher for the local animal shelter. His family moved frequently, finally settling in Danville, Illinois, hackmans father operated the printing press for the Commercial-News, a local paper. As a teenager, Hackman knew Dick Van Dyke, who was friends with his older brother Richard and his parents divorced in 1943 and his father subsequently left the family. Hackman lived briefly in Storm Lake, Iowa and spent his year at Storm Lake High School. However, he left home at age 16 and lied about his age to enlist in the United States Marine Corps and he served four and a half years as a field radio operator. When the Communist Revolution conquered the mainland in 1949, Hackman was assigned to Hawaii, following his discharge, he moved to New York and worked in several jobs. His mother died in 1962 as a result of a fire she accidentally set while smoking, in 1956, he began pursuing an acting career, he joined the Pasadena Playhouse in California. It was there that he forged a friendship with another aspiring actor, already seen as outsiders by their classmates, they were later voted The Least Likely To Succeed. Determined to prove them wrong, Hackman moved to New York City, reinforcing The Least Likely To Succeed vote, the man said to him, See, Hackman, I told you you wouldnt amount to anything. From then on, Hackman was determined to become the finest actor he possibly could, the three former roommates have since earned 19 Academy Award nominations for acting, with five wins. Hackman got various bit roles, for example on the TV series Route 66 in 1963, in 1964, he had an offer to co-star in the play Any Wednesday with actress Sandy Dennis. This opened the door to film work and his first role was in Lilith, with Warren Beatty in the leading role. In 1967, he appeared in an episode of the television series The Invaders entitled The Spores, another supporting role, Buck Barrow in 1967s Bonnie and Clyde, earned him an Academy Award nomination as Best Supporting ActorGene Hackman – Gene Hackman at a book signing in June 2008
26. Irish diaspora – The Irish diaspora refers to Irish people and their descendants who live outside Ireland. This is more than the population of Ireland at its peak in the 1840s of 8.5 million. The poorest of them went to Great Britain, especially Liverpool, after 1840, emigration from Ireland became a massive, relentless, and efficiently managed national enterprise. In 1890 40% of Irish-born people were living abroad, by the 21st century, an estimated 80 million people worldwide claimed some Irish descent, which includes more than 36 million Americans who claim Irish as their primary ethnicity. As recently as the half of the nineteenth century, the majority of Irish emigrants spoke Irish as their first language. This had social and cultural consequences for the cultivation of the language abroad, the language continues to be cultivated abroad by a small minority as a literary and social medium. Joe McHugh is the Republic of Irelands Minister of State for the Diaspora, the term Irish diaspora is open to many interpretations. It has been argued the idea of an Irish diaspora, as distinct from the old identification of Irishness with Ireland itself, was influenced by the advent of global mobility and modernity. Irishness could now be identified with dispersed individuals and groups of Irish descent, but many of those individuals were the product of complex ethnic intermarriage in America and elsewhere, complicating the idea of a single line of descent. Irishness might then rely primarily on identification with an Irish diaspora. The Government of Ireland defines the Irish diaspora as all persons of Irish nationality who habitually reside outside of the island of Ireland and this includes Irish citizens who have emigrated abroad and their children, who are Irish citizens by descent under Irish law. It also includes their grandchildren in cases where they were registered as Irish citizens in the Foreign Births Register held in every Irish diplomatic mission, under this legal definition, the Irish diaspora is considerably smaller—some 3 million persons, of whom 1.2 million are Irish-born emigrants. This is still a large ratio for any country, however, the usage of Irish diaspora is generally not limited by citizenship status, thus leading to an estimated membership of up to 80 million persons—the second and more emotive definition. The right to register as an Irish citizen terminates at the third generation and this contrasts with citizenship law in Italy, Israel, Japan and other countries which practice jus sanguinis or otherwise permit members of the diaspora to register as citizens. There are people of Irish descent abroad who reject inclusion in an Irish diaspora and they may see the diasporic label as something used by the Irish government for its own purposes. The Attacotti, who were recruited into the Roman army. Following the withdrawal of the Roman army, the Irish began increasing their footholds in Britain, in time, the Irish colonies became independent, merged with the Pictish kingdom, and formed the basis of modern Scotland. The traditionally Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland are still referred to in the Gaelic language as a Ghàidhealtachd, Irish monks, and the Celtic church, pioneered a wave of Irish emigration into Great Britain, and continental EuropeIrish diaspora – 'Emigrants Leave Ireland', engraving by Henry Doyle (1827–1892), from Mary Frances Cusack's Illustrated History of Ireland, 1868
27. Ian McKellen – Sir Ian Murray McKellen, CH, CBE is an English actor. He has also received two Oscar nominations, four BAFTA nominations and five Emmy Award nominations, McKellens career spans genres ranging from Shakespearean and modern theatre to popular fantasy and science fiction. The BBC states his performances have guaranteed him a place in the canon of English stage, a recipient of every major theatrical award in the UK, McKellen is regarded as a British cultural icon. He started his career in 1961 at the Belgrade Theatre as a member of their highly regarded repertory company. In the 1970s McKellen became a stalwart of the Royal Shakespeare Company and he has been openly gay since 1988, and continues to be a champion for LGBT social movements worldwide. He was made a Freeman of the City of London in October 2014, McKellen was born on 25 May 1939 in Burnley, Lancashire, the son of Margery Lois and Denis Murray McKellen, a civil engineer. He was their child, with a sister, Jean. Shortly before the outbreak of the Second World War in September 1939 and they lived there until Ian was twelve years old, before relocating to Bolton in 1951, after his father had been promoted. The experience of living through the war as a child had a lasting impact on him. Did I realise that war wasnt normal, when an interviewer remarked that he seemed quite calm in the aftermath of 11 September attacks, McKellen said, Well, darling, you forget—I slept under a steel plate until I was four years old. Even though he lived in Bolton for less than seven years, as opposed to the eleven years in Wigan beforehand. McKellens father was a engineer and lay preacher, and was of Protestant Irish and Scottish descent. Both of McKellens grandfathers were preachers, and his great-great-grandfather, James McKellen, was a strict, evangelical Protestant minister in Ballymena and his home environment was strongly Christian, but non-orthodox. My upbringing was of low nonconformist Christians who felt that you led the Christian life in part by behaving in a Christian manner to everybody you met, when he was 12, his mother died of breast cancer, his father died when he was 24. His great-great-grandfather Robert J. McKellen attended Bolton School, of which he is still a supporter, McKellens acting career started at Bolton Little Theatre, of which he is now the patron. An early fascination with the theatre was encouraged by his parents, in 1958, McKellen, at the age of 18, won a scholarship to St Catharines College, Cambridge, where he read English literature. While at Cambridge, McKellen was a member of the Marlowe Society, at that young age he was already giving performances that have since become legendary such as his Justice Shallow in Henry IV alongside Trevor Nunn and Derek Jacobi, Cymbeline and Doctor Faustus. During this period McKellen had already directed by Peter Hall, John BartonIan McKellen – McKellen at the 2013 San Diego Comic-Con International
28. Coen brothers – Joel David Coen and Ethan Jesse Coen, collectively referred to as the Coen brothers, are American filmmakers. Their films span many genres and styles, which they frequently subvert or parody and their best-reviewed works include Fargo, The Big Lebowski, No Country for Old Men, A Serious Man, True Grit, and Inside Llewyn Davis. The brothers write, direct, and produce their films jointly, although until The Ladykillers, Joel received sole credit for directing and they often alternate top billing for their screenplays while sharing film credits for editor under the alias Roderick Jaynes. The duo also won the Palme dOr for Barton Fink, and were nominated for Fargo, the Coen brothers have written a number of films that neither of the two directed. Ethan is also a writer of stories, theater. Their films No Country for Old Men, A Serious Man, Joel and Ethan Coen were born and raised in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, a suburb of Minneapolis. Their mother, Rena, was an art historian at St. Cloud State University, when they were children, Joel saved money from mowing lawns to buy a Vivitar Super 8 camera. Together, the brothers remade movies they saw on television, with a kid, Mark Zimering. Their first attempt was a romp entitled Henry Kissinger, Man on the Go, cornel Wildes The Naked Prey became their Zeimers in Zambia, which also featured Ethan as a native with a spear. Joel Coen has said, in regards to whether our background influences our film making, theres no doubt that our Jewish heritage affects how we see things. Joel and Ethan graduated from St. Louis Park High School in 1973 and 1976 and they both also graduated from Bard College at Simons Rock in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. Joel then spent four years in the film program at New York University. Ethan went on to Princeton University and earned a degree in philosophy in 1979. His senior thesis was a 41-page essay, Two Views of Wittgensteins Later Philosophy, Joel has been married to actress Frances McDormand since 1984. They adopted a son from Paraguay, named Pedro McDormand Coen and she also did a voice-over in Barton Fink. Ethan married film editor Tricia Cooke in 1990 and they have two children, daughter Dusty and son Buster Jacob, who goes to Vassar College. Both couples live in New York, after graduating from New York University, Joel worked as a production assistant on a variety of industrial films and music videos. He developed a talent for film editing and met Sam Raimi while assisting Enda Ruth Paul in editing Raimis first feature film, in 1984, the brothers wrote and directed Blood Simple, their first commercial film togetherCoen brothers – Ethan Coen (left) and Joel Coen at the 2015 Cannes Film Festival
29. Jack Lemmon – John Uhler Jack Lemmon III was an American actor and musician. Lemmon was an eight time Academy Award nominee, with two wins, Lemmon was born on February 8,1925, in an elevator at Newton-Wellesley Hospital in Newton, Massachusetts, a suburb of Boston. He was the child of Mildred Burgess LaRue and John Uhler Lemmon. His paternal grandmother was from an Irish immigrant family, Lemmon attended John Ward Elementary School in Newton and the Rivers School in Weston, Massachusetts. During his acceptance of his lifetime achievement award, he stated that he knew he wanted to be an actor from the age of eight, after graduation in 1947, Lemmon took up acting professionally, working on radio, television and Broadway. He studied acting under coach Uta Hagen and he was enamored of the piano and learned to play it on his own. He could also play the harmonica, guitar, organ, and he was close friends with actors Tony Curtis, Ernie Kovacs, Walter Matthau and Kevin Spacey. He made two films with Curtis, and eleven with Matthau, early in Lemmons career he met comedian Ernie Kovacs while co-starring with him in Operation Mad Ball. Lemmon and Kovacs became close friends and appeared together in two subsequent films, Bell, Book and Candle and It Happened to Jane, in 1977, PBS broadcast a compilation series of Kovacs television work, and Lemmon served as the narrator of the series. Lemmon discussed his friendship with Kovacs in the documentary Ernie Kovacs and he was a favorite of director Billy Wilder, starring in the films Some Like It Hot, The Apartment, Irma la Douce, The Fortune Cookie, Avanti. The Front Page, and Buddy Buddy, the biography quotes Lemmon as saying, I am particularly susceptible to the parts I play. If my character was having a breakdown, I started to have one. Bell, Book and Candle and It Happened to Jane and How to Murder Your Wife, quine also directed Lemmons screen test when the actor was signed by Columbia. Lemmons singing voice was first heard on two film soundtracks in 1955, Three for the Show with Betty Grable and My Sister Eileen and he also performed songs in the 1956 film You Cant Run Away from It with Stubby Kaye and June Allyson. His first solo album A Twist of Lemmon was released in 1958 on Epic Records, while filming Some Like It Hot with Marilyn Monroe in 1959, Lemmon released a second album, Some Like It Hot. Both featured Lemmons singing and piano solos, the two Epic albums were later released as A Twist of Lemmon/Some Like It Hot, a single cd on Collectors Choice Music, in 2001. Two singles, Daphne/Sleepy Lagoon and Im Forever Blowing Bubbles/I Cover the Waterfront did not appear on either album, Epic released a third single in 1960, Lemmons piano solo of the theme to the film The Apartment, backed with his own composition Lemmon Blues. In 1963, Lemmon released an album, this time on Capitol RecordsJack Lemmon – Jack Lemmon in 1968.
30. James Cagney – James Francis Cagney Jr. was an American actor and dancer, both on stage and in film, though he had his greatest impact in film. Known for his energetic performances, distinctive vocal style, and deadpan comic timing, he won acclaim. He is best remembered for playing multifaceted tough guys in movies such as The Public Enemy, Angels with Dirty Faces, and White Heat, and was typecast or limited by this view earlier in his career. In 1999, the American Film Institute ranked him eighth among its list of greatest male stars of Classic Hollywood Cinema. Orson Welles said of Cagney, maybe the greatest actor who appeared in front of a camera. In his first professional acting performance, Cagney danced costumed as a woman in the line of the revue Every Sailor. He spent several years in vaudeville as a dancer and comedian and he secured several other roles, receiving good notices, before landing the lead in the 1929 play Penny Arcade. After rave reviews, Warner Bros. signed him for an initial $500-a-week, three-week contract to reprise his role, Cagneys seventh film, The Public Enemy, became one of the most influential gangster movies of the period. Notable for a scene in which Cagney pushes a grapefruit against Mae Clarkes face. He became one of Hollywoods biggest stars and one of Warner Bros. biggest contracts, in 1938, he received his first Academy Award for Best Actor nomination, for Angels with Dirty Faces, for his subtle portrayal of the tough guy/man-child Rocky Sullivan. In 1942, Cagney won the Oscar for his portrayal of George M. Cohan in Yankee Doodle Dandy. He was nominated a third time in 1955 for Love Me or Leave Me, Cagney retired from acting and dancing in 1961 to spend time on his farm with his family. He exited retirement,20 years later, for a part in the movie Ragtime, Cagney walked out on Warner Bros. several times over the course of his career, each time returning on much improved personal and artistic terms. In 1935, he sued Warner for breach of contract and won and this was one of the first times an actor prevailed over a studio on a contract issue. In reference to Cagneys refusal to be pushed around, Jack L, Warner called him the Professional Againster. Cagney also made numerous morale-boosting troop tours before and during World War II and was president of the Screen Actors Guild for two years, Cagney was born on the Lower East Side of Manhattan in New York City. His biographers disagree as to the location, either on the corner of Avenue D. His father, James Francis Cagney, Sr. was of Irish descent, at the time of his sons birth, he was a bartender and amateur boxer, though on Cagneys birth certificate, he is listed as a telegraphistJames Cagney – Cagney in a publicity photo