1. Justin Bieber – Justin Drew Bieber is a Canadian singer and songwriter. After a talent manager discovered him through his YouTube videos covering songs in 2008 and signed to RBMG, Bieber released his debut EP, My World and it was certified Platinum in the U. S. He became the first artist to have seven songs from a record chart on the Billboard Hot 100. Bieber released his first full-length studio album, My World 2.0 and it debuted at or near number one in several countries, was certified triple Platinum in the U. S. and contained his single Baby. He released his studio album, Under the Mistletoe, in November 2011. Bieber released his studio album, Believe, in 2012. His fourth studio album Purpose was released in November 2015, spawning three number one singles, What Do You Mean and his U. S. album and singles sales total 44.7 million. He has sold an estimated 100 million records, making him one of the world’s best-selling music artists, Bieber has won numerous awards, including the American Music Award for Artist of the Year in 2010 and 2012. In his career, he has won one Grammy Award for Best Dance Recording for the song Where Are Ü Now at the 2016 ceremony. He has been listed four times by Forbes magazine among the top ten most powerful celebrities in the world in 2011,2012, Bieber also became the first artist to surpass 10 billion total video views on Vevo. Bieber was born on March 1,1994, in London, Ontario, at St Josephs Hospital and he is the only child of Jeremy Jack Bieber and Patricia Pattie Mallette. Pattie raised her son with the help of her mother, Diane and his mother is of French-Canadian descent, his paternal great-grandfather was of German ancestry, and his other roots are English, Scottish and Irish. He has also claimed that he has some undetermined Aboriginal Canadian ancestry, through Jeremy, Bieber has two younger half-siblings, Jazmyn and Jaxon. Pattie worked a series of low-paying office jobs, raising Bieber as a mother in low-income housing. Bieber has maintained contact with his father, Bieber attended a French-language immersion elementary school in Stratford, the Jeanne Sauvé Catholic School. Growing up, he learned to play the piano, drums, guitar and he graduated from high school in Stratford, Ontario, the St. Michael Catholic Secondary School in 2012 with a 4.0 GPA. In early 2007, aged 12, Bieber sang Ne-Yos So Sick for a singing competition in Stratford and was placed second. Mallette posted a video of the performance on YouTube for their family and she continued to upload videos of Bieber singing covers of various R&B songs, and Biebers popularity on the site grewJustin Bieber – Bieber at the 2012 NRJ Music Awards
2. Belfast – Belfast is the capital and largest city of Northern Ireland, the second largest on the island of Ireland, and the heart of the tenth largest Primary Urban Area in the United Kingdom. On the River Lagan, it had a population of 286,000 at the 2011 census and 333,871 after the 2015 council reform, Belfast was granted city status in 1888. Belfast played a key role in the Industrial Revolution, and was an industrial centre until the latter half of the 20th century. It has sustained a major aerospace and missiles industry since the mid 1930s, industrialisation and the inward migration it brought made Belfast Irelands biggest city at the beginning of the 20th century. Today, Belfast remains a centre for industry, as well as the arts, higher education, business, and law, additionally, Belfast city centre has undergone considerable expansion and regeneration in recent years, notably around Victoria Square. Belfast is served by two airports, George Best Belfast City Airport in the city, and Belfast International Airport 15 miles west of the city. Although the county borough of Belfast was created when it was granted city status by Queen Victoria in 1888, the site of Belfast has been occupied since the Bronze Age. The Giants Ring, a 5, 000-year-old henge, is located near the city, Belfast remained a small settlement of little importance during the Middle Ages. The ONeill clan had a presence in the area, in the 14th century, Cloinne Aodha Buidhe, descendants of Aodh Buidhe ONeill built Grey Castle at Castlereagh, now in the east of the city. Conn ONeill of the Clannaboy ONeills owned vast lands in the area and was the last inhabitant of Grey Castle, evidence of this period of Belfasts growth can still be seen in the oldest areas of the city, known as the Entries. Belfast blossomed as a commercial and industrial centre in the 18th and 19th centuries, industries thrived, including linen, rope-making, tobacco, heavy engineering and shipbuilding, and at the end of the 19th century, Belfast briefly overtook Dublin as the largest city in Ireland. The Harland and Wolff shipyards became one of the largest shipbuilders in the world, in 1886 the city suffered intense riots over the issue of home rule, which had divided the city. In 1920–22, Belfast became the capital of the new entity of Northern Ireland as the island of Ireland was partitioned, the accompanying conflict cost up to 500 lives in Belfast, the bloodiest sectarian strife in the city until the Troubles of the late 1960s onwards. Belfast was heavily bombed during World War II, in one raid, in 1941, German bombers killed around one thousand people and left tens of thousands homeless. Apart from London, this was the greatest loss of life in a raid during the Blitz. Belfast has been the capital of Northern Ireland since its establishment in 1921 following the Government of Ireland Act 1920 and it had been the scene of various episodes of sectarian conflict between its Catholic and Protestant populations. These opposing groups in conflict are now often termed republican and loyalist respectively. The most recent example of conflict was known as the Troubles – a civil conflict that raged from around 1969 to 1998Belfast – Top: Skyline of Belfast Middle top left to right, Queen's University Belfast, Albert Memorial Clock, Belfast, The Boat, Titanic Belfast Bottom left to right: Belfast City Hall, view of Belfast with Samson and Goliath.
3. MTV – MTV is an American cable and satellite television channel owned by Viacom Media Networks and headquartered in New York City. Launched on August 1,1981, the originally aired music videos as guided by television personalities known as video jockeys. In its early years, MTVs main target demographic was young adults and it has received criticism towards this change of focus, both by certain segments of its audience and musicians. MTVs influence on its audience, including issues involving censorship and social activism, has also been a subject of debate for several years, in recent years, MTV had struggled with the secular decline of music-related cable media. In April 2016, MTV announced it would start to return to its original music roots with the reintroduction of the classic MTV series MTV Unplugged. It was also reported that the series MTV Cribs would be making a return on Snapchat, MTV has spawned numerous sister channels in the US and affiliated channels internationally, some of which have gone independent. As of July 2015, approximately 92,188,000 US households have received MTV, several earlier concepts for music video-based television programming had been around since the early 1960s. The Beatles had used music videos to promote their records starting in the mid-1960s, CBS rejected the idea, but Williams premiered his own musical composition Classical Gas on the Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour, where he was head writer. The series featured clips from various popular artists, but was canceled by its distributor in 1971. The channel, which featured video disc jockeys, signed a deal with US Cable in 1978 to expand its audience from retail to cable television, the service was no longer active by the time MTV launched in 1981. The QUBE system offered many specialized channels, One of these specialized channels was Sight on Sound, a music channel that featured concert footage and music-oriented television programs. With the interactive QUBE service, viewers could vote for their favorite songs, the original programming format of MTV was created by media executive Robert W. Pittman, who later became president and chief executive officer of MTV Networks. Pittman had test-driven the music format by producing and hosting a 15-minute show, Album Tracks, the inspiration for PopClips came from a similar program on New Zealands TVNZ network named Radio with Pictures, which premiered in 1976. The concept itself had been in the works since 1966, when record companies began supplying the New Zealand Broadcasting Corporation with promotional music clips to play on the air at no charge. Few artists made the trip to New Zealand to appear live. A shortened version of the shuttle launch ID ran at the top of hour in various forms. The first music video shown on MTV was The Buggles Video Killed the Radio Star and this was followed by the video for Pat Benatars You Better Run. Sporadically, the screen would go black when an employee at MTV inserted a tape into a VCR, MTVs lower third graphics that appeared near the beginning and end of music videos would eventually use the recognizable Kabel typeface for about 25 yearsMTV – Michael Jackson, whose discography included music videos such as " Beat It ", " Billie Jean ", and " Thriller ".
4. Mariah Carey – Mariah Carey is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, and actress. In 1990, Carey rose to fame with the release of Vision of Love from her eponymous debut album, the album produced four chart-topping singles in the US and began what would become a string of commercially successful albums which solidified the singer as Columbias highest selling act. Carey and Boyz II Men spent a record sixteen weeks atop the Billboard Hot 100 in 1995–1996 with One Sweet Day, following a contentious divorce from Sony Music head Tommy Mottola, Carey adopted a new image and traversed towards hip hop with the release of Butterfly. In 1998, she was honored as the worlds best-selling recording artist of the 1990s at the World Music Awards, Carey parted with Columbia in 2000, and signed a record-breaking $100 million recording contract with Virgin Records America. In the weeks prior to the release of her film Glitter and its soundtrack in 2001. The project was received and led to a general decline in the singers career. Careys recording contract was out for $50 million by Virgin. After a relatively unsuccessful period, she returned to the top of music charts with The Emancipation of Mimi, Carey once again ventured into film with a well-received supporting role in Precious, and was awarded the Breakthrough Performance Award at the Palm Springs International Film Festival. Throughout her career, Carey has sold more than 200 million records worldwide, according to the RIAA, she is the third-best-selling female artist in the United States, with 63.5 million certified albums. With the release of Touch My Body, Carey gained her 18th number-one single in the United States, in 2012, the singer was ranked second on VH1s list of the 100 Greatest Women in Music. Mariah Carey was born in Huntington, New York, to Patricia and her mother is of Irish descent, while her father had African-American and Afro-Venezuelan ancestry. The surname Carey was adopted by her Venezuelan grandfather, Francisco Núñez, Patricia was an occasional opera singer and vocal coach before she met Alfred in 1960. As he began earning a living as an engineer, the couple married later that year. After their elopement, Patricias family disowned her for marrying a black man, Carey later explained that she felt neglected by her maternal family while growing up, which affected her greatly. In the years between the births of Careys older sister Alison and herself, the Carey family struggled within the community due to their ethnicity, Careys name was derived from the song They Call the Wind Maria, originally from the 1951 Broadway musical Paint Your Wagon. When Carey was three, her parents divorced, after their separation, Alison moved in with her father, while the other two children, Mariah and brother Morgan, remained with their mother. Carey grew apart from her father and would stop seeing him altogether. By age four, she recalled that she had begun to sneak the radio under her covers at night, during elementary school, she excelled in subjects that she enjoyed, such as music, art, and literature, but did not find interest in othersMariah Carey – Carey performing on Good Morning America in May 2013
5. Tiffani Thiessen – Tiffani-Amber Thiessen is an American actress. She is known for starring as Kelly Kapowski on NBCs Saved by the Bell and as Valerie Malone on Foxs Beverly Hills,90210, two TV series that met with great success. Thiessen was born in Long Beach, California, the daughter of Robyn, a homemaker, and Frank Thiessen and she has credited her brother, Todd, as one of her most important sources of inspiration, and her mother and grandmother as role models. Her mother has Greek, Turkish and Welsh heritage and she attended Cubberley Elementary and Marshall Junior High School in Long Beach. In 1992, Thiessen graduated as valedictorian at Valley Professional High School in Studio City, Thiessen participated in beauty pageants during her childhood and was crowned Miss Junior America in 1987. The following year, she graced the cover of Teen magazine, in 1989, she was named Cover Girl magazines Model of the Year, and landed her first role of Kelly Kapowski on NBCs television sitcom Saved by the Bell, starring until its end in 1993. Simultaneously, Thiessen guest starred on such as Married. With Children, Charles in Charge and Step by Step, in 1992, she starred in her first television movies Saved by the Bell, Hawaiian Style and A Killer Among Friends, making her film debut in Son in Law in 1993. She was the first actress to join directly the main cast of the show and portrayed Valerie until 1998, in 2000, she was featured in the music video for Youre a God by Vertical Horizon, portraying a beauty pageant contestant, in her first music video appearance. That year she dropped her middle name which she had been including professionally for many years and is now credited as simply Tiffani Thiessen. The role eventually went to Rose McGowan, in 2003, she launched her production company Tit 4 Tat Productions, producing and directing the short film Just Pray in 2005, which earned distinctions at several film festivals. In 2008, she made her music video appearance, this time for Ben Lees American Television. Thiessen appeared with her husband Brady Smith on the September 6,2009 episode of season four of the reality show HGTV Design Star, from 2009 through 2014 Thiessen appeared in the USA Network crime series White Collar as Elizabeth Burke. Also in 2015, Thiessen started hosting her own show on Cooking Channel called Dinner at Tiffanis, in early 1992, Thiessen started dating Brian Austin Green, introduced by mutual friend David Faustino, they moved in together in July 1994, but they broke up the next year. In 1999, she went through a period in her personal life, when David Strickland, also an actor. From 2001 to the spring of 2003, she was engaged to actor Richard Ruccolo, whom she had met during the Two Guys and she married actor Brady Smith on July 9,2005, and they have two children, daughter Harper and son Holt. Thiessen served as maid of honor at 90210 co-star and best friend Jennie Garths wedding to actor Peter Facinelli, garth and Thiessens friendship has since come to an end. Her friendship with fellow 90210 star Tori Spelling also broke up, in 2013, she participated in the One Bag party for April for Earth Month, in which the Glad company promoted clean, green livingTiffani Thiessen – Thiessen in 2010.
6. The Monkees – The Monkees are an American rock band originally active between 1965 and 1971, with subsequent reunion albums and tours in the decades that followed. They were formed in Los Angeles in 1965 by Bob Rafelson and Bert Schneider for the American television series The Monkees, the musical acting quartet was composed of Americans Micky Dolenz, Michael Nesmith and Peter Tork and British actor and singer Davy Jones. The bands music was supervised by producer Don Kirshner. Dolenz described the Monkees as initially being a TV show about an imaginary band and that wanted to be The Beatles, that was never successful. The actor-musicians, however, soon became a real band, for the first few months of their initial five-year career as The Monkees, the four actor-musicians were allowed only limited roles in the recording studio. This was due in part to the amount of required to film the television series. Nonetheless, Nesmith did compose and produce some songs from the beginning and they eventually fought for and earned the right to collectively supervise all musical output under the bands name. The sitcom was canceled in 1968, but the continued to record music through 1971. A revival of interest in the show came in 1986. Up until 2011 the group had reunited and toured several times, despite the sudden death of Davy Jones on February 29,2012, the surviving members reunited for a tour in November–December 2012 and again in 2013 for a 24-date tour. Nesmith was able to some time up to join them in the latter stages of the US tour. The Monkees have sold more than 75 million records worldwide and had hits, including Last Train to Clarksville, Pleasant Valley Sunday, Daydream Believer. At their peak in 1967, the band outsold the Beatles, aspiring filmmaker Bob Rafelson developed the initial idea for The Monkees in 1962, but was unsuccessful in selling the series. He had tried selling it to Revue, the division of Universal Pictures. In May 1964, while working at Screen Gems, Rafelson teamed up with Bert Schneider, whose father, Abraham Schneider, headed the Colpix Television, Rafelson and Schneider ultimately formed Raybert Productions. The Beatles film A Hard Days Night inspired Rafelson and Schneider to revive Rafelsons idea for The Monkees, as The Raybert Producers, they sold the show to Screen Gems Television on April 16,1965. Rafelson and Schneiders original idea was to cast an existing New York folk rock group, the Lovin Spoonful, however, John Sebastian had already signed the band to a record contract, which would have denied Screen Gems the right to market music from the show. Jones had previously starred as the Artful Dodger in the Broadway show Oliver, which debuted on December 17,1962, and his performance was later seen on The Ed Sullivan Show the same night as the Beatles first appearance on that show, February 9,1964The Monkees – The Monkees, top from left: Peter Tork, Micky Dolenz. Sitting, from left: Davy Jones and Michael Nesmith.
7. Wu-Tang Clan – Cappadonna later became an official member of the group. The group was formed in and is associated with the New York City borough of Staten Island, the Wu-Tang Clan has released seven gold and platinum studio albums with worldwide sales of more than 40 million albums, including members solo projects, since 1992. Its debut album, Enter the Wu-Tang, is considered to be one of the greatest albums in hip-hop history and it is said to have been groundbreaking for hip-hop and one of the most important hip-hop albums. In 2008, About. com ranked them the No.1 greatest hip hop group of all time, kris Ex of Rolling Stone called Wu-Tang Clan the best rap group ever. In 2004, NME hailed them as one of the most influential groups of the last ten years, All in Together Now was never signed to a record label. See, me, GZA, and ODB had a crew called FOI, Force of the Imperial Master, nah mean. We made a song, called All in Together Now, which became famous on tapes throughout Brooklyn, Downtown Staten Island, New York, I remember Biz Markie, when he was famous and I wasnt famous, and he was like, Yo. Your song with Ason Unique and The Specialist, so we never got signed as a group back then. We never had a record deal under that title. The Wu-Tang Clan was assembled in the early 1990s with RZA as the de facto leader, Method Man – who met RZA in 1990 after hearing a tape the producer recorded as Prince Rakeem – recalled, I went round his house. We went to the basement and I guess they was showin off cos I was there, thered be RZA and his brother Devon on the decks. RZA was cuttin, Devond go cut off the light, then RZAs go cut on the light, Devond be cutting and they was doing some wild shit, man. And Ol Dirty was there and hed echo every rhyme of RZAs while beatboxing and that was the beginning of Wu-Tang. RZA and Ol Dirty Bastard adopted the name for the group after the film Shaolin, the groups debut album loosely adopted a Shaolin vs. Wu-Tang theme, dividing the album into Shaolin and Wu-Tang sections. This album turned out to be acclaimed, and to date is regarded as one of the greatest hip hop/rap albums of all time. And all these labels still put Razor Sharp Records on the credits Wu Tang was a financial movement, so what do you wanna diversify. RZA was the first to follow up on the success of Enter the Wu-Tang with a project, founding the Gravediggaz with Prince Paul and Frukwan. The Gravediggaz released 6 Feet Deep in August 1994, which one of the best known works to emerge from hip hops small subgenre of horrorcoreWu-Tang Clan – Members of the Wu-Tang Clan and their affiliates performing at the Virgin Festival in Baltimore.
8. 2010s – The 2010s is the current decade of the Gregorian calendar. It began on 1 January 2010, and will end on 31 December 2019, Two pronunciations are used to mention specific years of the 21st century in English. For example,2010 is either pronounced twenty-ten or two thousand ten, with the exception of ongoing conflicts from prior decades, mostly in Africa and Asia, the 2010s started out with a relatively mild geopolitical climate. However, after the start of the Arab Spring, tensions arose between world powers that gradually worsened in the first few years. In 2014, Russian military intervention in Ukraine triggered a sharp downward trend in Russo-Western relations and that same year, the rise of the jihadist group known as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in Iraq and Syria prompted renewed intervention in the region. Other Islamist groups, such as Al-Qaeda, the Taliban, Boko Haram, relations between Saudi Arabia and Iran, which both vie for regional influence and back opposing sides in the Syrian and Yemeni civil wars, deteriorated. The rise of China in international affairs has also gained momentum, starting in 2015, an influx of migrants caused internal strife in the European Union, which, on 23 June 2016, the United Kingdom voted to leave. Support for Turkeys EU membership, once considerable, has eroded somewhat after a failed 2016 coup attempt triggered a widespread crackdown by the Turkish government, intensifying Islamophobia and Euroscepticism have overall contributed to a spike in nationalism throughout Europe. Events in the United States have been marked by severe political polarization, the LGBT movements in the United States scored several victories, with the historic Obergefell v. Hodges case legalizing same-sex marriage nationwide. The prominent wars of the include, Israeli–Palestinian conflict – Since 1948. After Israel occupied the West Bank, it began making settlements there, tensions also remained high as Hamas, which controls the Gaza Strip, has been launching rockets and cross-border raids into Israeli territory, which Israel has responded with force. War on Terror – Since the September 11 attacks, the United States, however, over time the war began to be seen more negatively, with various consequences. However, the Taliban later regrouped and began an insurgency in the country, combat operations were declared over on 28 December 2014, though several thousand troops remain in the country to support Afghanistans military. Iraq War – On the pretext that the government of Saddam Hussein had weapons of destruction, the United States. After the invasion, the U. S. occupied the country, however, the occupation subsequently created an insurgency by jihadist groups opposed to it and sectarian violence between Shiite and Sunni Muslims in the country. At the end of 2011, U. S. forces officially withdrew from Iraq, military intervention in Libya – In Libya, anti-government protests evolved into an armed rebellion after forces loyal to Muammar Gaddafi began military operations against protesters. In response to the crackdown, the United Nations authorized an international intervention in support of anti-Gaddafi militias. International forces, mainly from NATO countries, began airstrikes and enforced a no-fly zone, the intervention came to an end following the death of Gaddafi in Sirte2010s – Since December 17, 2010, a revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests, dubbed Arab Spring, have continued throughout the Arab world
9. London, Ontario – London is a city in Southwestern Ontario, Canada along the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor. The city has a population of 383,822 according to the 2016 Canadian census, London is at the confluence of the Thames River, approximately halfway between Toronto, Ontario and Detroit, Michigan. The City of London is a municipality, politically separate from Middlesex County. London and the Thames were named in 1793 by John Graves Simcoe, the first European settlement was between 1801 and 1804 by Peter Hagerman. The village was founded in 1826 and incorporated in 1855, since then, London has grown to be the largest Southwestern Ontario municipality and Canadas 11th largest metropolitan area, having annexed many of the smaller communities that surrounded it. London is a centre of health care and education, being home to the University of Western Ontario, Fanshawe College. Londons university and hospitals are among its top ten employers, London lies at the junction of Highway 401 and 402, connecting it to Toronto, Windsor, and Sarnia. It also has an airport, train and bus station. Prior to European contact in the 18th century, the present site of London was occupied by several Neutral, Odawa, archaeological investigations in the region indicate that aboriginal people have resided in the area for at least the past 10,000 years. The current location of London was selected as the site of the capital of Upper Canada in 1793 by Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe. Simcoe intended to name the settlement Georgina, in honour of King George III, however, the choice of a capital site in the midst of extensive hardwood forests was rejected by Guy Carleton. In 1814, there was a skirmish during the War of 1812 in what is now southwest London at Reservoir Hill, the village of London, named after the English capital of London, was not founded until 1826, and not as the capital Simcoe envisioned. Rather, it was a seat for the area west of the actual capital. At the time, Crown and clergy reserves were receiving preference in the rest of Ontario, in 1832, the new settlement suffered an outbreak of cholera. London proved a centre of strong Tory support during the Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837, London was incorporated as a town in 1840. On 13 April 1845, fire destroyed much of London, which was at the time largely constructed of wooden buildings, one of the first casualties was the towns only fire engine. This fire burned nearly 30 acres of land destroying 150 buildings before burning itself out later the same day, one-fifth of London was destroyed and this was the provinces first million dollar fire. Sir John Carling, Tory MP for London, gave three events to explain the development of London in a 1901 speechLondon, Ontario – Downtown London skyline
10. Green Day – Green Day is an American punk rock band formed in 1986 by lead vocalist and guitarist Billie Joe Armstrong and bassist Mike Dirnt. For much of the career, the band has been a trio with drummer Tré Cool. Guitarist Jason White, who has worked with the band as a member since 1999, was an official member from 2012 to 2016. Green Day was originally part of the scene at the DIY924 Gilman Street club in Berkeley. The bands early releases were with the independent record label Lookout, in 1994, its major label debut Dookie became a breakout success and eventually shipped over 10 million copies in the U. S. The bands rock opera, American Idiot, reignited the bands popularity with a younger generation, the bands eighth studio album, 21st Century Breakdown, was released in 2009 and achieved the bands best chart performance to date. 21st Century Breakdown was followed up by a trilogy of albums called ¡Uno, ¡Dos. and ¡Tré. which were released in September, November and December 2012 respectively. The bands twelfth album, Revolution Radio was released on October 7,2016 and debuted at number one on the Billboard 200. Green Day has sold more than 85 million records worldwide, in 2010, a stage adaptation of American Idiot debuted on Broadway. The musical was nominated for three Tony Awards, Best Musical, Best Scenic Design and Best Lighting Design, losing only the first, also in 2010, Green Day was ranked no.91 in the VH1 list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. On April 18,2015, the band was inducted into the Rock, in 1986, friends Billie Joe Armstrong and Mike Dirnt,14 years old at the time, formed a band called Sweet Children. The groups first live performance took place on October 17,1987, at Rods Hickory Pit in Vallejo, in 1988, Armstrong and Dirnt began working with former Isocracy drummer John Kiffmeyer, also known as Al Sobrante. As said in the film Punks Not Dead, Armstrong cites the band Operation Ivy as an influence. In 1988, Larry Livermore, owner of Lookout, Records, saw the band play an early show and signed the group to his label. In 1989, the band recorded its debut extended play,1,000 Hours, before 1,000 Hours was released, the group dropped the name Sweet Children, according to Livermore, this was done to avoid confusion with another local band Sweet Baby. The band adopted the name Green Day, due to the fondness for cannabis. Released Green Days debut studio album, 39/Smooth in early 1990, Records re-released 39/Smooth under the name 1, 039/Smoothed Out Slappy Hours, and added the songs from the bands first two EPs, Slappy, and 1,000 Hours. In late 1990, shortly after the bands first nationwide tour, Kiffmeyer left the East Bay area to attend Humboldt State University in Arcata, CaliforniaGreen Day – Green Day performing in Cleveland, Ohio in 2015. From left to right: Jason White, Billie Joe Armstrong, Tré Cool and Mike Dirnt.
11. R. Kelly – Robert Sylvester Kelly, known professionally as R. Kelly, is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, and former professional basketball player. A native of Chicago, Illinois, Kelly began performing during the late 1980s, in 1993, Kelly went solo with the album 12 Play. In 1998, Kelly won three Grammy Awards for I Believe I Can Fly and his distinctive sound and style has influenced numerous hip hop and contemporary R&B artists. Kelly became the first musician to play basketball, when he was signed in 1997. Kelly has written, produced, and remixed songs and albums for artists, including Aaliyahs 1994 debut album Age Aint Nothing. In 1996, Kelly was nominated for a Grammy for writing Michael Jacksons song You Are Not Alone. In 2002 and 2004, Kelly released collaboration albums with rapper Jay-Z and has been a guest vocalist for other hip hop artists like Nas, Sean Combs, in March 2011, R. Kelly was named the most successful R&B artist of the last 25 years by Billboard. Kelly has released 12 solo studio albums, and sold over 100 million records worldwide making him the most successful R&B male artist of the 1990s and he has been credited for helping redefine R&B and hip hop, earning the nicknames King of R&B and King of Pop-Soul. He is listed by Billboard as the most successful R&B/Hip Hop artist of the past 25 years and also the most successful R&B artist in history. Throughout his career, Kelly has won awards, including a Guinness World Records as well as countless of other awards like Grammy, BET, Soul Train, Billboard, NAACP. Robert Sylvester Kelly was born on January 8,1967 at Chicago Lying-in Hospital in Hyde Park, Kelly is the third of four children. Kellys single mother, Joanne, was a singer, Kellys father was absent throughout his sons life. Kellys family lived in the Ida B, wells Homes public housing project in Chicagos Bronzeville neighborhood. Lena McLin described Kellys childhood home, It was bare, there was no father there, I knew that, and they had very little. Kelly began singing in the choir at age eight. Kelly grew up in a full of women, whom he said would act differently when his mother. At a young age Kelly was often abused by a woman who was at least ten years older than himself. I was too afraid and too ashamed, Kelly wrote in his autobiography about why he never told anyone, at age 11, he was shot in the shoulder while riding his bike home, the bullet is reportedly still lodged in his shoulderR. Kelly – Kelly at the premier of Chapter 13-22 of Trapped in the Closet in 2007.
12. Aardman Animations – Aardman Animations, Ltd. also known as Aardman Studios, or simply as Aardman, is a British animation studio based in Bristol. Aardman is known for films made using clay animation techniques, particularly those featuring Plasticine characters Wallace. After some experimental computer animated films during the late 1990s, beginning with Owzat. Aardman films have made $973.2 million worldwide and average $163 million per film, Aardman was founded in 1972 as a low-budget project by Peter Lord and David Sproxton, who wanted to realise their dream of producing an animated motion picture. The partnership provided animated sequences for the BBC series for deaf children Vision On, after creating a segment called Greeblies using clay animation, became what was the inspiration for creating Morph, a simple clay character. Aardman also created the title sequence for The Great Egg Race and they produced the music video for the song My Baby Just Cares For Me by Nina Simone in 1987. Later Aardman produced a number of shorts for Channel 4 including the Conversation Pieces series and these five shorts worked in the same area as the Animated Conversations pieces, but were more sophisticated. Lord and Sproxton began hiring more animators at this point, three of the made their directorial debut at Aardman with the Lip Synch series. Of the five Lip Synch shorts two were directed by Peter Lord, one by Barry Purves, one by Richard Goleszowski, parks short, Creature Comforts, was the first Aardman production to win an Oscar. These films include A Grand Day Out, The Wrong Trousers and A Close Shave, on 27 October 1999, Aardman and DreamWorks signed a $250 million deal to make an additional four films that were estimated to be completed during the next 12 years. With the deal was announced the first project, titled The Tortoise. Intended to be based on Aesops fable and directed by Richard Goleszowski, on 23 June 2000, Chicken Run was released to a great critical and financial success. In 2005, after ten years of absence, Wallace and Gromit returned in Academy Award-winning Wallace & Gromit, Next year followed Flushed Away, Aardmans first computer-animated feature. On 1 October 2006, right before the release of Flushed Away, The New York Times reported that due to creative differences DreamWorks Animation, the deal was officially terminated on 30 January 2007. According to an Aardman spokesperson, The business model of DreamWorks no longer suits Aardman, but the split couldnt have been more amicable. The studio had another film in development, Crood Awakening, which had announced in 2005. With the end of the partnership, the rights reverted to DreamWorks. This warehouse was used for storage of past projects and so did not prevent the production of their current projects at the time, in addition, the companys library of finished films was stored elsewhere and was undamagedAardman Animations – Aardman Animations' headquarters in Bristol
13. Compact Cassette – The Compact Cassette or Musicassette, also commonly called cassette tape, audio cassette, or simply tape or cassette, is an analog magnetic tape recording format for audio recording and playback. It was released by Philips in 1962, having developed in Hasselt. Compact cassettes come in two forms, either already containing content as a cassette, or as a fully recordable blank cassette. Its uses ranged from portable audio to home recording to data storage for early microcomputers, the first cassette player designed for use in car dashes was introduced in 1968. Between the early 1970s and the early 2000s, the cassette was one of the two most common formats for prerecorded music, first alongside the LP record and later the compact disc. Compact Cassettes contain two miniature spools, between which a magnetically coated, polyester-type plastic film is passed and wound and these spools and their attendant parts are held inside a protective plastic shell. This reversal is achieved either by flipping the cassette, or by having the machine itself change the direction of tape movement. In 1935, decades before the introduction of the Compact Cassette, AEG released the first reel-to-reel tape recorder and it was based on the invention of the magnetic tape by Fritz Pfleumer, which used similar technology but with open reels. These instruments were expensive and relatively difficult to use and were therefore used mostly by professionals in radio stations. In 1958, following four years of development, RCA Victor introduced the stereo, quarter-inch, reversible, however, it was a large cassette, and offered few pre-recorded tapes. Despite the multiple versions, it failed, consumer use of tape only took off in the early 1960s, after playback machines reached a comfortable, user-friendly design. This was achieved primarily by the introduction of transistors which replaced the bulky, fragile, reel-to-reel tape then became more suitable to household use, but still remained an esoteric product. The team at Philips was led by Lou Ottens in Hasselt, Philips was competing with Telefunken and Grundig in a race to establish its cassette tape as the worldwide standard, and it wanted support from Japanese electronics manufacturers. However, the Philips Compact Cassette became dominant as a result of Philips decision to license the format free of charge, Philips also released the Norelco Carry-Corder 150 recorder/player in the US in November 1964. By 1966 over 250,000 recorders had been sold in the US alone, by 1968,85 manufacturers had sold over 2.4 million players. By the end of the 1960s, the business was worth an estimated 150 million dollars. In the early years sound quality was mediocre, but it improved dramatically by the early 1970s when it caught up with the quality of 8-track tape, the Compact Cassette went on to become a popular alternative to the 12-inch vinyl LP during the late 1970s. The mass production of blank Compact Cassettes began in 1964 in Hanover, prerecorded music cassettes were launched in Europe in late 1965Compact Cassette – A TDK D-C60 cassette, a common speech-quality tape with a 60-minute playing time, in a housing similar to that of the original Philips' Compact Cassette specification
14. Music of Australia – The music of Australia has an extensive history made of music societies. Indigenous Australian music is a part of the heritage of a 40. Contemporary fusions of Indigenous and Western styles mark distinctly Australian contributions to world music, tastes have diversified along with post-World War II multicultural immigration to Australia. Indigenous Australian music refers to the music of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders, Music forms an integral part of the social, cultural and ceremonial observances of these peoples, and has been so for over 60,000 years. Traditional Indigenous music is best characterised by the didgeridoo, the best-known instrument, archaeological studies of rock art in the Northern Territory suggest people of the Kakadu region were playing the instrument 15,000 years ago. Contemporary Indigenous Australian music has covered numerous styles, including rock and roll, country, hip hop, Jimmy Little is regarded as the first Aboriginal performer to achieve mainstream success, with his debut 1964 song The Royal Telephone highly popular and successful. In 2005, Little was presented with a doctorate in music by the University of Sydney. It would be Yothu Yindi that would bring Indigenous music to the mainstream, with their 1991 song Treaty, from the album Tribal Voice, would go on to reach No.11 on the ARIA Singles Chart. The bands performances were based on the traditional Yolngu dance, the success of Yothu Yindi—winners of eight ARIA Awards—was followed in by Kev Carmody, Tiddas, Christine Anu, and numerous other Indigenous Australian musicians. For much of its history, Australias bush music belonged to an oral and folkloric tradition, early Australian ballads sing of the harsh ways of life of the epoch and of such people and events as bushrangers, swagmen, drovers, stockmen and shearers. Convict and bushranger verses often railed against government tyranny, Classic bush songs on such themes include, The Wild Colonial Boy, Click Go The Shears, The Eumeralla Shore, The Drovers Dream, The Queensland Drover, The Dying Stockman and Moreton Bay. Later themes which endure to the present include the experiences of war, of droughts and flooding rains, of Aboriginality and of the railways, isolation and loneliness of life in the Australian bush has been another theme. Waltzing Matilda, often regarded as Australias unofficial National anthem, is a quintessential Australian folk song, Celtic, English, German and Scandinavian folk traditions predominated in this first wave of European immigrant music. The Australian tradition is, in sense, related to the traditions of other countries with similar ethnic, historical and political origins, such as New Zealand, Canada. The Australian indigenous tradition brought to this mix novel elements, including new instruments, some of which are now internationally familiar, such as the didgeridoo of Northern Australia. A number of British singers have spent periods in Australia and have included Australian material in their repertoires, e. g. A. L. Lloyd, Martin Wyndham-Read and Eric Bogle. Kellys lyrics capture the vastness of the culture and landscape of Australia by chronicling life about him for over 30 years, david Fricke from Rolling Stone calls Kelly one of the finest songwriters I have ever heard, Australian or otherwise. In the 1970s, Australian Folk Rock brought both familiar and less familiar traditional songs, as well as new compositions, to live venues, notable artists include The Bushwacker Band and RedgumMusic of Australia – Performance of Aboriginal song and dance in the Australian National Maritime Museum in Sydney with traditional instrument, the Didgeridoo.
15. Justin Timberlake – Justin Randall Timberlake is an American singer-songwriter, actor and record producer. Born and raised in Tennessee, he appeared on the television shows Star Search, in the late 1990s, Timberlake rose to prominence as one of the two lead vocalists and youngest member of NSYNC, which eventually became one of the best-selling boy bands of all time. With his first two albums exceeding sales of 10 million copies worldwide, he was established as one of the most commercially successful singers of the decade, furthermore, he produced records and collaborated with other artists. For his live performances, including the concert tour for the albums, he began performing with his band The Tennessee Kids, composed by instrumentalists. Timberlake voiced the character in DreamWorks Animations Trolls, which soundtrack includes his fifth Billboard Hot 100 chart-topping single. Among numerous awards and accolades, Timberlake has won ten Grammy Awards, four Emmy Awards, Time named him one of the 100 most influential people in the world in 2007 and 2013. His other ventures include record label Tennman Records, fashion label William Rast, Timberlake was born in Memphis, Tennessee, the son of Lynn Harless and Charles Randall Timberlake, a Baptist church choir director. Timberlake grew up in Shelby Forest, a community between Memphis and Millington. He has two half-brothers, Jonathan and Stephen, from Charles second marriage to Lisa Perry and his half-sister Laura Katherine died shortly after birth on May 12,1997, and is mentioned in his acknowledgments in the album NSYNC as My Angel in Heaven. He was inspired to become a performer by Janet Jackson, saying She didnt just stand there and sing her song, fascinated by her energy, at the age of 11, Timberlake appeared on the television show Star Search, performing country music songs as Justin Randall. Timberlake then recruited Chasez to be in a singing group, organized by boy band manager Lou Pearlman. The boy band NSYNC formed in 1995, and began their career in 1996 in Europe, Timberlake and Chasez served as its two lead singers. In 1998, the rose to prominence in the United States with the release of their self-titled debut studio album. Their second album No Strings Attached sold 2.4 million copies in the first week, nSYNCs third album Celebrity was also financially successful. Upon the completion of the Celebrity Tour, the group went into hiatus in 2002, in late 1999, Timberlake appeared in the Disney Channel movie Model Behavior. He played Jason Sharpe, a model who falls in love with a waitress after mistaking her for another model and it was released on March 12,2000. The rise of his own stardom and the decline in the popularity of boy bands led to the dissolution of NSYNC. Band member Lance Bass was openly critical of Timberlakes actions in his memoir Out of Sync and his debut solo studio album Justified was released in November and debuted at number two on the Billboard 200 with first-week sales of 439,000 copies, fewer than previous N Sync releasesJustin Timberlake – Timberlake at the Cannes Film Festival, May 2013
16. Beverly Hills, California – Beverly Hills is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States, surrounded by the cities of Los Angeles and West Hollywood. By 2013, its population had grown to 34,658, sometimes referred to as 90210, one of its primary ZIP codes, it was home to many actors and celebrities throughout the 20th century. The city includes the Rodeo Drive shopping district and the Beverly Hills Oil Field, gaspar de Portolá arrived in the area that would later become Beverly Hills on August 3,1769, travelling along native trails which followed the present-day route of Wilshire Boulevard. The area was settled by Maria Rita Quinteros de Valdez and her husband in 1828 and they called their 4,500 acres of property the Rancho Rodeo de las Aguas. in 1854, she sold the ranch to Benjamin Davis Wilson and Henry Hancock. By the 1880s, the ranch had been subdivided into parcels of 75 acres and was being bought up by anglos from Los Angeles. Henry Hammel and Andrew H. Denker acquired most of it, at this point, the area was known as the Hammel and Denker Ranch. By 1888, Denker and Hammel were planning to build a town called Morocco on their holdings and they did not find enough to exploit commercially by the standards of the time, though. In 1906, therefore, they reorganized as the Rodeo Land and Water Company, renamed the property Beverly Hills, subdivided it, the development was named Beverly Hills after Beverly Farms in Beverly, Massachusetts and because of the hills in the area. The first house in the subdivision was built in 1907, although sales remained slow, Beverly Hills was one of many all-white planned communities started in the Los Angeles area around this time. Restrictive covenants prohibited non-whites from owning or renting property unless they were employed as servants by white residents and it was also forbidden to sell or rent property to Jews in Beverly Hills. Burton Green began construction on The Beverly Hills Hotel in 1911, the hotel was finished in 1912. The visitors drawn by the hotel were inclined to purchase land in Beverly Hills and that same year, the Rodeo Land and Water Company decided to separate its water business from its real estate business. The Beverly Hills Utility Commission was split off from the company and incorporated in September 1914, buying all of the utilities-related assets from the Rodeo Land. In 1919, Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford bought land on Summit Drive and built a mansion, finished in 1921, the glamor associated with Fairbanks and Pickford as well as other movie stars who built mansions in the city contributed to its growing appeal. By the early 1920s the population of Beverly Hills had grown enough to make the water supply a political issue, in 1923 the usual solution, annexation to the city of Los Angeles, was proposed. There was considerable opposition to annexation among such famous residents as Pickford, Fairbanks, Will Rogers, the Beverly Hills Utility Commission, opposed to annexation as well, managed to force the city into a special election and the plan was defeated 337 to 507. In 1925, Beverly Hills approved an issue to buy 385 acres for a new campus for UCLA. The cities of Los Angeles, Santa Monica and Venice also issued bonds to pay for the new campusBeverly Hills, California – Beverly Hills at the corner of Rodeo Drive & Via Rodeo
17. Teen idol – A teen idol is a celebrity with a large teenage fan-base. Teen idols are generally young but not necessarily teenaged, often teen idols are actors or singers, but some sports figures and even political figures also have an appeal to teenagers. Some teen idols began their careers as actors, like Leif Garrett, Lindsay Lohan, Mary-Kate and Ashley Olsen, Raven-Symoné, Kenan Thompson, Kel Mitchell, Hilary Duff. The idols popularity may be limited to teens, or may extend to all age groups, many teen idols are targeted for adults for nostalgia purposes. With the advent of television, teen idols were also promoted through programs such as American Bandstand, The Ed Sullivan Show, todays teen idols have spawned an entire industry of gossip magazines, television shows, YouTube, and whole television channels such as E. Many American teen idols achieve cross-over success internationally, however, this list is not limited to American artists alone with some such as Japanese popstar Kusumi Koharu. Ha^Ash and RBD in the 2000s and 2010s, in Spain, La Oreja de Van Gogh, Miguel Bose, Mecano and Hombres G all enjoyed teen-idol status. Even in the music field, a British-Chinese violinist Vanessa-Mae became the first teen idol in that category. The kind of idolizing following Liszt drew in Europe would not be followed for several decades, geraldine Farrar, American opera singer, had a large following of young women nicknamed Gerry-flappers in the early 20th century. However, he claims that many males were also at his sold-out concerts. He was also possibly the first popular singer to have a vehicle created for him. Frank Sinatra, whose career is often linked to his appeal to bobby soxers, is also regarded as having been amongst the first teen idols. Even crooners like Dean Martin and Frank Sinatra were still considered idols, actors Edd Byrnes and Troy Donahue and other artists deliberately cultivated a idol image, like Paul Anka. Anka initially modelled himself on a generic type, the teen idol carried on the process. Of changing the image of male youth, from wild to mild, by providing a cleaner, more wholesome image of masculinity than that of the previous eras rebellious rockabilly heroes. Post-war teens were able to buy relatively inexpensive phonographs — including portable models that could be carried to friends houses —, rock music played on 45s became the soundtrack to the 1960s as people bought what they heard on the radio. Their parents worried about their attraction to artists who were edgy, faces on magazines fed fans, fans buy records, see films, watch TV and buy fashions. Marketing of the teen idol generally focuses on the image, the teen idol is structured to appeal to the pre-teen and young teen female pop audience member and children in generalTeen idol – Rudy Vallée, one of the first crooners and a teen idol of the early 20th century
18. Essex Junction, Vermont – Essex Junction is a village located within the town of Essex in Chittenden County, Vermont, United States. The population was 9,271 at the 2010 census and it was incorporated on November 15,1892. Amtrak, the passenger rail system, provides daily service to its station in Essex Junction. The Vermonter train runs daily from the Franklin County seat of St. Albans to Union Station in Washington and it used to be called the Montrealer, its terminus being at Central Station in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The village of Essex Junction is one of three voting districts in the town of Essex, with Districts 8-1 & 8-3 together comprising the remainder of the town outside the village. The village and town each operate separate fire departments, libraries, parks departments, and municipal services, both governments collectively operate a unified police department and the unified Essex High School. Essex Junction is home to GlobalFoundries Burlington Design Center and 200 mm wafer fabrication plant, GlobalFoundries is the largest private employer in the state of Vermont, with approximately 3,000 employees. The village history was affected in a way by the presence of IBM. In 1958, IBM leased a 40,000 square feet facility in the southeast part of the village for its new Data Processing Division, by the end of the year, there were 500 workers. In 1969, the plant expanded to 820,000 square feet, in 1982, employment reached an all-time high of 8,000. In 2007, the town dropped the value of the plant from a high of $147.5 million to $104 million. The plants workforce was a little over 5,000 in 2011, as a GlobalFoundries operation since July 2015, the plant retains about 3,000 employees. In 2003, as a result of the publicized suicide of an Essex Junction teenager, Vermont. Essex Junction is located in the southwest part of the town of Essex and is bordered on the south by the Winooski River, the village is 6 miles east of downtown Burlington via Vermont Route 15. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has an area of 4.7 square miles, of which 4.6 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles. This climatic region is typified by large temperature differences, with warm to hot summers. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Essex Junction has a continental climate. As of the census of 2000, there were 8,591 people,3,409 households, the population density was 1,804.1 people per square mileEssex Junction, Vermont – Downtown Essex Junction
19. Nas – Nasir Bin Olu Dara Jones, better known by his stage name Nas /ˈnɑːz/, is an American rapper, record producer, actor and entrepreneur. The son of jazz musician Olu Dara, Nas has released eight consecutive platinum and multi-platinum albums and has sold over 25 million records worldwide. He is also an entrepreneur through his own label, he serves as associate publisher of Mass Appeal magazine and is the owner of a Fila sneaker store. He is currently signed to Mass Appeal Records and his musical career began in 1991 as featured artist on Main Sources Live at the Barbeque. His debut album Illmatic received universal acclaim from critics and the hip hop community and is frequently ranked as one of the greatest hip hop albums of all time. Nas follow-up It Was Written debuted at one on the Billboard 200, stayed on top for four consecutive weeks. From 2001 to 2005, Nas was involved in a publicized feud with rapper Jay Z. Nas signed to Def Jam in 2006. In 2010, he released Distant Relatives, an album with reggae artist Damian Marley. His eleventh studio album, Life Is Good was nominated for Best Rap Album at the 55th Annual Grammy Awards, Nas is often named as one of the greatest hip hop artists. MTV ranked him at number 5 on their list of The Greatest MCs of All Time, in 2012, The Source ranked him number two on their list of the Top 50 Lyricists of All Time. In 2013, Nas was ranked fourth on MTVs Hottest MCs in the Game list. About. com ranked him first on their list of the 50 Greatest MCs of All Time in 2014, nasir bin Olu Dara Jones was born September 14,1973, in Brooklyn, New York. His father, Olu Dara, is a jazz and blues musician and his mother, Fannie Ann Jones, was a Postal Service worker from North Carolina. He has one sibling, a brother named Jabari Fret who is best known as Jungle and his father took his name Olu Dara from the Yoruba people. His African DNA indicates he has roots in countries with high Yoruba populations Nigeria, Benin, Togo and Ghana – as well as Mali, the Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Congo, and Senegal. His matrilineal DNA haplogroup is of African origin, found among the Yoruba and he also found that his Y-DNA traces directly back to Scandinavia, through which he is a descendant of the Vikings. As a young child, Nas and his family relocated to the Queensbridge Houses in the Long Island City neighborhood of Queens and his neighbor, Willy Ill Will Graham, influenced Nass interest in hip hop by playing him records. His parents divorced in 1985, and he dropped out of school after the eighth grade and he educated himself about African culture through the Five Percent Nation and the Nuwaubian NationNas – Nas performing in Paris in 2014.
20. Busta Rhymes – Trevor George Smith Jr. better known by his stage name Busta Rhymes, is an American recording artist, actor, record producer and record executive. Chuck D of Public Enemy gave him the moniker Busta Rhymes, about. com included him on its list of the 50 Greatest MCs of Our Time, while Steve Huey of AllMusic called him one of the best and most prolific rappers of the 1990s. In 2012, The Source placed him on their list of the Top 50 Lyricists of All Time, MTV has called him one of hip-hops greatest visual artists. Busta Rhymes was an member of Leaders of the New School. He later went on and founded the record label Conglomerate and production crew The Conglomerate, in November 2011, Busta Rhymes signed a deal with Cash Money Records. On July 23,2014, Busta Rhymes announced that he left Cash Money Records due to differences and was no longer on Republic. In 2016 Rhymes signed with Epic for his album due to be released in early 2017. He has so far released nine albums, with the first being the 1996 platinum-selling album The Coming. His list of hit singles include Woo Hah, got You All in Check, Put Your Hands Where My Eyes Could See, Dangerous, Turn It Up /Fire It Up, Gimme Some More, Whats It Gonna Be. Pass the Courvoisier, Part II, I Know What You Want and Touch It, Busta Rhymes was born Trevor George Smith Jr. in Brooklyn, New York, on May 20,1972 to Geraldine Green and Trevor Smith, who are from Jamaica. The most known story of Bustas tenure at Westinghouse High School was battle rapping his fellow schoolmate Jay Z in the schools cafeteria one day, to whom he ultimately lost. In 1989, Smith, alongside fellow Long Island natives Charlie Brown, Dinco D and Cut Monitor Milo, the groups big break was when they became an opening act for fellow Long Island hip hop group Public Enemy. Public Enemys Chuck D gave Busta Rhymes and Charlie Brown their respective stage names, Leaders of the New School began recording in late 1989 and released their debut album A Future Without a Past. in 1991 on Elektra Records. In early 1992, the group appeared on A Tribe Called Quests posse cut Scenario, soon after, however, internal problems arose because of Busta Rhymess increasing popularity, and the group broke up on the set of Yo. By the summer of 1992, Rhymes began making guest appearances on songs by artists such as Big Daddy Kane, Another Bad Creation. Brand Nubian, A Tribe Called Quest, KRS-One, as well on the interludes to Mary J. Bliges debut Whats the 411. and R&B trio TLCs Diamond-certified second album CrazySexyCool. He also appeared on the jacket of fellow hip-hop group A Tribe Called Quests Midnight Marauders. In early 1993, he appeared in a role in Whos the ManBusta Rhymes – Busta Rhymes in 2002
21. Fan (person) – Collectively, the fans of a particular object or person constitute its fanbase or fandom. They may show their enthusiasm in a variety of ways, such as by promoting the object of their interest, being members of a fan club, holding or participating in fan conventions, or writing fan mail. They may also engage in activities such as creating fanzines, writing fan fiction. Merriam-Webster, the Oxford dictionary and other sources define fan as a version of the word fanatic. The word first become popular in reference to baseball enthusiasts, fanatic itself, introduced into English around 1550, means marked by excessive enthusiasm and often intense uncritical devotion. It comes from the Modern Latin fanaticus, meaning insanely but divinely inspired, the word originally pertained to a temple or sacred place. The modern sense of extremely zealous dates from around 1647, the use of fanatic as a noun dates from 1650. However, the fancy for an intense liking of something, while being of a different etymology, coincidentally carries a less intense. The word emerged as an Americanism around 1889, according to that theory, it was originally shortened to fance then just to the homonym fans. Supporter is a synonym to fan that predates the term and is still commonly used in British English. However, the fan has become popular throughout the English-speaking world. The term supporter is also used in a sense in the United States, to a fan of a politician, a political party. Fans usually have a strong enough interest that some changes in their lifestyles are made to accommodate devotion to the focal object, fans have a desire for external involvement – they are motivated to demonstrate their involvement with the area of interest through certain behaviors. Fans often have a wish to acquire material objects related to the area of interest, as well, some fans have a desire for social interaction with other fans. This again may take many forms, from casual conversation, e-mail, chat rooms, complexity allows further involvement of fans for a longer period of time because of the time needed to work the subject of interest out. It also contributes to a sense of belonging because of the mental effort invested in the subject. These fans will often hold a crush on a movie star, pop star. The groupie is an example, a fan of a band or musicianFan (person) – Sudhir Kumar Chaudhary is a diehard fan of cricketer Sachin Tendulkar and the Indian cricket team, who travels to all Indian home games with his body painted as the Indian flag
22. Christmas music – Christmas music comprises a variety of genres of music normally performed or heard around the Christmas season. Music was a feature of the Christmas season and its celebrations. The earliest examples are hymnographic works intended for use in observance of both the Feast of the Nativity and Theophany, many of which are still in use by the Eastern Orthodox Church. The 13th century saw the rise of the written in the vernacular. In the Middle Ages, the English combined circle dances with singing, later, the word carol came to mean a song in which a religious topic is treated in a style that is familiar or festive. From Italy, it passed to France and Germany, and later to England, Music in itself soon became one of the greatest tributes to Christmas, and Christmas music includes some of the noblest compositions of the great musicians. During the Commonwealth of England government under Cromwell, the Rump Parliament prohibited the practice of singing Christmas carols as Pagan, like other customs associated with popular Catholic Christianity, it earned the disapproval of Protestant Puritans. Famously, Cromwells interregnum prohibited all celebrations of the Christmas holiday and this attempt to ban the public celebration of Christmas can also be seen in the early history of Father Christmas. The Westminster Assembly of Divines established Sunday as the holy day in the calendar in 1644. The new liturgy produced for the English church recognised this in 1645 and its celebration was declared an offence by Parliament in 1647. There is some debate as to the effectiveness of this ban, Puritans generally disapproved of the celebration of Christmas—a trend which continually resurfaced in Europe and the USA through the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries. William Sandyss Christmas Carols Ancient and Modern, contained the first appearance in print of many now-classic English carols, singing carols in church was instituted on Christmas Eve 1880 in Truro Cathedral, Cornwall, England, which is now seen in churches all over the world. Christmas festivities, including music, are celebrated in a more secular fashion by such institutions as the Santa Claus Village, in Rovaniemi. The tradition of singing Christmas carols in return for alms or charity began in England in the century after the Restoration. Also from the century, there was the English custom, predominantly involving women, of taking a wassail bowl to their neighbours to solicit gifts. The status of Christmas as an important feast within the year also means there is a long tradition of music specially composed for celebrating the season. S. This is in due to the efforts of amateur choral societies during the nineteenth century. When it was composed, it was performed during Passiontide, jakub Jan Ryba, Czech Christmas Mass Hey, MasterChristmas music – Child Christmas carolers in Bucharest, Romania 1929
23. Madame Tussauds – Madame Tussauds is a wax museum in London with smaller museums in a number of other major cities. It was founded by wax sculptor Marie Tussaud and it used to be known as Madame Tussauds, the apostrophe is no longer used. Madame Tussauds is a major tourist attraction in London, displaying waxworks of famous people, Marie Tussaud was born as Marie Grosholtz in 1761 in Strasbourg, France. Her mother worked as a housekeeper for Dr. Philippe Curtius in Bern, Switzerland, Curtius taught Tussaud the art of wax modelling. He moved to Paris and took his apprentice, only 6 years old. Tussaud created her first wax sculpture in 1777 of Voltaire, at the age of 17 she became the art tutor to King Louis XVI of France’s sister, Madame Elizabeth, at the Palace of Versailles. During the French Revolution she was imprisoned for three months awaiting execution, but was released after the intervention of an influential friend, other famous people whom she modelled included Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Benjamin Franklin. During the Revolution, she modelled many prominent victims and she claims that she would search through corpses to find the severed heads of executed citizens, from which she would make death masks. Her death masks were held up as revolutionary flags and paraded through the streets of Paris and she inherited the doctors vast collection of wax models following his death in 1794, and spent the next 33 years travelling around Europe. She married Francois Tussaud in 1795, and the show acquired a new name, Madame Tussauds, in 1802, she accepted an invitation from Paul Philidor, a magic lantern and phantasmagoria pioneer, to exhibit her work alongside his show at the Lyceum Theatre, London. She did not fare well financially, with Philidor taking half of her profits. She was unable to return to France because of the Napoleonic Wars, so she traveled throughout Great Britain, from 1831, she took a series of short leases on the upper floor of Baker Street Bazaar, which later featured in the Druce-Portland case sequence of trials of 1898–1907. This became Tussauds first permanent home in 1836, by 1835, Marie had settled down in Baker Street, London and opened a museum. One of the attractions of her museum was the Chamber of Horrors. The name is credited to a contributor to Punch in 1845. This part of the exhibition included victims of the French Revolution and newly created figures of murderers, other famous people were added, including Lord Nelson and Sir Walter Scott. Some sculptures still exist that were done by Marie Tussaud herself, the gallery originally contained some 400 different figures, but fire damage in 1925 coupled with German bombs in 1941 has rendered most of these older models defunct. The casts themselves have survived, allowing the historical waxworks to be remade, the oldest figure on display is that of Madame du Barry, the work of Curtius from 1765 and part of the waxworks left to Tussaud at his deathMadame Tussauds – Madame Tussauds and the London Planetarium
24. Nickelback – Nickelback is a Canadian rock band formed in 1995 in Hanna, Alberta, Canada. The band is composed of guitarist and lead vocalist Chad Kroeger, guitarist, keyboardist and backing vocalist Ryan Peake, bassist Mike Kroeger, and drummer Daniel Adair. The band went through a few drummer changes between 1995 and 2005, achieving its current form when Adair replaced drummer Ryan Vikedal. S. of the 2000s, behind The Beatles. Billboard ranks them the most successful group of the decade, their song How You Remind Me was listed as the best-selling rock song of the decade. They were listed number seven on the Billboard top artist of the decade, the band signed with Roadrunner Records in 1999 and re-released their once-independent album The State. The band achieved success with the release of their 2000 album The State. Following the release of Silver Side Up the band released their biggest and most known hit today, How You Remind Me which peaked number 1 on the American and Canadian charts at the same time. The bands album Dark Horse was a success which produced eight singles, one of which peaked on the top 10 on the Billboard Hot 100, in 2011, the band released their seventh album Here and Now which again topped the charts. Their eighth studio album No Fixed Address was released on 17 November 2014, the band is based in Vancouver, Canada. The bands original domestic signing was with EMI Canada and they subsequently obtained an American deal with global distribution via Roadrunner Records. For the release of their album, the band parted from EMI Canada. The band was formed in the early 1990s as a band called the Village Idiots by Chad Kroeger, Ryan Peake, Mike Kroeger. The band performed covers of songs from Led Zeppelin and Metallica, Chad Kroeger then asked his step-father to give him $4,000 so that the band could record their first demo, a seven-track EP of original material, called Hesher. In 1996, the recorded and released their first full-length album. Fly was included on both Hesher and Curb and was the first single produced by Nickelback, in 1997, Brandon Kroeger left the band and the band searched for a new drummer. Later that year Mitch Guindon joined the band, but he decided to leave in 1998 because he started working in a car company, in Summer 1998, Ryan Vikedal joined the band. Roadrunner A&R Ron Burman told HitQuarters that one of his West Coast scouts sent him the album and, suitably impressed. Although an unknown property in the industry at the time, the venue was packed out, in Burmans words, I immediately got the chillsNickelback – Nickelback performing in Brisbane in November 2012 during the Here and Now Tour. From left to right: Ryan Peake, Daniel Adair, Chad Kroeger and Mike Kroeger
25. Ludacris – Christopher Brian Chris Bridges, better known by his stage name Ludacris, is an American hip hop recording artist and actor from Atlanta, Georgia. Alongside his manager, Chaka Zulu, Ludacris is the co-founder of Disturbing tha Peace, throughout his career, Ludacris has won Screen Actors Guild, Critics Choice, MTV, and Grammy Awards. Along with fellow Atlanta-based rappers Big Boi and André3000 of OutKast, born in Champaign, Illinois, Ludacris moved to Atlanta at age nine, where he began rapping. In 2001, he released Word of Mouf, followed by Chicken-n-Beer in 2003 and he took a more serious approach with his next two albums, Release Therapy, and Theater of the Mind. His next record, Battle of the Sexes, was released in 2010, Ludaversal was released on March 31,2015. As an actor, he has appeared in films including Crash, Gamer, and New Years Eve, but is best known for playing Tej Parker in the The Fast and the Furious film series. Ludacris was born as Christopher Brian Bridges in Champaign, Illinois and he later moved to the Chicago area, where he attended Emerson Middle School in Oak Park, and Oak Park & River Forest High School for one year. He then moved to Centreville, Virginia and attended Centreville High School for one year and he attended Banneker High School in Atlanta, Georgia and graduated in 1995. From 1998 to 1999, he studied management at Georgia State University. His parents were both African-American, and he also has some English and Native American ancestry and he is a distant cousin of late comedian Richard Pryor. Bridges wrote his first rap song at age nine when moving to Atlanta, Bridges served as an intern and then a DJ at Atlantas Hot 97.5 under the name Chris Lova Lova. He was also known for DJing during Freaknik at one point, Ludacris collaborated with Timbaland on the track Phat Rabbit from his album Tims Bio, Life from da Bassment. This song was a hit in many countries, in Ludacris early music career he collaborated with Dallas Austin and Jermaine Dupri. In 1998, Ludacris began to record his debut album Incognegro and this album was the defining example of Ludacris fast, wild, and comedic flow, a unique style for southern rappers. Timbaland handled part of the production, despite its poor sales, it was never deleted and is still sold today. Ludacris also appeared on Timbalands 1998 debut on Phat Rabbit, a track that would later be used on his re-issue of Incognegro called Back For The First Time, in 2000, Ludacris released his major label debut, Back for the First Time. It was produced with the help of the underground producer Sessy Melia, the album reached as high as #4 on the U. S. Billboard 200, and was a major success. Ludacris made his mark on the industry with such as Southern Hospitality and Whats Your Fantasy, along with his first ever single the Phat RabbitLudacris – Ludacris at Midtown 2012
26. 1994 in music – This is a list of notable events in music that took place in the year 1994. January 19 - Bryan Adams becomes the first major Western music star to perform in Vietnam since the end of the Vietnam War. January 25 – Alice in Chains release their Jar of Flies album which makes its US chart début at number one on the Billboard 200, january 29 – The Supremes Mary Wilson is injured when her Jeep hits a freeway median and flips over just outside Los Angeles, USA. Wilsons 14-year-old son is killed in the accident, february 1 – Green Day release their breakthrough album Dookie, ushering in the mid-1990s punk revival. February 7 – Blind Melons lead singer Shannon Hoon is forced to leave the American Music Awards ceremony because of his loud, Hoon is later charged with battery, assault, resisting arrest, and destroying a police station phone. The track, Free As A Bird, is released as a single in late 1995 as part of the exhaustive Beatles Anthology project, reaching #2 in the UK, february 14 – The Grateful Deads Jerry Garcia marries Deborah Koons. February 23 – Eddie Van Halen, Chris Isaak, and B. B. King attend the ground breaking ceremony for the Hard Rock Hotel and Casino takes place in Paradise, Nevada, March 1 Selena becomes the first Tejano music singer to win a Grammy Award. Nirvana play their final concert, in Munich, frank Sinatra receives the Grammy Legend Award. March 3 – In Rome, Nirvanas Kurt Cobain lapses into a coma after overdosing on Rohypnol, March 5 – Grace Slick is arrested for pointing a shotgun at police in her Tiburon, California home. March 7 - The United States Supreme Court decision Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music, the case was spurred by 2 Live Crew releasing a parody of the Roy Orbison hit Oh, Pretty Woman without a license from the publishing firm Acuff-Rose Music. March 13 - Selena releases her final Spanish album Amor Prohibido and its production had been delayed because of the launch of Selenas fashion clothing line and boutiques, and her extensive tour in support of Live. March 18 Courtney Love calls the police, fearing that her husband, police confiscate four guns and twenty-five boxes of ammo from Cobains home. Bassist Darryl Jones replaces Bill Wyman in The Rolling Stones, March 30 – Pink Floyd embark on what would be their last world tour before their breakup. The record-breaking tour supports their Division Bell album, with the playing to 5,500,000 people in 68 cities. March 31 – Madonna on Late Show with David Letterman, Madonna appears on the Late Show with David Letterman, robin Williams later describes the segment as a battle of wits with an unarmed woman. April 8 – The body of Kurt Cobain, lead singer of Nirvana, is found, Cobains death, three days before, is legally declared to be suicide from a self-inflicted gunshot. April 11 - The Offspring release Smash, which goes on to become the best selling independent album of all time, april 25 Blur releases Parklife, its first album reaching #1 in UK, where it was certified quadruple platinum. Adam Horovitz of the Beastie Boys is sentenced to 200 hours of community service for attacking a cameraman during funeral services for actor River Phoenix in November 19931994 in music – Joan Jett performing at Bumbershoot 1994.
27. Singing – Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice, and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, rhythm, and a variety of vocal techniques. A person who sings is called a singer or vocalist, Singers perform music that can be sung with or without accompaniment by musical instruments. Singing is often done in an ensemble of musicians, such as a choir of singers or a band of instrumentalists, Singers may perform as soloists, or accompanied by anything from a single instrument up to a symphony orchestra or big band. Singing can be formal or informal, arranged or improvised and it may be done as a form of religious devotion, as a hobby, as a source of pleasure, comfort, or ritual, as part of music education, or as a profession. Excellence in singing requires time, dedication, instruction, and regular practice, if practice is done on a regular basis then the sounds can become more clear and strong. Professional singers usually build their careers around one specific genre, such as classical or rock. They typically take voice training provided by teachers or vocal coaches throughout their careers. Though these four mechanisms function independently, they are coordinated in the establishment of a vocal technique and are made to interact upon one another. During passive breathing, air is inhaled with the diaphragm while exhalation occurs without any effort, exhalation may be aided by the abdominal, internal intercostal and lower pelvis/pelvic muscles. Inhalation is aided by use of external intercostals, scalenes and sternocleidomastoid muscles, the pitch is altered with the vocal cords. With the lips closed, this is called humming, humans have vocal folds which can loosen, tighten, or change their thickness, and over which breath can be transferred at varying pressures. The shape of the chest and neck, the position of the tongue, any one of these actions results in a change in pitch, volume, timbre, or tone of the sound produced. Sound also resonates within different parts of the body and an individuals size, Singers can also learn to project sound in certain ways so that it resonates better within their vocal tract. This is known as vocal resonation, another major influence on vocal sound and production is the function of the larynx which people can manipulate in different ways to produce different sounds. These different kinds of function are described as different kinds of vocal registers. The primary method for singers to accomplish this is through the use of the Singers Formant and it has also been shown that a more powerful voice may be achieved with a fatter and fluid-like vocal fold mucosa. The more pliable the mucosa, the more efficient the transfer of energy from the airflow to the vocal folds, Vocal registration refers to the system of vocal registers within the voice. A register in the voice is a series of tones, produced in the same vibratory pattern of the vocal foldsSinging – American jazz singer and songwriter Billie Holiday in New York City in 1947
28. Barry Gibb – With his brothers, Robin and Maurice Gibb, he formed a songwriting partnership beginning in 1966. They returned to England where they achieved worldwide fame and he is also known for his high-pitched falsetto singing voice. Gibb shares the record with John Lennon and Paul McCartney for consecutive Billboard Hot 100 number ones as a writer with six, guinness World Records lists Gibb as the second most successful songwriter in history behind Paul McCartney. Gibbs career has spanned fifty years. In 1994, he was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame with his brothers, in 1997, as a member of the Bee Gees, he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and received the Brit Award for Outstanding Contribution to Music. Barry is a fellow of the British Academy of Songwriters, Composers and Authors, for services to music, Gibb was appointed Commander in the Order of the British Empire at Buckingham Palace on 27 May 2004. In 2007, Q magazine ranked him number 38 on its list of the 100 Greatest Singers, Barry Alan Crompton Gibb was born in Jane Crookall Maternity Home at 8,45 AM in Douglas, Isle of Man, to Hugh Gibb, a drummer, and Barbara Gibb. He has English, Irish, and Scottish ancestry and he has an older sister, Lesley Evans. He was named Barry Alan Crompton Gibb after his fathers youngest brother Alan, when Gibb was born, his father was busy with his music working at various hotels in Douglas, while his mother stayed at home looking after the children. Later, the Gibbs moved to Chapel House on Strang Road, when he was almost two years old, he was badly burned. His mother had just made tea which she had put on the table, he climbed up and pulled the tea pot down and he was in Nobles Hospital for about two-and-a-half months. Gibb later commented on that incident, Then the gangrene set in, because in those days, the advancement of medicine simply didnt apply to people with bad scalds, so you didnt have skin grafts, you didnt have things like that. But this was a particularly bad scald, and I think I had 20 minutes to live at some point, the incredible thing for me is that whole two years is wiped from my memory, the whole period of being in hospital. The idea of being burnt is in somewhere, but I have no knowledge of it. Ive got the scars but I have no knowledge, in 1949, the Gibb family relocated to 50 St. Catherines Drive. Later that year, on 22 December, his two younger brothers Robin and Maurice were born, when the twins were young, they moved to Smedley Cottage, Spring Valley, also in Douglas. Gibb started school on 4 September 1951, three days after his birthday, attending Braddan school. In 1952, the Gibb family relocated to 43 Snaefell Road, Willaston, the same year, he went to Tynwald Street Infants SchoolBarry Gibb – Gibb performing with the Bee Gees in 1968.
29. Faith Hill – Faith Hill is an American singer, actress and record producer. She is one of the most successful artists of all time. Hill is married to American singer Tim McGraw, with whom she has recorded several duets, Hills first two albums, Take Me as I Am and It Matters to Me, were major successes and placed a combined three number ones on Billboards country charts. She then achieved mainstream and crossover success with her two albums, Faith and Breathe. It had massive sales worldwide and earned Hill three Grammy Awards, in 2001, she recorded There Youll Be for the Pearl Harbor soundtrack and it became an international hit and her best-selling single in Europe. Hill has won five Grammy Awards,15 Academy of Country Music Awards, six American Music Awards and her Soul2Soul II Tour 2006 with McGraw became the highest-grossing country tour of all time. In 2001, she was named one of the 30 Most Powerful Women in America by Ladies Home Journal, in 2009, Billboard named her as the No.1 Adult Contemporary artist of the 2000 decade and also as the 39th best artist. From 2007 to 2012, Hill was the voice of NBC Sunday Night Footballs intro song, Hill was born in Ridgeland, Mississippi, north of Jackson, Mississippi. She was adopted as an infant, and named Audrey Faith Perry and she was raised in the nearby town of Star,20 miles outside of Jackson. Her adoptive parents, Edna and Ted Perry, raised her with their two sons in a devout Christian environment. Hills vocal talent was apparent early, and she had her first public performance, at a 4-H luncheon, in 1976, a few days before her 9th birthday, she attended a concert by Elvis Presley at the State Fair Coliseum, in Jackson, which impressed her deeply. By the time she was a teenager, Hill was a performer at area churches. At 17, Hill formed a band played in local rodeos. She graduated from McLaurin Attendance Center in 1986, and briefly attended college at Hinds Junior College in Raymond, at times, she sang for prisoners at the Hinds County Jail, her song of choice being Amazing Grace. At age 19 she quit school to move to Nashville and pursue her dream of being a country singer, in her early days in Nashville, Hill auditioned to be a backup singer for Reba McEntire, but failed to secure the job. After a stint selling T-shirts, Hill became a secretary at a publishing firm. Additionally, Hill also landed a job at a local McDonalds restaurant franchise, fries, burgers, cash register – I did it all, I hated it, she has said. In 1988, she married music publishing executive Daniel Hill, a co-worker heard Hill singing to herself one day, and soon the head of her music publishing company was encouraging her to become a demo singer for the firmFaith Hill – Hill at a tribute concert for America's armed forces for ABC 's Good Morning America in 2009
30. Hayley Westenra – Hayley Dee Westenra is a New Zealand singer, classical crossover artist, songwriter, and UNICEF Ambassador. Her first internationally released album, Pure, reached No.1 on the UK classical charts in 2003 and has more than two million copies worldwide. Pure is the fastest-selling international début classical album to date, having made Westenra an international star at age 16, Westenra has performed for dignitaries all over the world. She is the second youngest UNICEF Ambassador to date and has contributed to charities around the globe, Westenra was born in Christchurch, New Zealand. Her parents, Jill and Gerald Westenra, have two children, Sophie and Isaac. Westenras grandmother Shirley Ireland was a singer, and her grandfather was a pianist who played the piano accordion. She has Irish, Dutch and English heritage and she began performing at age six when she was cast in the lead singing role of Little Star in the Christmas play at her school, Fendalton Open Air School. After the show, a teacher who had watched the performance approached her parents to them that their daughter was pitch perfect. The teacher encouraged Westenra to learn how to play an instrument, Hayley soon after learned to read music and play the violin, piano, guitar. She then began voice lessons and discovered a passion for musical theatre, by age 11, she had performed more than 40 times on stage, but was often given male parts, I got boy parts quite often. In ballet, there were not enough boys, so they ended up choosing half and half. I got chosen to wear the suit and the wig. In A Christmas Carol, I was Tiny Tim, so I got to be quite a sick, sick boy, there was a severe lack of singing boys and, at the time, it was quite disappointing. Westenra attended Cobham Intermediate School in 1998 and 1999, where a performing arts building was named in her honour. She won a talent quest in her first year at Burnside High School, at 12, Westenra entered a professional recording studio to record Walking in the Air, a demo album originally created for friends and family. At first, her parents paid for 70 copies, soon after,1,000 more were cut for sale, hand-out, and publicity. After finishing her album, Westenra and her sister Sophie busked in Christchurch, giving away a few of the original 70 albums, the pair drew large crowds, and one woman asked the girls if they had ever recorded anything. The woman, a journalist with Canterbury Television, asked Westenra to appear on air, gray Bartlett, the director of a concert promotion company, saw the show and became interested in working with WestenraHayley Westenra – Westenra in 2005
31. Rogers Centre – Rogers Centre, originally named SkyDome, is a multi-purpose stadium in downtown Toronto, Ontario, Canada situated just southwest of the CN Tower near the northern shore of Lake Ontario. Opened in 1989 on the former Railway Lands, it is home to the Toronto Blue Jays of Major League Baseball, previously, the stadium served as home to the Toronto Argonauts of the Canadian Football League and the Toronto Raptors of the National Basketball Association. The Buffalo Bills of the National Football League played a game at the stadium as part of the Bills Toronto Series from 2008 to 2013. While it is primarily a venue, it also hosts other large-scale events such as conventions, trade fairs, concerts, travelling carnivals. The stadium was renamed Rogers Centre following the purchase of the stadium by Rogers Communications, the venue was noted for being the first stadium to have a fully retractable motorized roof, as well as for the 348-room hotel attached to it, with 70 rooms overlooking the field. It is also the last North American major-league stadium built to both football and baseball. The stadium served as the site of both the opening and closing ceremonies of the 2015 Pan American Games, during the ceremonies, the site was referred to as the Pan Am Dome instead of its official name. The stadiums construction lasted two and a half years, from October 1986 to May 1989. The approximate cost of construction was C$570 million which was paid for by the government, Ontario provincial government, the City of Toronto. The main impetus for building a sports venue came following the Grey Cup game in November 1982. The game was played in a rainstorm that left most of the crowd drenched. As many of the seats were completely exposed to the elements, to make a bad experience even worse, the washrooms overflowed. In attendance that day was Bill Davis, the Premier of Ontario, the following day, at a rally at Toronto City Hall, tens of thousands of people who attended the game began to chant, We want a dome. Seven months later, in June 1983, Premier Davis formally announced that a committee would look into the feasibility of building a domed stadium at Exhibition Place. The committee consisted of Paul Godfrey, Larry Grossman and former Ontario Hydro chairman Hugh Macaulay, the committee examined various projects, including a large indoor stadium at Exhibition Place with an air-supported dome, similar to BC Place in Vancouver. In 1985, a design competition was launched to design a new stadium. Some of the sites included Exhibition Place, Downsview Airport. The final site was located at the base of the CN Tower not far from Union Station, the Railway Lands were a major Canadian National Railway rail switching yard encompassing the CNR Spadina RoundhouseRogers Centre – Rogers Centre
32. 50 Cent – Curtis James Jackson III, known professionally as 50 Cent, is an American rapper, actor, businessman, and investor. Born in the South Jamaica neighborhood of the borough of Queens, although he left drug-dealing to pursue a musical career, in 2000 he was shot nine times. After Jackson released the compilation album Guess Whos Back. in 2002, he was discovered by Eminem and signed by Shady Records, Aftermath Entertainment and Interscope Records. With the aid of Eminem and Dr. Dre, Jackson became one of the worlds best selling rappers, in 2003, he founded G-Unit Records, signing his G-Unit associates Young Buck, Lloyd Banks and Tony Yayo. Jackson had similar commercial and critical success with his album, The Massacre. He released his studio album, Animal Ambition, in 2014 and is working on his sixth studio album. He executive produces the show Power, which airs on Starz and he has pursued an acting career, appearing in the semi-autobiographical film Get Rich or Die Tryin, the Iraq War film Home of the Brave and Righteous Kill. 50 Cent was ranked the sixth-best artist of the 2000s and the third-best rapper by Billboard. Rolling Stone consider Get Rich or Die Tryin and “In Da Club to be in their lists of “100 Best albums of the 2000s”, Jackson was born in the borough of Queens, New York City, and raised in its South Jamaica neighborhood by his mother, Sabrina. A drug dealer, Sabrina raised Jackson until she died in a fire when Jackson was 8. After his mothers death and his fathers departure Jackson was raised by his grandmother and he began boxing at about age 11, and when he was 14 a neighbor opened a boxing gym for local youth. When I wasnt killing time in school, I was sparring in the gym or selling crack on the strip, during the mid-1980s, he competed in the Junior Olympics, I was competitive in the ring and hip-hop is competitive too. I think rappers condition themselves like boxers, so they all kind of feel like theyre the champ, at age 12, Jackson began dealing narcotics when his grandparents thought he was in after-school programs and brought guns and drug money to school. In the tenth grade, he was caught by metal detectors at Andrew Jackson High School, after I got arrested I stopped hiding it. I was telling my grandmother, I sell drugs, on June 29,1994, Jackson was arrested for selling four vials of cocaine to an undercover police officer. He was arrested three weeks later, when police searched his home and found heroin, ten ounces of crack cocaine. Although Jackson was sentenced to three to nine years in prison, he served six months in a camp and earned his GED. He has said that he did not use cocaine himself, Jackson adopted the nickname 50 Cent as a metaphor for change50 Cent – 50 Cent in 2006
33. Eeny, meeny, miny, moe – Eeny, meeny, miny, moe—which can be spelled a number of ways—is a childrens counting rhyme, used to select a person in games such as tag. It is one of a group of similar rhymes in which the child who is pointed to by the chanter on the last syllable is either chosen or counted out. The rhyme has existed in various forms since well before 1820, since many similar counting rhymes existed earlier, it is difficult to ascertain this rhymes exact origin. A common modern version is, Eeny, meeny, miny, moe, If he hollers, let him go, Eeny, meeny, miny, moe. The last two lines may be changed to if he hollers, let him pay, fifty dollars every day, occasionally the line copies Ip dip, Not because youre dirty, Not because youre clean, Just because you kissed a boy/girl behind the magazine. The Hana, man was found by Henry Carrington Bolton in the US, Bolton also found a similar rhyme in German, Ene, tene, mone, mei, Pastor, lone, bone, strei, Ene, fune, herke, berke, Wer. Variations of this rhyme, with the nonsense/counting first line have been collected since the 1820s, such as this Scottish one, Hickery Pickery, hell go east, hell go west, hell go to the crows nest. This was one of many variants of counting out rhymes collected by Bolton in 1888, a Cornish version collected in 1882 runs, Ena, mena, mona, mite, Bascalora, bora, bite, Hugga, bucca, bau, Eggs, butter, cheese, bread. Stick, stock, stone dead – OUT, one theory about the origins of the rhyme is that it is descended from Old English or Welsh counting, similar to the old Shepherds count Yan Tan Tethera or the Cornish Eena, mea, mona, mite. The rhyme inspired the song Eena Meena Deeka in the 1957 Bollywood film Aasha, another possible origin is from a Swahili poem brought to the Americas by enslaved Africans, Iino ya mmiini maiini mo. Most likely the origin is a centuries-old, possibly Old Saxon diviner rhyme, jan Naarding, supported by prof. dr. Klaas Heeroma at the Nedersaksisch Instituut at the University of Groningen and they published their findings in an article called Een oud wichellied en zijn verwanten. In part I of the article Naarding explains, why the counting rhyme he found in Twents-Achterhoeks woordenboek, wanink, stands close to an early mediaeval or even older archetype. That same version was recorded in 1904 in Goor in Twente by Nynke van Hichtum, Anne manne miene mukke, Ikke tikke takke tukke, Eere vrouwe grieze knech, Ikke wikke wakke weg. Naarding calls its origin a heathen priest song, that begs the highest goddess for an oracle while divining, the first lines can be translated as foremother of mankind, give me a sign, I take the cut off pieces of a branch. This explanation was revived and extended in 2016 by Goaitsen van der Vliet, the last line of the rhyme can be translated as I weigh it up. Some older versions of this rhyme had the word nigger instead of tiger, Eeny, meena, mina, mo, Catch a nigger by the toe, If he hollers let him go, Eena, meena, mina, mo. This version was similar to that reported by Henry Carrington Bolton as the most common version among American schoolchildren in 1888Eeny, meeny, miny, moe – " A-Tisket, A-Tasket "
34. Grammy Award for Best New Artist – The Grammy Award for Best New Artist has been awarded since 1959. Years reflect the year in which the Grammy Awards were handed out, the award was not presented in 1967. The official guidelines are as follows, For a new artist who releases, during the Eligibility Year, note that this is not necessarily the first album released by an artist. It is sometimes asserted, with varying degrees of sincerity, that winning the award is a curse, as several award winners were never able to duplicate the success they experienced in their debut year. This viewpoint was expressed by former Starland Vocal Band member Taffy Danoff in a 2002 interview for VH1s 100 Greatest One Hit Wonders, so that was basically the kiss of death and I feel sorry for everyone whos gotten it since. The category is also notable for being the one of its kind in which a Grammy Award was vacated. This occurred in 1990 after it was revealed winners Milli Vanilli did not contribute their own vocals on their debut album, the award was revoked, but was not handed out to another artist. Of the 54 awards presented in the category since its inception, the honor has been presented to 25 solo female artists,18 duos or groups, between 1997 and 2003, all the winners were solo female artists. Also, from 1993 to 2005, no winner was a male artist. In 2006, John Legend broke this trend, which started with Marc Cohn in 1992. Only four artists have won both Best New Artist and Album of the Year in the year, Bob Newhart in 1961, Christopher Cross in 1981, Lauryn Hill in 1999. Of all the winners, only three have been country artists, in 1997, LeAnn Rimes became the first country artist to win the award. She was followed by Carrie Underwood in 2007 and Zac Brown Band in 2010, additionally,2017 marked the first time that two country artists were nominated in this category in the same year. 1984 marked the first time all of the nominees were from outside of the United States. Over the years, the eligibility rules for this category have changed several times, in 2010, Lady Gagas exclusion from the Best New Artist category caused the Recording Academy to change eligibility requirements for the next ceremony. She was ineligible for the nomination because her hit Just Dance had been nominated in 2008, the new rule stated that an artist can be nominated as long as that artist has not previously released an entire album and has subsequently not won a Grammy. To be eligible in the category of Best New Artist, the artist, duo, or group, Must have released a minimum of five singles/tracks or one album, but no more than 30 singles/tracks or three albums. May not have entered into this more than three times, including as a performing member of an established groupGrammy Award for Best New Artist – The Beatles members John Lennon, Paul McCartney, Ringo Starr, and George Harrison (clockwise from top left)
35. Celine Dion – Céline Marie Claudette Dion, CC OQ ChLD is a Canadian singer and businesswoman. Dion first gained recognition in the 1980s by winning both the 1982 Yamaha World Popular Song Festival and the 1988 Eurovision Song Contest where she represented Switzerland. Following a series of French albums during the 1980s, she signed on to Epic Records in the United States, in 1990, Dion released her debut English-language album, Unison, establishing herself as a viable pop artist in North America and other English-speaking areas of the world. During the 1990s, with the help of Angélil, she achieved fame after releasing several English albums along with additional French albums. Her albums, Falling into You and Lets Talk About Love, were certified diamond in the US while Deux became the best-selling French-language album of all time. However, in 1999 at the height of her success, Dion announced a hiatus from entertainment to start a family and spend time with her husband and she returned to the top of pop music in 2002 and signed to perform nightly in A New Day. A five-star theatrical show at the Colosseum at Caesars Palace, Paradise and it became the most successful residency show of all time, grossing US $385 million. Dions music has influenced by genres ranging from rock and R&B to gospel. Her recordings are mainly in French and English, although she sings in Spanish, Italian, German, Latin, Japanese. While her releases have received mixed critical reception, she is regarded as one of pop musics most influential voices. Dion has won five Grammy Awards, including Album of the Year and she is the second best-selling female artist in the US during the Nielsen SoundScan era. In 2003, Dion was honoured by the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry for selling over 50 million albums in Europe, Dion remains the best-selling Canadian artist and one of the best-selling artists of all time with record sales of over 200 million copies worldwide. Dion was born in Charlemagne, Quebec, Canada, the youngest of 14 children of Thérèse, a homemaker, and Adhémar Dion, Dion was raised a Roman Catholic in a poverty-stricken, but, by her own account, happy home in Charlemagne. Music had always been a part of the Dion family, indeed, Dion herself was named after the song Céline. Thereafter, she continued to perform with her siblings in her parentss small piano bar called Le Vieux Baril, from an early age, Dion had dreamed of being a performer. In a 1994 interview with People magazine, she recalled, I missed my family and my home, I had one dream, I wanted to be a singer. At age 12, Dion collaborated with her mother and her brother Jacques to write and compose her first song, Ce nétait quun rêve, whose title translates as It Was Only a Dream or Nothing But A Dream. Her brother, Michel Dion, sent the recording to music manager René Angélil, Angélil was moved to tears by Dions voice and decided to make her a starCeline Dion – Celine Dion, 2012
36. Shema Yisrael – Shema Yisrael are the first two words of a section of the Torah, and is the title of a prayer that serves as a centerpiece of the morning and evening Jewish prayer services. Observant Jews consider the Shema to be the most important part of the service in Judaism. It is traditional for Jews to say the Shema as their last words, and for parents to teach their children to say it before they go to sleep at night. The term Shema is used by extension to refer to the part of the daily prayers that commences with Shema Yisrael and comprises Deuteronomy 6, 4–9,11, 13-21. These sections of the Torah are read in the weekly Torah portions Vaetchanan, Eikev, originally, the Shema consisted of only one verse, Deuteronomy 6,4. The recitation of the Shema in the liturgy, however, consists of three portions, Deuteronomy 6, 4–9,11, 13-21, and Numbers 15, 37–41, the three portions are already mentioned in the Mishnah. The three portions relate to issues of Jewish belief. In the Mishnah the reciting of the shema was linked with re-affirming a personal relationship with Gods rule, literally, reciting the shema was stated as receiving the kingdom of heaven. Additionally, the Talmud points out that subtle references to the Ten Commandments can be found in the three portions, as the Ten Commandments were removed from daily prayer in the Mishnaic period, the Shema is seen as an opportunity to commemorate the Ten Commandments. There are two larger-print letters in the first sentence which, when combined, spell עד, the idea thus conveyed is that through the recitation or proclamation of the Shema one is a living witness testifying to the truth of its message. Modern Kabbalistic schools, namely that of the Ari, teach that one recites the last letter of the word ecḥad, meaning one. The first, pivotal, words of the Shema are, in the original Hebrew, שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה אֶחָֽד׃, which can be transliterated, Shma Yisrael, YHWH eloheinu, YHWH eḥad. Rabbinic Judaism teaches that the Tetragrammaton, YHWH, is the ineffable and actual name of God, for this reason, the Shema is recited aloud as, Shma Yisrael Adonai Eloheinu Adonai Eḥad - Hear, O Israel, the LORD is our God, the LORD is One. Eloheinu — the plural 1st person possessive of אֱלֹהִים Elohim, meaning “our God”, echad — the unified and cardinal number one אֶחָד This first verse of the Shema relates to the kingship of God. The first verse, Hear, O Israel, the LORD our God is one LORD, has ever been regarded as the confession of belief in the One God. Due to the ambiguities of the Hebrew language, there are ways of translating the Shema, Hear. Adonai is our God – Adonai alone, many commentaries have been written about the subtle differences between the translations. There is an emphasis on the oneness of God and on the worship of God by IsraelShema Yisrael – Shema Yisrael at the Knesset Menorah in Jerusalem
37. Dubai – Dubai is the largest and most populous city in the United Arab Emirates. It is located on the southeast coast of the Persian Gulf and is the capital of the Emirate of Dubai, Abu Dhabi and Dubai are the only two emirates to have veto power over critical matters of national importance in the countrys legislature. The city of Dubai is located on the northern coastline. Dubai will host World Expo 2020, Dubai has emerged as a global city and business hub of the Middle East. It is also a transport hub for passengers and cargo. By the 1960s, Dubais economy was based on revenues from trade and, to an extent, oil exploration concessions. Oil revenue first started to flow in 1969, Dubais oil revenue helped accelerate the early development of the city, but its reserves are limited and production levels are low, today, less than 5% of the emirates revenue comes from oil. The emirates Western-style model of business drives its economy with the main revenues now coming from tourism, aviation, real estate, Dubai was recently named the best destination for Muslim travellers by Salam Standard. Dubai has recently attracted attention through many innovative large construction projects and sports events. The city has become iconic for its skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the worlds tallest building, Dubai has been criticised for human rights violations concerning the citys largely South Asian and Filipino workforce. As of 2012, Dubai was the 22nd most expensive city in the world, in 2014, Dubais hotel rooms were rated as the second most expensive in the world, after Geneva. Dubai was rated as one of the best places to live in the Middle East by U. S. global consulting firm Mercer, Many theories have been proposed as to the origin of the word Dubai. One theory suggests the word was used to describe the souq, another theory states that the name came from a word meaning money, as people from Dubai were commonly believed to be rich due to the thriving trading centre of the location. An Arabic proverb says Daba Dubai, meaning They came with a lot of money, according to Fedel Handhal, a scholar on the UAEs history and culture, the word Dubai may have come from the word daba, referring to the slow flow of Dubai Creek inland. The poet and scholar Ahmad Mohammad Obaid traces it to the same word, an inhabitant or native of the city is a Dubaian. Although stone tools have been found at archaeological sites, little is known about the UAEs early inhabitants as only a few settlements have been found. Many ancient towns in the area were trading centres between the Eastern and Western worlds, the remnants of an ancient mangrove swamp, dated at 7000 BC, were discovered during the construction of sewer lines near Dubai Internet City. The area was covered with sand about 5,000 years ago as the coast retreated inland, pre-Islamic ceramics have been found from the 3rd and 4th centuriesDubai – Clockwise from the top: skyline with Burj Khalifa; Burj Al Arab; satellite image showing Palm Jumeirah and The World Islands; Dubai Marina; and Sheikh Zayed road.
38. Stratford, Ontario – Stratford is a city on the Avon River in Perth County in southwestern Ontario, Canada, with a population of 31,465 in 2016 in a land area of 28.28 square kilometers. Stratford is the seat of Perth County which was settled by English, Irish, Scottish and German immigrants, in almost equal numbers, starting in the 1820s but primarily in the 1830s and 1840s. Most became farmers, and even today, the area around Stratford is known for mixed farming, dairying, when the area which is now Stratford was first settled in 1832, the townsite and the river were named after Stratford-upon-Avon, England. Stratford was incorporated as a town in 1859 and as a city in 1886, the first mayor was John Corry Wilson Daly and the current mayor is Dan Mathieson. The swan has become a symbol of the city, each year twenty-four white swans are released into the Avon River. In 1832, the development of an area called Little Thames as the centre for the eastern Huron Tract began. By 1834 a tavern, sawmill and grist mill had opened, the Smiths Canadian Gazetteer of 1846 describes Stratford as follows, Stratford contains about 200 inhabitants. Post Office, post three times a-week, settlement was slow until the early 1850s when the railway arrived. Furniture manufacturing and railway locomotive repairs were the most important parts of the economy by the twentieth century. In 1933 a general strike, started by the workers and led by the Communist Workers Unity League. The Grand Trunk Railway locomotive repair shops were the major employer for many years,1832 - Thomas Mercer Jones, an agent of the Canada Company, names the village Stratford and renames the portion of the Thames River running through it the Avon River. The first sawmill, hotel and gristmill are opened,1834, The community has a tavern, sawmill and grist mill, in 1835 the first post office opens. 1849 - The Perth County News is Stratfords first weekly newspaper,1853 - Perth County is created, with Stratford as its county seat. 1854 - Stratford is incorporated as a village,1856 - Stratford becomes a railway town with the arrival of the Grand Trunk and Buffalo-Lake Huron railways. 1859 - Stratford is incorporated as a town,1864 - The 17-year-old American telegraph operator Thomas Edison briefly lived at 19 Grange Street. 1871, A major railway repair yard opens and helps accelerate the population growth,1885 - Stratford is incorporated as a city with a population of 9000. 1887 - The second and current Perth County Court House opens, it is praised for its High Victorian architecture, with several Queen Anne features,1898 The massive red brick town hall, in the Victorian Picturesque style, with a prominent clock tower, is completed. 1903 - The first public library opens, built with $15,000 of financial assistance from American steel magnate Andrew Carnegie,1908 - The Stratford Normal School opens to train teachers, from 1953 on, it is called the Stratford Teachers CollegeStratford, Ontario – City Hall
39. Comedy Central – Comedy Central is an American basic cable and satellite television channel owned by Viacom Global Entertainment Group, a unit of the Viacom Media Networks division of Viacom. The channel carries comedy programming, in the form of original and syndicated series and stand-up comedy specials, as well as feature films. The international channels are operated by Viacom International Media Networks, as of February 2015, approximately 93,992,000 American households receive Comedy Central. On November 15,1989, Time Warner, owners of HBO, on April 1,1990, Viacom launched a rival channel called Ha. that featured reruns of situation comedies and some original sketch comedy. The Comedy Channels programs were broadcast from the HBO Downtown Studios at 120 East 23rd Street in Manhattan, the format prior to the merger with Ha. In the early days, certain hours of the day when clips were shown without host segments were dubbed Short Attention Span Theater, in 1990, hosts under this title, Jon Stewart and Patty Rosborough, were introduced. Comedian Marc Maron also hosted the series, Viacom bought out Time Warners half in April 2003 for $1.23 billion. LLC, the subsidiary that owned Ha. and Viacoms original half of the network, with the exception of the cult favorite Mystery Science Theater 3000, the channel had a relatively small viewership. A notable early success was Politically Incorrect with Bill Maher, which after showing promise on Comedy Central was quickly snapped up by ABC. Additionally, The Daily Show had got its start with original host Craig Kilborn, dr. Katz, Professional Therapist was also a notable original program from this era, as well as the game show Win Ben Steins Money. Successful non-original programming included Canadian comedy group The Kids in the Hall and British shows such as the U. K. edition of Whose Line Is It Anyway. some later seasons of AbFab, as it was informally known, were partially financed by Comedy Central. Comedy Central also had the rights to broadcast reruns of Seattles Almost Live. The channel made a breakthrough when South Park premiered in 1997, being the first major basic cable show to carry the TV-MA rating for mature audiences, the show was too controversial to be picked up by a mainstream network. As word of mouth spread, the number of people who requested that Comedy Central be added to their cable providers increased, on November 13,2000, Comedy Central introduced a modernized version of its globe logo, by straightening the buildings and removing the transmitter. The management of the said that the transmitter of the 1991 logo was said to communicate the 1950s broadcast era. In 2002, Comedy Central Records was formed as a means of releasing albums by comedians that have appeared on the network, since 2003, Comedy Central has created a tradition of roasting comedians in the style of the New York Friars Club roasts. During these roasts, friends of the roastee, along other comedians, take turns making fun of the roastee, the other roasters. The success of South Park, despite its mature content, encouraged the network to continue to push the limits on adult language, every Saturday and Sunday morning at 1 a. mComedy Central – Comedy Central