1. Greco-Bactrian Kingdom – The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom was – along with the Indo-Greek Kingdom – the easternmost part of the Hellenistic world, covering Bactria and Sogdiana in Central Asia from 250 to 125 BC. It was centered on the north of present-day Afghanistan, the expansion of the Greco-Bactrians into present-day eastern Afghanistan and Pakistan from 180 BC established the Indo-Greek Kingdom, which was to last until around 10 AD. Diodotus, the satrap of Bactria founded the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom when he seceded from the Seleucid Empire around 250 BC, the preserved ancient sources are somewhat contradictory, and the exact date of Bactrian independence has not been settled. Somewhat simplified, there is a chronology and a low chronology for Diodotos’ secession. The high chronology has the advantage of explaining why the Seleucid king Antiochus II issued very few coins in Bactria, as Diodotos would have become independent there early in Antiochus reign. On the other hand, the low chronology, from the mid-240s BC, has the advantage of connecting the secession of Diodotus I with the Third Syrian War, a catastrophic conflict for the Seleucid Empire. Diodotus, the governor of the cities of Bactria, defected and proclaimed himself king, all the other people of the Orient followed his example. Their cities were Bactra, and Darapsa, and several others, among these was Eucratidia, which was named after its ruler. In 247 BC, the Ptolemaic empire captured the Seleucid capital, in the resulting power vacuum, the satrap of Parthia proclaimed independence from the Seleucids, declaring himself king. A decade later, he was defeated and killed by Arsaces of Parthia and this cut Bactria off from contact with the Greek world. Overland trade continued at a rate, while sea trade between Greek Egypt and Bactria developed. Euthydemus, a Magnesian Greek according to Polybius and possibly satrap of Sogdiana, overthrew the dynasty of Diodotus I around 230-220 BC, and the Iaxartes forms also the boundary between the Sogdians and the nomads. Euthydemus was attacked by the Seleucid ruler Antiochus III around 210 BC, although he commanded 10,000 horsemen, Euthydemus initially lost a battle on the Arius and had to retreat. Following the departure of the Seleucid army, the Bactrian kingdom seems to have expanded, in the west, areas in north-eastern Iran may have been absorbed, possibly as far as into Parthia, whose ruler had been defeated by Antiochus the Great. These territories possibly are identical with the Bactrian satrapies of Tapuria, the Greek historian Strabo too writes that, they extended their empire even as far as the Seres and the Phryni. Several statuettes and representations of Greek soldiers have been north of the Tien Shan, on the doorstep to China. Greek influences on Chinese art have also been suggested, designs with rosette flowers, geometric lines, and glass inlays, suggestive of Hellenistic influences, can be found on some early Han dynasty bronze mirrors. The practice of exporting Chinese metals, in iron, for trade is attested around that periodGreco-Bactrian Kingdom – Approximate maximum extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 180 BC, including the regions of Tapuria and Traxiane to the West, Sogdiana and Ferghana to the north, Bactria and Arachosia to the south.
2. Afghanistan – Afghanistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia. It has a population of approximately 32 million, making it the 42nd most populous country in the world. It is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east, Iran in the west, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan in the north and its territory covers 652,000 km2, making it the 41st largest country in the world. The land also served as the source from which the Kushans, Hephthalites, Samanids, Saffarids, Ghaznavids, Ghorids, Khiljis, Mughals, Hotaks, Durranis, the political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a state in the Great Game between British India and the Russian Empire. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919, King Amanullah unsuccessfully attempted to modernize the country and it remained peaceful during Zahir Shahs forty years of monarchy. A series of coups in the 1970s was followed by a series of wars that devastated much of Afghanistan. The name Afghānistān is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, the root name Afghan was used historically in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns, and the suffix -stan means place of in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more specifically in a historical sense, however, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan. An important site of historical activities, many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites. The country sits at a unique nexus point where numerous civilizations have interacted and it has been home to various peoples through the ages, among them the ancient Iranian peoples who established the dominant role of Indo-Iranian languages in the region. At multiple points, the land has been incorporated within large regional empires, among them the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, and the Islamic Empire. Archaeological exploration done in the 20th century suggests that the area of Afghanistan has been closely connected by culture and trade with its neighbors to the east, west. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze, urban civilization is believed to have begun as early as 3000 BCE, and the early city of Mundigak may have been a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization. More recent findings established that the Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up towards modern-day Afghanistan, making the ancient civilisation today part of Pakistan, Afghanistan, in more detail, it extended from what today is northwest Pakistan to northwest India and northeast Afghanistan. An Indus Valley site has found on the Oxus River at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan. There are several smaller IVC colonies to be found in Afghanistan as well, after 2000 BCE, successive waves of semi-nomadic people from Central Asia began moving south into Afghanistan, among them were many Indo-European-speaking Indo-Iranians. These tribes later migrated further into South Asia, Western Asia, the region at the time was referred to as ArianaAfghanistan – History of Afghanistan
3. Alexander the Great – Alexander III of Macedon, commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty. He was born in Pella in 356 BC and succeeded his father Philip II to the throne at the age of twenty and he was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of historys most successful military commanders. During his youth, Alexander was tutored by Aristotle until the age of 16, after Philips assassination in 336 BC, he succeeded his father to the throne and inherited a strong kingdom and an experienced army. Alexander was awarded the generalship of Greece and used this authority to launch his fathers Panhellenic project to lead the Greeks in the conquest of Persia, in 334 BC, he invaded the Achaemenid Empire and began a series of campaigns that lasted ten years. Following the conquest of Anatolia, Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of battles, most notably the battles of Issus. He subsequently overthrew Persian King Darius III and conquered the Achaemenid Empire in its entirety, at that point, his empire stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus River. He sought to reach the ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea and invaded India in 326 BC and he eventually turned back at the demand of his homesick troops. Alexander died in Babylon in 323 BC, the city that he planned to establish as his capital, without executing a series of planned campaigns that would have begun with an invasion of Arabia. In the years following his death, a series of civil wars tore his empire apart, resulting in the establishment of several states ruled by the Diadochi, Alexanders surviving generals, Alexanders legacy includes the cultural diffusion which his conquests engendered, such as Greco-Buddhism. He founded some twenty cities that bore his name, most notably Alexandria in Egypt, Alexander became legendary as a classical hero in the mold of Achilles, and he features prominently in the history and mythic traditions of both Greek and non-Greek cultures. He became the measure against which military leaders compared themselves, and he is often ranked among the most influential people in human history. He was the son of the king of Macedon, Philip II, and his wife, Olympias. Although Philip had seven or eight wives, Olympias was his wife for some time. Several legends surround Alexanders birth and childhood, sometime after the wedding, Philip is said to have seen himself, in a dream, securing his wifes womb with a seal engraved with a lions image. Plutarch offered a variety of interpretations of dreams, that Olympias was pregnant before her marriage, indicated by the sealing of her womb. On the day Alexander was born, Philip was preparing a siege on the city of Potidea on the peninsula of Chalcidice. That same day, Philip received news that his general Parmenion had defeated the combined Illyrian and Paeonian armies, and it was also said that on this day, the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, burnt down. This led Hegesias of Magnesia to say that it had burnt down because Artemis was away, such legends may have emerged when Alexander was king, and possibly at his own instigation, to show that he was superhuman and destined for greatness from conceptionAlexander the Great – "Alexander fighting king Darius III of Persia ", Alexander Mosaic, Naples National Archaeological Museum.
4. Alexander Balas – Alexander I Balas, ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom in 150–146 BC. Alexander defeated his brother Demetrius Soter for the crown in 150 BC, ruling briefly, he lost the crown to his brother during his defeat at the battle of Antioch in Syria, dying shortly after. He was a native of Smyrna of humble origin, but gave out to be the son of Antiochus IV Epiphanes and Laodice IV. Alexanders claims were recognized by the Roman Senate, Ptolemy Philometor of Egypt and he married Cleopatra Thea, a daughter of the Ptolemaic dynasty. At first unsuccessful, Alexander finally defeated Demetrius Soter in 150 BC, being now master of the empire, he is said to have abandoned himself to a life of debauchery. Whatever the truth behind this, the king was forced to depend heavily on his Ptolemaic support. Demetrius Soters son Demetrius II profited by the opportunity to regain the throne, Ptolemy Philometor, who was Alexanders father-in-law, went over to his side, and Alexander was defeated in the battle of Antioch in Syria, sometimes known as the battle of the Oenoparus. He fled for refuge to a Nabataean prince, who murdered him and sent his head to Ptolemy Philometor, list of Syrian monarchs Timeline of Syrian history Maas, Anthony John. 1 and 2 Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews Appian, Syrian Wars,67 Polybius, Alexander Balas, article in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. SmithAlexander Balas – Silver coin of Alexander I "Balas". The Greek inscription reads ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΧΑΝΔΡΟΥ (king Alexander). The date ΓΞΡ is year 163 of the Seleucid era, corresponding to 150–149 BC.
5. Andriscus – Andriscus, also often referenced as Pseudo-Philip, was the last King of Macedon. A pretender who claimed to be the son of Perseus of Macedon and his reign lasted just a year. In 168 BC, the Romans invaded Macedonia and overthrew king Perseus in the First Battle of Pydna, in 149 BC, Andriskos, claiming to be Perseus son, announced his intention to retake Macedonia from the Romans. As his first attempt, he travelled to Syria to request military help from Demetrius Soter of Syria, Demetrius instead handed him over to the Romans but Andriskos managed to escape from Roman captivity, and raised a Thracian army. With this army, he invaded Macedonia and defeated the Roman praetor Publius Juventius in 149 BC, Andriskos then declared himself King Philip VI of Macedonia. In 148 BC, Andriskos conquered Thessaly and made an alliance with Carthage, Andriscus brief reign over Macedonia was marked by cruelty and extortion. After this, Macedonia was formally reduced to a Roman province, attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Andriscus. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Smith. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and MythologyAndriscus – Coin of Andriscus. Greek inscription reads BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΦIΛIΠΠOY (King Philip).
6. Abdur Rahman Khan – Abdur Rahman Khan was Emir of Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901. He was the son of Mohammad Afzal Khan, and grandson of Dost Mohammad Khan. Abdur Rahman Khan re-established the writ of the Afghan government after the disarray that followed the second Anglo-Afghan war and he became known as The Iron Amir after defeating a number of rebellions by various tribes who were led by his relatives. At first, the new Amir was quietly recognized, but after a few months, Afzal Khan raised an insurrection in the north of the country, where he had been governing when his father died. This began a fierce internecine conflict for power between Dost Mohammads sons, which lasted for five years. The Musahiban are descendants of Dost Mohammad Khans older brother, Sultan Mohammad Khan Telai, Abdur Rahman distinguished himself for his ability and energetic daring. Sher Ali threw Afzal Khan into prison, and a serious revolt followed in southern Afghanistan, after some delay and desultory fighting, he and his uncle, Azam Khan, occupied Kabul in March 1866. Notwithstanding the new Amirs incapacity, and some jealousy between the leaders, Abdur Rahman and his uncle, they again routed Sher Alis forces. When Afzal Khan died at the end of the year, Azam Khan became the new ruler, with Abdur Rahman installed as Governor in the northern province. But towards the end of 1868 Sher Alis return, and a rising in his favour, resulted in Abdur Rahman. Both sought refuge to the east in Central Asia, whence Abdur Rahman placed himself under Russian protection at Samarkand, Azam died eventually in Kabul in October 1869. Abdur Rahman lived in exile in Tashkent, the governor-general of Tashkent sent for Abdur Rahman and motivated him by bringing up the blessing of Jacob, Abdurs patriarch. He was being told to cross the Oxus and claim throne for Amir, after some negotiations, and an interview with Lepel Griffin, the diplomatic representative at Kabul of the Indian government. Griffin described Abdur Rahman as a man of middle height, with an exceedingly intelligent face and frank and courteous manners, shrewd, the British evacuation of Afghanistan was settled on the terms proposed, and in 1881, the British troops also handed over Kandahar to the new Amir. However, Ayub Khan, one of Sher Ali Khans sons, marched upon that city from Herat, defeated Abdur Rahmans troops and this serious reverse roused the Amir, who had not at first displayed much activity. He led a force from Kabul, met Ayubs army close to Kandahar, the powerful Ghilzai tribe revolted against the severity of his measures several times. In that same year, Ayub Khan made a fruitless inroad from Persia, Abdur Rahmans attitude at this critical juncture is a good example of his political sagacity. He also published his autobiography in 1885, which served more as a guide for princes than anything elseAbdur Rahman Khan – Abdur Rahman Khan
7. Antigonid dynasty – The Antigonid dynasty was a dynasty of Hellenistic kings descended from Alexander the Greats general Antigonus I Monophthalmus. Succeeding the Antipatrid dynasty in much of Macedonia, Antigonus ruled mostly over Asia Minor and his attempts to take control of the whole of Alexanders empire led to his defeat and death at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC. After a period of confusion, Demetriuss son Antigonus II Gonatas was able to establish the control over the old Kingdom of Macedon, as well as over most of the Greek city-states. It was one of four established by Alexanders successors, the others being the Seleucid dynasty, Ptolemaic dynasty. The ruling members of the Antigonid dynasty were, The Greek rebel against Rome and last King of Macedonia, Andriscus, claimed to be the son of PerseusAntigonid dynasty – Coin of Antigonus I Monophthalmus ("the One-eyed") (382 BC - 301 BC).
8. Islamic conquest of Afghanistan – The Muslim Arabs then began to move towards the lands east of Persia and in 652 captured the city, Herat. Ethnic Arabs who have settled in Afghanistan, came to form the first community of Afghan Arabs, during the 7th century, Arab armies made their way into the region of Afghanistan from Khorasan with the new religion of Islam. The area had been under the rule of the Buddhist and then Hindu dynasty called the Kabul Shahis since the 5th century. Muslims missionaries converted many people to Islam, however, the population did not convert. The Hindu Shahi were defeated in the part of the 10th century by Mahmud of Ghazna. He also expelled the Hindu Shahi from Gandhara, in 870, Yaqub bin Laith as-Saffar, a local ruler from the Saffarid dynasty of Zaranj, Afghanistan, conquered most of present-day Afghanistan in the name of Islam. In many cases, the people he conquered had rebelled against their Islamic overlords, from the 8th century to the 9th century, many inhabitants of what is present-day Afghanistan and Pakistan were converted to Sunni Islam. It is surmised from the writings of Al Biruni that some Pashtuns living in Pakhtunkhwa had not been completely converted, Al Biruni, writing in Tarikh al Hind, also alludes to the Pashtun tribes of Pakhtunkhwa as Hindus. Various historical sources such as Martin Ewans, E. J, during the end of the 9th century, the Samanids extended its rule from Bukhara to as far south as the Indus River and west into parts of Persia. Although Arab Muslim intellectual life was centered in Baghdad, Sunni Islam. This period of time was considered an era of cultural, intellectual. By the mid-10th century, the Samanid Dynasty had crumbled in the face of attacks from Turkish tribes to the north and from the Ghaznavids, the region was ruled by Hindu and Buddhist dynasty called the Kabul Shahis since the 5th century. Mountain tribe revolts hindered the process of converting the tribes, in 870, Yaqub-i Laith Saffari, a local Persian ruler from the Saffarid dynasty of Zaranj, Afghanistan, conquered most of the cities of present-day Afghanistan in the name of Islam. Arab armies carrying the banner of Islam came out of the west to defeat the Sasanians in 642, the harshness and avariciousness of Arab rule produced such unrest, however, that once the waning power of the Caliphate became apparent, native rulers once again established themselves independent. Among these the Saffarids of Seistan shone briefly in the Afghan area, during the 8th through the 9th centuries, many inhabitants of what is present-day Afghanistan and western Pakistan were converted to Sunni Islam. In some cases, however, people that were conquered by the Muslims would rebel, the mountain areas were still not completely converted and remained largely by people of non-Muslim faiths. In a book called Hudud-al-Alam, written in 982, it mentions a village near Jalalabad, Afghanistan, during the end of the 9th century, the Samanids extended its rule from Bukhara to as far south as the Indus River and west into most of Persia. By the mid-10th century, the Samanid dynasty had crumble in the face of attacks from Turkish tribes to the north and from the Ghaznavids, a rising Turkic Muslim dynasty in AfghanistanIslamic conquest of Afghanistan – History of Afghanistan
9. Durrani Empire – The Durrani Empire at its maximum extent encompassed present-day Afghanistan, northeastern Iran, eastern Turkmenistan, most of Pakistan, and northwestern India, including the Kashmir region. The Afghan army began their conquests by capturing Ghazni and Kabul from the local rulers, in 1749 the Mughal ruler had ceded sovereignty over what is now Pakistan and northwestern Punjab to the Afghans. Ahmad Shah then set out westward to take possession of Herat and he next sent an army to subdue the areas north of the Hindu Kush and in short order all the different tribes began joining his cause. Ahmad Shah and his forces invaded India four times, taking control of the Kashmir, early in 1757, he sacked Delhi, but permitted the Mughal dynasty to remain in nominal control as long as the ruler acknowledged Ahmad Shahs suzerainty over the Punjab, Sindh, and Kashmir. Additionally, among the Durranis other military conquests, the Pashtun also instigated the Vaḍḍā Ghallūghārā when they killed thousands of Sikhs in the Punjab, the Durrani Empire is considered the foundation of the modern state of Afghanistan, with Ahmad Shah Durrani being credited as Father of the Nation. In 1709 Mir Wais Hotak, chief of the Ghilji tribe of Kandahar Province, from 1722 to 1725, his son Mahmud Hotak briefly ruled large parts of Iran and declared himself as Shah of Persia. However, the Hotak dynasty came to a end in 1738 after being toppled and banished by the Afsharids who were led by Nader Shah Afshar of Persia. The year 1747 marks the appearance of an Afghan political entity independent of both the Persian and Mughal empires. In October 1747 a loya jirga concluded near the city of Kandahar with Ahmad Shah Durrani being selected as the new leader of the Afghans, despite being younger than the other contenders, Ahmad Shah had several overriding factors in his favor. He belonged to a family of political background, especially since his father served as Governor of Herat who died in a battle defending the Afghans. He also had a larger army and possessed a substantial part of Nadir Shahs treasury, including the Koh-i-Noor diamond. One of Ahmad Shahs first military action was the capture Ghazni from the Ghiljis, in 1749, the Mughal ruler was induced to cede Sindh, the Punjab region and the important trans Indus River to Ahmad Shah in order to save his capital from Afghan attack. Having thus gained substantial territories to the east without a fight, Ahmad Shah turned westward to take possession of Herat, Ahmad Shah next sent an army to subdue the areas north of the Hindu Kush mountains. In short order, the army brought under its control the Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Turkmen. Ahmad Shah invaded the remnants of the Mughal Empire a third time and he sacked Delhi in 1757, but permitted the Mughal dynasty to remain in nominal control of the city as long as the ruler acknowledged Ahmad Shahs suzerainty over Punjab, Sindh, and Kashmir. Leaving his second son Timur Shah to safeguard his interests, Ahmad Shah left India to return to Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah halted trade with Qing China and dispatched troops to Kokand. Through this treaty, the Marathas controlled virtually the whole of India from their capital at Pune, Marathas were now straining to expand their area of control towards the Northwest of India. Ahmad Shah sacked the Mughal capital and withdrew with the booty he coveted, to counter the Afghans, Peshwa Balaji Bajirao sent RaghunathraoDurrani Empire – Flag
10. Babrak Karmal – Babrak Karmal was an Afghan politician who was installed as president of Afghanistan by the USSR when they invaded in 1979. Karmal was born in Kamari and educated at Kabul University and he eventually became the leader of the Parcham faction. When the PDPA split in 1967, the Parcham-faction established a Parcham PDPA, while their ideological nemesis, under Karmals leadership, the Parchamite PDPA participated in Mohammad Daoud Khans rise to power, and his subsequent regime. While relations were good at the beginning, Daoud began a purge of leftist influence in the mid-1970s. This in turn led to the reformation of the PDPA in 1977, the PDPA took power in the 1978 Saur Revolution. Karmal was appointed Deputy Chairman of the Revolutionary Council, synonymous with head of state. The Parchamite faction found itself under significant pressure by the Khalqists soon after taking power, in June 1978, a PDPA Central Committee meeting voted in favor of giving the Khalqist faction exclusive control over PDPA policy. This decision was followed by a failed Parchamite coup, after which Hafizullah Amin, Karmal survived this purge but was exiled to Prague. Karmal remained in exile until December 1979, when the Soviet Union intervened in Afghanistan to stabilize the country, Karmal was promoted to Chairman of the Revolutionary Council and Chairman of the Council of Ministers on 27 December 1979. He remained in office until 1981, when he was succeeded by Sultan Ali Keshtmand, throughout his term, Karmal worked to establish a support base for the PDPA by introducing several reforms. Among these were the Fundamental Principles of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, introducing an amnesty for those people imprisoned during Nur Mohammad Tarakis. He also replaced the Khalqist flag with a traditional one. These policies failed to increase the PDPAs legitimacy in the eyes of the Afghan people and these policy failures, and the stalemate that ensued after the Soviet intervention, led the Soviet leadership to become highly critical of Karmals leadership. Under Mikhail Gorbachev, the Soviet Union deposed Karmal and replaced him with Mohammad Najibullah, following his loss of power, he was again exiled, this time to Moscow. He was allowed to return to Afghanistan in 1991 by the Najibullah government, back in Afghanistan he became an associate of Abdul Rashid Dostum, and helped remove the Najibullah government from power. Not long after, in 1996, Karmal died from liver cancer and his family was one of the wealthier families in Kabul. His ethnic background is disputed, some claim that he was Tajik who represented himself as a Ghilzai Pashtun, in 1986, Karmal announced that he, and his brother Mahmud Baryalay, were Pashtun because their mother came from the Mullakhel branch of the Pashtuns. However, this was controversial, considering that lineage in Afghanistan is supposed to be traced through the father, the accusation that he was of Indian Muslim ancestry comes from the fact that his birthname, Sultan Hussein, is a common Indian Muslim nameBabrak Karmal – History of Afghanistan
11. European influence in Afghanistan – After the decline of the Durrani dynasty in 1823, Dost Mohammad Khan established the Barakzai dynasty after becoming the next Emir of Afghanistan. It was not until 1826 that the energetic Dost Mohammad Khan was able to exert sufficient control over his brothers to take over the throne in Kabul, where he proclaimed himself the Shah. Dost Mohammad achieved prominence among his brothers through clever use of the support of his mothers Qizilbash tribesmen and his own youthful apprenticeship under his brother, among the many problems he faced was repelling Sikh encroachment on the Pashtun areas east of the Khyber Pass. After working assiduously to establish control and stability in his domains around Kabul, in 1834 Dost Mohammad defeated an invasion by the former ruler, Shuja Shah Durrani, but his absence from Kabul gave the Sikhs the opportunity to expand westward. Ranjit Singhs forces occupied Peshawar, moving from there into territory ruled directly by Kabul, in 1836 Dost Mohammads forces, under the command of his son Akbar Khan, defeated the Sikhs at the Battle of Jamrud, a post fifteen kilometres west of Peshawar. This was a victory and they failed to fully dislodge the Sikhs from Jamrud. With this letter, Dost Mohammad formally set the stage for British intervention in Afghanistan, at the heart of the Great Game lay the willingness of Britain and Russia to subdue, subvert, or subjugate the small independent states that lay between Russia and British India. The British became the power in the Indian subcontinent after the Treaty of Paris. It was the threat of the expanding Russian Empire beginning to push for an advantage in the Afghanistan region that placed pressure on British India, in what became known as the Great Game. The Great Game set in motion the confrontation of the British and Russian empires and it also involved Britains repeated attempts to impose a puppet government in Kabul. At the same time, the Russians feared permanent British occupation in Central Asia as the British encroached northward, taking the Punjab, Sindh, in addition to this rivalry between Britain and Russia, there were two specific reasons for British concern over Russias intentions. First was the Russian influence at the Iranian court, which prompted the Russians to support Iran in its attempt to take Herat, historically the western gateway to Afghanistan, in 1837 Iran advanced on Herat with the support and advice of Russian officers. The second immediate reason was the presence in Kabul in 1837 of a Russian agent, Yan Vitkevich, in return, the British government intimated that it would ask Ranjit Singh to reconcile with the Afghans. When Auckland refused to put the agreement in writing, Dost Mohammad turned his back on the British, in practice, the plan replaced Dost Mohammad with a British figurehead whose autonomy would be as limited as that of other Indian princes. It soon became apparent to the British that Sikh participation, advancing toward Kabul through the Khyber Pass while Shuja, aucklands plan in the spring of 1838 was for the Sikhs to place Shuja on the Afghan throne, with British support. By the end of the summer however, the plan had changed, to justify his plan, the Governor-General of India Lord Auckland issued the Simla Manifesto in October 1838, setting forth the necessary reasons for British intervention in Afghanistan. The manifesto stated that in order to ensure the welfare of India, the British pretense that their troops were merely supporting Shah Shujahs small army in retaking what was once his throne fooled no one. The British denied that they were invading Afghanistan, instead claiming they were merely supporting its legitimate Shuja government against foreign interference, in November 1841 insurrection and massacre flared up in KabulEuropean influence in Afghanistan – History of Afghanistan
12. Greece – Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, historically also known as Hellas, is a country in southeastern Europe, with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2015. Athens is the capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is strategically located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, situated on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, and Turkey to the northeast. Greece consists of nine regions, Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Thessaly, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace, Crete. The Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a vast number of islands, eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as polis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming a part of the Roman Empire and its successor. The Greek Orthodox Church also shaped modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World, falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence. Greeces rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, among the most in Europe, Greece is a democratic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, and a very high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001. Greeces unique cultural heritage, large industry, prominent shipping sector. It is the largest economy in the Balkans, where it is an important regional investor, the names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages, locations and cultures. The earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, all three stages of the stone age are represented in Greece, for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries and these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, and the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek. The Mycenaeans gradually absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC and this ushered in a period known as the Greek Dark Ages, from which written records are absent. The end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to 776 BC, the Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, in 508 BC, Cleisthenes instituted the worlds first democratic system of government in AthensGreece – Fresco displaying the Minoan ritual of "bull leaping", found in Knossos, Crete.
13. History of Afghanistan – The Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up to large parts of Afghanistan in the north, with several sites being known. Alexander the Great and his Macedonian army arrived at what is now Afghanistan in 330 BCE after conquering Persia during the Battle of Gaugamela, Afghanistan has been a strategically important location throughout history. The land served as a gateway to India, impinging on the ancient Silk Road, the archaeological manifestation of the Indo-Iranians before their split into separate language groups is generally seen as the Andronovo culture to the north of present-day Afghanistan. The Iranian languages were developed by one branch of these people, elena E. Kuzmina argues that the tents of Iranian-speaking nomads of Afghanistan developed from the light surface houses of the Eurasian steppe belt in the Bronze Age. The Arab invasions influenced the culture of Afghanistan, and its period of Zoroastrian, Macedonian, Buddhist. Turkic empire-builders such as the Ghaznavids and Timurids made the now called Afghanistan of major importance. Mirwais Hotak followed by Ahmad Shah Durrani unified Afghan tribes and founded the last Afghan Empire in the early 18th century CE, a cave called Kara Kamar contained Upper Paleolithic blades Carbon-14 dated at 34,000 years old. Farming communities in Afghanistan were among the earliest in the world, archaeologists have found evidence of human habitation in Afghanistan from as far back as 50,000 BC. The artifacts indicate that the people were small farmers and herdsmen, very probably grouped into tribes. Urbanization may have begun as early as 3000 BCE, Zoroastrianism predominated as the religion in the area, even the modern Afghan solar calendar shows the influence of Zoroastrianism in the names of the months. Other religions such as Buddhism and Hinduism flourished later, leaving a mark in the region. Early inhabitants, around 3000 BCE were likely to have been connected through culture and trade to neighboring civilizations like Jiroft and Tappeh Sialk and the Indus Valley Civilization. Urban civilization may have begun as early as 3000 BCE and it is possible that the city of Mundigak was a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization. The first known people were Indo-Iranians, but their date of arrival has been estimated widely from as early as about 3000 BCE to 1500 BCE, the Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization extending from what today is northwest Pakistan to northwest India and northeast Afghanistan. An Indus Valley site has found on the Oxus River at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan. Apart from Shortughai is Mundigak another notable site, there are several other smaller IVC colonies to be found in Afghanistan as well. The Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex became prominent in the southwest region between 2200 and 1700 BCE, the city of Balkh was founded about this time. It is possible that the BMAC may have been an Indo-European culture, but the standard model holds the arrival of Indo-Aryans to have been in the Late Harappan which gave rise to the Vedic civilization of the Early Iron AgeHistory of Afghanistan – History of Afghanistan
14. Herat – Herat is the third-largest city of Afghanistan. It has a population of about 436,300, and serves as the capital of Herat Province and it is linked with Kandahar and Mazar-e-Sharif via highway 1 or the ring road. It is further linked to the city of Mashhad in neighboring Iran through the town of Islam Qala. Herat dates back to the Avestan times and was known for its wine. The city has a number of sites, including the Herat Citadel. During the Middle Ages Herat became one of the important cities of Khorasan and it has been governed by various Afghan rulers since the early 18th century. In 1717, the city was invaded by the Hotaki forces until they were expelled by the Afsharids in 1736, after Nader Shahs death and Ahmad Shah Durranis rise to power in 1747, Herat became part of Afghanistan. It witnessed some political disturbances and military invasions during the half of the 19th century. Herat suffered from destruction during the Soviet war in the 1980s. Herat lies on the ancient trade routes of the Middle East, Central, the roads from Herat to Iran, Turkmenistan, and other parts of Afghanistan are still strategically important. As the gateway to Iran, it collects high amount of revenue for Afghanistan. The city has an international airport, Herat is a regional hub in western Afghanistan in close proximity to Iran and Turkmenistan. The city has high residential density clustered around the core of the city, however, vacant plots account for a higher percentage of the city than residential land use and agricultural is the largest percentage of total land use. Herat dates back to ancient times, but its exact age remains unknown, during the period of the Achaemenid Empire, the surrounding district was known as Hariva, and in classical sources the region was correspondingly known as Aria. In the Zoroastrian Avesta, the district is mentioned as Haroiva, the name of the district and its main town is derived from that of the chief river of the region, the Herey River, which traverses the district and passes some 5 km south of modern Herāt. Herey is mentioned in Sanskrit as yellow or golden color equivalent to Persian Zard meaning Gold, the naming of a region and its principal town after the main river is a common feature in this part of the world—compare the adjoining districts/rivers/towns of Arachosia and Bactria. The district Aria of the Achaemenid Empire is mentioned in the lists that are included in various royal inscriptions, for instance. Representatives from the district are depicted in reliefs, e. g. at the royal Achaemenid tombs of Naqsh-e Rustam and they are wearing Scythian-style dress and a twisted Bashlyk that covers their head, chin and neckHerat
15. Jalalabad – Jalalabad /dʒəˈlæləˌbæd/, formerly called Adina Pur as documented by the 7th century Hsüan-tsang, is a city in eastern Afghanistan. Located at the junction of the Kabul River and Kunar River near the Laghman valley and it is linked by approximately 155 kilometres of highway with Kabul to the west. Major industries include papermaking, as well as agricultural products including oranges, rice, Jalalabad is one of the leading trading centres with neighbouring Pakistan. The city of Jalalabad has a population of 356,274 and it has 6 districts and a total land area of 12,796 Hectares. The total number of dwellings in this city are 39,586, the Jalalabad territory fell to the Maurya Empire, which was led by Chandragupta Maurya. The Mauryas introduced Jainism, Hinduism and Buddhism to the region, seleucus is said to have agreed a peace treaty with Chandragupta by giving control of the territory south of the Hindu Kush to the Mauryas upon intermarriage and receipt of 500 elephants. As soon as the forces, therefore, of all the confederates were united, a battle was fought, in which Antigonus was slain, having consolidated power in the northwest, Chandragupta pushed east towards the Nanda Empire. Afghanistans significant ancient tangible and intangible Buddhist heritage is recorded through wide-ranging archeological finds, including religious, Buddhist doctrines are reported to have reached as far as Balkh even during the life of the Buddha, as recorded by Husang Tsang. In this context a legend recorded by Husang Tsang refers to the first two lay disciples of Buddha, Trapusa and Bhallika responsible for introducing Buddhism in that country. Originally these two were merchants of the kingdom of Balhika, as the name Bhalluka or Bhallika probably suggests the association of one with that country and they had gone to India for trade and had happened to be at Bodhgaya when the Buddha had just attained enlightenment. Faxian visited and worshiped the sacred Buddhist sites such as of The Shadow of the Buddha in Nagarhara, in 630 AD Xuan Zang, the famous Chinese Buddhist monk, visited Jalalabad and a number of other locations nearby. The city was a center of Gandharas Greco-Buddhist culture in the past until it was conquered by Muslim Arabs in the 11th century. However, not everyone converted to Islam at that period as some still refused to accept it, in Hudud-al-Alam, written in 982 CE, there is reference to a village near Jalalabad where the local king used to have many Hindu, Muslim and Afghan wives. The region became part of the Afghan Ghaznavid Empire in the 10th century, later, it was controlled by the successor Ghurids until the Mongols invaded the area. It then became part of the Timurids, the modern city gained prominence during the reign of Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire. Babur had chosen the site for this city which was built by his grandson Jalal-uddin Mohammad Akbar in 1560, the Battle of Jellalabad in 1842 was an Afghan siege of the isolated British outpost at Jellalabad about 130 kilometres east of Kabul. The siege was lifted after five months when a British counterattack routed the Afghans, the outpost was no more than a wide place in the road with a fort, held by about 2,000 troops under General Sir Robert Sale. After the massacre of the British force during their retreat from Kabul in January 1842, the British managed to beat off the assaults, and even captured 300 sheep from the besieging force when rations ran shortJalalabad
16. Kabul – Kabul is the capital of Afghanistan as well as its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country. According to a 2015 estimate, the population of the city was around 3,678,033 which includes all the ethnic groups. Rapid urbanization had made Kabul the worlds 64th largest city and the fifth fastest-growing city in the world, Kabul is said to be over 3,500 years old, mentioned since at least the time of the Achaemenid Empire. The city is at a location along the trade routes of South and Central Asia. It has been part of the Achaemenids, Seleucids, Mauryans, Kushans, Kabul Shahis, Saffarids, Ghaznavids, Later, it was controlled by the Mughal Empire until finally becoming part of the Durrani Empire in 1747. The city is located high up in a valley between the Hindu Kush mountains. Kabul became the capital of Afghanistan during the reign of Timur Shah Durrani, in the early 19th century, the British occupied the city but were compelled to abandon it. Relations between Afghanistan and Great Britain were later established, the city was occupied by the Soviets in 1979 but they too abandoned it after the 1988 Geneva Accords were signed. A civil war in the 1990s between various rebel groups destroyed much of the city, resulting in many casualties, since the removal of the Taliban from power in late 2001, the city gradually began rebuilding itself with assistance by the international community. Despite the many terrorist attacks by elements, the city is growing and developing. The city is divided into about 18 districts, the Kabul International Airport is located in the Wazir Akbar Khan district a few miles from the foreign embassies. The Parliament of Afghanistan, built by India, is located in the Kārte Seh district, Kabul, also spelled Cabool, Caubul, Kabol, or Cabul. The word Kubhā is mentioned in the Rigveda, one of the four sacred texts of Hinduism, and the Avesta. The Rigveda praises it as a city, a vision of paradise set in the mountains. The area in which the Kabul valley sits was ruled by the Medes before falling to the Achaemenids, there is a reference to a settlement called Kabura by the rulers of the Achaemenid Empire, It became a center of Zoroastrianism followed by Buddhism and Hinduism. The region became part of the Seleucid Empire but was given to the Indian Maurya Empire. The Greco-Bactrians captured Kabul from the Mauryans in the early 2nd century BC, indo-Scythians expelled the Indo-Greeks by the mid 1st century BC, but lost the city to the Kushan Empire about 100 years later. Some historians ascribe Kabul the Sanskrit name of Kamboja and it is mentioned as Kophes or Kophene in some classical writingsKabul
17. Karachi – Karachi is the capital of Sindh, and is the largest and most populous city in Pakistan, as well as the 7th largest in the world and the worlds second most populous city proper. Ranked as a world city, the city is Pakistans premier industrial and financial centre. Karachi is also Pakistans most cosmopolitan city, though the Karachi region has been inhabited for millennia, the city was founded as a village named Kolachi that was established as a fortified settlement in 1729. By the time of the Partition of British India, the city was the largest in Sindh with a population of 400,000. Immediately following the independence of Pakistan, the population increased dramatically with the arrival of hundreds of thousands of Muslim refugees from India. The city experienced economic growth following independence, attracting migrants from throughout Pakistan. Karachi is now Pakistans premier industrial and financial centre, the city has a formal economy estimated to be worth $113 billion as of 2014. Karachi collects over a third of Pakistans tax revenue, and generates approximately 20% of Pakistans GDP, approximately 30% of Pakistani industrial output is from Karachi, while Karachis ports handle approximately 95% of Pakistans foreign trade. Approximately 90% of the corporations operating in Pakistan are headquartered in Karachi. Up to 70% of Karachis workforce is employed in the informal economy, Karachi is one of Pakistans most secular and socially liberal cities. It is also the most linguistically, ethnically, and religiously diverse city in Pakistan, Karachi is considered to be one of the worlds fastest growing cities, and has communities representing almost every ethnic group in Pakistan. Karachi is also home to over 2 million Bangladeshi migrants,1 million Afghans, the citys murder rate in 2015 had decreased by 75% compared to 2013, and kidnappings decreased by 90%, with the improved security environment triggering sharp increases in real-estate prices. Karachi was reputedly founded in 1729 as the settlement of Kolachi, the new settlement is said to have been named in honour of Mai Kolachi, whose son is said to have slayed a man-eating crocodile in the village after his elder brothers had already been killed by it. The citys inhabitants are referred to by the demonym Karachiite in English, the earliest inhabitants of the Karachi region are believed to have been hunter-gatherers, with ancient flint tools discovered at several sites. The Karachi region is believed to have known to the ancient Greeks. The region may be the site of Krokola, where Alexander the Great once camped to prepare a fleet for Babylonia, in 711 C. E. Muhammad bin Qasim conquered the Sindh and Indus Valley. The Karachi region is believed to have known to the Arabs as Debal. Under Mirza Ghazi Beg the Mughal administrator of Sindh, development of coastal Sindh, under his rule, fortifications in the region acted as a bulwark against Portuguese incursions into SindhKarachi – Clockwise from top: Karachi Skyline, KPT HQ, PRC Towers & PNSC, Karachi Market, Manora Lighthouse, Nagan Interchange and MA Jinnah Tomb.
18. Kandahar – Kandahar or Qandahar is the second-largest city in Afghanistan, with a population of about 491,500 as of 2012. Formerly called Alexandria Arachosia, the city is named after Alexander the Great, Kandahar is the capital of Kandahar Province, located in the south of the country at an altitude of 1,010 m above sea level. The Arghandab River runs along the west of the city, the city of Kandahar has a population of 557,118. It has 15 districts and a land area of 27,337 hectares. The total number of dwellings in Kandahar is 61,902, Kandahar is one of the most culturally significant cities of the Pashtuns and has been their traditional seat of power for more than 200 years. It is a trading center for sheep, wool, cotton, silk, felt, food grains, fresh and dried fruit. The region produces fine fruits, especially pomegranates and grapes, and the city has plants for canning, drying, and packing fruit, the area is believed to be the birthplace of cannabis indica. The region around Kandahar is one of the oldest known human settlements, Alexander the Great had laid-out the foundation of what is now Old Kandahar in the 4th century BC and gave it the Ancient Greek name Αλεξάνδρεια Aραχωσίας. Many empires have long fought over the city due to its location along the trade routes of southern, central. In 1709, Mirwais Hotak made the region an independent kingdom, in 1747, Ahmad Shah Durrani, founder of the last Afghan empire, made it the capital of modern Afghanistan. A temple to the deified Alexander as well as an inscription in Greek and Aramaic by Emperor Ashoka, Ibn Batutta mentions Kandahar in the 14th century by describing it as a large and prosperous town three nights journey from Ghazni. It has been then mentioned extensively by Mughal Emperor Babur and others, an alternative story describes Khandahar as Gandhara in Mahabharata ruled by Suvala and later by Shakuni. The princess of Hastinapur, Gandhari was born in Gandhara, a folk etymology offered is that the word kand or qand in Persian and Pashto means candy. The name Candahar or Kandahar in this form probably translates to candy area and this probably has to do with the location being fertile and historically known for producing fine grapes, pomegranates, apricots, melons and other sweet fruits. Ernst Herzfeld claimed Kandahar perpetuated the name of the Indo-Parthian king Gondophares, excavations of prehistoric sites by archaeologists such as Louis Dupree and others suggest that the region around Kandahar is one of the oldest human settlements known so far. Early peasant farming villages came into existence in Afghanistan ca.5000 B. C. or 7000 years ago, deh Morasi Ghundai, the first prehistoric site to be excavated in Afghanistan, lies 27 km southwest of Kandahar. Another Bronze Age village mound site with multiroomed mud-brick buildings dating from the same period sits nearby at Said Qala, Bronze Age pottery, copper and bronze horse trappings and stone seals were found in the lowermost levels in the nearby cave called Shamshir Ghar. In the Seistan, southwest of these Kandahar sites, two teams of American archaeologists discovered sites relating to the 2nd millennium B. C, while the Diadochi were warring amongst themselves, the Mauryan Empire was developing in the northern part of the Indian subcontinentKandahar
19. Mohammad Najibullah – Mohammad Najibullah Ahmadzai, commonly known as Najibullah or Dr. Najib, was the President of Afghanistan from 1987 until 1992, when the mujahideen took over Kabul. He had previously held different careers under the Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan and was a graduate of Kabul University and he returned to Afghanistan following the Soviet invasion which toppled Amins rule and placed Babrak Karmal as head of state, party and government. During Karmals rule, Najibullah became head of the KHAD, the Afghan equivalent to the Soviet KGB and he was a member of the Parcham faction led by Karmal. During Najibullahs tenure as KHAD head, it one of the most brutally efficient governmental organs. Because of this, he gained the attention of several leading Soviet officials, such as Yuri Andropov, Dmitriy Ustinov, in 1981, Najibullah was appointed to the PDPA Politburo. In 1985 Najibullah stepped down as state security minister to focus on PDPA politics, Mikhail Gorbachev, the last Soviet leader, was able to get Karmal to step down as PDPA General Secretary in 1986, and replace him with Najibullah. For a number of months Najibullah was locked in a struggle against Karmal. Najibullah accused Karmal of trying to wreck his policy of National Reconciliation, during his tenure as leader of Afghanistan, the Soviets began their withdrawal, and from 1989 until 1992, his government tried to solve the ongoing civil war without Soviet troops on the ground. While direct Soviet assistance ended with the withdrawal, the Soviet Union still supported Najibullah with economic and military aid, throughout his tenure, he tried to build support for his government. Najibullah even tried to portray his government as Islamic, and in the 1990 constitution the country became an Islamic state. This change, coupled with others, did not win Najibullah any significant support, with the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991, Najibullah was left without foreign aid. This, coupled with the collapse of his government, led to his ousting from power in April 1992. Najibullah lived in the United Nations headquarters in Kabul until 1996, Najibullah is said to have been castrated by the Taliban, and he was dragged behind a Toyota pick-up truck in the streets of Kabul before being publicly hanged with a piano wire noose from a tree. Najibullah was born in February 1947 in the city of Kabul and his ancestral village is located between the towns of Said Karam and Gardēz in Paktia Province, this place is known as Mehlan. He was educated at Habibia High School in Kabul, St. Josephs School in Baramulla, India and Kabul University and he belongs to the Ahmadzai sub-tribe of the Ghilzai Pashtun tribe in Gardiz. In 1965 Najibullah joined the Parcham faction of the Communist Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan, in 1977 he was elected to the Central Committee. In April 1978 the PDPA took power in Afghanistan, with Najibullah a member of the ruling Revolutionary Council. However, the Khalq faction of the PDPA gained supremacy over his own Parcham faction and he returned to Kabul after the Soviet intervention in 1979Mohammad Najibullah – Mohammad Najibullah
20. Mehrgarh – Mehrgarh, sometimes anglicized as Mehergarh or Mehrgar, is a Neolithic site located near the Bolan Pass on the Kacchi Plain of Balochistan, Pakistan, to the west of the Indus River valley. The earliest settlement at Mehrgarh, in the northeast corner of the 495-acre site, was a farming village which was inhabited from circa 6500 BCE. It is one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming and herding in South Asia, archaeological material has been found in six mounds, and about 32,000 artifacts have been collected. Mehrgarh is now seen as a precursor to the Indus Valley Civilization, displaying the whole sequence from earliest settlement, jean-Francois Jarrige argues for an independent origin of Mehrgarh. But given the originality of Mehrgarh, Jarrige concludes that Mehrgarh has a local background. Gallego Romero notes that Indians who are lactose-tolerant show a genetic pattern regarding this tolerance which is characteristic of the common European mutation. According to Romero, this suggests that the most common lactose tolerance mutation made a migration out of the Middle East less than 10,000 years ago. They further note that he earliest evidence of cattle herding in south Asia comes from the Indus River Valley site of Mehrgarh and is dated to 7,000 YBP, Archaeologists divide the occupation at the site into eight periods. The Mehrgarh Period I was Neolithic and aceramic, without the use of pottery, the earliest farming in the area was developed by semi-nomadic people using plants such as wheat and barley and animals such as sheep, goats and cattle. The settlement was established with simple mud buildings and most of them had four internal subdivisions, ornaments of sea shell, limestone, turquoise, lapis lazuli and sandstone have been found, along with simple figurines of women and animals. Sea shells from far sea shore and lapis lazuli found as far away as present-day Badakshan, Afghanistan shows good contact with those areas, a single ground stone axe was discovered in a burial, and several more were obtained from the surface. These ground stone axes are the earliest to come from a context in the South Asia. Periods I, II and III are contemporaneous with another site called Kili Gul Mohammed, in April 2006, it was announced in the scientific journal Nature that the oldest evidence for the drilling of human teeth in vivo was found in Mehrgarh. According to the authors, their discoveries point to a tradition of proto-dentistry in the farming cultures of that region. Here we describe eleven drilled molar crowns from nine adults discovered in a Neolithic graveyard in Pakistan that dates from 7,500 to 9,000 years ago and these findings provide evidence for a long tradition of a type of proto-dentistry in an early farming culture. The Mehrgarh Period II and Merhgarh Period III were ceramic Neolithic, using pottery, Period II is at site MR4 and Period III is at MR2. Much evidence of manufacturing activity has been found and more advanced techniques were used, glazed faience beads were produced and terracotta figurines became more detailed. Figurines of females were decorated with paint and had diverse hairstyles, two flexed burials were found in Period II with a red ochre cover on the bodyMehrgarh – Map of Pakistan showing Mehrgarh in relation to the cities of Quetta, Kalat, and Sibi and the Kachi Plain of Balochistan.
21. History of Pakistan – The history of Pakistan encompasses the history of the regions constituting modern day Pakistan. Prior to independence in 1947, the now known as Pakistan were ruled in various periods by local kings. Pakistans political history is connected with the struggle of Indian Muslims to regain power after they lost it to British colonialism. In 1906 the Muslim League was established in opposition to the Congress party which it accused of failing to protect Muslim interests, amid neglect, on 29 December 1930, philosopher Sir Muhammad Iqbal called for an autonomous new state in northwestern India for Indian Muslims. The League rose in popularity through the late 1930s, in 1946 the Muslim League contested elections over the question of partition. The 1946 election in British India was essentially a plebiscite among Indian Muslims over the creation of Pakistan, the Muslim League won 90 percent of reserved Muslim seats and the demand for partition and the creation of Pakistan received overwhelming popular support among Indian Muslims. Pakistan gained independence as a new state on 14 August 1947, on 12 March 1949, the second constituent assembly of Pakistan passed the Objectives Resolution which proclaimed that sovereignty over the entire universe belongs to Allah alone. The promulgation of the Constitution in 1956 led to Pakistan declaring itself an Islamic republic with the adoption of a democratic system of government. The constitution transformed the Governor-General of Pakistan into President of Pakistan, two weeks later, President Mirza was ousted by Ayub Khan, his presidency saw an era of internal instability and a second war with India in 1965. Economic grievances and political disenfranchisement in East Pakistan led to violent political tensions and armed repression, Pakistans defeat in the war ultimately led to the secession of East Pakistan and the birth of Bangladesh. Bhutto faced vigorous opposition which united under the banner of Nizam e Mustafa, in 1977 Bhutto was deposed in a bloodless coup by General Zia-ul-Haq, who became the countrys third military president. Zia-ul-Haq committed himself to the establishment of Sharia law in Pakistan, with the death of President Zia-ul-Haq in 1988, new general elections saw the victory of PPP led by Benazir Bhutto who was elevated as the countrys first female Prime Minister of Pakistan. Over the next decade, she alternated power with the conservative Pakistan Muslim League-N led by Nawaz Sharif, as the countrys political, military tensions in the Kargil conflict with India were followed by yet another coup détat in 1999 in which General Pervez Musharraf assumed executive powers. During the election campaign of 2007, Benazir Bhutto was assassinated which led to a series of important political developments including the left-wing alliance led by the PPP. Historic general elections held in 2013 marked the return of PML with Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif assuming the leadership of the country for the time in its history. The Soanian is archaeological culture of the Lower Paleolithic, contemporary to the Acheulean and it is named after the Soan Valley in the Sivalik Hills, near modern-day Islamabad/Rawalpindi. In Adiyala and Khasala, about 16 kilometres from Rawalpindi, on the bend of the Soan River hundreds of edged tools were discovered. No human skeletons of this age have yet been found, in the Soan River Gorge many fossil bearing rocks are exposed on the surfaceHistory of Pakistan
22. Geography of Pakistan – Gilgit-Baltistan and Azad Kashmir lie along the edge of the Indian plate and hence are prone to violent earthquakes where the two tectonic plates collide. Pakistan is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west and its western borders include the Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass that have served as traditional migration routes between Central Eurasia and South Asia. Pakistan definitely borders Afghanistan at the Durand Line,2,430 km, which runs from the Hindu Kush and its proposal was drafted by and named after the former secretary of British India Sir Henry Mortimer Durand. When Pakistan became independent in 1947 however, the legitimacy of the demarcation was questioned and disputed by Afghans, Afghanistan claimed the border was imposed upon their weak nation by stronger influences and favoured the establishment of another separatist state to be called Pakhtunistan. The Durand Line remained disputed until 1994 when it was finally accepted, a narrow strip of Afghan-occupied Gorno-Badakhshan territory called the Wakhan Corridor extends between Pakistan and Tajikistan. From the eastern tip of the Wakhan Corridor starts the Sino-Pak border between the Peoples Republic of China and Pakistan spanning about 510 km and it carries on south-eastward and ends near the Karakoram Pass. This line was determined from 1961 to 1965 in a series of agreements between China and Pakistan and finally on 03-03-1963 both the governments, of Islamabad and Beijing, formally agreed. It is understood if the dispute over Kashmir is resolved. The boundary with Iran,909 km, was first delimited by a British commission in the year as the Durand Line was demarcated. Modern Iran has a province named Sistan va Baluchistan that borders Pakistan and has Baluchis in an ethnic majority, the Northern Areas has five of the worlds seventeen highest peaks along with highest range of mountains the Karakoram and Himalayas. It also has such extensive glaciers that it has sometimes called the Third Pole. The Pakistan-India ceasefire line runs from the Karakoram Pass west-southwest to a point about 130 kilometers northeast of Lahore and this line, about 770 kilometers long, was arranged with United Nations assistance at the end of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–48. Since then, it has been known as the Line of Control or the. It remains another unresolved issue although it is not formally disputed, the southern borders are far less contentious than those in northern Pakistan. The Thar Desert in the province of Sindh is separated in the south from the flats of the Rann of Kachchh by a boundary that was first delineated in 1923–24. After independence and dissolution of Empire, Independent and free Pakistan contested the southern boundary of Sindh, and they were less dangerous and less widespread, however, than the conflict that erupted in Kashmir in the Indo-Pakistani War of August 1965 started with this decisive core of issues. Beyond the western terminus of the award, the final stretch of Pakistans border with India is about 80 kilometers long, running east and southeast of Sindh to an inlet of the Arabian Sea. Some geographers designate additional major regions, elevation extremes, lowest point, Indian Ocean 0 m highest point, K28,611 m The northern highlands include parts of the Hindu Kush, the Karakoram Range, and the HimalayasGeography of Pakistan – International and provincial boundaries of Pakistan
23. Demographics of Pakistan – Pakistans estimated population in 2015 is over 191.71 million, making it the worlds sixth-most-populous country, behind Brazil and ahead of Nigeria. During 1950–2011, Pakistans urban population expanded over sevenfold, while the population increased by over fourfold. In the past, the population had a relatively high growth rate that has been changed by moderate birth rates. In 2014, the growth rate stands at 1. 49%. Dramatic social changes have led to urbanization and the emergence of megacities. During 1990–2003, Pakistan sustained its historical lead as the second-most urbanized nation in South Asia with city dwellers making up 36% of its population, furthermore, 50% of Pakistanis now reside in towns of 5,000 people or more. Pakistan has a multicultural and multi-ethnic society and hosts one of the largest refugee populations in the world as well as a young population, the majority of southern Pakistans population lives along the Indus River. Karachi is the most populous city in Pakistan, Pakistans yearly population from 1950 to 2014, with estimation since last census. The following statistics are for 1 July 2007 and they exclude data for Azad Kashmir, the final status of which has not yet been determined. They are based on the results of the Pakistan Demographic Survey, according to the 2009 Human Development Report of the United Nations Development Programme,60. 3% of Pakistanis live on less than $2 a day. Sources, Information on Pakistani regions, Information on other countries, Pakistan National Human Development Report gave Pakistan an HDI score of 0.541 whereas the Human Development Report 2006 gave it a score of 0.539. Almost all Pakistanis belong to the Indo-Iranian linguistic group of the Indo-European branch, Pakistans rough estimates vary, but the consensus is that the Punjabis are the largest ethnic group. Pashtuns make up the second largest group and Sindhi are the third-largest ethnic group, saraikis make up 10. 53% of the total population. The remaining large groups include the Muhajirs and the Baloch people, Hindkowans and the Brahui, and the various peoples of the Gilgit–Baltistan, constitute roughly 4. 66% of the total population. Descendents of Black Africans that were brought as slaves in the 15th to the 19th century are known as Sheedis, the Sheedis are Muslims and speak Balochi, Sindhi and Urdu. In 1850, the British started developing Karachi as a port for trade and commerce, resulting in the arrival of a large number immigrants from Rajasthan, Gujarat. The Goan Catholics constitute the majority of the Christians in the city, after the Pakistan–India war in 1971, thousands of Biharis and Bengalis from Bangladesh arrived in the Karachi, followed by Muslim Rohingya refugees from Burma, and Asians from Uganda. According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, approximately 1.7 million Afghan refugees remain in Pakistan as of 2009, many of them were born and raised in Pakistan in the last 30 years but are still counted as citizens of AfghanistanDemographics of Pakistan – Mostly those born before 1947
24. Politics of Pakistan – The Politics in Pakistan takes place within the framework under which the country is established by the Constitution. Classified itself as a nation-state in South Asia, Pakistan is an Islamic, the Prime Minister of Pakistan solely leads the executive government which is independent of the state parliament. A bicameral parliament that is composed of two chambers– the Senate and the National Assembly, the Judicature branch forms with the composition of the Supreme Court as an apex court, alongside the high courts and other inferior courts. The judiciarys function is to interpret the Constitution and federal laws, the President of Pakistan is a ceremonial figurehead who represents the unity of the nation-state, the presidency is a vital part of the Parliament. Since 1947, the establishment have played an integral and influential role in countrys politics. As an aftermath of the conventional war with India in 1971. Elections are held every five-consecutive years, the new governments are formed through direct elections followed by the electoral college. The president of Pakistan, in keeping with the provision that the state religion is Islam. Elected for a term by an Electoral College consisting of members of the Senate and National Assembly and members of the provincial assemblies. But no individual may hold the office for more than two consecutive terms, the president may resign or be impeached and may be removed from office due to incapacity or gross misconduct by a two-thirds vote of the members of the parliament. The president generally acts on the advice of the minister but has important residual powers. Despite this most recent power-stripping, the President remains the ex officio chair of the National Security Council, the prime minister is appointed by the members of the National Assembly through a vote. The prime minister is assisted by the Federal Cabinet, a council of ministers whose members are appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister, the Federal Cabinet comprises the ministers, ministers of state, and advisers. The bicameral federal legislature consists of the Senate and National Assembly, according to Article 50 of the Constitution, the National Assembly, the Senate and the President together make up a body known as the Majlis-i-Shoora. Pakistans democracy has no recall method, however, past governments have been dismissed for corruption by the Presidents invocation of Article 58 of the Constitution. The Presidents power to dismiss the Prime Minister and dissolve the National Assembly was removed by the Thirteenth Amendment, the Senate is a permanent legislative body with equal representation from each of the four provinces, elected by the members of their respective provincial assemblies. There are representatives from the Federally Administered Tribal Areas and from Islamabad Capital Territory, the chairman of the Senate, under the constitution, is next in line to act as president should the office become vacant and until such time as a new president can be formally elected. Both the Senate and the National Assembly can initiate and pass legislation except for finance bills, only the National Assembly can approve the federal budget and all finance billsPolitics of Pakistan – National Assembly of Pakistan
25. Economy of Pakistan – The economy of Pakistan is the 24th largest in the world in terms of purchasing power parity, and 43th largest in terms of nominal gross domestic product. Pakistan has a population of over 190 million, giving it a nominal GDP per capita of $1,429, however, Pakistans undocumented economy is estimated to be 36% of its overall economy, which is not taken into consideration when calculating per capita income. Pakistan is a country and is one of the Next Eleven. However, after decades of war and social instability, as of 2013, serious deficiencies in basic services such as railway transportation, the economy is semi-industrialized, with centres of growth along the Indus River. Primary export commodities include textiles, leather goods, sports goods, chemicals, the economy has suffered in the past from internal political disputes, a fast-growing population, mixed levels of foreign investment. Pakistan is currently undergoing a process of liberalization, including privatization of all government corporations, aimed to attract foreign investment. In 2014, foreign currency reserves crossed $18.4 billion which has led to stable outlook on the long-term rating by Standard & Poors, according to the World Bank, poverty in Pakistan fell from 64. 3% in 2002 to 29. 5% in 2014. Pakistans fiscal position continues to improve as the budget deficit has fallen from 6. 4% in 2013 to 4. 3% in 2016, the countrys improving Macroeconomic position has led to Moodys upgrading Pakistans debt outlook to stable. Pakistan was a poor and predominantly agricultural country when it gained independence in 1947. Pakistans average economic growth rate in the first five decades has been higher than the rate of the world economy during the same period. Average annual real GDP growth rates were 6. 8% in the 1960s,4. 8% in the 1970s, average annual growth fell to 4. 6% in the 1990s with significantly lower growth in the second half of that decade. This is a chart of trend of gross product of Pakistan at market prices estimated by the International Monetary Fund with figures in millions of Pakistani Rupees. See also Historically, Pakistans overall economic output has grown every year since a 1951 recession, despite this record of sustained growth, Pakistans economy had, until a few years ago, been characterised as unstable and highly vulnerable to external and internal shocks. The World Bank and International Finance Corporations flagship report Ease of Doing Business Index 2015 ranked Pakistan 138 among 189 countries around the globe, the top five countries were Singapore, New Zealand, the United States, Hong Kong and United Kingdom. Many Western companies refuse to do business with Pakistan and cite problems of courrption, lack of resources, today the Nominal GDP of Pakistan is 270.96 billion USD which is better than its last decades performance due to high growth rate. AMC said that during the period January–July this year, Indian 100 point index was 6. 67% while Karachi Stock Exchange had achieved 100 point index of 17 percent. In the first four years of the twenty-first century, Pakistans KSE100 Index was the stock market index in the world as declared by the international magazine Business Week. The stock market capitalisation of listed companies in Pakistan was valued at $5,937 million in 2005 by the World Bank, as a result, the corporate sector of Pakistan has declined dramatically in recent timesEconomy of Pakistan – A view of I. I. Chundrigar Road, the financial district of Karachi in Pakistan
26. Transport in Pakistan – Transportation in Pakistan is extensive and varied and serving a population of over 191 million people. Construction of new airports, roads, and railway lines have led to an employment boost in the country, much of Pakistans rail network railway was built before 1947, mainly during the British Raj. In recent years, new national highways have been built, with the addition of motorways which have accelerated trade, airports and seaports have been built in the last 30 years with the addition of foreign and domestic funding. In urban areas there are means of transport available, catering to a wide range of budgets. Monorail The government of Pakistan has planned to build a system in its federal capital. First proposed in 1991, funding was not secured, and in 2012 it was abandoned by the Punjab government in favour of the more cost–effective Lahore Metro Bus System which opened in February 2013. However, the Punjab Government decided to restart development on the Lahore Metro as a $1.6 billion project with Chinese assistance, the Orange Line, which will be 27. 1-kilometre long, will be the first line of the project and is under construction. Bus rapid transit Without segregated lanes TransLahore, It is a BRT system in Lahore, Lahore Transport Company was established in 1984 to ease the traffic conditions of Lahore and improve bus services. LTC got all the transport responsibilities of traveling in Lahore in December 2001, a BRTS fleet of 650 Buses was introduced. However, the BRTS did not have dedicated lanes and had to share roads with regular traffic with no right of way privileges and this resulted in a system that was a BRTS only in name. With segregated lanes Lahore, Metrobus Bus Service was inaugurated on Feb 10,2013 by CM Punjab Shehbaz Sharif and it consist of 27-kilometres long road track for the Metro Bus Service, from Gajumata to Shahadra, out of this track 8.5 km is elevated. It has 27 bus stations and e-ticketing and Intelligent Transportation System are part of the MBS, islamabad-Rawalpindi, Rawalpindi-Islamabad Metrobus Service is an operational bus rapid transit system which connects key areas in city of Rawalpindi and the national capital city of Islamabad. It is 24 kilometres long, and has 24 stations, the project was inaugurated on 4 June 2015 by Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif. Under construction Multan Metrobus is under construction in the city of Multan, the 18.2 kilometres long BRT system will connect main commercial areas of the city. Planned Karachi Metrobus is planned for city of Karachi and it will consist of 5 corridors and will have total length of about 109 kilometres, of which the Green and Red Linea are about to go into a construction phase. TransPeshawar is a bus transit system for the city of Peshawar. The project is under the consideration of PTI led Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, PMTS will be a bus rapid transit system. Which will be initially constructed on one red line having length of 18.4 kilometer from Chamkani to Hayatabad area of Peshawar. Faisalabad, Faisalabad Metrobus is a planned, single line BRT System, Metro line will connect Faisalabad International Airport to City Bus Terminal, passing through main hubs of the cityTransport in Pakistan – Due to increasing environmental issues with older rickshaws, the government has heavily invested in greener, more fuel-efficient rickshaws
27. Pakistan Armed Forces – The Pakistan Armed Forces are the military forces of Pakistan. They are the sixth largest in the world in terms of military personnel. The armed forces comprise three main service branches – Army, Navy, and Air Force – together with a number of paramilitary forces and the Strategic Plans Division Force. Chain of command of the military is organized under the Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee alongside chiefs of staff of the army, navy, all of the branches work together during operations and joint missions under the Joint Staff Headquarters. Since the 1963 Sino-Pakistan Agreement, the military has had close relations with China, working jointly to develop the JF-17, the K-8. As of 2013, China was the second-largest foreign supplier of equipment to Pakistan. Both nations also cooperate on development of nuclear and space technology programs and their armies have a schedule for organizing joint military exercises. The military also maintains relations with the United States, which gave Pakistan major non-NATO ally status in 2004. Pakistan gets the bulk of its equipment from local domestic suppliers, China. The armed forces were formed in 1947 when Pakistan became independent from the British Empire, the need for border management led to the creation of paramilitary forces to deal with civil unrest in the North-West and security of border areas in Punjab and Sindh by paramilitary troops. The armed forces have a pool of volunteers so conscription has never been needed, though the Pakistani constitution. The Pakistan Armed Forces are the best-organized institution in Pakistan, and are respected in civil society. Since the founding of Pakistan, the military has played a key role in holding the state together, promoting a feeling of nationhood and providing a bastion of selfless service. In addition, the Pakistan Armed Forces are the largest contributors to United Nations peacekeeping efforts, other foreign deployments have consisted of Pakistani military personnel serving as military advisers in African and Arab countries. The Pakistan military has its roots in the British Indian Army, in which many British Indian Muslims served during World War II and those who did so included Ayub Khan, Haji Mohammad Siddiq Choudri, and Asghar Khan. In March 1956, the Pakistani military order of precedence of three services changed from Navy-Army-Air Force to Army-Navy-Air Force, between 1947 and 1971, Pakistan has fought three direct conventional wars against India, with the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 witnessing the seccession of East Pakistan as independent Bangladesh. Rising tensions with Afghanistan in the 1960s and a proxy war fought against the Soviet Union in the 1970s led to a sharp rise in the development of the Pakistan Armed Forces. In 1999, a period of intense border-skirmishing with IndiaPakistan Armed Forces – The roots of the Pakistan military trace back to the British Indian Army, which included many personnel from present day Pakistan. Pictured are troops of the Khyber Rifles, striking a pose, circa 1895.
28. Foreign relations of Pakistan – On the other hand, Pakistans economy is rather integrated into the world with strong ties to the EU and economic aliances and agreements with many other Asian nations. Pakistan has a strategic location at the corridor of world major maritime oil supply lines. The foreign policy of Pakistan sets out in the way it interacts with foreign nations and to determine its standard of interactions for its organizations, corporations and individual citizens. The Foreign Minister of Pakistan is the charged with state-to-state diplomacy. The state foreign policy includes defining the national interest, as well as the economic interest, following the general election held on May 2013, Tariq Fatimi and NSA Sartaj Aziz are designated as advisers to the Prime Minister on foreign and strategic policies. During most of 1947–1991, the USSR support was given to India, especially on the core-issue of Kashmir, during the 1960s, Pakistans relations with East Pakistan and neighbouring Afghanistan have also been extremely difficult due to the latters contest over the Durand Line. With the growing influence of USSR in the region, Pakistan cemented close security relations with China in Asia, while Pakistans had on-off relations with the United States, Pakistan assisted President Nixon reapproach with China and other East Asian countries. The United States has played an important role in the history of Pakistan. The relationship between the two went through varying levels of friendliness, but Pakistan consistently found themselves on the United States side of issues faced during the Cold War. Pakistan served as a position for United States military bases during the Cold War since it bordered the Soviet Union. These positive relations would fall apart following successful cooperation in fighting the Soviet Unions influence in Central Asia, aid would be given to Pakistan for the first time again in 2002, and the 2000s saw an extension of this friendly relationship. As the War on Terror continued to linger, the United States and this dynamic would reach a head following a few incidents highlighted by the operation to kill Osama bin Ladin in Abbottabad. While these incidents wore down the trust between the two nations, the two would continue to share a healthy relationship, the Ali brothers had sought to project Pakistan as the natural leader of the Islamic world, in large part due to its large manpower and military strength. A top-ranking Muslim League leader, Khaliquzzaman, declared that Pakistan would bring together all Muslim countries into Islamistan - a pan-Islamic entity. Such developments did not get American approval and British Prime Minister Clement Attlee voiced international opinion at the time by stating that he wished that India, since most of the Arab world was undergoing a nationalist awakening at the time, there was little attraction to Pakistans Pan-Islamic aspirations. Some of the Arab countries saw the Islamistan project as a Pakistani attempt to dominate other Muslim states, Pakistan vigorously championed the right of self-determination for Muslims around the world. Pakistans efforts for the movements of Indonesia, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco and Eritrea were significant. However, Pakistan also masterminded an attack on the Afghan city of Jalalabad during the Afghan Civil War to establish an Islamic government there, Pakistan had wished to forment an Islamic Revolution which would transcend national borders covering Pakistan, Afghanistan and Central AsiaForeign relations of Pakistan – The flag of Pakistan
29. Ptolemaic dynasty – Their rule lasted for 275 years, from 305 to 30 BC. They were the last dynasty of ancient Egypt, Ptolemy, one of the seven somatophylakes who served as Alexander the Greats generals and deputies, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexanders death in 323 BC. In 305 BC, he declared himself Ptolemy I, later known as Sōter Saviour, the Egyptians soon accepted the Ptolemies as the successors to the pharaohs of independent Egypt. Ptolemys family ruled Egypt until the Roman conquest of 30 BC, all the male rulers of the dynasty took the name Ptolemy. Ptolemaic queens regnant, some of whom were the sisters of their husbands, were usually called Cleopatra, Arsinoe or Berenice. The most famous member of the line was the last queen, Cleopatra VII and her apparent suicide at the conquest by Rome marked the end of Ptolemaic rule in Egypt. Dates in brackets represent the dates of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. They frequently ruled jointly with their wives, who were also their sisters. Of these, one of the last and most famous was Cleopatra, several systems exist for numbering the later rulers, the one used here is the one most widely used by modern scholars. Arsinoe IV, in opposition to Cleopatra Ptolemy Keraunos - eldest son of Ptolemy I Soter, Ptolemy Apion - son of Ptolemy VIII Physcon. Ptolemy Philadelphus - son of Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII, Ptolemy of Mauretania - son of King Juba II of Numidia and Mauretania and Cleopatra Selene II, daughter of Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony. Contemporaries describe a number of the Ptolemaic dynasty members as extremely obese, whilst sculptures and coins reveal prominent eyes, familial Graves disease could explain the swollen necks and eye prominence, although this is unlikely to occur in the presence of morbid obesity. A. Lampela, Rome and the Ptolemies of Egypt, the development of their political relations 273-80 B. C. J. G. Manning, The Last Pharaohs, Egypt Under the Ptolemies, 305-30 BC. Livius. org, Ptolemies — by Jona LenderingPtolemaic dynasty – Ptolemy I Soter.
30. Seleucid Empire – Seleucus received Babylonia and, from there, expanded his dominions to include much of Alexanders near eastern territories. At the height of its power, it included central Anatolia, Persia, the Levant, Mesopotamia, and what is now Kuwait, Afghanistan, and parts of Pakistan and Turkmenistan. The Seleucid Empire was a center of Hellenistic culture that maintained the preeminence of Greek customs where a Greek political elite dominated. The Greek population of the cities who formed the dominant elite were reinforced by immigration from Greece, Seleucid expansion into Anatolia and Greece was abruptly halted after decisive defeats at the hands of the Roman army. Their attempts to defeat their old enemy Ptolemaic Egypt were frustrated by Roman demands, contemporary sources, such as a loyalist degree from Ilium, in Greek language define the Seleucid state both as an empire and as a kingdom. Similarly, Seleucid rulers were described as kings in Babylonia and he refers to either Alexander Balas or Alexander II Zabinas as a ruler. Alexander, who conquered the Persian Empire under its last Achaemenid dynast, Darius III, died young in 323 BC. Alexanders generals jostled for supremacy over parts of his empire, Ptolemy, a former general and the satrap of Egypt, was the first to challenge the new system, this led to the demise of Perdiccas. Ptolemys revolt led to a new subdivision of the empire with the Partition of Triparadisus in 320 BC, Seleucus, who had been Commander-in-Chief of the Companion cavalry and appointed first or court chiliarch received Babylonia and, from that point, continued to expand his dominions ruthlessly. Seleucus established himself in Babylon in 312 BC, the used as the foundation date of the Seleucid Empire. The whole region from Phrygia to the Indus was subject to Seleucus, but Seleucus Nicator gave them to Sandrocottus in consequence of a marriage contract, and received in return five hundred elephants. Following his and Lysimachus victory over Antigonus Monophthalmus at the decisive Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC, Seleucus took control over eastern Anatolia, in the latter area, he founded a new capital at Antioch on the Orontes, a city he named after his father. An alternative capital was established at Seleucia on the Tigris, north of Babylon, Seleucuss empire reached its greatest extent following his defeat of his erstwhile ally, Lysimachus, at Corupedion in 281 BC, after which Seleucus expanded his control to encompass western Anatolia. He hoped further to take control of Lysimachuss lands in Europe – primarily Thrace and even Macedonia itself, nevertheless, even before Seleucus death, it was difficult to assert control over the vast eastern domains of the Seleucids. Seleucus invaded the Punjab region of India in 305 BC, confronting Chandragupta Maurya and it is said that Chandragupta fielded an army of 600,000 men and 9,000 war elephants. Archaeologically, concrete indications of Mauryan rule, such as the inscriptions of the Edicts of Ashoka, are known as far as Kandahar in southern Afghanistan and it is generally thought that Chandragupta married Seleucuss daughter, or a Macedonian princess, a gift from Seleucus to formalize an alliance. In a return gesture, Chandragupta sent 500 war elephants, an asset which would play a decisive role at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC. In addition to this treaty, Seleucus dispatched an ambassador, Megasthenes, to Chandragupta, Megasthenes wrote detailed descriptions of India and Chandraguptas reign, which have been partly preserved to us through Diodorus SiculusSeleucid Empire – Tetradrachm of Seleucus I, the horned horse, the elephant and the anchor were all used as symbols of the Seleucid monarchy.
31. Sindh – Sindh /sɪnd/ is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country. Historically home to the Sindhi people, it is locally known as the Mehran. It was formerly known as Sind until 1956, Sindh is the third largest province of Pakistan by area, and second largest province by population after Punjab. Sindh is bordered by Balochistan province to the west, and Punjab province to the north, Sindh also borders the Indian states of Gujarat and Rajasthan to the east, and Arabian Sea to the south. Sindhs climate is noted for hot summers and mild winters, the provincial capital of Sindh is Pakistans largest city and financial hub, Karachi. Sindh has Pakistans second largest economy with Karachi being its capital hosts the headquarters of several multinational banks. Sindh is home to a portion of Pakistans industrial sector. The remainder of Sindh has an agriculture based economy, and produces fruit, food consumer items, Sindh is also the centre of Pakistans pharmaceutical industry. Sindh is known for its culture which is strongly influenced by Sufism. Several important Sufi shrines are located throughout the province which attract millions of annual devotees, Sindh also has Pakistans highest percentage of Hindu residents. Karachi and other centres of Sindh have seen ethnic tensions between the native Sindhis and the Muhajirs boil over into violence on several occasions. Sindh is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites - the Historical Monuments at Makli, and the Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro, the word Sindh is derived from the Sanskrit language and is adapted from the Sanskrit term Sindhu which literally means river hence a reference to Indus River. Spelling of its name as Sind was discontinued in 1988 by an amendment passed in Sindh Assembly. The Greeks who conquered Sindh in 325 BC under the command of Alexander the Great rendered it as Indós, the ancient Iranians referred to everything east of the river Indus as hind from the word Sindh. When the British arrived in the 17th century in India, then ruled by the Maratha Empire, they applied the Greek version of the name Sindh to all of South Asia, calling it India. The name of Pakistan is actually an acronym in which the letter s is derived from the first letter in Sindh, Sindhs first known village settlements date as far back as 7000 BCE. Permanent settlements at Mehrgarh, currently in Balochistan, to the west expanded into Sindh and this culture blossomed over several millennia and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BCE. The primitive village communities in Balochistan were still struggling against a difficult highland environment and this was one of the most developed urban civilizations of the ancient worldSindh – The Priest King from Mohenjo-daro, more than 4000 years old, in the National Museum of Pakistan, Karachi
32. List of Seleucid rulers – Seleucus served as an officer of Alexander the Great, commanding the élite infantry corps in the Macedonian army, the Shield-bearers, later known as the Silvershields. After the death of Alexander in 323 BCE, the Partition of Triparadisus assigned Seleucus as satrap of Babylon in 321 BCE. Antigonus, the satrap of much of Asia Minor, forced Seleucus to flee from Babylon, but, supported by Ptolemy, Seleucus later conquests included Persia and Media. He formed an alliance with the Indian King Chandragupta Maurya, Seleucus defeated Antigonus in the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BCE and Lysimachus in the battle of Corupedium in 281 BCE. Ptolemy Ceraunus assassinated Seleucus later in the same year, Seleucus eldest son Antiochus I succeeded him as ruler of the Seleucid territories. List of kings of Persia Glanville Downey, the Persian Empire, A Historical Encyclopedia. Livius, The Seleucid Empire by Jona LenderingList of Seleucid rulers – Seleucus I Nicator
33. Tajikistan – Tajikistan, officially the Republic of Tajikistan, is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated 8 million people in 2013, and an area of 143,100 km2. It is bordered by Islamic Republic of Afghanistan to the south, the Republic of Uzbekistan to the west, the Kyrgyz Republic to the north, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan lies to the south, separated by the narrow Wakhan Corridor. Traditional homelands of Tajik people included present-day Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan, a civil war was fought almost immediately after independence, lasting from 1992 to 1997. Since the end of the war, newly established political stability, Tajikistan is a presidential republic consisting of four provinces. Most of Tajikistans 8 million people belong to the Tajik ethnic group, many Tajiks also speak Russian as their second language. Mountains cover more than 90% of the country and it has a transition economy that is highly dependent on remittances, aluminium and cotton production. Tajikistan means the Land of the Tajiks, the suffix -stan is Persian for place of or country and Tajik is, most likely, the name of a pre-Islamic tribe. Tajikistan appeared as Tadjikistan or Tadzhikistan in English prior to 1991 and this is due to a transliteration from the Russian, Таджикистан. In Russian, there is no single letter j to represent the phoneme /ʤ/ and дж, Tadzhikistan is the most common alternate spelling and is widely used in English literature derived from Russian sources. Tadjikistan is the spelling in French and can occasionally be found in English language texts, the way of writing Tajikistan in the Perso-Arabic script is. The earliest recorded history of the dates back to about 500 BCE when much, if not all. After the regions conquest by Alexander the Great it became part of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, northern Tajikistan was part of Sogdia, a collection of city-states which was overrun by Scythians and Yuezhi nomadic tribes around 150 BCE. The Silk Road passed through the region and following the expedition of Chinese explorer Zhang Qian during the reign of Wudi commercial relations between Han China and Sogdiana flourished. Sogdians played a role in facilitating trade and also worked in other capacities, as farmers, carpetweavers, glassmakers. Later the Hephthalite Empire, a collection of tribes, moved into the region. Central Asia continued in its role as a crossroads, linking China, the steppes to the north. It was temporarily under the control of the Tibetan empire and Chinese from 650–680, the Samanid Empire,819 to 999, restored Persian control of the region and enlarged the cities of Samarkand and Bukhara which became the cultural centres of Iran and the region was known as Khorasan. The Kara-Khanid Khanate conquered Transoxania and ruled between 999–1211, during Genghis Khans invasion of Khwarezmia in the early 13th century the Mongol Empire took control over nearly all of Central AsiaTajikistan – The Samanid ruler Mansur I (961 – 976).
34. History of Tajikistan – Tajikistan harkens to the Samanid Empire. The Tajik people came under Russian rule in the 1860s, the Basmachi revolt broke out in the wake of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and was quelled in the early 1920s during the Russian Civil War. In 1924 Tajikistan became an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics of the Soviet Union and it has since experienced three changes in government and the Tajik civil war. A peace agreement among rival factions was signed in 1997, Tajikistan was part of the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex in the Bronze Age, candidate for Proto-Indo-Iranian or Proto-Iranian culture. Tajikistan was part of Scythia in Classical Antiquity, most of modern Tajikistan had formed parts of ancient Kamboja and Parama Kamboja kingdoms, which find references in the ancient Indian epics like the Mahabharata. Linguistic evidence, combined with ancient literary and inscriptional evidence has led many eminent Indologists to conclude that ancient Kambojas originally belonged to Central Asia, achariya Yāskas Nirukta attests that verb Śavati in the sense to go was used by only the Kambojas. It has been shown that the modern Ghalcha dialects, mainly spoken in Pamirs and countries on the headwaters of the Oxus, still use terms derived from ancient Kamboja Śavati in the sense to go. The Yagnobi dialect spoken in Yagnobi province around the headwaters of Zeravshan valley in Sogdiana, further, Sir G. Grierson says that the speech of Badakshan was a Ghalcha until about three centuries ago when it was supplanted by a form of Persian. Thus, the ancient Kamboja, probably included the Badakshan, Pamirs and northern territories including Yagnobi province in the doab of the Oxus, Sogdiana, Bactria, Merv and Khorezm were the four principal divisions of Ancient Central Asia inhabited by the ancestors of the present-day Tajikistani Tajiks. Tajiks are now only in historic Bactria and Sogdiana. Merv is inhabited by the Turkoman and Khorezm by Uzbeks and Kazakhs, Sogdiana was made up of the Zeravshan and Kashka-Darya river valleys. Currently, One of the peoples of Sogdiana who speak a dialect of the Sogdian language are the Yaghnobis and Shugnanis. Bactria was located in northern Afghanistan between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya River and some areas of current south Tajikistan. During different periods, Bactria was a center of various Kingdoms or Empires, the Avesta—the holy book of Zoroastrianism—was written in the old-Bactrian dialect, it is also thought that Zoroaster was most likely born in Bactria. During the Achaemenid period, Sogdiana and Bactria were part of the Persian empire, in fact, the Macedonians faced very stiff resistance under the leadership of Sogdian ruler Spitamenes. Alexander the Great managed to marry Roxana, the daughter of a local ruler, following Alexanders brief occupation, the Hellenistic successor states of the Seleucids and Greco-Bactrians controlled the area for another 200 years in what is known as the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom. During the time period from 90 BC to 30 BC, Yuezhi destroyed the last Hellenistic successor states and, together with the Tokhari, created a Kushan Empire around 30 AD. For another 400 years, until 410 AD, the Kushan Empire was a power in the region along with the Roman Empire, the Parthian EmpireHistory of Tajikistan – Sculpture of the woman of the pre-Islamic period (Tajikistan).
35. Uzbekistan – Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan, is one of only two doubly landlocked countries in the world. Located in Central Asia, it is a unitary, constitutional, presidential republic, comprising twelve provinces, one autonomous republic and a capital city. Uzbekistan is bordered by five landlocked countries, Kazakhstan to the north, Tajikistan to the southeast, Kyrgyzstan to the northeast, Afghanistan to the south, and Turkmenistan to the southwest. Once part of the Turkic Khaganate and later Timurid Empires, the region that includes the Republic of Uzbekistan was conquered in the early 16th century by Eastern Turkic-speaking nomads. Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, it declared independence as the Republic of Uzbekistan on 31 August 1991, Uzbekistan is officially a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage. The countrys official language is Uzbek, a Turkic language written in the Latin alphabet and spoken natively by approximately 85% of the population, however, Uzbeks constitute 81% of the population, followed by Russians, Tajiks, Kazakhs, and others. A majority of Uzbeks are non-denominational Muslims, Uzbekistan is a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, UN, and the SCO. While officially a republic, non-governmental human rights organizations define Uzbekistan as an authoritarian state with limited civil rights. Uzbekistans economy relies mainly on commodity production, including cotton, gold, uranium, despite the declared objective of transition to a market economy, its government continues to maintain economic controls which imports in favour of domestic import substitution. Uzbekistan has an area of 447,400 square kilometres and it is the 56th largest country in the world by area and the 42nd by population. Among the CIS countries, it is the 4th largest by area, Uzbekistan lies between latitudes 37° and 46° N, and longitudes 56° and 74° E. It stretches 1,425 kilometres from west to east and 930 kilometres from north to south, Uzbekistan also shares a short border with Afghanistan to the south. Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country and it is one of two doubly landlocked countries in the world, the other being Liechtenstein. In addition, due to its location within a series of endorheic basins, less than 10% of its territory is intensively cultivated irrigated land in river valleys and oases. The rest is vast desert and mountains, the climate in the Republic of Uzbekistan is continental, with little precipitation expected annually. The average summer high temperature tends to be 40 °C, while the winter low temperature is around −23 °C. Uzbekistan has a rich and diverse natural environment, the Aral Sea used to be the fourth-largest inland sea on Earth, acting as an influencing factor in the air moisture and arid land use. Since the 1960s, the decade when the misuse of the Aral Sea water began, it has shrunk to less than 50% of its former area, reliable, or even approximate data, have not been collected, stored or provided by any organization or official agencyUzbekistan – Comparison of the Aral Sea between 1989 and 2014.
36. Uzbeks – The Uzbeks are a Turkic ethnic group, the largest Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia. They comprise the majority population of Uzbekistan but are found as a minority group in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Russia. Uzbek diaspora communities also exist in Turkey, Saudi Arabia, the origin of the word Uzbek remains disputed. One view holds that it is named after Oghuz Khagan, also known as Oghuz Beg. Another states that the name means independent or the lord itself, from Oʻz, before, 5th century, what is todays Uzbekistan was part of Sogdia, mainly inhabited by Sogdians, an Indo-Iranian people. It was part of the Achaemenid Empire and later part of Sasanian Empire, from 5th to 6th century, what is todays Uzbekistan was part of the Hephthalite Empire. From 6th to 8th century, what is todays Uzbekistan was under the rule of Göktürk Khanate, Turkic and Chinese migration into central Asia occurred during the Chinese Tang Dynasty, and Chinese armies commanded by Turkic generals stationed in large parts of central Asia. But Chinese influence ended with the An Lushan rebellion, from the 9th century on, Transoxania was under the rule of Turkic Kara-Khanid Khanate, their arrival in Transoxania signalled a definitive shift from Iranian to Turkic predominance in Central Asia. Kara-Khanid ruler Sultan Satuq Bughra Khan was the first Turkic ruler to convert Islam, in the 12th century, Transoxania was conquered by Qara Khitai, a sinicized Khitan dynasty, they brought to Central Asia the Chinese system of government. In the 13th century, Kara-Khanid Khanate was destroyed by the Turkic Khwarazmian dynasty, the language-shift from Middle Iranian to Turkic and New Persian was predominantly the result of an elite dominance process. This process was boosted during the Mongol conquest when millions were either killed or pushed further south to the Pamir region. The modern Uzbek language is derived from the Chagatai language which gained prominence in the Timurid Empire. The modern Uzbek population represents varying degrees of diversity derived from the high traffic routes through Central Asia. Once populated by Iranian tribes and other Indo-European people, Central Asia experienced numerous invasions emanating out of Mongolia that would affect the region. According to recent genetic genealogy testing from a University of Oxford study, high levels of haplogroup 10 and its derivative, haplogroup 36, are found in most of the Altaic-speaking populations and are a good indicator of the genetic impact of these nomadic groups. The difference could be due to the density of the different geographical areas. Eastern regions of Central Asia must have had a low density at the time. Thus, the estimate from North-East Asia is high in the eastUzbeks – Genetic origins of Uzbeks from various parts of Uzbekistan. East Asian (e.g. Mongol) ancestry is prominent in the west, Central Asian prominent in the centre, and a roughly even mix of East, Central Asian, Mideast and European in the eastern projections.
37. 2nd century BC – The 2nd century BC started the first day of 200 BC and ended the last day of 101 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, although depending on the region being studied and it also considered to be the end of the Axial Age. In the context of the Eastern Mediterranean, it is referred to as the Hellenistic period. The end of the century witnessed the reform of the Roman Army from an army into a voluntary professional force, under the guidance of the noted general. In South Asia, the Mauryan Empire in India collapsed when Brihadnatha, the last emperor, was killed by Pushyamitra Shunga, a Mauryan general, in East Asia, China reached a high point under the Han Dynasty. The Han Empire extended its boundaries from Korea in the east to Vietnam in the South to the borders of modern-day Kazakhstan in the west. 198 BC, Battle of Panium, Antiochus III of the Seleucid empire defeats Ptolemy V of Egypt and takes control of Coele Syria,197 BC, Flamininus defeats Philip V of Macedon at the Battle of Cynoscephalae. 196 BC, Antiochus III conquers western Asia Minor and Thrace,196 BC, Empress Lüs execution of Han Xin leads to the Ying Bu rebellion. 195 BC, The War against Nabis marks the end of Spartan power in Greece,195 BC, Emperor Gaozu of Han dies and is succeeded by his son Hui. True power falls to Empress Lü.194 BC, Wiman establishes Wiman Joseon in Korea,192 BC, Antiochus III invades Greece, beginning the Roman-Syrian War. 192 BC, The Yue Kingdom of Eastern Ou established in Zhejiang with Chinese support,191 BC, Battle of Thermopylae, Glabrio drives Antiochus III out of Greece. 190 BC, Battle of Magnesia, Rome and Pergamon drive Antiochus III out of Asia Minor,189 BC, Galatian War, Vulso and Pergamon defeat Galatia. 188 BC, Emperor Hui of Han dies,185 BC, Ptolemy V defeats Ankhmakis and regains control of Upper Egypt. C.185 BC, Pushyamitra Shunga assassinates the last Maurya emperor,183 BC, Zhao Tuo of Nanyue declares himself Emperor and attacks China. 180 BC, Lü Clan Disturbance, with the death of Empress Lü, C.180 BC, Demetrius I of Bactria invades India, leading to the establishment of the Indo-Greek Kingdom. 179 BC, Tiberius Gracchus ends the First Celtiberian War,179 BC, Zhao Tuo of Nanyue makes peace with China. 176 BC, The Yuezhi attack the Xiongnu,175 BC, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, took possession of the Syrian throne, at the murder of his brother Seleucus IV Philopator, which rightly belonged to his nephew Demetrius I Soter. 174 BC, The Xiongnu defeat the Yuezhi, who emigrate to Ili valley,168 BC, Roman victory in the Battle of Pydna leads to the dissolution of the Antigonid Kingdom of Macedon2nd century BC – Eastern hemisphere at the end of the 2nd century BC.
38. 3rd century BC – The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period and this balance was shattered when conflict arose between Carthage and the Roman Republic. In the following decades, the Carthaginian Republic was first humbled and then destroyed by the Romans in the first, following the Second Punic War, Rome became the most important power in the western Mediterranean. In India, Ashoka ruled the Maurya Empire, the Pandya, Chola and Chera dynasties of the classical age flourished in the ancient Tamil country. The Protohistoric Period began in the Korean peninsula, the Xiongnu were at the height of their power in Mongolia. Ptolemy finally brings the region of Cyrene under his control. He places the region under the rule of his stepson Magas, after failing to decisively defeat the Romans, Pyrrhus of Epirus withdraws from Italy. Gallic migration to Macedon, Thrace and Galatia,273 BC –232 BC, Ashoka ruled the Maurya Empire. 265 BC, Kalinga War takes place between Ashoka and the kingdom of Kalinga,264 BC, First Punic War breaks out between the Carthaginian Empire and the Roman Republic. 261 BC, Antiochus II Theos, 2nd son, at the death of his father becomes emperor of the Seleucid empire,260 BC, Battle of Changping between the State of Qin and the State of Zhao in China, a decisive Qin victory. 260 BC, Ashoka inscribes the Edicts of Ashoka,258 BC, An Dương Vương overthrows the Hồng Bàng Dynasty in Viet Nam. 257 BC, Thục Dynasty takes over Viet Nam,241 BC, First Punic War ends in Carthaginian defeat. Rome demands large reparations, and annexes Sicily and Corsica,230 BC, The Chinese Qin State conquers Han. 230 BC, Simuka declares independence from Mauryan rule and establishes the Satavahana Empire,227 BC, The attempted assassination of Ying Zheng, king of Qin State, by Jing Ke from Yan failed. 225 BC, A large Gallic army is defeated by the Romans at the Battle of Telamon,225 BC, The Chinese Qin State conquers Wei.223 BC, The Chinese Qin State conquers Chu.222 BC, The Chinese Qin State conquers Yan and Zhao. 221 BC, With the conquest of the State of Qi, Qin Shi Huang unifies the whole of China into one empire that also included northern Vietnam,218 BC, Second Punic War begins. Hannibal makes his famous Alpine crossing to invade Italy, the Roman heartland,216 BC, Hannibal famously crushed the Roman legions at the Battle of Cannae. 214 BC, Qin Shi Huang of the Chinese Qin Dynasty ordered construction of the Great Wall of China,208 BC, Zhao Tuo defeats the Vietnamese king An Dương Vương3rd century BC – Eastern hemisphere at the end of the 3rd century BC.
39. Greeks – The Greeks or Hellenes are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Turkey, Sicily, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world, many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor, other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church, the Greeks speak the Greek language, which forms its own unique branch within the Indo-European family of languages, the Hellenic. They are part of a group of ethnicities, described by Anthony D. Smith as an archetypal diaspora people. Both migrations occur at incisive periods, the Mycenaean at the transition to the Late Bronze Age, the Mycenaeans quickly penetrated the Aegean Sea and, by the 15th century BC, had reached Rhodes, Crete, Cyprus and the shores of Asia Minor. Around 1200 BC, the Dorians, another Greek-speaking people, followed from Epirus, the Dorian invasion was followed by a poorly attested period of migrations, appropriately called the Greek Dark Ages, but by 800 BC the landscape of Archaic and Classical Greece was discernible. The Greeks of classical antiquity idealized their Mycenaean ancestors and the Mycenaean period as an era of heroes, closeness of the gods. The Homeric Epics were especially and generally accepted as part of the Greek past, as part of the Mycenaean heritage that survived, the names of the gods and goddesses of Mycenaean Greece became major figures of the Olympian Pantheon of later antiquity. The ethnogenesis of the Greek nation is linked to the development of Pan-Hellenism in the 8th century BC, the works of Homer and Hesiod were written in the 8th century BC, becoming the basis of the national religion, ethos, history and mythology. The Oracle of Apollo at Delphi was established in this period, the classical period of Greek civilization covers a time spanning from the early 5th century BC to the death of Alexander the Great, in 323 BC. It is so named because it set the standards by which Greek civilization would be judged in later eras, the Peloponnesian War, the large scale civil war between the two most powerful Greek city-states Athens and Sparta and their allies, left both greatly weakened. Many Greeks settled in Hellenistic cities like Alexandria, Antioch and Seleucia, two thousand years later, there are still communities in Pakistan and Afghanistan, like the Kalash, who claim to be descended from Greek settlers. The Hellenistic civilization was the period of Greek civilization, the beginnings of which are usually placed at Alexanders death. This Hellenistic age, so called because it saw the partial Hellenization of many non-Greek cultures and this age saw the Greeks move towards larger cities and a reduction in the importance of the city-state. These larger cities were parts of the still larger Kingdoms of the Diadochi, Greeks, however, remained aware of their past, chiefly through the study of the works of Homer and the classical authors. An important factor in maintaining Greek identity was contact with barbarian peoples and this led to a strong desire among Greeks to organize the transmission of the Hellenic paideia to the next generationGreeks – Hoplites fighting. Detail from an Attic black-figure hydria, ca. 560 BC–550 BC. Louvre, Paris.
40. Han dynasty – The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin dynasty and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period. Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered an age in Chinese history. To this day, Chinas majority ethnic group refers to itself as the Han people and it was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods, the Western Han or Former Han and the Eastern Han or Later Han, the emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States, from the reign of Emperor Wu onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD, the Han dynasty was an age of economic prosperity and saw a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty. The coinage issued by the government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty. The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations, the Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu of Han launched several campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries, the territories north of Hans borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Imperial authority was seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, following Liu Bangs victory in the Chu–Han Contention, the resulting Han dynasty was named after the Hanzhong fief. Chinas first imperial dynasty was the Qin dynasty, the Qin unified the Chinese Warring States by conquest, but their empire became unstable after the death of the first emperor Qin Shi Huangdi. Within four years, the authority had collapsed in the face of rebellion. Although Xiang Yu proved to be a commander, Liu Bang defeated him at Battle of Gaixia. Liu Bang assumed the title emperor at the urging of his followers and is known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu, Changan was chosen as the new capital of the reunified empire under HanHan dynasty – History of China
41. Bactria – Bactria or Bactriana was the name of a historical region in Central Asia. Bactria was located between the Hindu Kush mountain range and the Amu Darya river, covering the region that straddles modern-day Afghanistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. The English name Bactria is derived from the Ancient Greek, Βακτριανή, analogous names include the Pashto and Persian, باختر, translit. Bākhtar, Uzbek, Балх, Tajik, Бохтар, Chinese, 大夏, pinyin, Dàxià and this region played a major role in Central Asian history. At certain times the political limits of Bactria stretched far beyond the frame of the Bactrian plain. The Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex is the modern designation for a Bronze Age culture of Central Asia. 2200–1700 BC, located in present-day eastern Turkmenistan, northern Afghanistan, southern Uzbekistan and western Tajikistan, centred on the upper Amu Darya and its sites were discovered and named by the Soviet archaeologist Viktor Sarianidi. The early Greek historian Ctesias, c.400 BC, alleged that the legendary Assyrian king Ninus had defeated a Bactrian king named Oxyartes in ca.2140 BC, or some 1000 years before the Trojan War. Since the decipherment of cuneiform in the 19th century, however, according to some writers, Bactria was the homeland of Indo-Iranian tribes who moved south-west into Iran and into north-western India around 2500–2000 BC. Later, it became the province of the Persian Empire in Central Asia. It was in these regions, where the soil of the mountainous country is surrounded by the Turanian desert. After Darius III had been defeated by Alexander the Great, the satrap of Bactria, Bessus attempted to organise a resistance but was captured by other warlords. He was then tortured and killed, however, in the south, beyond the Oxus, he met strong resistance. After two years of war and an insurgency campaign, Alexander managed to establish little control over Bactria. After Alexanders death, Diodorus Siculus tells us that Philip received dominion over Bactria, at the Treaty of Triparadisus, both Diodorus Siculus and Arrian agree that the satrap Stasanor gained control over Bactria. Eventually, Alexanders empire was divided up among the generals in Alexanders army, Bactria became a part of the Seleucid Empire, named after its founder, Seleucus I. The Macedonians, especially Seleucus I and his son Antiochus I, established the Seleucid Empire, the Greek language became dominant for some time there. The paradox that Greek presence was more prominent in Bactria than in areas far closer to Greece can possibly be explained by past deportations of Greeks to BactriaBactria – Ancient cities of Bactria
42. Umayyad Caliphate – The Umayyad Caliphate, also spelled Omayyad, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. This caliphate was centred on the Umayyad dynasty, hailing from Mecca, Syria remained the Umayyads main power base thereafter, and Damascus was their capital. The Umayyads continued the Muslim conquests, incorporating the Caucasus, Transoxiana, Sindh, the Maghreb and the Iberian Peninsula into the Muslim world. At its greatest extent, the Umayyad Caliphate covered 11,100,000 km2 and 62 million people, the Umayyad Caliphate was secular by nature. At the time, the Umayyad taxation and administrative practice were perceived as unjust by some Muslims, Muhammad had stated explicitly during his lifetime that Abrahamic religious groups, should be allowed to practice their own religion, provided that they paid the jizya taxation. The welfare state of both the Muslim and the poor started by Umar ibn al Khattab had also continued, financed by the zakat tax levied only on Muslims. Muawiyas wife Maysum was also a Christian, the relations between the Muslims and the Christians in the state were stable in this time. Prominent positions were held by Christians, some of whom belonged to families that had served in Byzantine governments, the employment of Christians was part of a broader policy of religious assimilation that was necessitated by the presence of large Christian populations in the conquered provinces, as in Syria. This policy also boosted Muawiyas popularity and solidified Syria as his power base, the rivalries between the Arab tribes had caused unrest in the provinces outside Syria, most notably in the Second Muslim Civil War of AD 680–692 and the Berber Revolt of 740–743. During the Second Civil War, leadership of the Umayyad clan shifted from the Sufyanid branch of the family to the Marwanid branch. A branch of the family fled across North Africa to Al-Andalus, where they established the Caliphate of Córdoba, according to tradition, the Umayyad family and Muhammad both descended from a common ancestor, Abd Manaf ibn Qusai, and they originally came from the city of Mecca. Muhammad descended from Abd Manāf via his son Hashim, while the Umayyads descended from Abd Manaf via a different son, Abd-Shams, the two families are therefore considered to be different clans of the same tribe. However Muslim Shia historians suspect that Umayya was a son of Abd Shams so he was not a blood relative of Abd Manaf ibn Qusai. Umayya was later discarded from the noble family, Sunni historians disagree with this and view Shia claims as nothing more than outright polemics due to their hostility to the Umayyad family in general. While the Umayyads and the Hashimites may have had bitterness between the two clans before Muhammad, the rivalry turned into a case of tribal animosity after the Battle of Badr. The battle saw three top leaders of the Umayyad clan killed by Hashimites in a three-on-three melee and this fueled the opposition of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, the grandson of Umayya, to Muhammad and to Islam. Abu Sufyan sought to exterminate the adherents of the new religion by waging another battle with Muslims based in Medina only a year after the Battle of Badr and he did this to avenge the defeat at Badr. The Battle of Uhud is generally believed by scholars to be the first defeat for the Muslims, as they had incurred greater losses than the MeccansUmayyad Caliphate – Umayyad Caliphate in 750
43. Democratic Republic of Afghanistan – The PDPA came to power through a coup known as the Saur Revolution, which ousted the government of Mohammad Daoud Khan. Daoud was succeeded by Nur Muhammad Taraki as head of state, soon after taking power a power struggle began between the Khalqists led by Taraki and Amin and the Parchamites led by Babrak Karmal. The Khalqists won and the Parcham faction was purged from the party, the most prominent Parcham leaders were exiled to the Eastern Bloc and the Soviet Union. After the Khalq–Parcham struggle, a struggle within the Khalq faction began between Taraki and Amin. Amin won the struggle, and Taraki was killed on his orders and his rule proved unpopular within his own country, and in the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union intervened, supported by the Afghan government, in December 1979, Karmal became the leader of Afghanistan in his place. The Karmal era, lasting from 1979 to 1986, is best known for the Soviet war effort in Afghanistan, the war resulted in large numbers of civilian casualties, as well as millions of refugees who fled into Pakistan and Iran. Karmals policies failed to bring peace to the country. Najibullah pursued a policy of National Reconciliation with the opposition, a new Afghan constitution was introduced in 1987, after the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, the government faced increasing resistance. On the military front, the government proved capable of defeating the opposition in open battle. Geographically, the DRA was bordered by Pakistan in the south and east, Iran in the west, the Soviet Union in the north, Hafizullah Amin, a Khalq, was the coups chief architect. The first conflict between the Khalqists and Parchamites arose when the Khalqists wanted to give PDPA Central Committee membership to military officers who participated in the Saur Revolution. Amin, who opposed the appointment of military officers to the PDPA leadership, altered his position. The PDPA Politburo voted in favour of giving membership to the military officers, to make matters worse for the Parchamites, the term Parcham was, according to Taraki, a word synonymous with factionalism. On 27 June, three months after the revolution, Amin managed to outmaneuver the Parchamites at a Central Committee meeting, the meeting decided that the Khalqists had the exclusive right to formulate and decide policy, which left the Parchamites impotent. Later, a coup planned by the Parchamites, and led by Karmal, was discovered by the Khalqist leadership, the discovery of the coup prompted a swift reaction, a purge of Parchamites began. Parchamite ambassadors were recalled, but few returned, for instance, Karmal, when Taraki realized the degree of popular dissatisfaction with the reform he began to curtail the policy. Afghanistans long history of resistance to any type of strong centralized governmental control further undermined his authority, consequently, much of the land reform was not actually implemented nationwideDemocratic Republic of Afghanistan – Amin ruled Afghanistan for 104 days
44. Samarkand – Samarkand, alternatively Samarqand or Samarcand, is a city in modern-day Uzbekistan and is one of the oldest inhabited cities in Central Asia. Prospering from its location on the Silk Road between China and the Mediterranean, at times Samarkand was one of the greatest cities of Central Asia, by the time of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia, it was the capital of the Sogdian satrapy. The city was taken by Alexander the Great in 329 BC, the city was ruled by a succession of Iranian, Persian, and Turkic peoples until the Mongols under Genghis Khan conquered Samarkand in 1220. Today, Samarkand is the capital of Samarqand Region and Uzbekistans second largest city, the city is noted for being an Islamic centre for scholarly study. In the 14th century it became the capital of the empire of Timur and is the site of his mausoleum, the Bibi-Khanym Mosque remains one of the citys most notable landmarks. The Registan was the ancient center of the city, the city has carefully preserved the traditions of ancient crafts, embroidery, gold embroidery, silk weaving, engraving on copper, ceramics, carving and painting on wood. In 2001, UNESCO added the city to its World Heritage List as Samarkand – Crossroads of Cultures, the name probably originates in the Sogdian words asmara, stone, rock and kand, fort, town. Along with Bukhara, Samarkand is one of the oldest inhabited cities in Central Asia, archeological excavations held within the city limits as well as suburban areas unearthed evidence of human activity as early as 40,000 years old, in the late Paleolithic era. A group of Mesolithic era archeological sites were discovered at Sazagon-1, Zamichatosh, the Syob and Dargom canals, supplying the city and its suburbs with water, appeared around the 7th to 5th centuries BC. There is no evidence when Samarkand was founded. Researchers of the Institute of Archeology of Samarkand argue for the existence of the city between the 8th and 7th centuries BC, Samarkand has been one of the main centres of Sogdian civilization from its early days. By the time of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia it had become the capital of the Sogdian satrapy, Alexander the Great conquered Samarkand in 329 BC. The city was known as Maracanda by the Greeks, written sources offer small clues as to the subsequent system of government. They tell of an Orepius who became ruler not from ancestors, while Samarkand suffered significant damage during Alexanders initial conquest, the city recovered rapidly and under the new Hellenic influence flourished. There were also major new construction techniques, oblong bricks were replaced with square ones and superior methods of masonry, Alexanders conquests introduced into Central Asia classical Greek culture, at least for a time the Greek models were followed closely by the local artisans. After the Kushan era the city declined, it did not really revive until the 5th century, Samarkand was conquered by the Sassanians around 260 AD. Under Sassanian rule, the became an essential site for Manichaeism. After the Hephtalites conquered Samarkand, they controlled it until the Göktürks, in an alliance with the Sassanid Persians, the Turks ruled over Samarkand until they were defeated by the Sassanids during the Göktürk–Persian WarsSamarkand – Triumph by Vasily Vereshchagin, depicting the Sher-Dor Madrasah in the Registan.