1. Inner Carniola – Inner Carniola is a traditional region of Slovenia, the southwestern part of the larger Carniola region. It comprises the Hrušica karst plateau up to Postojna Gate, bordering the Slovenian Littoral in the west and its administrative and economic center of the region is Postojna, while other minor centers include Logatec, Cerknica, Pivka and Ilirska Bistrica. The English name Inner Carniola, like the Slovene name Notranjska, is a translation of German Innerkrain, the name was created by analogy with Inner Austria, referring to the southwestern Habsburg hereditary lands. Inner Carniola was a kreis of the Duchy of Carniola, ruled by the archducal House of Habsburg within the Inner Austrian lands since the 14th century, the territorial arrangement was described by the scholar Johann Weikhard von Valvasor in his 1689 work The Glory of the Duchy of Carniola. Part of the Napoleonic Illyrian Provinces from 1809, Carniola returned to the Austrian Empire by the 1814 Treaty of Paris, first administrated within the Austrian Kingdom of Illyria, the Carniolan duchy again became a Habsburg crown land from 1849 till 1919. After World War One, the part of the region was occupied by Italian military. In 1920, the Treaty of Rapallo transferred the part of the region to the Kingdom of Italy. The eastern third was included into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, Italy was given the districts of Vipava, Postojna, Ilirska Bistrica, Senožeče, and Idrija. The region was divided among the provinces of Gorizia, Trieste, with the rise of Fascism, it was subjected to a policy of violent Italianization until the downfall of Fascism in ItalyInner Carniola – Inner Carniola or Postojna District, late 18th century map
2. Italy – Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars, artists and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France, Spain and Austria. Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military, cultural and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, Italia, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides. The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern worldItaly – The Colosseum in Rome, built c. 70 – 80 AD, is considered one of the greatest works of architecture and engineering of ancient history.
3. Slovenia – Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia, is a nation state in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes. It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the south and southeast, and it covers 20,273 square kilometers and has a population of 2.06 million. It is a republic and a member of the United Nations, European Union. The capital and largest city is Ljubljana, additionally, the Dinaric Alps and the Pannonian Plain meet on the territory of Slovenia. The country, marked by a significant biological diversity, is one of the most water-rich in Europe, with a river network, a rich aquifer system. Over half of the territory is covered by forest, the human settlement of Slovenia is dispersed and uneven. Slovenia has historically been the crossroads of South Slavic, Germanic, Romance, although the population is not homogeneous, the majority is Slovene. Slovene is the language throughout the country. Slovenia is a largely secularized country, but its culture and identity have been influenced by Catholicism as well as Lutheranism. The economy of Slovenia is small, open, and export-oriented and has strongly influenced by international conditions. It has been hurt by the Eurozone crisis, started in the late 2000s. The main economic field is services, followed by industry and construction, Historically, the current territory of Slovenia was part of many different state formations, including the Roman Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, followed by the Habsburg Monarchy. In October 1918, the Slovenes exercised self-determination for the first time by co-founding the State of Slovenes, Croats, in December 1918, they merged with the Kingdom of Serbia into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. During World War II, Slovenia was occupied and annexed by Germany, Italy, and Hungary, with a tiny area transferred to the Independent State of Croatia, in June 1991, after the introduction of multi-party representative democracy, Slovenia split from Yugoslavia and became an independent country. Present-day Slovenia has been inhabited since prehistoric times, and there is evidence of habitation from around 250,000 years ago. A pierced cave bear bone, dating from 43100 ±700 BP, in the 1920s and 1930s, artifacts belonging to the Cro-Magnon such as pierced bones, bone points, and needle were found by archaeologist Srečko Brodar in Potok Cave. It shows that wooden wheels appeared almost simultaneously in Mesopotamia and Europe, in the transition period between the Bronze age to the Iron age, the Urnfield culture flourished. Archaeological remains dating from the Hallstatt period have been found, particularly in southeastern Slovenia, among them a number of situlas in Novo Mesto, in the Iron Age, present-day Slovenia was inhabited by Illyrian and Celtic tribes until the 1st century BCSlovenia – A pierced cave bear bone, possibly flute, from Divje Babe
4. History of Slovenia – The history of Slovenia chronicles the period of the Slovene territory from the 5th century BC to the present. In the Early Bronze Age, Proto-Illyrian tribes settled an area stretching from present-day Albania to the city of Trieste, Alpine Slavs, ancestors of modern-day Slovenes, settled the area in the late 6th Century A. D. The Holy Roman Empire controlled the land for nearly 1,000 years, in 1918, Slovenes joined Yugoslavia, while the west of the country was annexed to Italy. Between 1945 and 1990, Slovenia was under SFRJ, the country gained its independence from Yugoslavia in June 1991, and is today a member of the European Union and NATO. The worlds oldest securely dated wooden wheel and axle was found near the Ljubljana Marshes in 2002, in the transition period between the Bronze age to the Iron age, the Urnfield culture flourished. Numerous archeological remains dating from the Hallstatt period have been found in Slovenia, with important settlements in Most na Soči, Vače, and Šentvid pri Stični. Novo Mesto in Lower Carniola, one of the most important archaeological sites of the Hallstatt culture, has nicknamed the City of Situlas after numerous situlas found in the area. In the Iron Age, present-day Slovenia was inhabited by Illyrian and Celtic tribes until the 1st century BC, what is now western Slovenia was included directly under Roman Italia as part of the X region Venetia et Histria. Important Roman towns located in present-day Slovenia included Emona, Celeia, other important settlements were Nauportus, Neviodunum, Haliaetum, Atrans, and Stridon. During the migration period, the region suffered invasions of many barbarian armies, rome finally abandoned the region at the end of the 4th century. Most cities were destroyed, while the local population moved to the highland areas. In the 5th century, the region was part of the Ostrogothic kingdom, the Slavic ancestors of present-day Slovenes settled in the East Alpine area at the end of the 6th century. Coming from two directions, North, settling in the area of todays Carinthia and west Styria and South and this Slavic tribe, also known as the Alpine Slavs, was submitted to Avar rule before joining the Slavic King Samos tribal union in 623 AD. After Samos death, the Slavs of Carniola again fell to Avar rule, while the Slavs north of the Karavanke range established the independent principality of Carantania, the eastern part of Carantania was ruled again by Avars between 745 and 795. Under Emperor Arnulf of Carinthia, Carantania, now ruled by a mixed Bavarian-Slav nobility, shortly emerged as a regional power, the first mentions of a common Slovene ethnic identity, transcending regional boundaries, date from the 16th century. During the 14th century, most of the Slovene Lands passed under the Habsburg rule, Slovenes also inhabited most of the territory of the Imperial Free City of Trieste, although representing the minority of its population. In the 16th century, the Protestant Reformation spread throughout the Slovene Lands, in the second half of the 16th century, numerous books were printed in Slovene, including an integral translation of the Bible by Jurij Dalmatin. During the Counter-Reformation in the late 16th and 17th centuries, led by the bishop of Ljubljana Thomas Chrön and Seckau Martin Brenner, nevertheless, they left a strong legacy in the tradition of Slovene culture, which was partially incorporated in the Catholic Counter-Reformation in the 17th centuryHistory of Slovenia – Potok Cave in the Eastern Karawanks, where the remains of a human residence dated to the Aurignacian (40,000 to 30,000 BP) were found by Srečko Brodar in the 1920s and 1930s. This marks the beginning of Paleolithic research in Slovenia.
5. Geography of Slovenia – Slovenia is situated in Central Europe touching the Alps and bordering the Mediterranean. The Alps — including the Julian Alps, the Kamnik-Savinja Alps, Slovenias Adriatic coastline stretches approximately43 km from Italy to Croatia. Its part south of Sava river belongs to Balkan peninsula – Balkans, the term Karst originated in southwestern Slovenias Karst Plateau, a limestone region of underground rivers, gorges, and caves, between Ljubljana and the Mediterranean. On the Pannonian plain to the East and Northeast, toward the Croatian and Hungarian borders, however, the majority of Slovenian terrain is hilly or mountainous, with around 90% of the surface 200 meters or more above sea level. Slovenias location is where southeastern and Central Europe meet, where the Eastern Alps border the Adriatic Sea between Austria and Croatia, the 15th meridian east almost corresponds to the middle line of the country in the direction west-east. The maximum north-south distance is 1°28 or 163 km, the maximum east-west distance is 3°13 or 248 km. The geometric centre of Slovenia is located at 46°07′11. 8″N 14°48′55. 2″E, since 2016, the geodetic system of Slovenia with the elevation benchmark of 0 m has its origin at the Koper tide gauge station. Until then, it referred to the Sartorio mole in Trieste.157 m 46.6 km Maritime claims, The entire Slovenian coastline is located on the Gulf of Trieste. White Carniola, otherwise part of Lower Carniola, is considered a separate region, as is the Central Sava Valley. Slovenian Littoral has no natural island, but there is a plan on building an artificial one, humid subtropical climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and in the valleys to the east. Precipitation is high away from the coast, with the spring being particularly prone to rainfall, Slovenias Alps have frequent snowfalls during the winter. A short coastal strip on the Adriatic Sea, a mountain region adjacent to Italy and Austria, mixed mountain. There is only one island in Slovenia, Bled Island in Lake Bled in the countrys northwestGeography of Slovenia – Aerial view of Lake Bled
6. Slovene language – Slovene or Slovenian belongs to the group of South Slavic languages. It is spoken by approximately 2.5 million speakers worldwide and it is the first language of about 2.1 million Slovenian people and is one of the 24 official and working languages of the European Union. Standard Slovene is the standard language that was formed in the 18th century, mostly based on Upper and Lower Carniolan dialect groups. For example, the Resian and Torre dialects in the Italian Province of Udine differ most from other Slovene dialects, the distinctive characteristics of Slovene are dual grammatical number, two accentual norms, and abundant inflection. Although Slovene is basically an SVO language, word order is very flexible, Slovene has a T-V distinction, second-person plural forms are used for individuals as a sign of respect. Slovene and Slovak are the two modern Slavic languages whose names for themselves literally mean Slavic. Slovene is an Indo-European language belonging to the Western subgroup of the South Slavic branch of the Slavic languages, furthermore, Slovene shares certain linguistic characteristics with all South Slavic languages, including those of the Eastern subgroup, such as Bulgarian. The Slovene language also has commonalities with the West Slavic languages. Like all Slavic languages, Slovene traces its roots to the same group of languages that produced Old Church Slavonic. The earliest known examples of a distinct, written Slovene dialect are from the Freising Manuscripts, the consensus estimate of their date of origin is between 972 and 1093. These religious writings are among the oldest surviving manuscripts in any Slavic language and this linguistic border remained almost unchanged until the late 19th century, when a second process of Germanization took place, mostly in Carinthia. Between the 9th and 12th century, proto-Slovene spread into northern Istria, during most of the Middle Ages, Slovene was a vernacular language of the peasantry, although it was also spoken in most of the towns on Slovene territory, together with German or Italian. Although during this time, German emerged as the language of the nobility, Slovene had some role in the courtly life of the Carinthian, Carniolan and Styrian nobility. This is proved by the survival of certain ritual formulas in Slovene, the words Buge waz primi, gralva Venus. The first printed Slovene words, stara pravda, appeared in 1515 in Vienna in a poem of the German mercenaries who suppressed the Slovene peasant revolt. Standard Slovene emerged in the half of the 16th century, thanks to the works of Slovene Lutheran authors. During this period, German had a influence on Slovene. Many Slovene scientists before the 1920s also wrote in languages, mostly GermanSlovene language – Tombstone of Jožef Nahtigal in Dobrova with archaic Slovene onikanje in indirect reference. Literal translation "Here lie [počivajo] the honorable Jožef Nahtigal... they were born [rojeni]... they died [umerli]... God grant them [jim] eternal peace and rest."
7. Istria – Istria, formerly Histria, is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. The peninsula is located at the head of the Adriatic between the Gulf of Trieste and the Kvarner Gulf and it is shared by three countries, Croatia, Slovenia, and Italy. Istria lies in three countries, Croatia, Slovenia and Italy, by far the largest portion lies in Croatia. Croatian Istria is divided into two counties, the larger being Istria County in western Croatia, important towns in Istria County include Pula/Pola, Poreč/Parenzo, Rovinj//Rovigno, Pazin//Pisino, Labin/Albona, Umag/Umago, Motovun//Montona, Buzet/Pinguente, and Buje/Buie. Smaller towns in Istria County include Višnjan, Roč, and Hum, northwards of Slovenian Istria, there is a tiny portion of the peninsula that lies in Italy. This smallest portion of Istria consists of the comunes of Muggia and San Dorligo della Valle, central Istria has a Continental climate. North-Slovenian coast of Istria has a Sub-Mediterranean climate, west and south coast has a Mediterranean climate. East coast has a Sub-Mediterranean climate with Oceanic climate influences, the warmest places are Pula, Rovinj, while the coldest is Pazin. Precipitation is moderate, with between 640 and 1,020 mm falling in the areas, and up to 1,500 mm in the hills. The name is derived from the Histri tribes, which Strabo refers to as living in the region, the Histri are classified in some sources as a Venetic Illyrian tribe, with certain linguistic differences from other Illyrians. The Romans described the Histri as a tribe of pirates. It took two military campaigns for the Romans to finally subdue them in 177 BC, the region was then called together with the Venetian part the X. Roman Region of Venetia et Histria, the ancient definition of the northeastern border of Italy. Dante Alighieri refers to it as well, the border of Italy per ancient definition is the river Arsia. The eastern side of river was settled by people whose culture was different than Histrians. Earlier influence of the Iapodes was attested there, while at some time between the 4th and 1st century BC, the Liburnians extended their territory and it became a part of Liburnia, on the northern side, Histria went much further north and included the Italian city of Trieste. Some scholars speculate that the names Histri and Istria are related to the Latin name Hister, ancient folktales reported — inaccurately — that the Danube split in two or bifurcated and came to the sea near Trieste as well as at the Black Sea. The story of the Bifurcation of the Danube is part of the Argonaut legend, there is also a suspected link to the commune of Istria in Constanţa, Romania. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the region was pillaged by the Goths, the Eastern Roman Empire, and it was subsequently annexed to the Lombard Kingdom in 751, and then annexed to the Frankish kingdom by Pepin of Italy in 789Istria – The Sečovlje Saltworks in the Northern Istria were probably started in Antiquity and were first mentioned in 804 in the report on Placitum of Riziano.
8. Carniola – Carniola was a historical region that comprised parts of present-day Slovenia. In 1991, 47% of the population of Slovenia lived within the borders of the former Duchy of Carniola and its capital was originally Krainburg, for a short period Stein, and from the second half of the 13th century, Laibach or Ljubljana. Nowadays, its territory is almost entirely located in Slovenia, except for a part in the northwest Italy. Carniola in its form, established in 1815, encompassed 9,904 km2. In 1914, before the beginning of World War I, it had a population of slightly under 530,000 inhabitants, the Julian and Karavanken Alps traverse the country. The highest mountain peaks are Nanos,4,200 feet, Vremščica,3,360 feet, Snežnik,5,900 feet, and Triglav,9,300 feet. The principal rivers are Sava, Tržič Bistrica, Kokra, Kamnik Bistrica, Sora, Ljubljanica, Mirna, Krka, and Kolpa and it was known to the Romans as Lugea palus, and is a natural curiosity. Dante Alighieri mentions it in his Divine Comedy, the Ljubljana Marshes cover an area of 76 square miles. Hot and mineral springs are to be found at Sušica, Šmarjetske, there is an interesting cave at Postojna. Agriculture thrives better in Upper than in Lower Carniola, the Vipava Valley is especially famous for its wine and vegetables, and for its mild climate. The principal exports are all kinds of vegetables, clover-seed, lumber, carvings, cattle, in the mineral kingdom the principal products are iron, coal, quicksilver, manganese, lead, and zinc. Upper Carniola has the most industries, among the products being lumber, linen, woollen stuffs, and lace, bells, straw hats, wicker-work, the railroads are the Juzna, the Prince Rudolf, the Bohinjska, the Kamniska, the Dolenjska, and the Vrhniska. The principal cities and towns are, Kamnik, Kranj, Tržič, Vrhnika, Vipava, Idrija, Turjak, Ribnica, Metlika, Novo Mesto, Vače. The mean average temperature in spring is 56 °F, in summer,77 °F, in autumn,59 °F, of the inhabitants 95 per cent were Slovenes, kinsmen to the Croats, the remainder are Germans,700 Croats, and Italians. In the districts of Gottschee and Črnomelj dwell the people of White Carniola for a link between the Croats and Slovenes. One-half of the Germans live in Gottschee,5000 in Ljubljana,3500 at Novo Mesto, the Germans at Gottschee were settled there by Otho, Count of Ortenburg, in the fourteenth century, and they preserve their Tyrolean German dialect. After the fall of the Roman Empire, Lombards settled in Carniola, from about 900 AD until the 20th century, Carniolas ruling classes and urban areas spoke German, while the peasantry spoke Slovene. The capital of Carniola, originally situated at Kranj, was moved to Kamnik and finally to the current capital of SloveniaCarniola – Landscape of Lower Carniola in Slepšek
9. Trieste – Trieste is a city and seaport in northeastern Italy. It is situated towards the end of a strip of Italian territory lying between the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia, which lies almost immediately south and east of the city. It is also located near Croatia some further 30 kilometres south, Trieste is located at the head of the Gulf of Trieste and throughout history it has been influenced by its location at the crossroads of Latin, Slavic, and Germanic cultures. In 2009, it had a population of about 205,000 and it is the capital of the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Trieste was one of the oldest parts of the Habsburg Monarchy. In the 19th century, it was the most important port of one of the Great Powers of Europe, as a prosperous seaport in the Mediterranean region, Trieste became the fourth largest city of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In the fin de siècle period at the end of the 19th century it emerged as an important hub for literature, Trieste underwent an economic revival during the 1930s, and Trieste was an important spot in the struggle between the Eastern and Western blocs after the Second World War. Today, the city is in one of the richest regions of Italy, Roman authors also transliterated the name as Tergestum. Modern names of the city include, Italian, Trieste, Slovene, Trst, German, Triest, Hungarian, Trieszt, Croatian, Trst, Serbian, Трст/Trst, Trieste lies in the northernmost part of the high Adriatic in northeastern Italy, near the border with Slovenia. The city lies on the Gulf of Trieste, built mostly on a hillside that becomes a mountain, Triestes urban territory lies at the foot of an imposing escarpment that comes down abruptly from the Karst Plateau towards the sea. The karst landforms close to the city reach an elevation of 458 metres above sea level and it lies on the borders of the Italian geographical region, the Balkan Peninsula, and the Mitteleuropa. The territory of Trieste is composed of different climate zones depending on the distance from the sea. The average temperatures are 5.4 °C in January and 23.3 °C in July, the climatic setting of the city is humid subtropical climate. On average, humidity levels are low, while only two months receive slightly less than 60 mm of precipitation. Trieste along with the Istrian peninsula has evenly distributed rainfall above 1,000 mm in total, snow occurs on average 0 –2 days per year. Temperatures are very mild - lows below zero are somewhat rare, winter maxima are lower than in typical Mediterranean zone with quite high minima. Summer is very warm with maxima about 28 °C and lows above 20 °C, the absolute maximum of the last fifty years is 37.2 °C in 2003, whereas the absolute minimum is −14.6 °C in 1956. Since the second millennium BC, the location was an inhabited site, originally an Illyrian settlement, the Veneti entered the region in the 10th-9th c. BC and seem to have given the town its name, Tergeste, still later, the town was later captured by the Carni, a tribe of the Eastern Alps, before becoming part of the Roman republic in 177 BC during the Istrian WarTrieste – A collage of Trieste showing the Piazza Unità d'Italia, the Canal Grande (Grand Canal), the Serbian Orthodox church, a narrow street of the Old City, the Castello Miramare and the city seafront.
10. Vipava, Vipava – Vipava is a town in western Slovenia. It is the largest settlement and the seat of the Municipality of Vipava, Vipava is located near the numerous sources of the Vipava River, in the upper Vipava Valley,102 metres above sea level. Historically, it used to be a part of the region of Inner Carniola. The region around the town was settled by the Illyrians. Some trace the name Vipava to the Celtic root vip, in 394, the Battle of the Frigidus took place in the vicinity of the town. In the late 6th century, Slavic tribes, ancestors of modern Slovenes, in the late 8th century, the Vipava Valley was included in the Frankish Empire and the Christianization of Slovenes started. In the Middle Ages, the valley was first included in the Duchy of Friuli, between 1340 and 1355, Vipava and its surroundings were constantly contended between the Counts of Gorizia, the Patriarches of Aquileia and the Habsburg Duchy of Carniola. Modern Vipava was first mentioned in 1367, in the same period, it was finally included in the County of Gorizia. After a short Venetian interim, Vipava fell under the Habsburg domain in 1501, in the mid-16th century, it emerged as an important center of the Protestant Reformation. It remained part of Carniola until 1918, when it was occupied by the Italian troops, in the period between 1922 and 1943, it was subjected to a violent policy of Fascist Italianization. Many locals joined the militant antifascist organization TIGR, during World War II, the entire area became an important center of Partisan resistance. In 1945, it was liberated by Partisan troops and in 1947 it became part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Vipava is the site of five known mass graves from the end of or after the Second World War. The Cemetery Mass Grave is located next to the southwest wall of the Vipava Cemetery and it contained the remains of eight Slovene civilians murdered by the Yugoslav Army on 14 July 1945. The identities of six victims are known, the remains of six were exhumed in 1999 and reinterred in the cemetery. The Military Cemetery Mass Grave is located by the west edge of the First World War military cemetery and it contains the remains of 15 Chetnik soldiers killed in late April or early May 1945. Three additional graves contain the remains of German prisoners of war died of typhus at the nearby prison camp in 1945. The Vipava Field Mass Grave extends south of the dairy to Močilnik Creek and it is partially covered by the freeway and contains a large number of remains. The Princova Baronovka Mass Grave lies in the part of the townVipava, Vipava – Vipava
11. Rudolf Maister – Rudolf Maister was a Slovene military officer, poet and political activist. The soldiers who fought under Maisters command in northern Slovenia became known as Maisters fighters, Maister was also an accomplished poet and self-taught painter. Maister was born in the Upper Carniolan commercial town of Kamnik, a career soldier, during World War I, he served in the Austro-Hungarian Army. In 1917, he was sent to Graz promoted to the rank of a major, in 1918, near the end of the war when it was obvious that Austria-Hungary was losing, the city council of Maribor proclaimed the annexation of Maribor to Austria. Maister organized Slovene volunteer forces of 4000 soldiers and 200 officers and in the night of 23 November 1918 seized control of the city of Maribor and this date has been recognized as a state holiday in Slovenia since 2005. The Slovene National Council for Lower Styria awarded him the rank of general on November 1, on 27 January 1919, Germans awaiting the American peace delegation at the citys marketplace were fired on by Slovenian troops under the command of Maister. Nine Germans were killed and more than eighteen were seriously wounded, the responsibility for the shooting has not been conclusively established. German sources accused Maisters troops of shooting without cause, while Slovenian witnesses, such as Maks Pohar, the Austrian Germans allegedly attacked the police inspector, Ivan Senekovič, and then pressed towards the Slovenian soldiers in front of the city hall. A Slovenian version of this event involves a German firing a revolver in the direction of the Slovenian soldiers, the event became known as Marburgs Bloody Sunday. In November 1919, Maisters forces joined the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, Maister joined them later and took part of the capture of Klagenfurt. After the Carinthian Plebiscite, in majority of the local Slovenian population decided to remain part of Austria. He spent most of his life in an estate near Planina in Inner Carniola. Maister also wrote poetry, which he published in two collected volumes, in 1904 and in 1929, most of his poetry follows the Post-Romantic aesthetics, and is influenced by 19th century Slovene lyrical and patriotic poetry of Simon Jenko, Simon Gregorčič and Anton Aškerc. Bruno Hartman, Rudolf Maister, general in pesnik Media related to Rudolf Maister at Wikimedia CommonsRudolf Maister – Rudolf Maister in 1919
12. TIGR – TIGR, an abbreviation for Trst, Istra, Gorica and Reka, full name Revolutionary Organization of the Julian March T. I. G. R. It is considered one of the first anti-fascist resistance movements in Europe and it was active between 1927 and 1941. After the Fascist movement came to power in 1922, anti-Slavic policies were enforced as part of Italianization, in 1923, the use of Slovene and Croat languages in all public offices, including post offices and means of public transport, was prohibited. In the same year, the Gentile reform declared Italian as the language of public education, by 1928, all Slovene and Croat schools. In 1925, the use of Slovene and Croat was prohibited in the courts of law, all Slovene and Croat names of towns and settlements were Italianized. By 1927, all use of Slovene and Croat languages was prohibited. Children were prohibited being given Slavic names, and all Slavic-sounding surnames were given an Italian-sounding form. The Fascist Italianization prohibited Slavic inscriptions on gravestones, since 1928, the State law started limiting the use of Slovene and Croat also in the churches, and in 1934, all use of Slovene and Croat in Roman Catholic liturgy was prohibited. Under the effect of this policy tens of thousands emigrated abroad, mostly to Yugoslavia and its membership consisted of radical Slovene youth from former Austrian Littoral, and a few Croats of Istria, where its support was much weaker. Many members of this organization were connected with Yugoslav and British intelligence services, the aim of the organization was to fight violent Fascist Italianization and to achieve the annexation of Istria, the Slovenian Littoral and Rijeka to Yugoslavia. It also planned an uprising against the Fascist regime, which was however never carried out. Because of these actions, it was treated as a terrorist organization by the Italian state, the organization was dismantled by the Organization for Vigilance and Repression of Anti-Fascism in 1940 and 1941. Many of its members joined the Liberation Front of the Slovenian People during World War II, after the war, many former TIGR activists were persecuted by Yugoslav Communist authorities. The first organized anti-Fascist resistance activities in the Julian March began in the mid 1920s in the easternmost districts of the region, on the border with Yugoslavia, local Slovene activists established contacts with the Yugoslav nationalist organization Orjuna, launching first attacks at Italian military and police personnel. These were however still mostly individual actions, without an organizational background, the connections between the Slovene anti-Fascist activists and the Orjuna were soon broken due to a different ideological agenda. Few months later, another meeting place in Trieste, where a group connected to the former established the organization Borba. From the very beginning, the two worked in close alliance. The two organization were formed mostly by liberal nationalist youngsters from Trieste, the Karst Plateau, Inner Carniola, in Istria, the TIGR cell was led by Vladimir Gortan, an activist from BeramTIGR – Memorial plaque to TIGR activists in Ocizla on the Karst Plateau who were active in the 1930s
13. Carinthia (Slovenia) – Carinthia, also Slovene Carinthia or Slovenian Carinthia, is a traditional region in northern Slovenia. It has no centre, but a local centre in each of the three central river valleys among the heavily forested mountains. Since the entry of Slovenia into the European Union in May 2004, much effort has made to re-integrate Carinthia as a cultural, tourist. The historic region has no status as an administrative district within Slovenia. The Municipality of Jezersko south of the Seeberg Saddle mountain pass, all these municipalities border on the Austrian state of Carinthia in the north. The landscape of Carinthia is very diverse, with predominance of hilly and mountainous relief, the climate is partially an alpine climate, and partially a transitional continental climate. An important element is temperature inversion, over two thirds of Carinthia is covered by forest and the percentage is still increasing. The predominant tree species are beech, fir, and spruce, the lower areas have been polluted by lead due to a lead mine. Despite this, Carinthia is home to game and alpine animal species above the timberline. The Drava River is home to many fish, the name derives from the early mediæval Slavic principality of Carantania, whose territory stretched from the present-day Austrian state of Carinthia down to the Styrian lands on the Sava river. The area was part of the Imperial Carinthian duchy established in 976 and ruled by the House of Habsburg from 1335, upon the Austrian defeat in World War I, the newly established Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in 1919 occupied southern Carinthia. During the 1941 Balkan Campaign of World War II, the area was annexed by Nazi Germany and put under the administration of the Reichsgau of Carinthia, led by Friedrich Rainer. Upon the German Instrument of Surrender in May 1945, Yugoslav Partisans entered the region, the area around Dravograd and Prevalje is the site of several mass graves. After the war, the formed part of the Yugoslav Socialist Republic of Slovenia. The Carinthia Statistical Region had 73,754 inhabitants in 2008, with an uneven settlement, nonetheless, due to low birth rate and shorter life span, the number of inhabitants is decreasing. The biggest employer is the processing industry, many people are commuters, working in Ljubljana, Maribor, Velenje and Austria. In 2008, there was high unemployment,10. 5% in the mining town of Črna na Koroškem and 11.8 in Ravne na Koroškem. In the 1990s, the lead and zinc mine in the Meža Valley, the most highly industrialized valley of the region, the only factory in the area around the mine still operating is TAB, a manufacturer of batteriesCarinthia (Slovenia) – Typical Lower Carinthian landscape in Ravne na Koroškem.
14. Tourism in Slovenia – Slovenia offers tourists a wide variety of landscapes, Alpine in the northwest, Mediterranean in the southwest, Pannonian in the northeast, and Dinaric in the southeast. They roughly correspond to the regions of Slovenia, based on the former four Habsburg crown lands. Each offers its own natural, geographic, architectural, and cultural features, Slovenia has mountains, meadows, lakes, caves, and the sea, making it an attractive destination in Europe. The nations capital, Ljubljana, has many important Baroque and Art Nouveau buildings, other attractions include the Julian Alps with picturesque Lake Bled and the Soča Valley, as well as the nations highest peak, Mount Triglav. Perhaps even more famous is Slovenias karst named after the Karst Plateau in the Slovenian Littoral, more than 28 million visitors have visited Postojna Cave, while a 15-minute ride from it are Škocjan Caves, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Several other caves are open to public, including the Vilenica Cave, further in the same direction is the Adriatic coast, where the most important historical monument is the Venetian Gothic Mediterranean town of Piran. The neighboring town of Portorož is a modern tourist resort. Styria is known for its wine, especially the Ljutomer Riesling, after the ski resort Pohorje, after summer cultural festivals in Maribor. It is also known as a hop growing area producing Styrian Goldings, the northeastern Prekmurje region is known for its distinctive cuisine. Among traditional dishes, the best known are a pork, turnip and millet casserole called bujta repa, an important spa town in the region is Moravske Toplice, which is attracting many German, Austrian, Italian and Russian visitors. Horse-riding, cycling and hiking are among the most important tourist activities in these areas, Triglav National Park is a national park located in Slovenia. It was named after Mount Triglav, a symbol of Slovenia. Triglav is situated almost in the middle of the national park, the proposal for conservation dates back to the year 1908, and was realised in 1924. The protected area was designated as Triglav National Park. Finally, in 1981, a rearrangement was achieved and the park was given a new concept, the Karavanke mountain range and the Kamnik Alps are also important tourist destinations, as are the Pohorje mountains. Unlike the Julian Alps, however, these seem to attract mostly Slovene visitors and visitor from the neighboring regions of Austria. The biggest exception is the Logar Valley, which has promoted heavily since the 1980s. Slovenia has a number of smaller Medieval towns, which serve as important tourist attractions, among them, the most famous are Ptuj, Škofja Loka and PiranTourism in Slovenia – Postojna cave
15. Treaty of Rapallo (1920) – The treaty was signed on 12 November 1920 in Rapallo, near Genoa, Italy. Tension between Italy and Yugoslavia arose at the end of World War I, when the Austro-Hungarian Empire dissolved and these territories had an ethnically mixed population, with Slovenes and Croats composing over the half of the population of the region. The pact was therefore nullified with the Treaty of Versailles under pressure of President Woodrow Wilson, the objective of the Treaty of Rapallo was to find a compromise following the void created by the non-application of the London pact of 1915. This part of the treaty was revoked in 1924, when Italy and Yugoslavia signed the Treaty of Rome, which gave Fiume to Italy, the treaty left a large number of Slovenes and Croats in Italy. According to author Paul N. Hehn, the treaty left half a million Slavs inside Italy while only a few hundred Italians in the fledgling Yugoslav state. Indeed, according to the 1910 Austrian census 480,000 South Slavs became citizens of the Kingdom of Italy, while around 15,000 Italians became citizens of the new Yugoslav stateTreaty of Rapallo (1920) – Map of the border changes in the Julian March: with the Treaty of Rapallo, Italy received most of the Austrian Littoral, part of Inner Carniola, and some border areas of Carinthia.
16. Postojna – Postojna is a town in the traditional region of Inner Carniola,35 kilometers from Trieste, in southwestern Slovenia. It is the seat of the Municipality of Postojna, the area is known to have been populated since the paleolithic era due to the discovery of a cave settlement near the town of Postojna called Betal Rock Shelter. The town lies on the Pivka River, written sources first mention the settlement in the 13th century and in 1432 it became a borough. It was proclaimed a town in 1909, from the late Middle Ages, it was part of the Duchy of Carniola and hence of the Habsburg Monarchy. It was under Italian rule between 1918 and 1943 and was part of the province of Trieste as Postumia, Postojna is the site of a mass grave associated with the Second World War. The Pine Shaft Mass Grave is located southeast of Postojna, between Little Trebevnik Hill and Big Trebevnik Hill and it is a steep sinkhole that contains the remains of unidentified victims. One of Slovenias major tourist attractions, Postojna Cave, is located near the town, the parish church in the town is dedicated to Saint Stephen and belongs to the Koper Diocese. Within the urban area of Postojna, the dedicated to the Prophet Daniel in the hamlet of Zalog. Postojna Cave Postojna Gate Postojna municipal site Postojna on GeopediaPostojna – Postojna
17. Prekmurje – It maintains certain specific linguistic, cultural and religious features that differentiate it from other Slovenian traditional regions. It is named after the Mur river, which separates it from the rest of Slovenia, in Hungarian, the region is known as Muravidék, and in German as Übermurgebiet. The name Prekmurje was introduced in the century, although it is derived from an older term. Before 1919, the Slovenian-inhabited lands of the Vas County in the Kingdom of Hungary and Austria-Hungary were known under the name Slovene March or Vendic March, the part of modern Prekmurje that belonged to the Zala County was not considered to be part of the Slovenian March. After 1919, this name was rediscovered and introduced again, now for administrative purposes, by the new Yugoslav administration. It however did not gain popularity among the locals, the name Slovenian March was still used by the local inhabitants till the mid 1920s. The current Hungarian name for Prekmurje, Muravidék, dates from the period and is a translation of the Slovenian Murska krajina. From the mid 1930s onward, Prekmurje became widely used in the press, after World War II, this name replaced all previous denominations. North-east of Lendava, there is a small hilly sub-region, known as Lendava Hills, the administrative and commercial centre of the region is the town of Murska Sobota. The only other town is Lendava. Other larger rural centres are Dobrovnik, Turnišče, Beltinci, the majority of the inhabitants of the region are ethnic Slovenes. There are also a sizable Hungarian and Romani minorities in the region, in 1921, the total population of the area numbered 92,295 people, including 74,199 Slovene speakers,14,065 speakers of Hungarian, and 2,540 German speakers. Since then, the number of Hungarian speakers has been falling slowly but steadily, the German-speaking community, which used to be concentrated in three villages near the Austrian border and in Murska Sobota, was either expelled from the area or assimilated after World War II. Since the early 1950s, Hungarian has had co-official status in the areas of settlement of the Hungarian minority. Three municipalities are completely bilingual, while two are only partially, two municipalities, Hodoš and Dobrovnik, have a Hungarian majority. Prekmurje has traditionally been the most heterogeneous Slovene region regarding religious affiliation, besides a Roman Catholic majority, there is a significant Protestant minority, concentrated in the Goričko hills, which represents between one fourth and one fifth of the population of Prekmurje. Three municipalities have a Lutheran majority, while in Moravske Toplice, before World War II, there used to be a significant Jewish community, as well, mostly concentrated in the towns of Murska Sobota and Lendava. In the 1930s, two thirds of all Slovenian Jews lived in Prekmurje, most of them perished in the holocaustPrekmurje – The Lendava Hills (Lendavske Gorice) in winter
18. Styria (Slovenia) – Styria, also Slovenian Styria or Lower Styria, is a traditional region in northeastern Slovenia, comprising the southern third of the former Duchy of Styria. The population of Styria in its historical boundaries amounts to around 705,000 inhabitants, the first two parts, predominantly German-speaking, today form the Austrian state of Styria. The southern third, predominantly Slovene-speaking, is part of Slovenia. The Austrian rulers had the estates developed benefitting the Lower Styrian towns, according to the last Austro-Hungarian census of 1910, Lower Styria had around 498,000 inhabitants, of which around 82% were Slovene and around 18% German speakers. After a short fight with German-Austrian paramilitary units, the current border was established, acknowledged by the provisional Styrian assembly at Graz, by December 1918, all of Lower Styria was de facto included in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. A protest by German-speaking Marburg citizens resulted in the Marburg Bloody Sunday, confirmed by the 1919 Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, the border between Yugoslav and Austrian Styria mostly followed the ethnic-linguistic dividing line between Slovenes and ethnic Germans. Nevertheless, several Slovene-speaking villages around Leutschach, Spielberg, Soboth, according to the 1921 Yugoslav census, some 22,500 ethnic Germans lived in Yugoslav Styria. They represented around 4. 5% of the population of the region. In 1931, this dropped to around 12,500 or 2. 3% of the regional population. In 1922, the County of Maribor was formed, comprising most of the territory of Slovene Styria, plus the Prekmurje, after the coup detat of King Alexander I of Yugoslavia in January 1929, the counties were abolished and replaced with nine Banates. In April 1941, Nazi Germany invaded Yugoslavia and Slovene Styria was annexed to the Third Reich, a policy of violent Germanization was introduced. Public use of Slovene language was prohibited, and all Slovene associations were dissolved, members of all professional and intellectual groups, including many clergymen, were expelled. Between April 1941 and May 1942, around 80,000 Slovenes were expelled from Lower Styria, as a reaction, a resistance movement developed. Many areas of Lower Styria witnessed fierce fighting between German troops and Slovene partisan units, after World War II, Yugoslav authority over the region was established and Slovene Styria became an integral part of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia. Between the 1950s and 1970s, many areas of the region underwent rapid industrializations, towns like Maribor, Celje and Velenje became among the most important industrial centers of Slovenia and Yugoslavia. Lower Styria has no status as an administrative or statistical unit within Slovenia. The bulk of Lower Styria is subdivided between the Drava Statistical Region with its seat in Maribor, and the Savinja Statistical Region with its seat in Celje, nowadays, many of these peripheral areas are no longer considered part of Styria. An exception is the Prlekija subregion, which is widely considered part of StyriaStyria (Slovenia) – Typical Lower Styrian landscape in Sevnica.
19. Inner Austria – The residence of the Inner Austrian archdukes and stadtholders was at the Burg castle complex in Graz. In the west, the Carinthian lands stretched to the Archbishopric of Salzburg and the Habsburg County of Tyrol, while in the east, the Mur River formed the border with the Kingdom of Hungary. In the south, the County of Görz, which had passed to the House of Habsburg in 1500, the Imperial Free City of Trieste on the Adriatic Coast linked to assorted smaller possessions in the March of Istria around Pazin and the free port of Rijeka in Liburnia. In 1335 Rudolphs grandson Duke Albert II of Austria also received the Carinthian duchy with the adjacent March of Carniola at the hands of Emperor Louis the Bavarian as Imperial fiefs. Both sides came to an agreement to maintain the Neuberg division, therefore, from 1404 William acted as Austrian regent for his minor nephew Albert V. The Tyrolean and Further Austrian lands passed to Williams younger brother Duke Leopold IV the Fat,1490 saw the reunification of all Habsburg lines, when Archduke Sigismund of Further Austria and Tyrol resigned in favour of Fredericks son Maximilian I. In 1512, the Habsburg territories were incorporated into the Imperial Austrian Circle, the dynasty however was split up again in 1564 among the children of deceased Emperor Ferdinand I of Habsburg. Under the Inner Austrian line founded by his younger son Archduke Charles II and his intentions to translate the absolutist and anti-reformationist Inner Austrian policies to the Crown of Bohemia sparked the Thirty Years War. The political administration of Inner Austria was centralized at Graz in 1763, Inner Austrian stadtholders went on to rule until the days of Empress Maria Theresa in the 18th century. Ferdinand became Archduke of Austria in 1619, all Habsburg territories again united in 1655. History of Austria History of SloveniaInner Austria – Duchy of Styria
20. Pivka – Des-gamma carboxyprothrombin, also known as protein induced by vitamin K absence/antagonist-II, is an abnormal form of the coagulation protein, prothrombin. Normally, the prothrombin precursor undergoes post-translational carboxylation by gamma-glutamyl carboxylase in the prior to secretion into plasma. DCP/PIVKA-II may be detected in people with deficiency of vitamin K, a 1984 study first described the use of DCP as a marker of hepatocellular carcinoma, it was present in 91% of HCC patients, while not being detectable in other liver diseases. The DCP level did not change with the administration of vitamin K, a number of subsequent studies have since confirmed this phenomenon. A2007 comparison of various HCC tumor markers found DCP the least sensitive to risk factors for HCC and it differentiates HCC from non-malignant liver diseases. Moreover, it has demonstrated that a combined analysis of DCP. Despite many years of use in Japan, only did a 2003 American study reevaluate its use in an American patient series and it also identified HCC at an earlier stage. A1987 report described the use of DCP determination in the detection of intoxication with acenocoumarol, a vitamin K antagonistPivka
21. Province of Trieste – The Province of Trieste is a province in the autonomous Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Trieste and it has an area of 212 square kilometres and a total population of 236,520. It has a length of 48.1 kilometres. There are 6 communes in the province, after the dissolution of the Western Roman Empire, the area of the province of Trieste was ruled by the Ostrogoths, Eastern Romans, Lombards and by the Franks. With the advent of the Habsburgs the territory was divided between the lords of Duino, Trieste, San Dorligo della Valle and Muggia, during the reign of Maria Theresa of Austria and, subsequently, Joseph II, the maritime trades were increased with institution of the free port. In 1809, the area was ceded to France after the defeat of Austria in that year, San Dorligo della Valle and Muggia became part of Istria. World War I left the territory of the province almost untouched, the whole area was occupied by Italy in November 1918, in the aftermath of Austrias defeat in World War I. It was officially annexed to Italy with the treaty of Rapallo of 1920, the Province of Trieste was first established in 1920. It comprised the current territory of the province, as well as significant portions of the Kras plateau, after the end of World War II, the Free Territory of Trieste was established as a free state on 15 September 1947. On 26 October 1954, Italy and Yugoslavia came to an understanding whereby the territory de facto was divided between the two states, Zone A of the free state became the new Province of Trieste and Zone B was to be administered by Yugoslavia. The Province of Trieste formally became a part of Italy on 11 October 1977, the Italian language is spoken within the whole province. In the city of Trieste, many people speak Triestine, a dialect of Venetian, the Tergestine, an archaic dialect of the Friulian language was spoken in Trieste and in Muggia, but became completely extinct by the mid 19th century. An estimated 8% of the population belongs to the Slovene ethnic community. Besides standard Slovene, which is taught in Slovene-language schools, three different Slovene dialects are spoken in the Province of Trieste. The Kras dialect is spoken in the municipalities of Duino-Aurisina and Sgonico, as well as in several settlements in the municipality of Trieste, Barcola, Prosecco, and Contovello. The Inner Carniolan dialect is spoken in the municipality of Monrupino and in settlements of the municipality of Trieste, namely Opicina, Trebiciano, Padriciano. The Istrian dialect is spoken in the municipalities of San Dorligo della Valle and in the areas of Muggia. The following is a list of the six communes of the Province of Trieste, ItalyProvince of Trieste – Map highlighting the location of the province of Trieste in Italy
22. Vrhnika – Vrhnika is a town in Slovenia. It is the seat of the Municipality of Vrhnika and it is located on the Ljubljanica River,21 km from Ljubljana along the A1 motorway. Vrhnika lies at the southwest end of the Ljubljana Marsh near the sources of the Ljubljanica River, the territory of the town extends south onto the Logatec Plateau, where the Big and Little Drnovica Collapse Sinkholes are found. A rich network of springs and streams originates and joins near the town to form the source of the Ljubljanica, the settlement at the location of todays Vrhnika was attested in antiquity as Nauportus in Latin, and as Ναύποντος and Νάμπορτος in Greek. Medieval attestations of the name include de superiory Laybaco in 1300, Oberlaybach in 1308, in the past, the town was known as Oberlaibach in standard German. The Slovene name is probably a compound of vrh top, summit + nika or nikve creek, spring, referring to the source of the Ljubljanica River. The Latin name Nauportus is a compound of navis boat + portus transfer, a mythological reinterpretation of the Latin name as referring to the portage of a boat itself appears in Pliny the Elders Natural History. In Roman times, Nauportus was an important communication point, Vrhnika as it exists today started to develop in the High Middle Ages. Vrhnika became a town and was among the wealthiest towns in Carniola up to the early 18th century. The development of the town was strongly impaired by the construction of the Austrian Southern Railway in the 1840s, from then on, it started losing importance, becoming a satellite town of Ljubljana, which has remained up to this day. Vrhnika is the site of a grave from the period immediately after the Second World War. The Pikec Valley Mass Grave is located at the bottom of a sinkhole southwest of the town and it contains the remains of six German prisoners of war that were murdered in May 1945. Notable people that were born or lived in Vrhnika include, Vrhnika, Visit Vrhnika Vrhnika, official page of the municipality Vrhnika on Geopedia Vrhnika on Google MapsVrhnika – Vrhnika
23. Julian March – The Julian March or Julian Venetia, is an area of southeastern Europe, today split among Croatia, Italy, and Slovenia. The Triple Entente promised to grant these areas to Italy in the break-up of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in exchange for its joining the Allied Powers in World War I.3 million ethnic Slovenes. With the exception of most of Dalmatia, the Treaty of Versailles after the war mostly granted these areas to Italy, a contemporary Italian autonomous region, bordering on Slovenia, is still named Friuli-Venezia Giulia, literally meaning Friuli and Julian Venetia. With exception of the island of Krk, and the municipality of Kastav, Rijeka became a city state, called the Free State of Fiume, but was abolished in 1924 and divided between Italy and Yugoslavia. The new provinces of Gorizia, Trieste, Pola and Fiume, were created, Italians lived mostly in urban areas and along the coast, while Slavs inhabited the hinterland. On the other hand, several thousand Dalmatian Italians moved from Yugoslavia to Italy after 1918, many of them to Istria and Trieste. In 1941, in the Province of Ljubljana occupied by Fascist Italy, the German Army started occupying the region, but encountered severe resistance by Yugoslav partisans, especially in the lower Vipava Valley and in the Alpine regions. By winter of 1943, most of the lowlands were occupied by the Nazis, in the aftermath of the Italian armistice, in autumn of 1943, the first cases of what would later become known as Foibe massacres occurred, mostly in what is today Croatian Istria. In 1943, the Germans established the Operational Zone of the Adriatic Littoral, which was part of the Italian Social Republic. Many areas, especially north and north-east of Gorizia were controlled by the Partisan resistance, the Nazis tried to repress the Yugoslav guerrilla with brutalities against the civilian population, entire villages were burned down and thousands of people interned in Nazi concentration camps. Nevertheless, the Yugoslav resistance took over most of the region by the spring of 1945, on May 1945 the Yugoslav Army entered Trieste and in the following days, virtually the entire Julian March was occupied by Yugoslav forces. Much retaliation against real and potential political opponents took place, mostly at the expenses of the Italian population, western allies adopted the term Julian March as the official name for the territories, contested between Italy and the Peoples Federal Republic of Yugoslavia between 1945 and 1947. In June 1945, the Morgan Line was drawn, dividing the region into two militarily administered zones. Zone B was under Yugoslav administration, excluding the cities of Pula, Gorizia, Trieste, the Soča valley and most of the Kras plateau, during this period, many Italians left the area under Yugoslav occupation, a phenomenon known as the Istrian exodus. In 1947, from four proposed solutions, an agreement on the border was reached at the Paris Peace Conference, Yugoslavia acquired all the northern portion of the region east of Gorizia, as well as most of Istria and the city of Fiume. A Free Territory of Trieste was created, divided into two zones, one under Allied, and the other under Yugoslav military administration, tensions however continued and in 1954 the Territory was abolished and divided between Italy and Yugoslavia. In Slovenia, the region is referred to as Slovenian Littoral, the name Slovenian Littoral is sometimes extended to comprise the Slovene-speaking territories in the Provinces of Gorizia and Trieste. In Croatia, only the name of Istria is usedJulian March – A house on the Italy–Slovenia border at Gorizia with the inscription "Here is Yugoslavia", dating from the period 1945-1947
24. Cerknica – Cerknica is a town in the Karst region of southwestern Slovenia, with a population of 3,532. It is the seat of the Municipality of Cerknica and it belongs to the traditional region of Inner Carniola. Cerknica was first attested in sources as Circhinitz in 1040. The name is derived from *Cerkvnica, a univerbation of *Cerkvna church village, a church was established very early in Cerknica, probably already in the 9th century. The original structure was burned down in an Ottoman attack in 1472, there are three churches in Cerknica. The parish church is dedicated to the Nativity of Mary and it stands at the top of a hill in the center of Cerknica at the site of a former fortification against Ottoman raids. It is a late Gothic hall church, a structure with lierne vaulting built between 1480 and 1520 at the site of an earlier church that was burned during an Ottoman attack in 1472. A Baroque chapel was added to the church in the 18th century, the other two churches are chapels of ease dedicated to John the Baptist and Saint Roch. Saint John the Baptist Church is a church south of the main settlement. A chapel was mentioned at the site in a report of 1581. It has a nave, a polygonal chancel walled on three sides, and a bell tower. The interior combines groin vaulting and barrel vaulting with spandrels, Saint Rochs Church stands in the northern part of Cerknica. It was built between 1630 and 1644 at the site of a chapel dating to 1578. It has a nave, a polygonal chancel walled on three sides, and a bell tower. The altar painting of Saint Roch is a 1763 work by Anton CebejCerknica – Cerknica
25. Duchy of Carniola – The Duchy of Carniola was a State of the Holy Roman Empire, established under Habsburg rule on the territory of the former East Frankish March of Carniola in 1364. A hereditary land of the Habsburg Monarchy, it became a constituent land of the Austrian Empire in 1804, a separate crown land from 1849, it was incorporated into the Cisleithanian territories of Austria-Hungary from 1867 until the states dissolution in 1918. The borders of the historic Carniola region had varied over the centuries, in the north, it bordered the Imperial Duchy of Carinthia, from the Predil Pass and Fusine along the main ridge of the Karawanks range up to Jezersko. In the northeast and east, it bordered on the Duchy of Styria, i. e. the present-day Štajerska or Lower Styrian lands beyond the Sava River, which until 1456 were held by the Counts of Celje. In the southwest, beyond the Dinaric Alps, the Counts of Görz held the remaining Friulian territory, the remains of the Margraviate of Istria south of the Karst Plateau and the Brkini Hills were also administered from Carniola. In its final extent, re-established in 1815, the duchy had an area of 9,904 square kilometres, in 1914, before the beginning of World War I, it had a population of a little under 530,000 inhabitants. Until 1860, these sub-regions coincided with the districts of Ljubljana, Novo Mesto and they were later divided into smaller units, called political districts. Between 1861 and 1918, Carniola was divided into districts consisting of 359 municipalities. The districts were, Kamnik, Kranj, Radovljica, the neighbourhood of Ljubljana, Logatec, Postojna, Litija, Krško, Novo Mesto, Črnomelj, the political districts were in turn divided into 31 judicial circuits. The former March of Carniola, i. e. Upper Carniola and it was nevertheless temporarily still held by the Carinthian rulers in personal union, like the Meinhardiner duke Henry VI, who died in 1335 without a male heir. Alberts son Rudolf IV of Austria, the Founder, in the course of his Privilegium Maius, rudolph also founded the town of Novo Mesto in Lower Carniola, then named Rudolphswerth. In 1457, the Inner Austrian territories were re-united with the Archduchy of Austria under the rule of the Habsburg emperor Frederick III. When Fredericks descendant, Emperor Ferdinand I, died in 1564, Charles son, Emperor Ferdinand II, inherited all the dynastys lands in 1619 and the duchy formed a constituent part of the Habsburg Monarchy ever since. Napoleon subsequent to the 1809 Treaty of Schönbrunn formed the short-lived Illyrian Provinces from the territories in Carniola, Carinthia, Croatia, Gorizia and Gradisca. The Final Act of the 1815 Congress of Vienna restored the Illyrian Provinces to the Austrian Empire, the home legislature consisted of a single chamber of thirty-seven members, among whom the prince-bishop sat ex-officio. The emperor convened the legislature, and it was presided over by the k. k, the landed interests elected ten members, the cities and towns eight, the commercial and industrial boards two, the village communes sixteen. The land budget of 1901 amounted to 3,573,280 crowns, the Austrian Imperial-Royal government was represented by the Imperial-Royal president, appointed by the emperor, and the Imperial-Royal Government in Ljubljana. In the majority of other Austrian crown lands these were known as Imperial-Royal Lieutenant, in 1918, the duchy ceased to exist and its territory became part of the newly formed State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs and subsequently part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and SlovenesDuchy of Carniola – Historic map of the Carniolan duchy: Upper (pink), Lower (green) and Inner (yellow) Carniola with adjacent Istrian march (orange), Johann Homann, 1714
26. Slovene dialects – Slovene dialects are the regional spoken varieties of Slovene, a South Slavic language. Spoken Slovene is often considered to have at least 48 dialects and subdialects, the exact number of dialects is open to debate, ranging from as many as 50 to merely 7. In such communication, standard Slovene is used per convention, the first attempts to classify Slovenian dialects were made by Izmail Sreznevsky in the early 19th century, followed by Jan Niecisław Baudouin de Courtenay, Karel Štrekelj, and Ivan Scheinig. This was followed by efforts by Ivan Grafenauer, Josip Tominšek, efforts before the Second World War were spearheaded by Lucien Tesnière, Fran Ramovš, and Aleksander Isachenko, and after the war by Tine Logar and Jakob Rigler. Eventually, the proposed by Ramovš was accepted with corrections and additions by Logar and Rigler. The division of Slovenian into dialects is based on various non-linguistic and linguistic factors, non-linguistic factors include settlement patterns and geographical features that helped shape various isoglosses. The main regional groups are, The Upper Carniolan dialect group, spoken in most of Upper Carniola, among other features, this group is characterized by monophthongal stressed vowels, an acute semivowel, pitch accent, standard circumflex shift, and two accentual retractions with some exceptions. It features narrowing of o and e in preaccentual position, akanye in postaccentual position, there is a partial development of g to, preservation of bilabial w, and general hardening of soft l and n. The Lower Carniolan dialect group, spoken in most of Lower Carniola, among other features, this group is characterized by pitch accent, extensive dipththongization, an a-colored semivowel, shift of o > u, and partial akanye. The Styrian dialect group, spoken in central and eastern Slovenian Styria and in the Lower Sava Valley, the Pannonian dialect group, or northeastern dialect group, spoken in northeastern Slovenia, and among the Hungarian Slovenes. Among other features, this group is characterized by loss of pitch accent, non-lengthened short syllables, and this group includes very heterogeneous dialects. Among other features, it is characterized by diphthongization of yat > ie and o > uo, the western dialects in this group have preserved pitch accent whereas the others have a non-tonal stress accent. Among other features, this group is characterized by shortening of long diphthongal ie and uo, akanye, the Mixed Kočevje subdialects, a catch-all category for the Slovene dialects of heterogeneous origin now spoken in the Kočevje region. The following grouping of dialects and subdialects is based on the 1983 map of Slovene dialects by Fran Ramovš, Tine Logar, and Jakob Rigler and other sourcesSlovene dialects – Upper Carniolan
27. Lake Cerknica – Lake Cerknica is an intermittent lake in the southern part of the Cerknica Polje, a karst polje in Inner Carniola, a region in southwestern Slovenia. The lake, oriented in the Dinaric direction from northwest to southeast, is present for the most part of the year, when full, it is the largest lake in the country. The plain is surrounded by the Javornik Hills to the south, the area of the lake mainly reaches 28 square kilometres, but can reach up to 38 km2 and the surface level varies from 546 m to 551 m above sea level. The lake is an important wildlife resort, especially as a place for many bird species. Botanically, it is distinguished by amphibious plants and it is therefore a part of two Natura 2000 areas of protection and the focus of the Inner Carniola Regional Park, which covers additional Natura 2000 areas in the broader region. The climate in the area is continental, with a temperature of 9.2 °C. The largest settlement at the border of the lake is Cerknica, various watersports, including windsurfing, are popular on the lake. In the autumn, when the rainfall is slight, the lake is drained into the reservoirs lying below its level. The changes in level are, however, very irregular, sometimes the lake does not disappear for several years, and it can remain dry for over a year, as it did in 1834–35. It is rich in fish, which disappear and return with the water, strabo in his Geography mentions a marsh called Lugeon which has been identified with Lake Cerknica, Lougeon being Strabos Greek rendition of a local toponym, perhaps of Illyrian origin. He proposed a model of filling and emptying the lake, based on Cartesian mechanics, the first to accurately describe the functioning of Lake Cerknica was Tobias Gruber in 1781, followed in 1784 by Belsazar Hacquet. Lake Cerknica at official Slovenia travel guideLake Cerknica – Lake Cerknica after rain
28. Municipality of Brezovica – The Municipality of Brezovica is a municipality in central Slovenia, just south of its capital Ljubljana. Its administrative centre is the settlement of Brezovica pri Ljubljani and it is the central municipality in the Ljubljana Marshes. The entire municipality is part of the region of Inner Carniola and is now included in the Central Slovenia Statistical Region. To the east, it borders the municipalities of Ljubljana and Ig, to the south, it borders the Municipality of Cerknica, to the west the municipalities of Borovnica and Vrhnika, and to the north the Municipality of Dobrova–Polhov Gradec. The area has been inhabited since ancient times, people known as the Lake Dwellers, described by the Slovene writer Janez Jalen in his novel Bobri, arrived when the marshland was still covered by a lake. Later, the covered by the present municipality was crossed by Roman roads, traces of which are still visible. The Ljubljanica River was navigated by boatmen, the Romans redirected it towards Podpeč, a village known for its good quality stone. The nearby forests and the proximity to Ljubljana, have positively influenced the development of agriculture, trade. Many old crafts, such as lime, stone, and wood processing, stone from Podpeč, known as Podpeč Marble, was used in many prominent monuments in Ljubljana by the architect Jože Plečnik, such as the National and University Library of Slovenia. The quarry is now protected and only small excavations are allowed, media related to Municipality of Brezovica at Wikimedia Commons Official webpage of the municipality Municipality of Brezovica at Geopedia. siMunicipality of Brezovica – Municipality of Brezovica Občina Brezovica
29. Italian cuisine – Italian cuisine is the culinary typical or originating from Italy. It has developed through centuries of social and political changes, with roots stretching to antiquity, Italian cuisine is characterized by its simplicity, with many dishes having only four to eight ingredients. Italian cooks rely chiefly on the quality of the rather than on elaborate preparation. Ingredients and dishes vary by region, many dishes that were once regional, however, have proliferated with variations throughout the country. Cheese and wine are a part of the cuisine, with many variations. Coffee, specifically espresso, has become important in Italian cuisine, Italian cuisine has developed over the centuries. Although the country known as Italy did not unite until the 19th century, Italian food started to form after the fall of the Roman Empire, when different cities began to separate and form their own traditions. Many different types of bread and pasta were made, and there was a variation in cooking techniques and preparation. For example, the north of Italy is known for its risottos, the central/middle of the country is known for its tortellini, the first known Italian food writer was a Greek Sicilian named Archestratus from Syracuse in the 4th century BCE. He wrote a poem that spoke of using top quality and seasonal ingredients and he said that flavors should not be masked by spices, herbs or other seasonings. He placed importance on simple preparation of fish, simplicity was abandoned and replaced by a culture of gastronomy as the Roman Empire developed. By the time De re coquinaria was published in the 1st century CE, it contained 470 recipes calling for heavy use of spices, the Romans employed Greek bakers to produce breads and imported cheeses from Sicily as the Sicilians had a reputation as the best cheesemakers. The Romans reared goats for butchering, and grew artichokes and leeks, with culinary traditions from Rome and Athens, a cuisine developed in Sicily that some consider the first real Italian cuisine. Arabs invaded Sicily in the 9th century, introducing spinach, almonds, Normans also introduced casseroles, salt cod and stockfish, which remain popular. Food preservation was either chemical or physical, as refrigeration did not exist, meats and fish would be smoked, dried or kept on ice. Brine and salt were used to pickle items such as herring, root vegetables were preserved in brine after they had been parboiled. Other means of preservation included oil, vinegar or immersing meat in congealed, rendered fat, for preserving fruits, liquor, honey and sugar were used. The northern Italian regions show a mix of Germanic and Roman culture while the south reflects Arab influence, the oldest Italian book on cuisine is the 13th century Liber de coquina written in NaplesItalian cuisine – Italian cuisine
30. Upper Carniola – Upper Carniola is a traditional region of Slovenia, the northern mountainous part of the larger Carniola region. The centre of the region is Kranj, while other urban centers include Jesenice, Tržič, Škofja Loka, Kamnik and it has around 300,000 inhabitants or 14% of the population of Slovenia. Its origins as a political entity can be traced back to the 17th century. This division was described by the scholar Johann Weikhard von Valvasor in his 1689 work The Glory of the Duchy of Carniola. The districts were known in German as Kreise, nevertheless, the regional identity remained strong also thereafter. The Carniolan regional identity soon faded away, but the identification with its sub-units remained strong. To the north, Upper Carniola is delimited by the Austrian state of Carinthia, the historic Lower Styria region to the east, and the Slovenian Littoral to the west. An 1809 atlas shows the border with Lower Carniola to the southeast generally following the line of the Sava, Ljubljanica, Iščica, the landscape is characterised by the mountains of the Southern Limestone Alps, predominantly by the Julian Alps and the Karawanks range at its northern rim. Historically, Ljubljana was part of Upper Carniola, since the 19th century, Kranj, not Ljubljana, has been considered the unofficial capital of Upper Carniola. The modern notion of Upper Carniola does not fully correspond to the historical borders, for example, the Municipality of Jezersko used to be part of the Duchy of Carinthia, in 1918, it was occupied by Slovene volunteers and annexed to Yugoslavia by the 1919 Treaty of Saint-Germain. Now it is generally considered an integral part of Upper Carniola. The borders of Upper Carniola are only vaguely similar those of Slovenias Upper Carniola Statistical Region, traditionally, most of the people of Upper Carniola have spoken the Upper Carniolan dialect, which is one of the geographically most extended and linguistically most compact Slovene dialects. It covers most of the province, except for some areas in south-western and north-western Upper Carniola. It belongs to the Upper Carniolan dialect group, which includes the Selca dialect, spoken in the mountainous Upper Carniolan villages of Železniki, Selca, Dražgoše. Nevertheless, other dialects are spoken in Upper Carniola, as well, in the village of Rateče, people speak the Gail Valley dialect, which belongs to the Carinthian dialect group. In the area around Kranjska Gora and Gozd Martuljek, a transitional dialect between the Carinthian and Upper Carniolan dialect group is spoken, this is known as the Kranjska Gora subdialect, in the mountainous areas of eastern Upper Carniola, dialects from the Rovte dialect group are spoken. Beginning in the 18th century, the Upper Carniolan dialect became the basis on which standard Slovene was developed, the poet and journalist Valentin Vodnik, who was born in Šiška, now a suburb of Ljubljana, also wrote in the Upper Carniolan dialect. The first two Slovene language newspapers, Lublanske novice and Kmetijske in rokodelske novice were also published in the Upper Carniolan regional variety of Slovene, the poetic language of France Prešeren, the Slovenian national poet, also has many specific Upper Carniolan featuresUpper Carniola – An Austrian map from the late 18th century of "Upper Carniola a.k.a. District of Ljubljana "