1. Kanye West – Kanye Omari West is an American rapper, songwriter, record producer, fashion designer, and entrepreneur. Intent on pursuing a career as a rapper, West released his debut album The College Dropout in 2004 to widespread critical and commercial success. He went on to pursue a variety of different styles on subsequent albums Late Registration, Graduation, and 808s & Heartbreak. In 2010, he released his fifth album My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy to rave reviews from critics, West released his abrasive sixth album, Yeezus, to further critical praise in 2013. His seventh album, The Life of Pablo, was released in 2016, Wests outspoken views and life outside of music have received significant mainstream attention. He has been a frequent source of controversy for his conduct at award shows, on social media and he is the founder and head of the creative content company DONDA. His 2014 marriage to television personality Kim Kardashian has also been subject to media coverage. He has won a total of 21 Grammy Awards, making him one of the most awarded artists of all time, three of his albums have been included and ranked on Rolling Stones 2012 update of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time list. He has also included in a number of Forbes annual lists. Time named him one of the 100 most influential people in the world in 2005 and 2015, West was born on June 8,1977 in Atlanta, Georgia. His parents divorced when he was three years old, after the divorce, he and his mother moved to Chicago, Illinois. His father, Ray West, is a former Black Panther and was one of the first black photojournalists at The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Ray West was later a Christian counselor, and in 2006, opened the Good Water Store and Café in Lexington Park, Maryland with startup capital from his son. West, was a professor of English at Clark Atlanta University, West was raised in a middle-class background, attending Polaris High School in suburban Oak Lawn, Illinois after living in Chicago. At the age of 10, West moved with his mother to Nanjing, China, according to his mother, West was the only foreigner in his class, but settled in well and quickly picked up the language, although he has since forgotten most of it. When asked about his grades in school, West replied, I got As. West demonstrated an affinity for the arts at an early age and his mother recalled that she first took notice of Wests passion for drawing and music when he was in the third grade. Growing up in Chicago, West became deeply involved in its hip hop scene and he started rapping in the third grade and began making musical compositions in the seventh grade, eventually selling them to other artistsKanye West – West performing at Lollapalooza in 2011
2. Bassoon – The bassoon is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and tenor clefs, and occasionally the treble. Appearing in its form in the 19th century, the bassoon figures prominently in orchestral, concert band. The bassoon is an instrument known for its distinctive tone color, wide range, variety of character. Listeners often compare its warm, dark, reedy timbre to that of a baritone voice. Someone who plays the bassoon is called a bassoonist, the word bassoon comes from French basson and from Italian bassone. However, the Italian name for the instrument is fagotto. B♭1–C5 The range of the bassoon begins at B♭1 and extends upward over three octaves, roughly to the G above the treble staff, higher notes are possible but difficult to produce, and rarely called for, orchestral and concert band parts rarely go higher than C5 or D5. Even Stravinskys famously difficult opening solo in The Rite of Spring only ascends to D5, a1 is possible with a special extension to the instrument—see Extended techniques below. The bassoon disassembles into six pieces, including the reed. Bassoons are double reed instruments like the oboe and the English horn, a modern beginners bassoon is generally made of maple, with medium-hardness types such as sycamore maple and sugar maple preferred. Both bore and tone holes are precision-machined, and each instrument is finished by hand for proper tuning and this ensures coverage by the fingers of the average adult hand. Wooden instruments are lined with hard rubber along the interior of the wing and boot joints to prevent damage from moisture, the end of the bell is usually fitted with a ring, either of metal, plastic or ivory. The joints between sections consist of a tenon fitting into a socket, the tenons are wrapped in either cork or string as a seal against air leaks. The bocal connects the reed to the rest of the instrument and is inserted into a socket at the top of the wing joint, bocals come in many different lengths and styles, depending on the desired tuning and playing characteristics. Folded upon itself, the bassoon stands 1.34 m tall, there are also short-reach bassoons made for the benefit of young or petite players. The origins of the dulcian are obscure, but by the century it was available in as many as eight different sizes. Otherwise, dulcian technique was rather primitive, with eight finger holes, the dulcian came to be known as fagotto in Italy. However, the etymology that equates fagotto with bundle of sticks is somewhat misleadingBassoon – Two views of a Renard model 220 bassoon
3. Dr. Dre – Andre Romelle Young, better known by his stage name Dr. Dre, is an American rapper, record producer, and entrepreneur. He is the founder and current CEO of Aftermath Entertainment and Beats Electronics, Dre was previously the co-owner of, and an artist on, Death Row Records. He has produced albums for and overseen the careers of many rappers, including 2Pac, Snoop Dogg, Eminem, Xzibit, Knoc-turnal,50 Cent, The Game and Kendrick Lamar. He is credited as a key figure in the popularization of West Coast G-funk, in 1996, he left Death Row Records to establish his own label, Aftermath Entertainment. He produced an album titled Dr. Dre Presents the Aftermath in 1996. During the 2000s, he focused on production for other artists, Dr. Dre signed Eminem in 1998 and 50 Cent in 2002 to his record label respectively, while contributing production on their albums. He has won six Grammy Awards, including Producer of the Year, Dr. Dre has also had acting roles in movies such as Set It Off, The Wash and Training Day. Rolling Stone ranked Dre at 56 on their list of 100 Greatest Artists of All-Time, Young was born in Compton, California, the first child of Theodore and Verna Young. His middle name, Romelle, is derived from his fathers amateur R&B singing group and his parents married in 1964, separated in 1968, and divorced in 1972. His mother later remarried and had three children, sons Jerome and Tyree and daughter Shameka, in 1976, Young began attending Vanguard Junior High School in Compton, but due to gang violence, he transferred to the safer suburban Roosevelt Junior High School. Young is the cousin of producer Sir Jinx and he attended Centennial High School in Compton during his freshman year in 1979, but transferred to Fremont High School in South Central Los Angeles due to poor grades. Young attempted to enroll in a program at Northrop Aviation Company. Thereafter, he focused on his life and entertainment for the remainder of his high school years. Young fathered a son with Cassandra Joy Greene named Curtis, Curtis was brought up by his mother and first met his father 20 years later, when Curtis became rapper Hood Surgeon. Inspired by the Grandmaster Flash song The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel, he attended a club called Eve After Dark to watch many DJs. He subsequently became a DJ in the club, initially under the name Dr. J, based on the nickname of Julius Erving, at the club, he met aspiring rapper Antoine Carraby, later to become member DJ Yella of N. W. A. Soon afterwards he adopted the moniker Dr. Dre, a mix of previous alias Dr. J and his first name, Eve After Dark had a back room with a small four-track studio. In this studio, Dre and Yella recorded several demos, in their first recording session, they recorded a song entitled Surgery, with the lyrics calling Dr. Dre to surgery serving as the chorus to the songDr. Dre – Dr. Dre in 2011
4. Garry Kasparov – From 1986 until his retirement in 2005, Kasparov was ranked world No.1 for 225 out of 228 months. His peak rating of 2851, achieved in 1999, was the highest recorded until being surpassed by Magnus Carlsen in 2013, Kasparov also holds records for consecutive professional tournament victories and Chess Oscars. Kasparov became the youngest ever undisputed World Chess Champion in 1985 at age 22 by defeating then-champion Anatoly Karpov and he held the official FIDE world title until 1993, when a dispute with FIDE led him to set up a rival organization, the Professional Chess Association. In 1997 he became the first world champion to lose a match to a computer under standard time controls and he continued to hold the Classical World Chess Championship until his defeat by Vladimir Kramnik in 2000. In spite of losing the championship, he continued winning tournaments. Kasparov announced his retirement from professional chess on 10 March 2005, after which he devoted his time to politics and he formed the United Civil Front movement, and joined as a member of The Other Russia, a coalition opposing the administration and policies of Vladimir Putin. Kasparov blamed official obstruction for the lack of available space, although he is widely regarded in the West as a symbol of opposition to Putin, he was barred from the presidential ballot. The political climate in Russia reportedly makes it difficult for opposition candidates to organize and he is currently chairman for the Human Rights Foundation and chairs its International Council. Kasparov is a frequent critic of American professor emeritus of Russian studies, Stephen F. Cohen, Kasparov and Cohen participated in a Munk Debate in 2015 over the issue of reengaging or isolating Russia, with the audience siding with Kasparovs argument of isolating Russia. In 1997, he obtained Bosnian citizenship, in 2014, he obtained Croatian citizenship. He lives in New York City and travels often, Kasparov was born Garik Kimovich Weinstein in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR, Soviet Union. His father, Kim Moiseyevich Weinstein, was Russian Jewish, and his mother, Kasparov has described himself as a self-appointed Christian, although very indifferent. Kasparov first began the study of chess after he came across a chess problem set up by his parents. His father died of leukemia when Garry was seven years old, at the age of twelve, Garry adopted his mothers Armenian surname, Gasparian, russified as Kasparov. From age 7, Kasparov attended the Young Pioneer Palace in Baku and, Makogonov helped develop Kasparovs positional skills and taught him to play the Caro-Kann Defence and the Tartakower System of the Queens Gambit Declined. Kasparov won the Soviet Junior Championship in Tbilisi in 1976, scoring 7 points of 9 and he repeated the feat the following year, winning with a score of 8½ of 9. He was being trained by Alexander Shakarov during this time, in 1978, Kasparov participated in the Sokolsky Memorial tournament in Minsk. He had been invited as an exception but took first place, Kasparov has repeatedly said that this event was a turning point in his life, and that it convinced him to choose chess as his careerGarry Kasparov – Kasparov in 2007
5. Harry Connick Jr. – Joseph Harry Fowler Connick Jr. is an American singer, big band leader, talk show host and actor. He has sold over 28 million albums worldwide, Connick is ranked among the top 60 best-selling male artists in the United States by the Recording Industry Association of America, with 16 million in certified sales. He has had seven top 20 US albums, and ten number-one US jazz albums, Connicks best-selling album in the United States is his Christmas album When My Heart Finds Christmas. His highest-charting album is his release Only You, which reached No.5 in the US and he has won three Grammy Awards and two Emmy Awards. He played Graces husband, Leo Markus, on the NBC sitcom Will & Grace from 2002 to 2006, Connick began his acting career as a tail gunner in the World War II film Memphis Belle. He played a killer in Copycat, before being cast as a fighter pilot in the blockbuster Independence Day. Connicks first role as a man was in Hope Floats with Sandra Bullock. His first thriller film since Copycat came in the film Basic with John Travolta, additionally, he played the violent ex-husband in Bug, before two romantic comedies, P. S. I Love You, and the man in New in Town with Renée Zellweger. In 2011, he appeared in the family film Dolphin Tale as Dr. Clay Haskett, Harry Connick Jr. was born and raised in New Orleans, Louisiana. His mother, Anita Frances, was a lawyer and judge in New Orleans and, later and his father, Joseph Harry Fowler Connick Sr. was the district attorney of Orleans Parish from 1973 to 2003. His parents also owned a record store, Connicks father is a Catholic of Irish, English, and German ancestry. Connicks mother, who died from cancer, was Jewish. Connick has a sister, Suzanna, the siblings were raised in the Lakeview neighborhood of New Orleans, Connick is a first cousin of both Jefferson Parish District Attorney, Paul Connick, and State Representative Patrick Connick. Connicks musical talents soon came to the fore when he started learning the keyboards at age three, playing publicly at age five, and recording with a jazz band at ten. The song was Im Just Wild About Harry and this was recorded for a Japanese documentary called Jazz Around the World. The clip was shown in a Bravo special, called Worlds of Harry Connick. His musical talents were developed at the New Orleans Center for Creative Arts and under the tutelage of Ellis Marsalis Jr. Connick attended Jesuit High School, Isidore Newman School, Lakeview School, and the New Orleans Center for Creative Arts, all in New OrleansHarry Connick Jr. – Harry Connick, Jr. in 2014
6. Ice-T – Tracy Lauren Marrow, better known by his stage name Ice-T, is an American rapper, metal vocalist and actor. He began his career as a rapper in the 1980s and was signed to Sire Records in 1987, the next year, he founded the record label Rhyme $yndicate Records and released another album, Power. He co-founded the heavy metal band Body Count, which he introduced in his 1991 album O. G, Body Count released its self-titled debut album in 1992. Ice-T encountered controversy over his track Cop Killer, which was perceived to glamorize killing police officers, Ice-T asked to be released from his contract with Warner Bros. Records, and his solo album, Home Invasion, was released later in February 1993 through Priority Records. Body Counts next album was released in 1994, and Ice-T released two albums in the late 1990s. Since 2000, he has portrayed NYPD Detective Odafin Tutuola on the NBC police drama Law & Order, on August 1,2006 the fourth Body Count album Murder 4 Hire was released, followed by Manslaughter on June 10,2014. Tracy Lauren Marrow, son of Solomon and Alice Marrow, was born in Newark, Solomon was an African American, and Alice was Creole. For decades, Solomon worked as a conveyor belt mechanic at the Rapistan Conveyor Company, when Marrow was a child, his family moved to upscale Summit, New Jersey. Relaying this incident to his mother, she told him, Honey, people are stupid, her advice and his mother died of a heart attack when he was in third grade. Solomon raised Marrow as a father for four years, with help from a housekeeper. Marrows first experience with an illegal activity occurred after a bicycle that Solomon bought him for Christmas was stolen, after Marrow told his father, Solomon shrugged, Well, then, you aint got no bike. Marrow stole parts from bicycles and assembled three or four weird-looking, brightly painted bikes from the parts, his father either did not notice or never acknowledged this, when Marrow was 12 years old, Solomon died of a heart attack. For many years, AllMusic. com has stated that his parents died in an accident, but Ice-T has stated that it was actually he who had been in a brutal auto accident. While his cousin Earl was preparing to leave for college, Marrow shared a room with him, Earl was a fan of rock music and listened to only the local rock stations, sharing a room with him spurred Marrows interest in heavy metal music. Marrow moved to the Crenshaw District of Los Angeles when he was in the 8th grade and he attended Palms Junior High, which was predominantly made up of white students, and included black students bussed in from South Central. He attended Crenshaw High School, which was almost entirely made up of black students, Marrow stood out from most of his friends because he did not drink alcohol, smoke tobacco, or use drugs. During high school, gangs began to intensify in the Los Angeles school system, students who belonged to the Bloods and Crips gangs attended Crenshaw, and fought in the schools hallsIce-T – Ice-T in Manhattan on set of Law & Order: Special Victims Unit in March 2011
7. Jean-Michel Basquiat – Jean-Michel Basquiat was an American artist. By the 1980s, he was exhibiting his neo-expressionist paintings in galleries, the Whitney Museum of American Art held a retrospective of his art in 1992. Basquiats art focused on suggestive dichotomies, such as wealth versus poverty, integration versus segregation and he appropriated poetry, drawing, and painting, and married text and image, abstraction, figuration, and historical information mixed with contemporary critique. He died of an overdose at his art studio at age 27. Jean-Michel Basquiat was born in Brooklyn, New York, on December 22,1960, shortly after the death of his elder brother and he was the second of four children of Matilda Andrades and Gérard Basquiat. He had two sisters, Lisane, born in 1964, and Jeanine, born in 1967. His father, Gérard Basquiat, was born in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, and his mother, Matilde Basquiat, Matilde instilled a love for art in her young son by taking him to art museums in Manhattan and enrolling him as a junior member of the Brooklyn Museum of Art. Basquiat was a child who learned how to read and write by age four and was a gifted artist. His teachers, such as artist Jose Machado, noticed his artistic abilities, by the age of 11, Basquiat was fully fluent in French, Spanish and English. In 1967, Basquiat started attending Saint Anns, an exclusive private school. He drew with Marc Prozzo, a friend from St. Anns, they created a childrens book, written by Basquiat. Basquiat became a reader of Spanish, French, and English texts. In September 1968, when Basquiat was about eight, he was hit by a car while playing in the street and his arm was broken and he suffered several internal injuries, and he eventually underwent a splenectomy. While he was recuperating from his injuries, his mother brought him the Grays Anatomy book to keep him occupied and this book would prove to be influential in his future artistic outlook. His parents separated that year and he and his sisters were raised by their father, the family resided in Boerum Hill, Brooklyn, for five years, then moved to San Juan, Puerto Rico in 1974. After two years, they returned to New York City, when he was 13, his mother was committed to a mental institution and thereafter spent time in and out of institutions. At 15, Basquiat ran away from home and he slept on park benches in Tompkins Square Park, and was arrested and returned to the care of his father within a week. His father banished him from the household for dropping out of high school and he supported himself by selling T-shirts and homemade post cardsJean-Michel Basquiat – Jean-Michel Basquiat
8. Joni Mitchell – Roberta Joan Joni Mitchell, CC is a Canadian singer-songwriter and painter. Drawing from folk, pop, rock and jazz, Mitchells songs often reflect social and environmental ideals as well as her feelings about romance, confusion, disillusionment, Mitchell began singing in small nightclubs in Saskatchewan and western Canada before busking in the streets and shoddy nightclubs of Toronto. In 1965, she moved to the United States and began touring, some of her original songs were covered by folk singers, allowing her to sign with Reprise Records and record her debut album in 1968. Settling in Southern California, Mitchell, with songs like Big Yellow Taxi and Woodstock, helped define an era. Her 1971 recording Blue was rated the 30th best album made in Rolling Stones list of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. Mitchell switched labels and began moving toward jazz rhythms by way of lush pop textures on 1974s Court and Spark, her best-selling LP, featuring the radio hits Help Me, around 1975 her vocal range began to shift from mezzo-soprano to more of a wide-ranging contralto. She turned again toward pop, embraced electronic music, and engaged in political protest and she is the sole producer credited on most of her albums, including all her work in the 1970s. A blunt critic of the industry, she quit touring and released her 17th. With roots in art, Mitchell designed her own album covers. She describes herself as a painter derailed by circumstance, Mitchell was born Roberta Joan Anderson on November 7,1943, in Fort Macleod, Alberta, Canada, the daughter of Myrtle Marguerite and William Andrew Anderson. Her mothers ancestors were Scottish and Irish, her father was from a Norwegian family and her father was a Royal Canadian Air Force flight lieutenant who instructed new pilots at RCAF Station Fort Macleod, where the Allied forces were gathering to learn to fly during World War II. During those years, she moved with her parents to various bases in western Canada, after the war, her father began working as a grocer, and his work took the family to Saskatchewan, to the towns of Maidstone and North Battleford. She later sang about her upbringing in Song for Sharon. In Maidstone they lived beside the track, where Mitchell waved at the only train that passed through each day. Many of the residents were First Nations people. Mitchell seemed athletic rather than academic, but still responded to her mothers love of literature and her fathers love of music, at age nine, Mitchell contracted polio in an epidemic, and was hospitalised for weeks. No longer athletic, she turned her thoughts to her creative talent, by nine, she was a smoker, she denies claims that smoking has affected her voice. At 11, she moved with her family to the city of Saskatoon and she responded badly to formal education, preferring a freethinking outlook, and was drawn to art, a pursuit often regarded as peripheral at the timeJoni Mitchell – Mitchell performing in 1983
9. Jay Leno – James Douglas Muir Jay Leno is an American comedian, actor, philanthropist and television host. After doing standup comedy for years, he became the host of NBCs The Tonight Show with Jay Leno from 1992 to 2009. Beginning in September 2009, Leno started a talk show, titled The Jay Leno Show. After The Jay Leno Show was canceled in January 2010 amid a host controversy and he hosted his last episode of The Tonight Show on February 6,2014. That year, he was inducted into the Television Hall of Fame, Leno was born in New Rochelle, New York. His homemaker mother, Catherine, was born in Greenock, Scotland and his father, Angelo, was an insurance salesman who was born in New York, to immigrants from Flumeri, Italy. Leno grew up in Andover, Massachusetts, and graduated from Andover High School, Leno obtained a bachelors degree in speech therapy from Emerson College, where he started a comedy club in 1973. His older brother, Patrick, was a Vietnam War veteran who worked as an attorney, Leno made his first appearance on The Tonight Show on March 2,1977, performing a comedy routine. During the 1970s, Leno appeared in roles in several television series and films, first in the 1976 episode J. J. in Trouble of Good Times. After an uncredited appearance in the 1977 film Fun with Dick and Jane, he played more prominent roles in 1978 in American Hot Wax, Lenos only starring film role was the 1989 direct-to-video Collision Course, opposite Pat Morita. He also appeared numerous times on Late Night with David Letterman, starting in 1987, Leno was a regular substitute host for Johnny Carson on The Tonight Show. The story of this turbulent transition was later turned into a book, Leno continued to perform as a stand-up comedian throughout his tenure on The Tonight Show. In 2004, Leno signed an extension with NBC which would keep him as host of The Tonight Show until 2009. Later in 2004, Conan OBrien signed a contract with NBC under which OBrien would become the host of The Tonight Show in 2009, during the 2007–08 Writers Guild of America strike, Leno was accused of violating WGA guidelines by writing his own monologue for The Tonight Show. While NBC and Leno claim there were meetings with the WGA where there was a secret agreement allowing this. In 1998, Leno competed in a match at the WCWs Road Wild pay-per-view. Since 2001, he has voiced The Crimson Chin, a superhero in the Nickelodeon animated series The Fairly OddParents. Leno said in 2008 that he was saving all of his income from The Tonight Show, on April 23,2009, Leno checked himself into a hospital with an undisclosed illnessJay Leno – Leno in July 2008.
10. Liverpool – Liverpool is a major city and metropolitan borough in North West England.24 million people in 2011. Liverpool historically lay within the ancient hundred of West Derby in the south west of the county of Lancashire and it became a borough from 1207 and a city from 1880. In 1889 it became a county borough independent of Lancashire, Liverpool sits on the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary and its growth as a major port is paralleled by the expansion of the city throughout the Industrial Revolution. Along with general cargo, freight, raw materials such as coal and cotton, the city was also directly involved in the Atlantic slave trade. Liverpool was home to both the Cunard and White Star Line, and was the port of registry of the ocean liner RMS Titanic and others such as the RMS Lusitania, Queen Mary, and Olympic. The city celebrated its 800th anniversary in 2007, and it held the European Capital of Culture title together with Stavanger, Norway, several areas of Liverpool city centre were granted World Heritage Site status by UNESCO in 2004. The Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City includes the Pier Head, Albert Dock, tourism forms a significant part of the citys economy. Liverpool is also the home of two Premier League football clubs, Liverpool and Everton, matches between the two being known as the Merseyside derby, the world-famous Grand National horse race takes place annually at Aintree Racecourse on the outskirts of the city. The city is home to the oldest Black African community in the country. Natives of Liverpool are referred to as Liverpudlians and colloquially as Scousers, a reference to scouse, the word Scouse has also become synonymous with the Liverpool accent and dialect. Pool is a place name element in England from the Brythonic word for a pond, inlet, or pit, cognate with the modern Welsh. The derivation of the first element remains uncertain, with the Welsh word Llif as the most plausible relative and this etymology is supported by its similarity to that of the archaic Welsh name for Liverpool Llynlleifiad. Other origins of the name have suggested, including elverpool. The name appeared in 1190 as Liuerpul, and it may be that the place appearing as Leyrpole, in a record of 1418. King Johns letters patent of 1207 announced the foundation of the borough of Liverpool, the original street plan of Liverpool is said to have been designed by King John near the same time it was granted a royal charter, making it a borough. The original seven streets were laid out in an H shape, Bank Street, Castle Street, Chapel Street, Dale Street, Juggler Street, Moor Street, in the 17th century there was slow progress in trade and population growth. Battles for the town were waged during the English Civil War, in 1699 Liverpool was made a parish by Act of Parliament, that same year its first slave ship, Liverpool Merchant, set sail for Africa. Since Roman times, the city of Chester on the River Dee had been the regions principal port on the Irish SeaLiverpool – From top left: Pier Head and the Mersey Ferry; St George's Hall and the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool Catholic Cathedral; Liverpool Anglican Cathedral; Georgian architecture in Canning; Princes Dock
11. Mariah Carey – Mariah Carey is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, and actress. In 1990, Carey rose to fame with the release of Vision of Love from her eponymous debut album, the album produced four chart-topping singles in the US and began what would become a string of commercially successful albums which solidified the singer as Columbias highest selling act. Carey and Boyz II Men spent a record sixteen weeks atop the Billboard Hot 100 in 1995–1996 with One Sweet Day, following a contentious divorce from Sony Music head Tommy Mottola, Carey adopted a new image and traversed towards hip hop with the release of Butterfly. In 1998, she was honored as the worlds best-selling recording artist of the 1990s at the World Music Awards, Carey parted with Columbia in 2000, and signed a record-breaking $100 million recording contract with Virgin Records America. In the weeks prior to the release of her film Glitter and its soundtrack in 2001. The project was received and led to a general decline in the singers career. Careys recording contract was out for $50 million by Virgin. After a relatively unsuccessful period, she returned to the top of music charts with The Emancipation of Mimi, Carey once again ventured into film with a well-received supporting role in Precious, and was awarded the Breakthrough Performance Award at the Palm Springs International Film Festival. Throughout her career, Carey has sold more than 200 million records worldwide, according to the RIAA, she is the third-best-selling female artist in the United States, with 63.5 million certified albums. With the release of Touch My Body, Carey gained her 18th number-one single in the United States, in 2012, the singer was ranked second on VH1s list of the 100 Greatest Women in Music. Mariah Carey was born in Huntington, New York, to Patricia and her mother is of Irish descent, while her father had African-American and Afro-Venezuelan ancestry. The surname Carey was adopted by her Venezuelan grandfather, Francisco Núñez, Patricia was an occasional opera singer and vocal coach before she met Alfred in 1960. As he began earning a living as an engineer, the couple married later that year. After their elopement, Patricias family disowned her for marrying a black man, Carey later explained that she felt neglected by her maternal family while growing up, which affected her greatly. In the years between the births of Careys older sister Alison and herself, the Carey family struggled within the community due to their ethnicity, Careys name was derived from the song They Call the Wind Maria, originally from the 1951 Broadway musical Paint Your Wagon. When Carey was three, her parents divorced, after their separation, Alison moved in with her father, while the other two children, Mariah and brother Morgan, remained with their mother. Carey grew apart from her father and would stop seeing him altogether. By age four, she recalled that she had begun to sneak the radio under her covers at night, during elementary school, she excelled in subjects that she enjoyed, such as music, art, and literature, but did not find interest in othersMariah Carey – Carey performing on Good Morning America in May 2013
12. Prague – Prague is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. It is the 14th largest city in the European Union and it is also the historical capital of Bohemia. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city has a temperate climate, with warm summers and chilly winters. Prague has been a political, cultural, and economic centre of central Europe with waxing and waning fortunes during its history and it was an important city to the Habsburg Monarchy and its Austro-Hungarian Empire. Prague is home to a number of cultural attractions, many of which survived the violence. Main attractions include the Prague Castle, the Charles Bridge, Old Town Square with the Prague astronomical clock, since 1992, the extensive historic centre of Prague has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. The city has more than ten major museums, along with theatres, galleries, cinemas. An extensive modern public transportation system connects the city, also, it is home to a wide range of public and private schools, including Charles University in Prague, the oldest university in Central Europe. Prague is classified as an Alpha- global city according to GaWC studies, Prague ranked sixth in the Tripadvisor world list of best destinations in 2016. Its rich history makes it a popular tourist destination, and the city more than 6.4 million international visitors annually. Prague is the fifth most visited European city after London, Paris, Istanbul, the region was settled as early as the Paleolithic age. In the last century BC, the Celts were slowly driven away by Germanic tribes, around the area where present-day Prague stands, the 2nd century map of Ptolemaios mentioned a Germanic city called Casurgis. In the following century, the Czech tribes built several fortified settlements in the area, most notably in Levý Hradec, Butovice and in the Šárka valley. The construction of what came to be known as the Prague Castle began near the end of the 9th century, the first masonry under Prague Castle dates from the year 885 at the latest. The other prominent Prague fort, the Přemyslid fort Vyšehrad, was founded in the 10th century, Prague Castle is dominated by the cathedral, which was founded in 1344, but completed in the 20th century. The legendary origins of Prague attribute its foundation to the 8th century Czech duchess and prophetess Libuše and her husband, Přemysl, legend says that Libuše came out on a rocky cliff high above the Vltava and prophesied, I see a great city whose glory will touch the stars. She ordered a castle and a town called Praha to be built on the site, a 17th century Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the city was founded as Boihaem in c.1306 BC by an ancient king, Boyya. The region became the seat of the dukes, and later kings of Bohemia, under Roman Emperor Otto II the area became a bishopric in 973Prague – Montage of Prague, clockwise from top: Panorama of Prague Castle and Charles Bridge, Dancing House, Star Villa, Old Town Square, Wenceslas Square, Wallenstein Palace, Royal Garden at Prague Castle, St. Vitus Cathedral and Municipal House.
13. Rapping – The components of rapping include content, flow, and delivery. Rap differs from spoken-word poetry in that rap is performed in time to a beat. Rapping is often associated with and an ingredient of hip-hop music. Rapping is also used in Kwaito music, a genre originated in Johannesburg, South Africa. Another form of rap that predates hip hop was boxer Muhammad Alis rhythmic poetry used to taunt his opponents in the 1960s and 1970s, rapping can be delivered over a beat, typically provided by a DJ, turntablist or Beatboxer, or without accompaniment. Stylistically, rap occupies an area between speech, prose, poetry, and singing. The word, as used to describe quick speech or repartee, the word had been used in British English since the 16th century. It was part of the African American dialect of English in the 1960s meaning to converse, today, the terms rap and rapping are so closely associated with hip-hop music that many writers use the terms interchangeably. The English verb rap has various meanings, such as to strike, especially with a quick, smart, or light blow, as well to utter sharply or vigorously, to rap out a command. The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary gives a date of 1541 for the first recorded use of the word with the meaning to utter sharply, vigorously and it is these meanings from which the musical form of rapping derives, and this definition may be from a shortening of repartee. A rapper refers to a performer who raps, by the late 1960s, when Hubert G. Brown changed his name to H. Rap was used to describe talking on records as early as 1971, on Isaac Hayes album Black Moses with track names such as Ikes Rap, Ikes Rap II, Ikes Rap III, Hayes husky-voiced sexy spoken raps became key components in his signature sound. Del the Funky Homosapien similarly states that rap was used to refer to talking in a manner in the early 1970s. Back then what rapping meant, basically, was you trying to convey something—youre trying to convince somebody, thats what rapping is, its in the way you talk. Rapping can be traced back to its African roots, centuries before hip-hop music existed, the griots of West Africa were delivering stories rhythmically, over drums and sparse instrumentation. Such connections have been acknowledged by modern artists, modern day griots, spoken word artists, mainstream news sources. Grammy-winning blues musician/historian Elijah Wald and others have argued that the blues were being rapped as early as the 1920s, Wald went so far as to call hip hop the living blues. A notable recorded example of rapping in blues music was the 1950 song Gotta Let You Go by Joe Hill Louis, not just jazz music and lyrics but also jazz poetryRapping – The Memphis Jug Band, an early blues group, whose lyrical content and rhythmic singing predated rapping.
14. Spike Jonze – Spike Jonze is an American director, producer, screenwriter and actor, whose work includes music videos, commercials, film and television. Jonze is well known for his music video collaborations with Daft Punk, Fatboy Slim, Weezer, the Beastie Boys, Björk and he was a co-creator and executive producer of MTVs Jackass. He is currently the director of Vice Media, Inc. He is part owner of skateboard company Girl Skateboards with riders Rick Howard and he co-founded Directors Label, with filmmakers Chris Cunningham and Michel Gondry, and the Palm Pictures company. He has been nominated for four Academy Awards, Best Director for Being John Malkovich and he won the Golden Globe Award for Best Screenplay, the Writers Guild of America Award for Best Original Screenplay, and the 2014 Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay for Her. Jonze was born on October 22,1969 in Rockville, Maryland and his father, Arthur H. Spiegel III, was a distant relation of the Spiegel catalog family, and founded APM Management Consultants. His mother, Sandra L. Granzow, is a writer, communications consultant in developing countries and his brother, Sam Squeak E. Clean Spiegel, is a producer and DJ. He also has a sister, Julia and his father was from a German Jewish family, while his mother has German, Scottish, and English ancestry. Jonze attended the San Francisco Art Institute in San Francisco, California, when he was a junior in high school, Jonze spent time at a Bethesda community store, where the former owner Mike Henderson gave him his nickname Spike Jonze in reference to Spike Jones. He fronted Club Homeboy, an international BMX club, with Mark Lew Lewman and Andy Jenkins, the three also created the youth culture magazines Homeboy and Dirt. In 2006, he was nominated by the Directors Guild of America for Outstanding Achievement in Commercials in 2005 and he was nominated for a body of work that included Hello Tomorrow for Adidas, Lamp for IKEA, and Pardon Our Dust for The Gap. He was a producer and co-creator of MTV television series Jackass and Jackass, The Movie, also directing some of the segments. Jonze has acted in videos and films, his most prominent role was in Three Kings as the sweet, dimwitted, casually racist Conrad. Jonze was a co-founder and editor of Dirt magazine along with Mark Lewman and Andy Jenkins, as well as an editor for Grand Royal Magazine and senior photographer for Transworld Skateboarding. In the past, Jonze shot street skateboarding videos, most notably Blinds highly influential Video Days in 1991 and he co-directed the Girl Skateboards film Yeah Right. and the Chocolate Skateboards video Hot Chocolate. In the closing montage of Yeah Right. Spike is shown doing a nollie heelflip in loafers and he is co-owner of Girl Skateboards. Jonze has many alter egos, including Richard Koufey, the leader of the Torrance Community Dance Group, the Koufey persona appeared when Jonze, in character, filmed himself dancing to Fatboy Slims The Rockafeller Skank as it played on a boom box in a public areaSpike Jonze – Jonze at the 2013 New York Film Festival
15. TurboGrafx-16 – It was the first console released in the 16-bit era, albeit still utilizing an 8-bit CPU. Originally intended to compete with the Nintendo Entertainment System, it ended up competing with the Sega Genesis, the TurboGrafx-16 has an 8-bit CPU, a 16-bit video color encoder, and a 16-bit video display controller. The GPUs are capable of displaying 482 colors simultaneously, out of 512, with dimensions of 14 cm×14 cm×3.8 cm, the PC Engine once held the record for the worlds smallest game console. In France, the system was released shortly after its American debut under its original Japanese name, in the United Kingdom, Telegames released a slightly altered version of the American model simply as the TurboGrafx in 1990 in extremely limited quantities. This model was released in Spain through selected retailers. The TurboGrafx-16 failed to break into the North American market and sold poorly, however, in Japan the PC Engine was very successful. Two major revisions, the PC Engine SuperGrafx and the PC Engine Duo, were released in 1989 and 1991, the entire series was succeeded by the PC-FX in 1994, which was only released in Japan. The TurboGrafx-16 was an effort between the relatively young Hudson Soft and NEC Home Electronics. NECs interest in entering the video game market coincided with Hudsons failed attempt to sell designs for then-advanced graphics chips to Nintendo. The TurboGrafx-16 was the first video game console to have a CD-ROM peripheral, NEC released the CD-ROM² in Japan on December 4,1988, and released the TurboGrafx-CD in the United States on August 1,1990. The TurboGrafx-CD had a price of $399.99. Fighting Street and Monster Lair were the TurboGrafx-CD launch titles, Ys Book I & II soon followed, the TurboGrafx-16 was released in the New York City and Los Angeles test market in late August 1989. Initially, the TurboGrafx-16 was marketed as a competitor to the NES and early television ads touted the TG-16s superior graphics. These ads featured a montage of the TG-16s launch titles, Blazing Lazers, China Warrior, Vigilante, Alien Crush. The TG-16 was also in competition with the Sega Genesis. The Genesis launch was accompanied by an ad campaign mocking NECs claim that the TurboGrafx-16 was the first 16-bit console, NEC claimed that it had sold 750,000 TG-16 consoles in the United States, and 500,000 CD-ROM units worldwide, by March 1991. That year NEC released the PC Engine Duo in Japan, a model which could play HuCards and CD-ROM² discs, the console was licensed to Turbo Technologies Incorporated, who released it in North America in 1992 as the TurboDuo. In addition to standard CD-ROM² format discs, the Duo could also play games in the newly introduced Super CD-ROM² format due to its greater RAM size, the unit came into competition with the Sega CD, which was released almost immediately afterTurboGrafx-16 – Western markets model (top) and the original Japanese system (bottom).
16. Summerfest – Summerfest is an annual music festival held at the 75-acre Henry Maier Festival Park along the lakefront in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Summerfest attracts between 800,000 and 900,000 people each year, promoting itself as The Worlds Largest Music Festival, the event also provides the opportunity to sample a wide variety of food from many Milwaukee-area restaurants. Other Summerfest attractions include comedy acts, shopping vendors, fireworks, other attractions, family activities. Summerfest was conceived in the 1960s by then-mayor Henry W. Maier, the inaugural Summerfest was held in July 1968 at 35 different locations throughout the city, and its events ranged from concerts to a film festival, an air show, and even a pageant. In 1970, a permanent central location was decided upon, and Summerfest moved to a former Nike missile site on the lakefront, also that year, Summerfest introduced its red smiley face logo, an insignia that has become synonymous with the event. The logo was designed by graphic artists Noel Spangler and Richard D. Grant. It was also in 1970 that Henry Jordan, former Green Bay Packers defensive tackle, became director of Summerfest. Summerfest celebrated its 40th anniversary in 2007, the events history was the subject of Summerfest Stories, a documentary that aired in June 2007 on Milwaukee Public Television. In 2015, Milwaukee World Festival, Inc and ReverbNation announced an agreement to use the online service as an audition to give musicians a chance to perform. Summerfest wanted to provide an opportunity for performers to get a chance to be one of the 800+ acts, attendance In 2014, Summerfest managed to draw and host 851,879 patrons, an increase of 1. Food and beverage sales at the event increased by 6% over last year’s totals in the same categories, Summerfest employed nearly 2,200 seasonal employees. Summerfest 2015 attracted 772,652 people, a 9, an additional 23,000 fans attended the Rolling Stones Summerfest kickoff June 23, the day before the festival began. Summerfest 2016 attendance numbers were up by 4. 1% compared to the previous year, in 2016,804,116 people attended Summerfest. High attendance was attributed to a performance by Paul McCartney. The American Family Insurance Amphitheater is an amphitheater on the end of the Summerfest grounds. Previously known as the Marcus Amphitheater, it was built after an extremely overcrowded concert in 1984 to carry crowds of 25,000 fans during concerts and it was completed in 1987, with the principal contribution from the Marcus Corporation. A new American Family Insurance Amphitheater is scheduled for construction in 2019, cellular Connection Stage features primarily country and pop music. IHeartMedia, including FM106.1, is the partner of the stageSummerfest – 1997-1998 web banner for Winterfest
17. Wu-Tang Clan – Cappadonna later became an official member of the group. The group was formed in and is associated with the New York City borough of Staten Island, the Wu-Tang Clan has released seven gold and platinum studio albums with worldwide sales of more than 40 million albums, including members solo projects, since 1992. Its debut album, Enter the Wu-Tang, is considered to be one of the greatest albums in hip-hop history and it is said to have been groundbreaking for hip-hop and one of the most important hip-hop albums. In 2008, About. com ranked them the No.1 greatest hip hop group of all time, kris Ex of Rolling Stone called Wu-Tang Clan the best rap group ever. In 2004, NME hailed them as one of the most influential groups of the last ten years, All in Together Now was never signed to a record label. See, me, GZA, and ODB had a crew called FOI, Force of the Imperial Master, nah mean. We made a song, called All in Together Now, which became famous on tapes throughout Brooklyn, Downtown Staten Island, New York, I remember Biz Markie, when he was famous and I wasnt famous, and he was like, Yo. Your song with Ason Unique and The Specialist, so we never got signed as a group back then. We never had a record deal under that title. The Wu-Tang Clan was assembled in the early 1990s with RZA as the de facto leader, Method Man – who met RZA in 1990 after hearing a tape the producer recorded as Prince Rakeem – recalled, I went round his house. We went to the basement and I guess they was showin off cos I was there, thered be RZA and his brother Devon on the decks. RZA was cuttin, Devond go cut off the light, then RZAs go cut on the light, Devond be cutting and they was doing some wild shit, man. And Ol Dirty was there and hed echo every rhyme of RZAs while beatboxing and that was the beginning of Wu-Tang. RZA and Ol Dirty Bastard adopted the name for the group after the film Shaolin, the groups debut album loosely adopted a Shaolin vs. Wu-Tang theme, dividing the album into Shaolin and Wu-Tang sections. This album turned out to be acclaimed, and to date is regarded as one of the greatest hip hop/rap albums of all time. And all these labels still put Razor Sharp Records on the credits Wu Tang was a financial movement, so what do you wanna diversify. RZA was the first to follow up on the success of Enter the Wu-Tang with a project, founding the Gravediggaz with Prince Paul and Frukwan. The Gravediggaz released 6 Feet Deep in August 1994, which one of the best known works to emerge from hip hops small subgenre of horrorcoreWu-Tang Clan – Members of the Wu-Tang Clan and their affiliates performing at the Virgin Festival in Baltimore.
18. 1977 – January 3 – Apple Computer is incorporated. January 6 – Record company EMI drops the controversial United Kingdom punk rock group the Sex Pistols, january 8 – Three bombs explode in Moscow within 37 minutes, killing seven. The bombings are attributed to an Armenian separatist group, january 9 – Legendary rock band Toto is founded by David Paich and Jeff Porcaro in Van Nuys, Los Angeles. January 10 Mount Nyiragongo erupts in eastern Zaire, ocean Park opens in Hong Kong. January 15 – Linjeflyg Flight 618 crashes into the Kälvesta area of Stockholm, january 17 Gary Gilmore is executed by firing squad in Utah. 49 marines from the USS Trenton and USS Guam perished in the waters of the Barcelona harbour, january 18 Scientists identify a previously unknown bacterium as the cause of the mysterious Legionnaires disease. Australias worst railway disaster at Granville, near Sydney, leaves 83 people dead, SFR Yugoslavia Prime minister Džemal Bijedić, his wife and 6 others are killed in a plane crash in Bosnia and Herzegovina. January 19 U. S. President Gerald Ford, on his full day in office. Snow falls in Miami for the time in its history. Snowfall has occurred farther south in the United States only on the mountains of the state of Hawaii. January 20 – Jimmy Carter is sworn in as President of the United States, january 21 – U. S. President Jimmy Carter pardons Vietnam War draft evaders. January 23 – Prime Minister Indira Gandhi of India calls for elections to the Lok Sabha. January 23 – Roots begins its phenomenally successful run on ABC, january 24 – The Massacre of Atocha occurs during the Spanish transition to democracy. January 26 – Katimavik is founded as a service organization for Canadian youths. January 28 – The Great Lakes Blizzard of 1977 hits Buffalo, New York, january 31 – The Centre Georges Pompidou is officially opened by French President Valéry Giscard dEstaing. February 2 – The Congress party of India, led by Indira Gandhi, splits with Jagjivan Ram and other senior leaders and this party later merges with the Janata Party. February 4 – Fleetwood Macs Grammy-winning album Rumours is released in the United States, February 7 The Soviet Union launches Soyuz 24 to dock with the Salyut 5 space station. Londons newly revived International Times proclaims for the first time that punk is dead, February 15 – The first Aardman Animations character, Morph, is introduced on British childrens television show Take Hart1977 – January 10: Ocean Park, Hong Kong
19. 2000s (decade) – The 2000s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1,2000, and ended on December 31,2009. The growth of the Internet contributed to globalization during the decade, in the English-speaking world, a name for the decade was never universally accepted in the same manner as for decades such as the 80s, the 90s, etc. Orthographically, the decade can be written as the 2000s or the 00s, some people read 2000s as two-thousands, and thus simply refer to the decade as the Two-Thousands, the Twenty Hundreds, or the Twenty-ohs. Some read it as the 00s, while others referred to it as the Zeros, on January 1,2000, the BBC listed the noughties, as a potential moniker for the new decade. This has become a name for the decade in the UK and Australia. Others have advocated the term the aughts, a widely used at the beginning of the 20th century for its first decade. The American Dialect Society holds an annual poll for word of the year. For 2009, the winner in the least likely to succeed category was Any name of the decade 2000–2009, such as, Noughties, Aughties, Oughties, etc. When the 20- is dropped, the years within the decade are usually referred to as starting with an oh. The option aught-seven, for reason, has never caught on idiomatically. When the 20- is retained, two options are available in speech, both of which have idiomatic currency, two thousand seven in American English or twenty-oh-seven, during the 2000s decade, it was more common to hear the first pattern than the second. The War on Terror and War in Afghanistan began after the September 11 attacks in 2001, the International Criminal Court was formed in 2002. A United States-led coalition invaded Iraq, and the Iraq War led to the end of Saddam Husseins rule as Iraqi President, Al-Qaeda and affiliated Islamist militant groups performed terrorist acts throughout the decade. These acts included the 2004 Madrid train bombings, 7/7 London bombings in 2005, the European Union expanded its sanctions amid Irans failure to comply with its transparency obligations under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and United Nations resolutions. Additional armed conflict occurred in the Middle East, including between Israel and Hezbollah, then with Israel and Hamas, cooperative international rescue missions by many countries from around the world helped in efforts by the most affected nations to rebuild and recover from the devastation. An enormous loss of life and property came in 2005. The resulting political fallout was severely damaging to the George W. Bush administration because of its failure to act promptly and effectively. In 2008, Barack Obama was elected President of the United States, the campaigns were launched by the United States, with support from NATO and other allies, following the September 11,2001 attacks that were carried out by al-Qaeda2000s (decade) – The World Trade Center in New York City as seen on September 11, 2001. Flight 175 has just flown into the South Tower.
20. Herbie Hancock – Herbert Jeffrey Herbie Hancock is an American pianist, keyboardist, bandleader, composer and actor. He was one of the first jazz musicians to embrace synthesizers, Hancocks music is often melodic and accessible, he has had many songs cross over and achieved success among pop audiences. Hancocks best-known compositions include Cantaloupe Island, Watermelon Man, Maiden Voyage, Chameleon, and his 2007 tribute album River, The Joni Letters won the 2008 Grammy Award for Album of the Year, only the second jazz album ever to win the award, after Getz/Gilberto in 1965. Hancock was born in Chicago, Illinois, the son of Winnie Belle, a secretary, and Wayman Edward Hancock and his parents named him after the singer and actor Herb Jeffries. He attended the Hyde Park Academy, like many jazz pianists, Hancock started with a classical music education. He studied from age seven, and his talent was recognized early, through his teens, Hancock never had a jazz teacher, but developed his ear and sense of harmony. He was also influenced by records of the group the Hi-Los. He reported that. by the time I actually heard the Hi-Los, I started picking that stuff out, my ear was happening. I could hear stuff and thats when I really learned some much farther-out voicings – like the harmonies I used on Speak Like a Child – just being able to do that, I really got that from Clare Fischers arrangements for the Hi-Los. Clare Fischer was an influence on my harmonic concept. he and Bill Evans. You know, thats where it came from, in 1960, he heard Chris Anderson play just once, and begged him to accept him as a student. Hancock often mentions Anderson as his harmonic guru, Hancock left Grinnell College, moved to Chicago and began working with Donald Byrd and Coleman Hawkins, during which period he also took courses at Roosevelt University. Byrd was attending the Manhattan School of Music in New York at the time and suggested that Hancock study composition with Vittorio Giannini, the pianist quickly earned a reputation, and played subsequent sessions with Oliver Nelson and Phil Woods. He recorded his first solo album Takin Off for Blue Note Records in 1962, Watermelon Man was to provide Mongo Santamaría with a hit single, but more importantly for Hancock, Takin Off caught the attention of Miles Davis, who was at that time assembling a new band. Hancock was introduced to Davis by the young drummer Tony Williams, Hancock received considerable attention when, in May 1963, he joined Daviss Second Great Quintet. Davis personally sought out Hancock, whom he saw as one of the most promising talents in jazz, the rhythm section Davis organized was young but effective, comprising bassist Ron Carter, 17-year-old drummer Williams, and Hancock on piano. After George Coleman and Sam Rivers each took a turn at the saxophone spot and this quintet is often regarded as one of the finest jazz ensembles, and the rhythm section has been especially praised for its innovation and flexibility. The second great quintet was where Hancock found his own voice as a pianist, not only did he find new ways to use common chords, but he also popularized chords that had not previously been used in jazzHerbie Hancock – Hancock in December 2013
21. Seal (musician) – Seal Henry Olusegun Olumide Adeola Samuel, better known by his stage name Seal, is an English singer and songwriter. He has sold more than 30 million records worldwide and is known for his hits, including Kiss From A Rose. He was a coach on The Voice Australia in 2012 and 2013, Seal has won multiple awards throughout his career, including three Brit Awards, he won Best British Male in 1992, as well as four Grammy Awards and an MTV Video Music Award. As a songwriter, he received the British Academys Ivor Novello Award, for Best Song Musically and Lyrically, in years for Killer. Seal was born Seal Henry Olusegun Olumide Adeola Samuel at Paddington General Hospital in Paddington, London, to a Nigerian mother, Adebisi Ogundeji, Seals first and middle names are in the Yoruba language. He was raised by a family in Westminster, London. He received a diploma in architecture and worked various jobs in the London area. In the 1980s, Seal spent a time singing in local clubs. In 1987 he joined Push, a British funk band and toured with them in Japan, in Thailand he joined a blues band for a while before separating from the group and journeying throughout India on his own. He returned to England, sleeping on the couch of friend Julian Bunster and he sometimes asked him do I sing well. To which he received the response that he sang better than most current artists. His first break came with SExpress sharing vocals with their UK top 10 hit and he then met the producer Adamski and was given the lyrics of the song Killer, which was a huge hit in 1990 and catapulted his career. Seal first came to attention as vocalist on the Adamski single Killer in 1990. The single eventually reached number one in the UK, Seal subsequently signed to ZTT Records and released his self-titled début album in 1991. Two versions of the album are known to be in circulation, the original premix version and this is attributed to the demand for a produced single rushing the final album edit and, as Seal puts it, his and producer Horns inability to let go. Seal was positively received by critics, the singles Crazy, Future Love Paradise and his own rendition of Killer performed well on the charts. In particular, Crazy became a hit in 1991, reaching number two in the UK Singles Chart and number seven on the Billboard Hot 100 in the US. Seal stole the show at the 1992 Brit Awards held at the Hammersmith Odeon, London and he won in three categories, Best British Male, Best British Video and Best British AlbumSeal (musician) – Seal at The Voice Judges, Celebrities Dine At Bondi Icebergs Dining Room and Bar, Sydney, Australia 2012
22. Radiohead – Radiohead are an English rock band from Abingdon, Oxfordshire, formed in 1985. The band consists of Thom Yorke, Jonny Greenwood, Ed OBrien, Colin Greenwood and they have worked with producer Nigel Godrich and cover artist Stanley Donwood since 1994. After signing to EMI in 1991, Radiohead released their debut single Creep in 1992 and it became a worldwide hit after the release of their debut album, Pablo Honey. Their popularity and critical standing rose in the United Kingdom with the release of their second album, despite initially dividing listeners, Kid A was later named the best album of the decade by Rolling Stone, Pitchfork and the Times. Radioheads sixth album, Hail to the Thief, mixed rock and electronic music with lyrics inspired by the War on Terror and their subsequent releases have pioneered alternative release platforms such as pay-what-you-want and BitTorrent. Radiohead self-released their seventh album, In Rainbows, as a download for which customers could set their own price, to critical and their eighth album, The King of Limbs, an exploration of rhythm, was developed using extensive looping and sampling. Their ninth album, A Moon Shaped Pool, prominently featured Jonny Greenwoods orchestral arrangements, Radiohead have sold more than 30 million albums worldwide. Their work places highly in both polls and critics lists of the best music of the 1990s and 2000s. In 2009, Rolling Stone readers voted the group the second-best artist of the 2000s, the members of Radiohead met while attending Abingdon School, an independent school for boys in Abingdon, Oxfordshire. In 1985, they formed On a Friday, the name referring to the usual rehearsal day in the schools music room. At one point, On a Friday featured a saxophone section, the band disliked the schools strict atmosphere—the headmaster once charged the band for using a rehearsal room on a Sunday—and found solace in the schools music department. They credited their music teacher for introducing them to jazz, film scores, postwar avant-garde music, Oxfordshire and the Thames Valley had an active independent music scene in the late 1980s, but it centred on shoegazing bands such as Ride and Slowdive. Although all but Jonny had left Abingdon by 1987 to attend university, On a Friday continued to rehearse on weekends, in 1991, On a Friday regrouped, sharing a house on the corner of Magdalen Road and Ridgefield Road, Oxford. As On a Friday continued to perform in Oxford, including performances at the Jericho Tavern, record labels. Chris Hufford, Slowdives producer and co-owner of Oxfords Courtyard Studios, impressed, he and his partner Bryce Edge produced a demo tape and became On a Fridays managers, they remain Radioheads managers today. At the labels request, the changed their name, Radiohead was taken from the song Radio Head on the Talking Heads album True Stories. Radiohead recorded their debut release, the Drill EP, with Chris Hufford, released in May 1992, its chart performance was poor. The band enlisted Paul Kolderie and Sean Slade, who had worked with US indie bands Pixies and Dinosaur Jr. to produce their debut album, Radiohead released their debut album, Pablo Honey, in February 1993Radiohead – Radiohead: Thom Yorke, Jonny Greenwood, Colin Greenwood, Ed O'Brien, Phil Selway
23. Stage lighting – Stage lighting is the craft of lighting as it applies to the production of theatre, dance, opera and other performance arts. Several different types of lighting instruments are used in this discipline. In addition to lighting, modern stage lighting can also include special effects, such as lasers. People who work on stage lighting are commonly referred to as lighting technicians, the personnel needed to install, operate, and control the equipment also cross over into these different areas of stage lighting applications. The earliest known form of lighting was during the early Grecian theatres. They would build their theatres facing east to west so that in the afternoon they could perform plays and have the natural sunlight hit the actors, natural light continued to be utilized when playhouses were built with a large circular opening at the top of the theatre. Early Modern English theatres were roofless, allowing light to be utilized for lighting the stage. As theatres moved indoors, artificial lighting became a necessity and it was developed as theatres, at an unknown date, candlelight was introduced which brought more developments to theatrical lighting across Europe. While Oliver Cromwell was ruling Britain, all production was suspended in 1642. During this theatrical famine, great developments were being made in theatres on the European mainland, Charles II, who would later become King Charles II witnessed Italian theatrical methods and brought them back to England when he came to power. New playhouses were built in England and their large sizes called for more elaborate lighting, English theatres during this time used dipped candles to light chandeliers and sconces. Dipped candles were made by dipping a wick into hot wax repeatedly to create a cylindrical candle, candles needed frequent trimming and relighting regardless of what was happening on-stage because they dripped hot grease on both the audience and actors. Chandeliers also blocked the view of some patrons, there were two different types of Restoration theatres in England, Restoration commercial theatres and Restoration court theatres. Commercial theatres tended to be conservative in their lighting, for economic reasons. Court theatres could afford to use most of the Continental innovations in their productions, two main court theatres, built between 1660 and 1665, were the Cockpit Theatre and the Hall Theatre. Chandeliers and sconces seemed to be the primary lighting sources here but other developments were being made, by the 1670s, the Hall Theatre started using footlights, and between 1670 and 1689 they used candles or lamps. It can be noted that by the end of the 17th century, French, there is not much written on theatrical lighting in England at the end of the 17th century and from the little information historians do have, not much changed by the middle of the 18th century. Gas lighting hit the English stage in the early 1800s beginning with the Drury Lane, in the 1820s, a new type of artificial illumination was developedStage lighting – Classical Spectacular used ordinary stage lighting plus special laser effects
24. Grammy Award – A Grammy Award, or Grammy, is an honor awarded by The Recording Academy to recognize outstanding achievement in the mainly English-language music industry. The annual presentation ceremony features performances by prominent artists, and the presentation of awards that have a more popular interest. It shares recognition of the industry as that of the other performance awards such as the Emmy Awards, the Tony Awards. The first Grammy Awards ceremony was held on May 4,1959, to honor, following the 2011 ceremony, The Academy overhauled many Grammy Award categories for 2012. The 59th Grammy Awards, honoring the best achievements from October 2015 to September 2016, was held on February 12,2017, the Grammys had their origin in the Hollywood Walk of Fame project in the 1950s. The music executives decided to rectify this by creating a given by their industry similar to the Oscars. This was the beginning of the National Academy of Recording Arts, after it was decided to create such an award, there was still a question of what to call it, one working title was the Eddie, to honor the inventor of the phonograph, Thomas Edison. They finally settled on using the name of the invention of Emile Berliner, the gramophone, for the awards, the number of awards given grew and fluctuated over the years with categories added and removed, at one time reaching over 100. The second Grammy Awards, also held in 1959, was the first ceremony to be televised, the gold-plated trophies, each depicting a gilded gramophone, are made and assembled by hand by Billings Artworks in Ridgway, Colorado. In 1990 the original Grammy design was revamped, changing the traditional soft lead for a stronger alloy less prone to damage, Billings developed a zinc alloy named grammium, which is trademarked. The trophies with the name engraved on them are not available until after the award announcements. By February 2009,7,578 Grammy trophies had been awarded, the General Field are four awards which are not restricted by genre. Album of the Year is awarded to the performer and the team of a full album if other than the performer. Record of the Year is awarded to the performer and the team of a single song if other than the performer. Song of the Year is awarded to the writer/composer of a single song, Best New Artist is awarded to a promising breakthrough performer who releases, during the Eligibility Year, the first recording that establishes the public identity of that artist. The only two artists to win all four of these awards are Christopher Cross, who won all four in 1980, and Adele, who won the Best New Artist award in 2009 and the other three in 2012 and 2017. Other awards are given for performance and production in specific genres, as well as for other such as artwork. Special awards are given for longer-lasting contributions to the music industry, the many other Grammy trophies are presented in a pre-telecast Premiere Ceremony earlier in the afternoon before the Grammy Awards telecastGrammy Award – Grammy Awards
25. Grunge – Grunge is a subgenre of alternative rock and a subculture that emerged during the mid-1980s in the Pacific Northwest U. S. state of Washington, particularly in Seattle and nearby towns. The early grunge movement revolved around Seattles independent record label Sub Pop, the success of these bands boosted the popularity of alternative rock and made grunge the most popular form of rock music at the time. Grunge was also an influence on subsequent genres such as post-grunge, Grunge fuses elements of punk rock and heavy metal, such as the distorted electric guitar used in both genres, although some bands performed with more emphasis on one or the other. Like these genres, grunge typically uses electric guitar, bass guitar, a drummer, Grunge also incorporates influences from indie rock bands such as Sonic Youth. Lyrics are typically angst-filled and introspective, often addressing themes such as alienation, apathy, concerns about confinement. A number of factors contributed to decline in prominence. During the mid-late 1990s, many grunge bands broke up or became less visible, the word grunge was used in print in prior to the use of the term in mainstream publications to refer to the Seattle music genre. Rock has always been about it, a reference to distorted sounds in rock in a general sense. Mark Arm, the vocalist for the Seattle band Green River—and later Mudhoney—is generally credited as being the first to use the term grunge to describe the Seattle genre of music. Arm first used the term in 1981, when he wrote a letter under his given name Mark McLaughlin to the Seattle zine Desperate Times, criticizing his own band Mr. Epp and the Calculations as Pure grunge. Sub Pop called Green Rivers 1986 EP Dry as a Bone ultra-loose GRUNGE that destroyed the morals of a generation, Everett True states that when Arm stated that Seattles streets were paved with grunge, he was using the word in a negative way to mean orthless. In this use of the word grunge, Arm was using it as an adjective, Arm used grunge as a descriptive term rather than a genre term, but it eventually came to describe the punk/metal hybrid sound of the Seattle music scene. Catherine Strong states that grunges dirty sound in the late 1980s, when low budgets, unfamiliarity with recording, the term grunge has been extended to other forms, such as writer Josh Henderson referring to Seattle scene members from the 1990s as grungers in 2016. When grunge first developed, music journalists called it pain rock, evergreen State was a progressive college which did not use grading and which had its own alternative music radio station. Bands from Portland, Oregon, such as the Wipers, also influenced the genres pioneers. Some bands associated with the genre, such as Soundgarden, Pearl Jam and Alice in Chains, have not been receptive to the label, preferring instead to be referred to as rock and roll bands. Ben Shepherd from Soundgarden stated that he hates the word grunge, Rolling Stone noted the genres lack of a clear definition. Roy Shuker states that the term obscured a variety of styles, Stetson states that grunge was not a movement, monolithic musical genre, or a way to react to 1980s-era metal pop, he calls the term a misnomer mostly based on hypeGrunge – Seattle punk/metal band The U-Men performing in Seattle.
26. R. Kelly – Robert Sylvester Kelly, known professionally as R. Kelly, is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, and former professional basketball player. A native of Chicago, Illinois, Kelly began performing during the late 1980s, in 1993, Kelly went solo with the album 12 Play. In 1998, Kelly won three Grammy Awards for I Believe I Can Fly and his distinctive sound and style has influenced numerous hip hop and contemporary R&B artists. Kelly became the first musician to play basketball, when he was signed in 1997. Kelly has written, produced, and remixed songs and albums for artists, including Aaliyahs 1994 debut album Age Aint Nothing. In 1996, Kelly was nominated for a Grammy for writing Michael Jacksons song You Are Not Alone. In 2002 and 2004, Kelly released collaboration albums with rapper Jay-Z and has been a guest vocalist for other hip hop artists like Nas, Sean Combs, in March 2011, R. Kelly was named the most successful R&B artist of the last 25 years by Billboard. Kelly has released 12 solo studio albums, and sold over 100 million records worldwide making him the most successful R&B male artist of the 1990s and he has been credited for helping redefine R&B and hip hop, earning the nicknames King of R&B and King of Pop-Soul. He is listed by Billboard as the most successful R&B/Hip Hop artist of the past 25 years and also the most successful R&B artist in history. Throughout his career, Kelly has won awards, including a Guinness World Records as well as countless of other awards like Grammy, BET, Soul Train, Billboard, NAACP. Robert Sylvester Kelly was born on January 8,1967 at Chicago Lying-in Hospital in Hyde Park, Kelly is the third of four children. Kellys single mother, Joanne, was a singer, Kellys father was absent throughout his sons life. Kellys family lived in the Ida B, wells Homes public housing project in Chicagos Bronzeville neighborhood. Lena McLin described Kellys childhood home, It was bare, there was no father there, I knew that, and they had very little. Kelly began singing in the choir at age eight. Kelly grew up in a full of women, whom he said would act differently when his mother. At a young age Kelly was often abused by a woman who was at least ten years older than himself. I was too afraid and too ashamed, Kelly wrote in his autobiography about why he never told anyone, at age 11, he was shot in the shoulder while riding his bike home, the bullet is reportedly still lodged in his shoulderR. Kelly – Kelly at the premier of Chapter 13-22 of Trapped in the Closet in 2007.
27. Mick Jagger – Sir Michael Philip Mick Jagger is an English singer and songwriter, the lead singer and one of the founding members of the Rolling Stones. Jaggers career has spanned over 55 years, and he has described as one of the most popular. Jaggers distinctive voice and performance, along with Keith Richards guitar style, have been the trademark of the Rolling Stones throughout the career of the band, Jagger gained press notoriety for his admitted drug use and romantic involvements, and was often portrayed as a countercultural figure. In the late 1960s, Jagger began acting in films, to mixed reception, in 1985, he released his first solo album, Shes the Boss. In early 2009, Jagger joined the electric supergroup SuperHeavy, in 1989 he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, and in 2004 into the UK Music Hall of Fame with the Rolling Stones. In 2003, he was knighted for his services to popular music, Michael Philip Jagger was born into a middle-class family in Dartford, Kent. His father, Basil Fanshawe Joe Jagger, and grandfather, David Ernest Jagger, were both teachers and his mother, Eva Ensley Mary, born in Sydney, Australia, of English descent, was a hairdresser and an active member of the Conservative Party. Jaggers younger brother, Chris, is also a musician, although brought up to follow his fathers career path, Jagger was always a singer as he stated in According to the Rolling Stones. I always sang as a child, I was one of those kids who just liked to sing. Some kids sing in choirs, others like to show off in front of the mirror, I was in the church choir and I also loved listening to singers on the radio–the BBC or Radio Luxembourg–or watching them on TV and in the movies. In September 1950, Keith Richards and Jagger were classmates at Wentworth Primary School, in 1954, Jagger passed the eleven-plus and went to Dartford Grammar School, which now has the Mick Jagger Centre installed within the schools site, named after its most famous alumnus. Jagger left school in 1961 after obtaining seven O-levels and three A-levels, Jagger and Richards moved into a flat in Edith Grove in Chelsea, London with a guitarist they had encountered named Brian Jones. In their earliest days the members played for no money in the interval of Alexis Korners gigs at a basement club opposite Ealing Broadway tube station, at the time, the group had very little equipment and needed to borrow Alexis gear to play. This was before Andrew Loog Oldham became their manager, the groups first appearance under the name the Rollin Stones was at the Marquee Club in London, a jazz club, on 12 July 1962. They would later change their name to the Rolling Stones as it seemed more formal, victor Bockris states that the band members included Jagger, Keith Richards, Brian Jones, Ian Stewart on piano, Dick Taylor on bass and Tony Chapman on drums. However, Richards states in Life that The drummer that night was Mick Avory--not Tony Chapman, avory himself has categorically denied on many occasions that he played with the Rollin Stones that night. In fact he only rehearsed twice with them in the Bricklayers Arms pub, Some time later the band went on their first tour in the United Kingdom, this was known as the training ground tour, because it was a new experience for all of them. The line-up did not at that time include drummer Charlie Watts or bassist Bill Wyman, by 1963 they were finding their musical stride as well as popularityMick Jagger – Mick Jagger in 2014
28. Lou Reed – Lewis Allan Lou Reed was an American musician, singer and songwriter. He was the guitarist, vocalist, and principal songwriter of the Velvet Underground, the Velvet Underground was unsuccessful during their active years, but gained a significant cult following to become one of the most widely acclaimed and influential bands in rock history. Brian Eno famously stated that, while the Velvet Undergrounds debut album sold only 30,000 copies, Reeds solo career began in 1972. He had a hit the year with Walk on the Wild Side. Reed was known for his distinctive voice and poetic lyrics. Reed was born on March 2,1942 at Beth El Hospital in Brooklyn and grew up in Freeport, contrary to some sources, his birth name was Lewis Allan Reed, not Louis Firbanks, a name that was coined as a joke by Lester Bangs in Creem magazine. Reed was the son of Toby and Sidney Joseph Reed, an accountant and his family was Jewish, and although he said that he was Jewish, he added, My God is rocknroll. Its an obscure power that can change your life, the most important part of my religion is to play guitar. Reed attended Atkinson Elementary School in Freeport and went on to Freeport Junior High School and his sister said that as a teenager, he suffered panic attacks, became socially awkward and possessed a fragile temperament but was highly focused on things that he liked – principally music. Having learned to play the guitar from the radio, he developed an early interest in rock and roll and rhythm and blues, Reed began experimenting with drugs at the age of 16. His first recording was as a member of a group called the Jades. His love for playing music and his desire to play gigs brought him into confrontation with his anxious, visiting a psychologist, Reeds parents were made to feel guilty as inadequate parents, and consented to electroconvulsive therapy. Reed appeared to blame his father principally for what he had subjected to. He wrote about the experience in his 1974 song, Kill Your Sons, in an interview, Reed said of the experience, They put the thing down your throat so you dont swallow your tongue, and they put electrodes on your head. Thats what was recommended in Rockland County then to discourage homosexual feelings, the effect is that you lose your memory and become a vegetable. You cant read a book because you get to page 17 and have to go back to page one again. Upon his recovery from the bout of illness and associated treatment, Reed resumed his education at Syracuse University in 1960, studying journalism, film directing and he was a platoon leader in ROTC and was later expelled from the program for holding an unloaded gun to his superiors head. In 1961, he began hosting a radio program on WAER called Excursions On A Wobbly RailLou Reed – Reed performing in Portland, Oregon, in January 2004
29. Alicia Keys – Alicia Augello Cook, known professionally as Alicia Keys, is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, pianist and actress. Keys released her album with J Records, having had previous record deals first with Columbia. Keys debut album, Songs in A Minor was released in 2001, producing her first Billboard Hot 100 number-one single Fallin, the album earned Keys five Grammy Awards in 2002. Her sophomore album, The Diary of Alicia Keys, was released in 2003, spawning successful singles You Dont Know My Name, If I Aint Got You and Diary, the duet song My Boo with Usher scored her a second number-one single in 2004. The album garnered her an additional four Grammy Awards in 2005, later that year, she released her first live album, Unplugged, becoming the first woman to have an MTV Unplugged album debut at number one. As I Am was released in 2007, producing the Hot 100 number-one single No One, selling 5 million copies worldwide, the Element of Freedom was released in 2009, becoming her first chart-topping album in the UK, and selling 4 million copies worldwide. Keys additionally collaborated with Jay Z on Empire State of Mind as her fourth number-one single, Girl on Fire was released in 2012 as her fifth Billboard 200 topping album, spawning the successful title track. Her second live album, VH1 Storytellers was released in 2013, Here was released in 2016, becoming her seventh R&B/Hip-Hop chart topping album. Keys made her first television appearance on The Cosby Show in 1985 as a four year old child and she made her film debut in Smokin Aces and later in The Nanny Diaries in 2007. Keys then had a NAACP Image Award nominated appearance in The Secret Life of Bees in 2008, Keys also made an appearance on season 2 of Empire in 2015. She is currently a coach on The Voice as of 2016, Keys has won numerous awards such as 15 Grammy Awards and 17 NAACP Image Awards. She has sold over 35 million albums and 30 million singles worldwide, considered a pop icon, Billboard magazine named her the top R&B artist of the 2000s decade and placed her number 10 on their list of Top 50 R&B/Hip-Hop Artists of the Past 25 Years. Time named her in their 100 list of most influential people in 2005, Keys was born Alicia Augello Cook on January 25,1981, in the Hells Kitchen area of Manhattan, New York City. She is the child of Teresa, a paralegal and part-time actress, and Craig Cook. Keys father is African American and her mother is of Italian, Scottish, Keys has expressed that she was comfortable with her multiracial heritage because she felt she was able to relate to different cultures. Her parents separated when she was two and she was raised by her mother during her formative years in Hells Kitchen. Keys has 2 younger half brothers, Clay Cook and Cole Cook, in 1985, Keys made an appearance on The Cosby Show at the age of four, where she and a group of girls played the parts of Rudy Huxtables sleepover guests in the episode Slumber Party. Throughout her childhood, Keys was sent to music and dance classes by her mother and she graduated in four years as valedictorian at the age of 16Alicia Keys – Keys at the 2013 ARIA Music Awards in Sydney Australia.
30. The Eminem Show – The Eminem Show is the fourth studio album by American rapper Eminem, released on May 28,2002 by Aftermath Entertainment, Shady Records, and Interscope Records. The Eminem Show includes the successful singles Without Me, Cleanin Out My Closet, Superman. Since its release in 2002 the album has sold 11,600,000 copies in the United States, at the 2003 Grammy Awards, it was nominated for Album of the Year and became Eminems third record in four years to win the award for Best Rap Album. On March 7,2011, the album was certified 10x Platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America, production for the album took place between 2001 and 2002. Eminem had started recording the album around the time he was filming 8 Mile. Production was used for both the soundtrack of the movie and his album, dr. Dre, in addition to being the albums executive producer, produced three individual tracks, Business, Say What You Say, and My Dads Gone Crazy. He said that he wanted to capture the 70s rock vibe and he said that he tried to get the best of both worlds on the album. The Eminem Show was scheduled for release on June 4,2002, however, pirated and bootleg copies appeared online on peer-to-peer networks and it was provided by Rabid Neurosis, an MP3 warez release organization who pirated the album 25 days prior to release. Radio show Opie and Anthony broadcast the album on May 17,2002. Interscope decided to release the early, on May 28. However, many stores in the U. S. began selling it early on Sunday, May 26, promotional posters in stores read, America Couldnt Wait. Due to the release by many retailers on a Sunday. The Eminem Show was Eminems first album to include lyrics to all its songs inside the CD booklet, additionally, the first 2 million copies of the album shipped in the United States included a bonus DVD with an exclusive interview and live footage. Despite the confusion over the release date, The Eminem Show still managed to have a very successful debut on the charts. The album sold 381,000 copies in its week and topped the Billboard 200 for a fifth. It has gone on to sell ten million copies. On March 7,2011, the album was certified 10x Platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America, the Eminem Show also spent five consecutive weeks at the top of the UK Albums Chart. As of November 2013, the album has sold over 1.5 million copies in the UK and this album allowed no profanities, and the profanities were either muted, obscured by sound effects or back-maskedThe Eminem Show – The Eminem Show
31. Muhammad Ali – Muhammad Ali was an American professional boxer and activist. He is widely regarded as one of the most significant and celebrated figures of the 20th century. From early in his career, Ali was known as an inspiring, controversial, Cassius Clay was born and raised in Louisville, Kentucky, and began training as an amateur boxer when he was 12 years old. At age 18, he won a medal in the light heavyweight division at the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome. At age 22 in 1964, he won the WBA, WBC, Clay then converted to Islam and changed his name from Cassius Clay, which he called his slave name, to Muhammad Ali. He set an example of pride for African Americans and resistance to white domination during the Civil Rights Movement. He was eventually arrested, found guilty of draft evasion charges, Alis actions as a conscientious objector to the war made him an icon for the larger counterculture generation. Ali is regarded as one of the leading heavyweight boxers of the 20th century and he remains the only three-time lineal heavyweight champion, having won the title in 1964,1974, and 1978. Between February 25 and September 19,1964, Ali reigned as the heavyweight champion. He is the boxer to be named The Ring magazine Fighter of the Year six times. Nicknamed The Greatest, he was involved in historic boxing matches. Notable among these were the first Liston fight, the Fight of the Century, Super Fight II, the Thrilla in Manila versus his rival Joe Frazier, and The Rumble in the Jungle versus George Foreman. At a time when most fighters let their managers do the talking, Ali thrived in and indeed craved the spotlight, as a musician, Ali recorded two spoken word albums and a rhythm and blues song, and received two Grammy Award nominations. As an actor, he performed in films and a Broadway musical. Additionally, Ali wrote two autobiographies, one during and one after his boxing career, as a Muslim, Ali was initially affiliated with Elijah Muhammads Nation of Islam and advocated their black separatist ideology. He later disavowed the NOI, adhering initially to Sunni Islam and later to Sufism, after retiring from boxing in 1981, Ali devoted his life to religious and charitable work. In 1984, Ali was diagnosed with Parkinsons syndrome, which his doctors attributed to boxing-related brain injuries, as the condition worsened, Ali made limited public appearances and was cared for by his family until his death on June 3,2016, in Scottsdale, Arizona. Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr. was born on January 17,1942, in Louisville and he had a sister and four brothersMuhammad Ali – Ali in 1967
32. Big Day Out – The Big Day Out was an annual music festival that was held in five Australian cities, Sydney, Melbourne, Gold Coast, Adelaide and Perth, as well as Auckland, New Zealand. The festival was held during summer, typically in January of each year, the Big Day Out debuted on the 1992 Australia Day public holiday in Sydney and expanded to Adelaide, Melbourne and Perth the following year. The Gold Coast and Auckland were added to the schedule in 1994, as of 2003, it featured seven or eight stages, accommodating popular contemporary rock music, electronic music, mainstream international acts and local acts. The event also did not return in 2016 or 2017, in 1993 the scope of the festival was extended to include Melbourne, Perth and Adelaide. West revealed in an interview that he was looking to create urban mayhem, in 1994 the Big Day Out was extended further to include Auckland and the Gold Coast, and was held over a three-week period. Following the start of the 21st century, the festival was involved in two major controversies, firstly, 16-year-old Jessica Michalik was killed after she was crushed at a 2001 Sydney show during a performance by the band Limp Bizkit. The festival celebrated its 100th performance in 2010, Lees highlighted the increased needs of Australian bands in his explanation, It does get easier but its also getting bigger and that makes it more complicated. Youre more confident about what youre doing and having some gravitas, but at the time, because were having more and more expectations put on us by everyone. Even Aussie bands that used to take five or six people on the road are now taking 11 and that seems to be the magic number, even for a new starting-off band. What they are doing is working to put on the best show they can, through that the festival needs more production, more riders, more hotel rooms, more everything. Due to the popularity of the event, a second Sydney show was occasionally held. The extreme popularity of Metallica in 2004 led to addition, followed by another second-show addition in Sydney for the 2010 event. A second Sydney date returned in 2011, in response to the acts, Tool. C3 purchased a 51 per cent stake in the following a split that was caused by internal and external pressures. Prior to November 2011, Creative Festival Entertainment was the company of the BDO festival. However, in April 2013, the said that they were seeking to reschedule an Auckland event in 2014. The 2012 festival was beset by difficulties and was described as disastrous by the Faster Louder website in June 2014, although a study revealed that large-scale music festivals contribute approximately A$5. Despite such opposition, the Claremont Showgrounds venue in Perth, Western Australia was used by the BDO organisers for the 2013 event, the Perth leg of the 2014 BDO was held at the Arena Joondalup venueBig Day Out – Big Day Out Sydney, 2010
33. Anna Nicole Smith – Anna Nicole Smith was an American model, actress, and television personality. Smith first gained popularity in Playboy, winning the title of 1993 Playmate of the Year and she modeled for fashion companies including Guess, H&M, Heatherette, and Lane Bryant. Smith dropped out of school and was married three years later in 1985. Her highly publicized marriage to J. Howard Marshall resulted in speculation that she married the octogenarian mainly for his money. Following Marshalls death, Smith began a legal battle over a share of his estate. Her case, Marshall v. Marshall, reached the U. S. Supreme Court on a question of federal jurisdiction, Smith died on February 8,2007, in a Hollywood, Florida, hotel room as a result of an overdose of prescription drugs. Born Vickie Lynn Hogan in Houston, Texas, and raised in Mexia, Smith was the daughter of Donald Eugene Hogan and Virgie Mae Arthur and she had five half siblings, Donna Hogan, David Tacker Jr. Donnie Hogan, Amy Hogan, and Donald Hart. Smith was raised by her mother and aunt, Virgie subsequently married Donald R. Hart in 1971. After Virgie married Donald, Smith changed her name from Vickie Hogan to Nikki Hart, Smith attended Durkee Elementary School and Aldine Senior High School in Houston. When she was in the grade, she was sent to live with her mothers younger sister, Kay Beall, in Mexia. At Mexia High School, Smith failed her freshman year and dropped out of school during her sophomore year. While working at Jims Krispy Fried Chicken in Mexia, Smith met Billy Wayne Smith, who was a cook at the restaurant, in 1992, Smith appeared on the March cover of Playboy magazine, with her name given as Vickie Smith. She later appeared as the Playmate of the Month for the May 1992 issue, Smith next secured a contract to replace supermodel Claudia Schiffer in a Guess jeans ad campaign featuring a series of sultry black-and-white photographs. During the Guess campaign Smith changed her name to Anna Nicole Smith, Guess photographers noticed Smith bore a striking resemblance to bombshell Jayne Mansfield and showcased her in several Mansfield-inspired photo sessions. In 1993 before Christmas, she modeled for the Swedish clothing company H&M and this led to her being pictured on large billboards in Sweden and Norway. A photograph of Smith was used by New York magazine on the cover of its August 22,1994, in the photo she appears squatting in a short skirt with cowboy boots as she eats chips. In October 1994, her lawyer T. Patrick Freydl initiated a $5 million lawsuit against the magazine claiming unauthorized use of her photo, and that the article damaged her reputation. Her lawyer stated Smith was under the impression that she was being photographed to embody the all-American girl look, and he further stated the photo the magazine used was taken during a break just for funAnna Nicole Smith – Smith on the red carpet at the MTV Australia Video Music Awards 2005 in Luna Park Sydney, Australia
34. Real World Studios – Real World Studios is a residential recording studio situated founded by Peter Gabriel and situated close to the city of Bath - in Box, Wiltshire, England. It is closely associated with the Real World Records record label, when Peter Gabriel had finished the album So, he decided it was time to move from Ashcombe House to a permanent recording facility. The most important thing about the location for Gabriel was to be close to water, Gabriel, David Stallbaumer and Mike Large looked at several sites - usually old mills - in the Bath area. The Real World site had the size and space they wanted, the studios 2000sqft Big Room houses an SSL 9000K XL mixing console, with additional outboard equipment surrounding the room. The Big Room is, unusually for a studio, designed to be one big collaborative recording space, without dividing walls. Adjoining the Big Room is the Wood Room and this room features a more lively acoustic and a booth, mezzanine floor and movable acoustic screens. The rooms can be booked together for a recording space. The Big Room was later equipped to accommodate re-recording mixing for film, with a foley stage and ADR room, Real World Studios has been host to film and TV projects including Quantum of Solace, The Golden Compass, Green Zone and The No.1 Ladies Detective Agency. The complex also houses a rehearsal room, a foley studio, surround-sound 7.1 mixing studio with dubbing facilities, kitchen/dining room. Guy Garvey also recorded his solo album Courting the Squall at the studios. Real World Studios Real World Records Real World Studios video tour from BBC WiltshireReal World Studios
35. The Jetsons – It was Hanna-Barberas Space Age counterpart to The Flintstones. It debuted as the first program broadcast in color on ABC-TV, in contrast, The Flintstones, while always produced in color, was broadcast in black-and-white for its first two seasons. Following its primetime run, the show aired on Saturday mornings for decades, starting on ABC for the 1963–64 season and then on CBS, New episodes were produced for syndication from 1985 to 1987. No further specials or episodes of the show were produced after 1989 due to the deaths of stars George OHanlon and Mel Blanc. The 1990 film Jetsons, The Movie served as the finale to the television show until 27 years later. The Jetsons are a family residing in Orbit City, the citys architecture is rendered in the Googie style, and all homes and businesses are raised high above the ground on adjustable columns. Housekeeping is seen to by a maid, Rosie, which handles chores not otherwise rendered trivial by the homes numerous push-button Space Age-envisioned conveniences. The family has a dog named Astro, that like Scooby Doo talks with a consonant mutation in which every word begins with an R. George Jetsons workweek is typical of his era, an hour a day and his boss is Cosmo Spacely, the bombastic owner of Spacely Space Sprockets. Spacely has a competitor, Mr. Cogswell, owner of the rival company Cogswell Cogs, Jetson commutes to work in an aerocar that resembles a flying saucer with a transparent bubble top. Daily life is leisurely, assisted by numerous labor-saving devices, which break down with humorous results. Despite this, everyone complains of exhausting hard labor and difficulties living with the remaining inconveniences, George Jetson, age 40, is the main character and protagonist of the series. He is a family man who always seems to make the wrong decisions. He works at Spacelys Sprockets turning the Referential Universal Digital Indexer on and he is married to Jane and together they have two children, Judy and Elroy. Jane Jetson, claims age 33, but has a 40-year old husband, Jane is Georges wife, mother of their two children, and a homemaker. Jane is obsessed with fashion and new gadgetry and her favorite store is Mooning Dales. She is a wife who always tries to make life as pleasant as possible for her family. Outside of the home, she is a member of the Galaxy Women Historical Society and is a fan of Leonardo de Venus, Judy Jetson, age 16, is the elder child in the Jetson familyThe Jetsons – The Jetsons
36. Glastonbury Festival – Glastonbury Festival is a five-day festival of contemporary performing arts that takes place near Pilton, Somerset. In addition to music, the festival hosts dance, comedy, theatre, circus, cabaret. Leading pop and rock artists have headlined, alongside thousands of others appearing on smaller stages, films and albums recorded at Glastonbury have been released, and the festival receives extensive television and newspaper coverage. The majority of staff are volunteers, helping the festival to raise millions of pounds for good causes, regarded as a major event in British culture, the festival is inspired by the ethos of the hippie, counterculture, and free festival movements. It retains vestiges of these traditions, such as the Green Fields area, after the 1970s, the festival took place almost every year and grew in size, with the number of attendees sometimes being swollen by gatecrashers. Michael Eavis hosted the first festival, then called Pilton Festival, after seeing an open-air Led Zeppelin concert at the 1970 Bath Festival of Blues and Progressive Music. They featured works by composers, sponsored by the Clark family, as well as a wide range of traditional works, from Everyman to James Shirleys Cupid. The festival retains vestiges of this such as the Green Fields area, encompassing the Green Futures. The first festival at Worthy Farm was the Pilton Pop, Blues & Folk Festival, mounted by Michael Eavis on Saturday 19 September 1970, and attended by 1,500 people. The original headline acts were The Kinks and Wayne Fontana and the Mindbenders but these acts were replaced at short notice by Tyrannosaurus Rex, Other billed acts of note were Quintessence, Stackridge, and Al Stewart. The 1971 festival featured the first incarnation of the Pyramid Stage, conceived by Bill Harkin the stage was a one-tenth replica of the Great Pyramid of Giza built from scaffolding and metal sheeting and positioned over a blind spring which was found by dowsing. Performers included David Bowie, Mighty Baby, Traffic, Fairport Convention, Gong, Hawkwind, Skin Alley, The Worthy Farm Windfuckers and Melanie. It was paid for by its supporters and advocates of its ideal, and embraced a mediaeval tradition of music, dance, poetry, theatre, lights, the 1971 festival was filmed by Nicolas Roeg and David Puttnam and was released as a film called simply Glastonbury Fayre. The 1980s saw the festival become a fixture, barring periodic fallow years. In 1981, Michael Eavis took control of the festival, and that year a new Pyramid Stage was constructed from telegraph poles and metal sheeting, a permanent structure which doubled as a hay-barn and cow-shed during the winter. In the 1980s, the area of the festival became the starting point for a new childrens charity called Childrens World. 1981 was the first year that the festival profits. Since 1983, large festivals have required licences from local authorities and this led to certain restrictions being placed on the festival, including a crowd limit and specified times during which the stages could operateGlastonbury Festival
37. Rage Against the Machine – Rage Against the Machine is an American rock band from Los Angeles, California. Formed in 1991, the group consists of rapper and vocalist Zack de la Rocha, bassist and backing vocalist Tim Commerford, guitarist Tom Morello, and drummer Brad Wilk. They draw inspiration from heavy metal instrumentation, as well as hip hop acts such as Afrika Bambaataa, Public Enemy, the Beastie Boys. Rage Against the Machine is well known for the members leftist and revolutionary political views, as of 2010, they had sold over 16 million records worldwide. In 1992, the band released its debut album, which became a commercial and critical success. In 2003, the album was ranked number 368 on Rolling Stones list of the 500 greatest albums of all time, the band did not release a follow-up record until 1996, with Evil Empire. The bands third album, The Battle of Los Angeles, followed in 1999, and in 2003, during their initial nine-year run, they became one of the most popular and influential bands in music history, according to music journalist Colin Devenish. They were also ranked No.33 on VH1s 100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock, the band had a large influence on the nu metal genre which came to prominence during the second half of the 1990s. In 2000, the released the cover album Renegades. The same year, growing tensions over the direction of the band prompted de la Rocha to quit, the same year, Rage Against the Machine announced a reunion and performed together for the first time in seven years at the Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival in April 2007. Up until 2011, the continued to perform at more live venues. In 2016, Morello, Commerford and Wilk formed a new band, Prophets of Rage, with Chuck D, Tom soon contacted Brad Wilk, who had unsuccessfully auditioned for Lock Up. This line-up went on to form Rage Against the Machine, the newly christened Rage Against the Machine named themselves after a song de la Rocha had written for his former popular underground hardcore punk band, Inside Out. Kent McClard, with whom Inside Out were associated, had coined the phrase rage against the machine in a 1989 article in his zine No Answers. Shortly after forming, they gave their first public performance on October 23,1991, at The Quad of California State University, not all 12 songs made it onto the final album—two were eventually included as B-sides, while three others never saw an official release. Several record labels expressed interest, and the band signed with Epic Records. Morello said, Epic agreed to everything we asked—and theyve followed through and we never saw a conflict as long as we maintained creative control. The Fuck You version, which contains 17 iterations of the word fuck, was accidentally played on the BBC Radio 1 Top 40 singles show on February 21,1993Rage Against the Machine – Rage Against the Machine at Vegoose in October 2007. Left to right: Tim Commerford, Zack de la Rocha, Brad Wilk, Tom Morello.
38. Coldplay – Coldplay are a British rock band formed in 1996 by lead vocalist and keyboardist Chris Martin and lead guitarist Jonny Buckland at University College London. After they formed under the name Pectoralz, Guy Berryman joined the group as bassist, will Champion joined as drummer and backing vocalist, completing the performing line-up. Creative Director Phil Harvey is often referred to as the fifth member by the band. The band renamed themselves Coldplay in 1998, before recording and releasing three EPs, Safety in 1998, Brothers & Sisters as a single in 1999, the Blue Room was their first release on a major label, after signing to Parlophone. They achieved worldwide fame with the release of the single Yellow in 2000 and this was followed by their debut album Parachutes released the same year, which was nominated for the Mercury Prize. The bands second album, A Rush of Blood to the Head, was released to acclaim and won multiple awards. Their next release, X&Y, the album worldwide in 2005, was met with mostly positive reviews upon its release. In May 2014, they released their album, Ghost Stories. In December 2015, the released their seventh album, A Head Full of Dreams. Coldplay have sold more than 80 million records worldwide, making one of the worlds best-selling music artists. In December 2009, Rolling Stone readers voted the group the fourth-best artist of the 2000s, Coldplay have been an active supporter of various social and political causes, such as Oxfams Make Trade Fair campaign and Amnesty International. Chris Martin and Jonny Buckland first met during their week at University College London in September 1996. The pair spent the rest of the university year planning a band, Guy Berryman, a classmate of Martin and Buckland, later joined the group. By 1997, the group, who had renamed themselves Starfish, Martin also had recruited his longtime school friend Phil Harvey, who was studying classics at the University of Oxford, to be the bands manager. Coldplay have since accepted Harvey as the member of the group. The bands line-up was completed when Will Champion joined to take up percussion duties, Champion had grown up playing piano, guitar, bass, and tin whistle, he quickly learned the drums. The band finally settled on the name Coldplay which was suggested by Tim Crompton, by 1997, Martin had met Classics student Tim Rice-Oxley. During a weekend in the English village Virginia Water in Surrey they asked each other to play their own songs on the pianoColdplay – Coldplay on stage following a 2009 performance during the Viva La Vida tour. From left to right: Chris Martin, Guy Berryman, Jonny Buckland, Will Champion
39. Rutgers University – Rutgers was chartered as Queens College on November 10,1766. It is the eighth-oldest college in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution, for most of its existence, Rutgers was a private liberal arts college affiliated with the Dutch Reformed Church. The college expanded its role in research and instruction in agriculture, engineering and it gained university status in 1924 with the introduction of graduate education and further expansion. However, Rutgers evolved into a public research university after being designated The State University of New Jersey by the New Jersey Legislature in laws enacted in 1945 and 1956. It is one of two colonial colleges that later became public universities. Rutgers has three campuses located throughout New Jersey, the New Brunswick campus in New Brunswick and adjacent Piscataway, the Newark campus, the university has additional facilities elsewhere in New Jersey. Instruction is offered by 9,000 faculty members in 175 academic departments to over 45,000 undergraduate students and more than 20,000 graduate, through several years of effort by the Rev. Theodorus Jacobus Frelinghuysen and Rev. The Grammar School, today the private Rutgers Preparatory School, was a part of the community until 1959. New Brunswick was chosen as the location over Hackensack because the New Brunswick Dutch had the support of the Anglican population, despite the religious nature of the early college, the first classes were held at a tavern called the Sign of the Red Lion. When the Revolutionary War broke out and taverns were suspected by the British as being hotbeds of rebel activity, in its early years, due to a lack of funds, Queens College was closed for two extended periods. Early trustees considered merging the college with the College of New Jersey, in Princeton, in 1808, after raising $12,000, the college was temporarily reopened and broke ground on a building of its own, called Old Queens, designed by architect John McComb, Jr. The colleges third president, the Rev. Ira Condict, laid the cornerstone on April 27,1809, shortly after, the New Brunswick Theological Seminary, founded in 1784, relocated from Brooklyn, New York, to New Brunswick, and shared facilities with Queens College. During those formative years, all three institutions fit into Old Queens, in 1830, the Queens College Grammar School moved across the street, and in 1856, the Seminary relocated to a seven-acre tract less than one-half miles away. According to the Board of Trustees, Colonel Rutgers was honored because he epitomized Christian values, the Rutgers Scientific School would expand over the years to grow into the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station and divide into the College of Engineering and the College of Agriculture. Rutgers created the New Jersey College for Women in 1918, with the development of graduate education, and the continued expansion of the institution, the collection of schools became Rutgers University in 1924. Rutgers College continued as an arts college within the university. Rutgers was designated the State University of New Jersey by acts of the New Jersey Legislature in 1945 and 1956, shortly after, the University of Newark was merged with Rutgers in 1946, as were the College of South Jersey and South Jersey Law School, in 1950. These two institutions became Rutgers University–Newark and Rutgers University–Camden, respectively, on September 10,1970, after much debate, the Board of Governors voted to admit women into Rutgers CollegeRutgers University – Early 19th-century drawing of Old Queen's (1809), the oldest building on the Rutgers University campus in New Brunswick, New Jersey.
40. Rochester Institute of Technology – Rochester Institute of Technology is a private doctoral university within the town of Henrietta in the Rochester, New York metropolitan area. RIT is composed of nine colleges, including National Technical Institute for the Deaf. It is most widely known for its arts, computing, engineering. The name of the institution at the time was called Rochester Athenæum. In 1944, the changed its name to Rochester Institute of Technology. The Institute originally resided within the city of Rochester, New York, proper, on a block bounded by the Erie Canal, South Plymouth Avenue, Spring Street and its art department was originally located in the Bevier Memorial Building. In 1961, a donation of $3. Upon completion in 1968, the Institute moved to the new suburban campus, in 1966, RIT was selected by the Federal government to be the site of the newly founded National Technical Institute for the Deaf. NTID admitted its first students in 1968, concurrent with RITs transition to the Henrietta campus, in 1979, RIT took over Eisenhower College, a liberal arts college located in Seneca Falls, New York. Despite making a 5-year commitment to keep Eisenhower open, RIT announced in July 1982 that the college would close immediately, one final year of operation by Eisenhowers academic program took place in the 1982–83 school year on the Henrietta campus. The final Eisenhower graduation took place in May 1983 back in Seneca Falls, in 1996, RIT also became the first college in the U. S to offer a Software Engineering degree at the undergraduate level. The current campus is housed on a 1,300 acres property and this property is largely covered with woodland and fresh-water swamp making it a very diverse wetland which is home to a number of somewhat rare plant species. The campus comprises 237 buildings and 5.1 million square feet of building space, though the buildings erected in the first few decades of the campuss existence reflected the architectural style known as brutalism, the warm color of the bricks softened the impact somewhat. More recent additions to the campus have diversified the architecture while still incorporating the traditional brick colors, in 2009, the campus was named a Campus Sustainability Leader by the Sustainable Endowments Institute. The residence halls and the side of campus are connected with a walkway called the Quarter Mile. Along the Quarter Mile, between the academic and residence hall side are various administration and support buildings and these symbols represent time to infinity. The Quarter Mile is actually 0.41 miles long when measured between the sculpture and the sundial. The name comes from a student fundraiser, where quarters were lined up from the sundial to the Infinity Sculpture, standing near the Administration Building and the Student Alumni Union is The Sentinel, a steel structure created by the acclaimed metal sculptor, Albert PaleyRochester Institute of Technology – The RIT campus as seen from the air, looking south, Genesee River on the right (2007).
41. Van Nuys Airport – No major airlines fly into this airport, which is owned and operated by Los Angeles World Airports. Van Nuys Airport is one of the busiest general aviation airports in the world, with two parallel runways, Van Nuys Airport handled approximately 217,000 aircraft movements in 2015. Hollywood celebrities, politicians, and business executives are known to use this airport, the airport is home to the Van Nuys FlyAway Bus service, which runs nonstop buses to Los Angeles International Airport for travelers that park their cars at Van Nuys. Many news, medical transport, and tour helicopters from the Los Angeles area are based at Van Nuys Airport, the Los Angeles City Fire Department operates its Air Operations Unit at Van Nuys Airport. The City of Los Angeles also has its hub at the airport, used for staging and maintaining LAPD. A Cessna 525 Citation CJ1 twin-engine jet departing for Long Beach Airport crashed 0.5 miles north of the airport on January 12,2007, One was reported to be the owner of the company which operated the aircraft. On November 25,2008, a Cessna 310 carrying 2 people experienced landing gear problems, after burning off fuel, it was able to land on the runway without incident, although its front gear collapsed upon landing. On January 9,2015, a Lancair aircraft crashed after takeoff just south of the airport at the intersection of Vanowen Street, the pilot, an experienced flight instructor and Jet Propulsion Laboratory robotics engineer, was killed. In 2005 a film documenting the history of Van Nuys Airport was released under the name One Six Right, legend has it that Burbank Airport provided the setting for Humphrey Bogarts famous goodbye in the film Casablanca. All the runway scenes that included actors took place inside sound stage No.1 at Warner Bros. studios in Burbank, a major part of the science fiction classic Silent Running was filmed at the Van Nuys Airport in March 1971. The Domes from the spacecraft that contained the last surviving forests were filmed there, the main interiors were filmed aboard the decommissioned aircraft carrier USS Valley Forge, which was docked at the Long Beach Naval Shipyard in Long Beach, California. Shortly after filming was completed, the carrier was scrapped, in the last episode of Season 1 of the HBO series Entourage, the final scene takes place at Van Nuys Airport, where Vincent Chase and company take off for New York City. It was also used in the 4th season when Kanye West offers the group a plane ride on a Marquis Jet to Cannes. In Season 5 episode 7, Ari Gold and Vincent Chase run into each other in a hangar as each are about to depart on separate flights to Geneva, Switzerland and Hawaii respectively. The last episode of season 6, episode 12, is used as a location where Vincent Chase and this article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http, //www. afhra. af. mil/Van Nuys Airport – 2015 photo
42. Sting (musician) – Gordon Matthew Thomas Sumner, CBE, better known by his stage name Sting, is an English musician, singer, songwriter, and actor. He was the songwriter, lead singer, and bassist for the new wave rock band The Police from 1977 to 1984. He has included elements of rock, jazz, reggae, classical, new-age and he was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 2002 and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of The Police in 2003. In 2000, he received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for recording, in 2003, Sting received a CBE from Elizabeth II at Buckingham Palace for services to music, and was made a Kennedy Center Honoree at the White House in 2014. He was awarded the Polar Music Prize in 2017, with The Police, Sting became one of the worlds best-selling music artists. Solo and with The Police combined, he has sold over 100 million records, in 2006, Paste ranked him 62nd of the 100 best living songwriters. He was 63rd of VH1s 100 greatest artists of rock, and he grew up near Wallsends shipyards, which made an impression on him. At eight or ten years old, he was inspired by the Queen Mother waving at him from a Rolls-Royce to divert from the shipyard prospect towards a more glamorous life. He helped his father deliver milk and by ten was obsessed with an old Spanish guitar left by a friend of his father. He attended St Cuthberts Grammar School in Newcastle upon Tyne and he visited nightclubs such as Club AGogo to see Cream and Manfred Mann, who influenced his music. After being a bus conductor, building labourer and tax officer, he attended Northern Counties College of Education from 1971 to 1974 and he taught at St Pauls First School in Cramlington for two years. Sting performed jazz in the evening, weekends and during breaks from college and he played with the Phoenix Jazzmen, Newcastle Big Band, and Last Exit. He gained his nickname after his habit of wearing a black, bandleader Gordon Solomon thought he looked like a bee, which prompted the name Sting. In the 1985 documentary Bring on the Night a journalist called him Gordon, to which he replied, My children call me Sting, my mother calls me Sting, in Time in 2011 he said, I was never called Gordon. You could shout Gordon in the street and I would just move out of your way, in January 1977, Sting moved from Newcastle to London and joined Stewart Copeland and Henry Padovani to form The Police. From 1978 to 1983 they had five UK chart-topping albums, won six Grammy Awards and their initial sound was punk-inspired, but they switched to reggae rock and minimalist pop. Their final album, Synchronicity, was nominated for five Grammy Awards including Album of the Year and it included their most successful song, Every Breath You Take, written by Sting, in 1983. While never formally breaking up, after Synchronicity the group agreed to concentrate on solo projects, as the years went by, the band members, particularly Sting, dismissed the possibility of reformingSting (musician) – Sting performing at Madison Square Garden, New York on 1 August 2007
43. Hidden Hills, California – Hidden Hills is a city and gated community in Los Angeles County, California. It is located next to the city of Calabasas and is located in the west of San Fernando Valley and it is notable for being home to many actors and celebrities. Hidden Hills is in the southern Simi Hills Transverse range near the Santa Monica Mountains, the community was designed and developed in the 1950s by A. E. Hanson, a renowned Southern California landscape architect and planned community developer. His earlier projects included Rolling Hills and Palos Verdes Estates, and it is a gated residential community with a total all land area of 1.7 square miles. An elementary school is accessible at one of the three gates to the community. The city has a camp for children, community and childrens theatre programs, annual parades, carnivals, parties, welcome wagon, snow days. Hidden Hills is bordered on the north by the reserve and greenbelt of the Upper Las Virgenes Canyon Open Space Preserve, a park with miles of equestrian, hiking. Nearby to the south is the pioneer Leonis Adobe National Historic Landmark, with gardens and its across the historic El Camino Real of the Spanish Las Californias and Mexican Alta California eras, now U. S. Route 101. The city was the setting of a short-lived NBC sitcom called Hidden Hills, as of the census of 2000, there were 1,875 people,568 households, and 506 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,135.0 inhabitants per square mile, there were 592 housing units at an average density of 358.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88. 70% White,0. 44% Black or African American,0. 12% Native American,2. 71% Asian,1. 55% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 6. 24% of the population. 7. 6% of all households were made up of individuals and 3. 2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 3.30 and the average family size was 3.39. In the city, the population was out with 33. 0% under the age of 18,4. 2% from 18 to 24,20. 9% from 25 to 44,31. 9% from 45 to 64. The median age was 40 years, for every 100 females there were 92.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.6 males, females had a median income of $95,667. The per capita income for the city was $194,096, no families and no individuals were below the poverty line. The 2010 United States Census reported that Hidden Hills had a population of 1,856, the population density was 1,099.1 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Hidden Hills was 1,713 White,37 African American,3 Native American,42 Asian,1 Pacific Islander,30 from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 123 personsHidden Hills, California – Josh Satin
44. Indio, California – Indio is a city in Riverside County, California, United States, located in the Coachella Valley of Southern Californias Colorado Desert region. It lies 23 miles east of Palm Springs,77 miles east of Riverside and it is about 98 miles north of Mexicali, Baja California on the U. S. -Mexican border. The word Indio is Spanish for Indian, the population was 76,036 in the 2010 United States Census, up from 49,116 at the 2000 census, an increase of 55%. Railroad line construction east out of Los Angeles began in 1873, trains were operated to Colton on July 16,1875, and to Indio on May 29,1876. Moving on eastward from Indio, the reached the west bank of the Colorado River opposite Yuma on May 23,1877. There was delay in getting military authority to lay tracks across the Yuma Indian reservation, but the rail-head of the T & P was at a standstill far off in Texas, so Southern Pacific continued building eastward. The City of Indio came about because of the need of a point for the Southern Pacific Railroad between Yuma, Arizona and Los Angeles. The engines needed to be re-filled with water, at first, the-would-be city was called Indian Wells, but because of so many other areas already called that, Indio – after a Spanish variation of the word Indian – was chosen. After the railroads arrival in 1876, Indio really started to grow, the first permanent building was the craftsman style Southern Pacific Depot station and hotel. Southern Pacific tried to make life as comfortable as it could for their workers in order to them from leaving such a difficult area to live in at the time. It was at the center of all life in the desert with a fancy dining room. While Indio started as a town, it soon became agricultural. However, water also was a problem for Indio and the city was flooded several times until the storm water canals were created throughout the Coachella Valley. Businessmen and women found this last frontier land of the continental United States as a place to start fresh. Dr. Harry Smiley and his wife Nell were early residents and stayed in Indio after their car broke down on the way to Los Angeles and became people of influence and helped shape the area. A. G. Tingman was an early storeowner and first Postmaster of Indio, later Dr. June Robertson McCarroll became a leading philanthropist as well as successful doctor in Indio. But even though these early founders of the city are considered pioneers, Indio established itself quickly and kept up with all the trends as they were brought in by the railroads. By the turn of the 20th century, Indio was already more than a railroad townIndio, California – Indio during the 1950s: Stan Sniff, a local date grower's booth at the annual National Date Festival and Riverside County Fair, selling dates which is one of the region's most popular crops.
45. Calumet City, Illinois – Calumet City is a city in Cook County, Illinois, United States. The population was 37,042 at the 2010 census, a decline of 5. 2% from 2000, in 1924, West Hammond officially became Calumet City after its citizens voted to change the name in 1923. In addition to being bordered to the east by Hammond, it is bordered by Burnham and Chicago to the north, Lansing to the south. A landmark and point of pride among Cal City residents is the pair of water towers painted like the popular Have a Nice Day smiley faces. Calumet City is located at 41°36′51″N 87°32′47″W, according to the 2010 census, Calumet City has a total area of 7.314 square miles, of which 7.19 square miles is land and 0.124 square miles is water. As of the 2000 census, there were 39,071 people,15,139 households, the population density was 5,378.0 people per square mile. There were 15,947 housing units at a density of 2,195.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 38. 74% White,52. 91% African American,0. 25% Native American,0. 53% Asian,0. 05% Pacific Islander,5. 37% from other races, and 2. 15% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10. 86% of the population, the top four European ancestries reported in Calumet City as of the 2000 census were Polish, German, Irish and Italian. 29. 8% Of all households were made up of individuals and 11. 5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.21. In the city, the age distribution of the population was 28. 7% under the age of 18,8. 6% from 18 to 24,30. 7% from 25 to 44,19. 2% from 45 to 64, the median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 86.8 males, for every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $38,902, males had a median income of $37,231 versus $30,555 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,123, about 9. 8% of families and 12. 2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17. 3% of those under age 18 and 7. 2% of those age 65 or over. Calumet City is in Illinois 2nd congressional district, in the book and film The Silence of the Lambs, Buffalo Bill is thought to be hiding in Calumet City, when he is actually in Belvedere, Ohio. The Calumet City scenes in the film were filmed in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, lily Tomlins prim but assertive housewife/spokesperson Mrs. Judith Beasley is said to be a resident of Calumet City. I am not an actress, but a person like yourself. Calumet City is also referenced by a number of music actsCalumet City, Illinois – Calumet City, Illinois
46. Oak Lawn, Illinois – Oak Lawn is a village in Cook County, Illinois, United States. The population was 56,690 at the 2010 census, Oak Lawn is a suburb of Chicago, located southwest of the city. It shares borders with the city in two areas, but is surrounded mostly by other suburbs, Oak Lawn is located at the 41°42′54″N 87°45′12″W. According to the 2010 census, Oak Lawn has an area of 8.59 square miles. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 55,245 people,22,220 households, the population density was 6,427.3 people per square mile. There were 22,846 housing units at a density of 2,657.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 93. 35% White,1. 22% African American,0. 17% Native American,1. 73% Asian,0. 01% Pacific Islander,1. 64% from other races, and 1. 90% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5. 33% of the population, the top five ancestries reported in Oak Lawn as of the 2000 census were Irish, German, Polish, Italian and English. One of the towns streets pays tribute to its Polish American heritage through its name of Deblin Lane after Dęblin,30. 9% of all households were made up of individuals and 17. 0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the family size was 3.14. In the village, the population was out with 21. 9% under the age of 18,7. 2% from 18 to 24,26. 2% from 25 to 44,22. 9% from 45 to 64. The median age was 42 years, for every 100 females there were 88.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.2 males, the median income for a household in the village was $47,585, and the median income for a family was $60,057. Males had an income of $44,954 versus $30,646 for females. The per capita income for the village was $23,877, about 3. 9% of families and 5. 4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6. 7% of those under age 18 and 4. 6% of those age 65 or over. The village government consists of a president and six village trustees. The six trustees represent the six districts within the village and are elected to terms by the voters in each of their respective districts. Oak Lawn is in Illinoiss 3rd congressional district, campbell purchased the land stretching between Cicero Avenue and Central Avenue from 95th Street to 103rd StreetOak Lawn, Illinois – Centennial Park, Winter 2006
47. Bremerton, Washington – Bremerton is a city in Kitsap County, Washington, United States. The population was 40,500 at the 2016 State Estimate, Bremerton is home to Puget Sound Naval Shipyard and the Bremerton Annex of Naval Base Kitsap. Bremerton is connected to Downtown Seattle by a 60-minute ferry route, Bremerton, the largest city in Kitsap County, is located directly west of Seattle across the Puget Sound on the Kitsap Peninsula. It is bounded on the southeast and east by Sinclair Inlet, the city is divided by the Port Washington Narrows, a strait spanned by two bridges that connects, the eastern and western sides of the city. The part of the city northeast of the narrows is referred to as East Bremerton, the citys southern border is contiguous with Mason County and includes Bremerton National Airport. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 32.29 square miles. Bremerton is divided among three legislative districts in Kitsap County. The 23rd legislative district to the north, 35th legislative district in the center, before redistricting in 2012, the line separating the first and sixth Congressional districts ran through East Bremerton. As a result of the 2012 redistricting, all of Bremerton now lies within the sixth Congressional district, the district is represented by Derek Kilmer, who was first elected to that position in 2012. Prior to Kilmer, Norm Dicks served as sixth district Representative from 1977 to 2013, the mayor is Patty Lent, who defeated councilman Will Maupin in 2009. Lent had been a Kitsap County commissioner, and ran as a Republican, incorporated as a first-class city, Bremerton has been governed by a nonpartisan strong mayor and nine-member city council since 1985. Each member is elected from one of nine wards who in turn elect one member, the current form of government was established by a 1983 charter that eliminated a decades-old city commission composed of a mayor, public works commissioner and finance commissioner. Each member of the Kitsap County Board of Commissioners represents a portion of the city of Bremerton and this arrangement was an attempt to balance Bremertons commercial influence with the remainder of the county, though most of its sales tax base has since relocated to unincorporated areas. The revenue shortfall has been compensated by increased revenues collected from traffic infractions, Bremerton politics can vary in intensity, with some city council positions regularly unopposed and others having as many as four candidates in the 2005 primary election. Bremerton is within the territory of the Suquamish Tribe. The land was available for non-Native settlement by the Treaty of Point Elliott of 1855. Bremerton was planned by German immigrant and Seattle entrepreneur William Bremer in 1891, in the year 1891, Navy Lt. A. B. Wyckoff purchased approximately 190 acres of waterfront land located on Sinclair Inlet. This land was owned by the Bremer family, in April 1891, Bremer arranged for the sale of 190 acres to the Navy at $50 per acreBremerton, Washington – Aerial view of the city with Puget Sound Naval Shipyard at the bottom