1. Lucian Freud – Lucian Michael Freud was a British painter and draftsman, specialising in figurative art, and is known as one of the foremost 20th-century portraitists. He was born in Berlin, the son of a Jewish architect and his family moved to Britain in 1933 to escape the rise of Nazism. From 1942-43 he attended Goldsmiths College, London and he enlisted in the Merchant Navy during the Second World War. His early career as a painter was influenced by surrealism, but by the early 1950s his often stark, Freud was an intensely private and guarded man, and his paintings, completed over a 60-year career, are mostly of friends and family. They are generally sombre and thickly impastoed, often set in unsettling interiors, the works are noted for their psychological penetration and often discomforting examination of the relationship between artist and model. Freud worked from life studies, and was known for asking for extended, born in Berlin, Freud was the son of a German Jewish mother, Lucie, and an Austrian Jewish father, Ernst L. Freud, an architect. He was a grandson of Sigmund Freud, and elder brother of the broadcaster, writer and politician Clement Freud, the family emigrated to St Johns Wood, London, in 1933 to escape the rise of Nazism. Lucian became a British subject in 1939, having attended Dartington Hall School in Totnes, Devon and he also attended Goldsmiths College, part of the University of London, in 1942–43. He served as a merchant seaman in an Atlantic convoy in 1941 before being invalided out of service in 1942, in 1943, the poet and editor Meary James Thurairajah Tambimuttu commissioned the young artist to illustrate a book of poems by Nicholas Moore entitled The Glass Tower. It was published the year by Editions Poetry London and comprised, among other drawings, a stuffed zebra. Both subjects reappeared in The Painters Room on display at Freuds first solo exhibition in 1944 at the Lefevre Gallery, in the summer of 1946, he travelled to Paris before continuing to Greece for several months to visit John Craxton. In the early fifties he was a frequent visitor to Dublin where he would share Patrick Swifts studio, in late 1952, Freud and Lady Caroline Blackwood eloped to Paris where they married in 1953. He remained a Londoner for the rest of his life, Freud was part of a group of figurative artists later named The School of London. This was more a collection of individual artists who knew each other, some intimately. The group was led by such as Francis Bacon and Freud. He was a tutor at the Slade School of Fine Art of University College London from 1949 to 1954. Freuds early paintings, which are very small, are often associated with German Expressionism and Surrealism in depicting people, plants. These were painted with tiny sable brushes and evoke Early Netherlandish painting and he would often clean his brush after each stroke when painting flesh, so that the colour remained constantly variableLucian Freud – Lucian Freud
2. England – England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 yearsEngland – Stonehenge, a Neolithic monument
3. George Orwell – Eric Arthur Blair, better known by the pen name George Orwell, was an English novelist, essayist, journalist, and critic. His work is marked by lucid prose, awareness of injustice, opposition to totalitarianism. Orwell wrote literary criticism, poetry, fiction, and polemical journalism and he is best known for the allegorical novella Animal Farm and the dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. In 2008, The Times ranked him second on a list of The 50 greatest British writers since 1945, Eric Arthur Blair was born on 25 June 1903, in Motihari, Bengal Presidency, in British India. His grandfather, Thomas Richard Arthur Blair, was a clergyman, although the gentility passed down the generations, the prosperity did not, Eric Blair described his family as lower-upper-middle class. His father, Richard Walmesley Blair, worked in the Opium Department of the Indian Civil Service and his mother, Ida Mabel Blair, grew up in Moulmein, Burma, where her French father was involved in speculative ventures. Eric had two sisters, Marjorie, five years older, and Avril, five years younger, when Eric was one year old, his mother took him and his sister to England. His birthplace and ancestral house in Motihari has been declared a monument of historical importance. In 1904, Ida Blair settled with her children at Henley-on-Thames in Oxfordshire, Eric was brought up in the company of his mother and sisters, and apart from a brief visit in mid-1907, they did not see the husband and father Richard Blair until 1912. His mothers diary from 1905 describes a lively round of social activity, before the First World War, the family moved to Shiplake, Oxfordshire where Eric became friendly with the Buddicom family, especially their daughter Jacintha. When they first met, he was standing on his head in a field, on being asked why, he said, You are noticed more if you stand on your head than if you are right way up. Jacintha and Eric read and wrote poetry, and dreamed of becoming famous writers and he said that he might write a book in the style of H. G. Wellss A Modern Utopia. During this period, he enjoyed shooting, fishing and birdwatching with Jacinthas brother and sister. At the age of five, Eric was sent as a day-boy to a convent school in Henley-on-Thames and it was a Roman Catholic convent run by French Ursuline nuns, who had been exiled from France after religious education was banned in 1903. His mother wanted him to have a school education, but his family could not afford the fees. Ida Blairs brother Charles Limouzin recommended St Cyprians School, Eastbourne, Limouzin, who was a proficient golfer, knew of the school and its headmaster through the Royal Eastbourne Golf Club, where he won several competitions in 1903 and 1904. The headmaster undertook to help Blair to win a scholarship, in September 1911 Eric arrived at St Cyprians. He boarded at the school for the five years, returning home only for school holidaysGeorge Orwell – Orwell's press card portrait, 1943
4. History of painting – The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans, and spans all cultures. It represents a continuous, though disrupted, tradition from Antiquity. Across cultures, and spanning continents and millennia, the history of painting is a river of creativity. Until the early 20th century it relied primarily on representational, religious and classical motifs, after which time more purely abstract, developments in Eastern painting historically parallel those in Western painting, in general, a few centuries earlier. African art, Jewish art, Islamic art, Indian art, Chinese art, and Japanese art each had significant influence on Western art, and vice versa. Initially serving utilitarian purpose, followed by imperial, private, civic, and religious patronage, Eastern and Western painting later found audiences in the aristocracy, from the Modern era, the Middle Ages through the Renaissance painters worked for the church and a wealthy aristocracy. Beginning with the Baroque era artists received commissions from a more educated. Finally in the West the idea of art for arts sake began to find expression in the work of the Romantic painters like Francisco de Goya, John Constable, the 19th century saw the rise of the commercial art gallery, which provided patronage in the 20th century. The oldest known paintings are approximately 40,000 years old, josé Luis Sanchidrián at the University of Cordoba, Spain, believes the paintings are more likely to have been painted by Neanderthals than early modern humans. Images at the Chauvet cave in France are thought to be about 32,000 years old and they are engraved and painted using red ochre and black pigment and show horses, rhinoceros, lions, buffalo, mammoth or humans often hunting. There are examples of cave paintings all over the world—in France, India, Spain, Portugal, China, various conjectures have been made as to the meaning these paintings had to the people that made them. Prehistoric men may have painted animals to catch their soul or spirit in order to hunt them more easily or the paintings may represent an animistic vision and homage to surrounding nature. They may be the result of a basic need of expression that is innate to human beings, in Paleolithic times, the representation of humans in cave paintings was rare. Mostly, animals were painted, not only animals that were used as food but also animals that represented strength like the rhinoceros or large Felidae, signs like dots were sometimes drawn. Rare human representations include handprints and stencils, and figures depicting human / animal hybrids, the Chauvet Cave in the Ardèche Departments of France contains the most important preserved cave paintings of the Paleolithic era, painted around 31,000 BC. The Altamira cave paintings in Spain were done 14,000 to 12,000 BC and show, among others, bisons. The hall of bulls in Lascaux, Dordogne, France, is one of the best known cave paintings, if there is meaning to the paintings, it remains unknown. The caves were not in an area, so they may have been used for seasonal ritualsHistory of painting – Cave painting of aurochs (Bos primigenius primigenius), Lascaux, France, prehistoric art
5. Modernism – Among the factors that shaped modernism were the development of modern industrial societies and the rapid growth of cities, followed then by reactions of horror to World War I. Modernism also rejected the certainty of Enlightenment thinking, and many modernists rejected religious belief, the poet Ezra Pounds 1934 injunction to Make it new. Was the touchstone of the approach towards what it saw as the now obsolete culture of the past. In this spirit, its innovations, like the novel, atonal and twelve-tone music, divisionist painting and abstract art. Modernism explicitly rejected the ideology of realism and makes use of the works of the past by the employment of reprise, incorporation, rewriting, recapitulation, revision, others focus on modernism as an aesthetic introspection. While J. M. W. Art critic Clement Greenberg describes the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood as proto-Modernists, There the proto-Modernists were, of all people, the Pre-Raphaelites actually foreshadowed Manet, with whom Modernist painting most definitely begins. They acted on a dissatisfaction with painting as practiced in their time, rationalism has also had opponents in the philosophers Søren Kierkegaard and later Friedrich Nietzsche, both of whom had significant influence on existentialism. A major 19th-century engineering achievement was The Crystal Palace, the huge cast-iron, Glass and iron were used in a similar monumental style in the construction of major railway terminals in London, such as Paddington Station and Kings Cross Station. These technological advances led to the building of structures like the Brooklyn Bridge. The latter broke all previous limitations on how tall man-made objects could be and these engineering marvels radically altered the 19th-century urban environment and the daily lives of people. Arguments arose that the values of the artist and those of society were not merely different, but that Society was antithetical to Progress, the philosopher Schopenhauer called into question the previous optimism, and his ideas had an important influence on later thinkers, including Nietzsche. Darwins theory of evolution by natural selection undermined religious certainty and the idea of human uniqueness, in particular, the notion that human beings were driven by the same impulses as lower animals proved to be difficult to reconcile with the idea of an ennobling spirituality. Karl Marx argued that there were fundamental contradictions within the capitalist system, historians, and writers in different disciplines, have suggested various dates as starting points for modernism. Everdell also thinks modernism in painting began in 1885–86 with Seurats Divisionism, the poet Baudelaires Les Fleurs du mal, and Flauberts novel Madame Bovary were both published in 1857. In the arts and letters, two important approaches developed separately in France, the first was Impressionism, a school of painting that initially focused on work done, not in studios, but outdoors. Impressionist paintings demonstrated that human beings do not see objects, the school gathered adherents despite internal divisions among its leading practitioners, and became increasingly influential. A significant event of 1863 was the Salon des Refusés, created by Emperor Napoleon III to display all of the paintings rejected by the Paris Salon. While most were in standard styles, but by artists, the work of Manet attracted tremendous attentionModernism
6. Sigmund Freud – Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. Freud was born to Galician Jewish parents in the Moravian town of Freiberg and he qualified as a doctor of medicine in 1881 at the University of Vienna. Upon completing his habilitation in 1885, he was appointed a docent in neuropathology, Freud lived and worked in Vienna, having set up his clinical practice there in 1886. In 1938 Freud left Austria to escape the Nazis and he died in exile in the United Kingdom in 1939. In creating psychoanalysis, Freud developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association and discovered transference, Freuds redefinition of sexuality to include its infantile forms led him to formulate the Oedipus complex as the central tenet of psychoanalytical theory. His analysis of dreams as wish-fulfillments provided him with models for the analysis of symptom formation. On this basis Freud elaborated his theory of the unconscious and went on to develop a model of psychic structure comprising id, in his later work Freud developed a wide-ranging interpretation and critique of religion and culture. Though in overall decline as a diagnostic and clinical practice, psychoanalysis remains influential within psychology, psychiatry, and psychotherapy, nonetheless, Freuds work has suffused contemporary Western thought and popular culture. In the words of W. H. Audens 1940 poetic tribute, by the time of Freuds death, Freud was born to Jewish parents in the Moravian town of Freiberg, in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the first of eight children. Both of his parents were from Galicia, in modern-day Ukraine and his father, Jakob Freud, a wool merchant, had two sons, Emanuel and Philipp, by his first marriage. Jakobs family were Hasidic Jews, and although Jakob himself had moved away from the tradition and he and Freuds mother, Amalia Nathansohn, who was 20 years younger and his third wife, were married by Rabbi Isaac Noah Mannheimer on 29 July 1855. They were struggling financially and living in a room, in a locksmiths house at Schlossergasse 117 when their son Sigmund was born. He was born with a caul, which his mother saw as an omen for the boys future. In 1859, the Freud family left Freiberg, Freuds half brothers emigrated to Manchester, England, parting him from the inseparable playmate of his early childhood, Emanuels son, John. Jakob Freud took his wife and two children firstly to Leipzig and then in 1860 to Vienna where four sisters and a brother were born, Rosa, Marie, Adolfine, Paula, in 1865, the nine-year-old Freud entered the Leopoldstädter Kommunal-Realgymnasium, a prominent high school. He proved an outstanding pupil and graduated from the Matura in 1873 with honors and he loved literature and was proficient in German, French, Italian, Spanish, English, Hebrew, Latin and Greek. Freud entered the University of Vienna at age 17, in 1876, Freud spent four weeks at Clauss zoological research station in Trieste, dissecting hundreds of eels in an inconclusive search for their male reproductive organs. He graduated with an MD in 1881, in 1882, Freud began his medical career at the Vienna General HospitalSigmund Freud – Freud by Max Halberstadt, 1921
7. Surrealism – Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings. The aim was to resolve the previously contradictory conditions of dream, leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was, above all, a revolutionary movement. Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities during World War I, the word surrealist was coined by Guillaume Apollinaire and first appeared in the preface to his play Les Mamelles de Tirésias, which was written in 1903 and first performed in 1917. The Dadaists protested with anti-art gatherings, performances, writings and art works, after the war, when they returned to Paris, the Dada activities continued. Meeting the young writer Jacques Vaché, Breton felt that Vaché was the son of writer. He admired the young writers anti-social attitude and disdain for established artistic tradition, later Breton wrote, In literature, I was successively taken with Rimbaud, with Jarry, with Apollinaire, with Nouveau, with Lautréamont, but it is Jacques Vaché to whom I owe the most. Back in Paris, Breton joined in Dada activities and started the literary journal Littérature along with Louis Aragon and they began experimenting with automatic writing—spontaneously writing without censoring their thoughts—and published the writings, as well as accounts of dreams, in the magazine. Breton and Soupault delved deeper into automatism and wrote The Magnetic Fields, continuing to write, they came to believe that automatism was a better tactic for societal change than the Dada form of attack on prevailing values. They also looked to the Marxist dialectic and the work of such theorists as Walter Benjamin, freuds work with free association, dream analysis, and the unconscious was of utmost importance to the Surrealists in developing methods to liberate imagination. They embraced idiosyncrasy, while rejecting the idea of an underlying madness, as Salvador Dalí later proclaimed, There is only one difference between a madman and me. Beside the use of analysis, they emphasized that one could combine inside the same frame, elements not normally found together to produce illogical. The more the relationship between the two juxtaposed realities is distant and true, the stronger the image will be−the greater its emotional power, the group aimed to revolutionize human experience, in its personal, cultural, social, and political aspects. They wanted to people from false rationality, and restrictive customs. Breton proclaimed that the aim of Surrealism was long live the social revolution. To this goal, at various times Surrealists aligned with communism and anarchism, in 1924 two Surrealist factions declared their philosophy in two separate Surrealist Manifestos. That same year the Bureau of Surrealist Research was established, leading up to 1924, two rival surrealist groups had formed. Each group claimed to be successors of a revolution launched by Guillaume Apollinaire, the other group, led by Breton, included Louis Aragon, Robert Desnos, Paul Éluard, Jacques Baron, Jacques-André Boiffard, Jean Carrive, René Crevel and Georges Malkine, among others. Goll and Breton clashed openly, at one point literally fighting, at the Comédie des Champs-Élysées, in the end, Breton won the battle through tactical and numerical superioritySurrealism – Max Ernst, The Elephant Celebes (1921), Tate, London
8. United Kingdom – The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is also the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, together, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester. The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Scotland, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language, culture and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index. It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, cultural, military, scientific and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have devolved self-governmentUnited Kingdom – Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, was erected around 2500 BC.
9. 2000s (decade) – The 2000s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1,2000, and ended on December 31,2009. The growth of the Internet contributed to globalization during the decade, in the English-speaking world, a name for the decade was never universally accepted in the same manner as for decades such as the 80s, the 90s, etc. Orthographically, the decade can be written as the 2000s or the 00s, some people read 2000s as two-thousands, and thus simply refer to the decade as the Two-Thousands, the Twenty Hundreds, or the Twenty-ohs. Some read it as the 00s, while others referred to it as the Zeros, on January 1,2000, the BBC listed the noughties, as a potential moniker for the new decade. This has become a name for the decade in the UK and Australia. Others have advocated the term the aughts, a widely used at the beginning of the 20th century for its first decade. The American Dialect Society holds an annual poll for word of the year. For 2009, the winner in the least likely to succeed category was Any name of the decade 2000–2009, such as, Noughties, Aughties, Oughties, etc. When the 20- is dropped, the years within the decade are usually referred to as starting with an oh. The option aught-seven, for reason, has never caught on idiomatically. When the 20- is retained, two options are available in speech, both of which have idiomatic currency, two thousand seven in American English or twenty-oh-seven, during the 2000s decade, it was more common to hear the first pattern than the second. The War on Terror and War in Afghanistan began after the September 11 attacks in 2001, the International Criminal Court was formed in 2002. A United States-led coalition invaded Iraq, and the Iraq War led to the end of Saddam Husseins rule as Iraqi President, Al-Qaeda and affiliated Islamist militant groups performed terrorist acts throughout the decade. These acts included the 2004 Madrid train bombings, 7/7 London bombings in 2005, the European Union expanded its sanctions amid Irans failure to comply with its transparency obligations under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and United Nations resolutions. Additional armed conflict occurred in the Middle East, including between Israel and Hezbollah, then with Israel and Hamas, cooperative international rescue missions by many countries from around the world helped in efforts by the most affected nations to rebuild and recover from the devastation. An enormous loss of life and property came in 2005. The resulting political fallout was severely damaging to the George W. Bush administration because of its failure to act promptly and effectively. In 2008, Barack Obama was elected President of the United States, the campaigns were launched by the United States, with support from NATO and other allies, following the September 11,2001 attacks that were carried out by al-Qaeda2000s (decade) – The World Trade Center in New York City as seen on September 11, 2001. Flight 175 has just flown into the South Tower.
10. 1922 – As of the start of 1922, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January – The year begins with the British Empire at its largest extent, covering a quarter of the world, january 7 – Dáil Éireann, the parliament of the Irish Republic, ratifies the Anglo-Irish Treaty by 64–57 votes. January 8 – The Social Democratic Youth League of Norway is founded, january 9 – Julieta founded the Chilean communist party. January 10 – Arthur Griffith is elected President of Dáil Éireann, january 11 – The first successful insulin treatment of diabetes is made, by Frederick Banting in Toronto. January 12 – The British government releases the remaining Irish prisoners captured in the War of Independence, january 13 – The flu epidemic has claimed 804 victims in Britain. January 15 – Michael Collins becomes Chairman of the Irish Provisional Government, january 24 – Christian K. Nelson patents the Eskimo Pie. January 26 – Italian forces occupy Misrata in Libya, january 28 – Knickerbocker Storm, Snowfall from the biggest-ever recorded snowstorm in Washington, D. C. causes the roof of the Knickerbocker Theatre to collapse, killing 98. January 29 – The union of Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, january 30 – Radio KZKZ-AM, the second radio station in the Philippines, begins broadcasting. February – Ring Magazine is first published, february 1 – Irish American film director William Desmond Taylor is found murdered at his home in Los Angeles, the case is never solved. February 2 – Ulysses, by James Joyce, is published in Paris on his 40th birthday by Sylvia Beach, february 5 – DeWitt and Lila Wallace publish the first issue of Readers Digest. February 6 Pope Pius XI succeeds Pope Benedict XV, to become the 259th pope, five Power Naval Disarmament Treaty signed between the United States, United Kingdom, Japan, France and Italy. Japan returns some of its control over the Shandong Peninsula to China, february 8 President of the United States Warren G. Harding introduces the first radio in the White House. In the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, the Cheka becomes the Gosudarstvennoye Politicheskoye Upravlenie, february 14 Finnish Minister of the Interior Heikki Ritavuori is assassinated by Ernst Tandefelt. Baragoola, last of the Binngarra class Manly ferries, is launched at Balmain, february 15 – Inaugural session of the Permanent Court of International Justice. February 25 – French serial killer Henri Désiré Landru is beheaded by the guillotine, february 26 – A challenge to the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, allowing women the right to vote, is rebuffed by the Supreme Court of the United States. March 2 An ice mass breaks the Oder Dam in Breslau, the British Civil Aviation Authority is established. March 4 – The movie Nosferatu is released, March 10 – Mohandas Gandhi is arrested in Bombay for sedition. March 10-14 – The Rand Revolt or Rebellion, a strike by white South African mine workers begins on 28 December 1921, March 15 – Egypt having gained self-government from the United Kingdom, Fuad I becomes King of Egypt1922 – January 11: Use of insulin for diabetes.
11. 2011 – January 4 – Tunisian street vendor Mohamed Bouazizi dies after setting himself on fire a month earlier, sparking anti-government protests in Tunisia and later other Arab nations. These protests become known collectively as the Arab Spring, January 9 –15 – Southern Sudan holds a referendum on independence. The Sudanese electorate votes in favour of independence, paving the way for the creation of the new state in July. January 14 – Arab Spring, The Tunisian government falls after a month of increasingly violent protests, January 24 –37 people are killed and more than 180 others wounded in a bombing at Domodedovo International Airport in Moscow, Russia. February 22 – March 14 – Uncertainty over Libyan oil output causes crude oil prices to rise 20% over a period following the Arab Spring, causing the 2011 energy crisis. March 11 – A9. 0-magnitude earthquake and subsequent tsunami hit the east of Japan, killing 15,840, tsunami warnings are issued in 50 countries and territories. Emergencies are declared at four power plants affected by the quake. March 15 Arab Spring, Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, King of Bahrain declares a state of emergency as troops from the Gulf Co-operation Council are sent to quell the civil unrest. Arab Spring, The Syrian Civil War begins, april 29 – An estimated two billion people watch the wedding of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and Catherine Middleton at Westminster Abbey in London. May 1 – U. S. President Barack Obama announces that Osama bin Laden, may 16 – The European Union agrees to a €78 billion rescue deal for Portugal. The bailout loan will be split between the European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism, the European Financial Stability Facility, and the International Monetary Fund. May 21 – Grímsvötn, Icelands most active volcano, erupted and caused disruption to air travel in Northwestern Europe, may 26 – Former Bosnian Serb Army commander Ratko Mladić, wanted for genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity, is arrested in Serbia. June 4 – Chiles Puyehue volcano erupts, causing air traffic cancellations across South America, New Zealand, Australia, june 5 – Arab Spring, Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh travels to Saudi Arabia for treatment of an injury sustained during an attack on the presidential palace. Protesters celebrate his transfer of power to his Vice-President Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi, june 12 – Arab Spring, Thousands of Syrians flee to Turkey as Syrian troops lay siege to Jisr ash-Shugur. June 28 – Food and Agriculture Organization announces the eradication of the cattle plague rinderpest from the world, July 7 – The worlds first artificial organ transplant is achieved, using an artificial windpipe coated with stem cells. July 9 – South Sudan secedes from Sudan, per the result of the referendum held in January. July 12 – The planet Neptune completes its first orbit since it was discovered in 1846, July 14 – South Sudan joins the United Nations as the 193rd member. July 20 Goran Hadžić is detained in Serbia, becoming the last of 161 people indicted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, the United Nations declares a famine in southern Somalia, the first in over 30 years2011 – Gerry Rafferty
12. Soho – Soho is an area of the City of Westminster and is part of the West End of London, England. Since the 1980s, the area has undergone considerable gentrification and it is now predominantly a fashionable district of upmarket restaurants and media offices, with only a small remnant of sex industry venues. Soho is a small, multicultural area of central London, a home to industry, commerce, culture and entertainment, record shops cluster in the area around Berwick Street, with shops such as Phonica, Sister Ray and Reckless Records. On many weekends, Soho is busy enough to warrant closing off some of the streets to vehicles, Westminster City Council pedestrianised parts of Soho in the mid-1990s, but later removed much of the pedestrianisation, apparently after complaints of loss of trade from local businesses. The name Soho first appears in the 17th century, Most authorities believe that the name derives from a former hunting cry. James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, used soho as a call for his men at the Battle of Sedgemoor on 6 July 1685. The Soho name has been imitated by other entertainment and restaurant districts such as Soho, Hong Kong, Soho, Málaga, SOHO, Beijing, SoHo, London, Ontario, Canada, and Palermo Soho, Buenos Aires. SoHo, Manhattan, gets its name from its location SOuth of HOuston Street, however, apart from Oxford Street, all of these roads are 19th-century metropolitan improvements, so they are not Sohos original boundaries. Soho has never been a unit, with formally defined boundaries. The area to the west is known as Mayfair, to the north Fitzrovia, to the east St Giles and Covent Garden, and to the south St Jamess. According to the Soho Society, Chinatown, the area between Leicester Square to the south and Shaftesbury Avenue to the north, is part of Soho, Soho is part of the West End electoral ward which elects three councillors to Westminster City Council. In 1536, the land was taken by Henry VIII as a park for the Palace of Whitehall. In the 1660s, ownership of Soho Fields passed to Henry Jermyn, 1st Earl of St Albans and he was granted permission to develop property and quickly passed the lease and development to bricklayer Richard Frith. Soho was part of the ancient parish of St Martin in the Fields, as the population started to grow a new church was provided and in 1687 a new parish of St Anne was established for it. The parish stretched from Oxford Street in the north, to Leicester Square in the south and it therefore included all of contemporary eastern Soho, including the Chinatown area. The western portion of modern Soho, around Carnaby Street was part of the parish of St James, building progressed rapidly in the late 17th century, with large properties including Monmouth House, Leicester House, Fauconberg House, Carlisle House and Newport House. Soho Square was first laid out in the 1680s on the former Soho Fields, firth built the first houses around the square, and by 1691,41 had been completed. It was originally called King Square in honour of Charles II, several upper-class families moved into the areaSoho
13. 2013 – January 16–20 – Thirty-nine international workers and one security guard die in a hostage crisis at a natural gas facility near In Aménas, Algeria. February 12 – North Korea conducts its third nuclear test, prompting widespread condemnation. February 15 – A meteor explodes over the Russian city of Chelyabinsk, injuring 1, 489-1,492 people and it is the most powerful meteor to strike Earths atmosphere in over a century. The incident, along with a flyby of a larger asteroid. February 21 – American scientists use a 3D printer to create a living lab-grown ear from collagen, in the future, it is hoped, similar ears could be grown to order as transplants for human patients suffering from ear trauma or amputation. February 28 – Benedict XVI resigns as pope, becoming the first to do so since Gregory XII in 1415, march 24 – Central African Republic President François Bozizé flees to the Democratic Republic of the Congo, after rebel forces capture the nations capital, Bangui. March 25 – The European Union agrees to a €10 billion economic bailout for Cyprus, the bailout loan will be equally split between the European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism, the European Financial Stability Facility, and the International Monetary Fund. The deal precipitates a banking crisis in the island nation, march 27 – Canada becomes the first country to withdraw from the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. April 2 – The United Nations General Assembly adopts the Arms Trade Treaty to regulate the trade of conventional weapons. April 15 – Two Chechen Islamist brothers explode two bombs at the Boston Marathon in Boston, Massachusetts, in the United States, killing 3, july 1 – Croatia becomes the 28th member of the European Union. July 3 – Amid mass protests across Egypt, President Mohamed Morsi is deposed in a military coup détat, august 14 – Following the military coup in Egypt, two anti-coup camps are raided by the security forces leaving 2,600 dead. The raids were described by Human Rights Watch as one of the world’s largest killings of demonstrators in a day in recent history”. August 21 –1,429 are killed in the Ghouta chemical attack during the Syrian Civil War, september 21 – al-Shabaab Islamic militants attack the Westgate shopping mall in Nairobi, Kenya, killing at least 62 civilians and wounding over 170. October 18 – Saudi Arabia rejects a seat on the United Nations Security Council, jordan takes the seat on December 6. November 5 – The Mars Orbiter Mission is launched by India from its launchpad in Sriharikota, november 8 – Typhoon Haiyan, one of the strongest tropical cyclones on record, hits the Philippines and Vietnam, causing devastation with at least 6,241 dead. November 24 – Iran agrees to limit their nuclear development program in exchange for sanctions relief, December 7 – Ninth Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization delegates sign the Bali Package agreement aimed at loosening global trade barriers. December 14 – Chinese spacecraft Change 3, carrying the Yutu rover, becomes the first spacecraft to soft-land on the Moon since 1976 and the third ever robotic rover to do so. December 15 – Fighting between ethnic Dinka and Nuer members of the presidential guard break out in Juba, South Sudan, plunging the country into civil war2013 – April 24: Savar building collapse.
14. University College London – University College London is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London. It is the largest postgraduate institution in the UK by enrollment and is regarded as one of the worlds leading research universities. UCL also makes the claims of being the third-oldest university in England. In 1836 UCL became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London, which was granted a charter in the same year. UCL has its campus in the Bloomsbury area of central London, with a number of institutes and teaching hospitals elsewhere in central London. UCL is organised into 11 constituent faculties, within there are over 100 departments, institutes. In 2015/16, UCL had around 38,300 students and 12,000 staff and had an income of £1.36 billion. UCL ranks highly in national and international league tables and its graduates rank among the most employable in the world, UCL academics discovered five of the naturally occurring noble gases, co-discovered hormones, invented the vacuum tube, and made several foundational advances in modern statistics. There are at least 29 Nobel Prize winners and 3 Fields medalists amongst UCLs alumni and current, UCL was founded on 11 February 1826 under the name London University, as an alternative to the Anglican universities of Oxford and Cambridge. London Universitys first Warden was Leonard Horner, who was the first scientist to head a British university and this suggests that while his ideas may have been influential, he himself was less so. In 1827, the Chair of Political Economy at London University was created, with John Ramsay McCulloch as the first incumbent, in 1828 the university became the first in England to offer English as a subject and the teaching of Classics and medicine began. In 1830, London University founded the London University School, which would later become University College School, in 1833, the university appointed Alexander Maconochie, Secretary to the Royal Geographical Society, as the first professor of geography in the UK. In 1834, University College Hospital opened as a hospital for the universitys medical school. In 1836, London University was incorporated by charter under the name University College. The Slade School of Fine Art was founded as part of University College in 1871, in 1878, the University of London gained a supplemental charter making it the first British university to be allowed to award degrees to women. The same year, UCL admitted women to the faculties of Arts and Law and of Science, although women remained barred from the faculties of Engineering and of Medicine. Armstrong College, an institution of Newcastle University, also allowed women to enter from its foundation in 1871. Women were finally admitted to medical studies during the First World War in 1917, in 1898, Sir William Ramsay discovered the elements krypton, neon and xenon whilst professor of chemistry at UCLUniversity College London – The London University as drawn by Thomas Hosmer Shepherd and published in 1827–1828 (now the UCL Main Building)
15. Centre Georges Pompidou – It was designed in the style of high-tech architecture by the architectural team of Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano, along with Gianfranco Franchini. Because of its location, the Centre is known locally as Beaubourg and it is named after Georges Pompidou, the President of France from 1969 to 1974 who commissioned the building, and was officially opened on 31 January 1977 by President Valéry Giscard dEstaing. As of 2006, the Centre Pompidou has had over 180 million visitors since 1977 and more than 5,209,678 visitors in 2013, including 3,746,899 for the museum. The sculpture Horizontal by Alexander Calder, a mobile that is 7.6 m tall, was placed in front of the Centre Pompidou in 2012. Hoping to renew the idea of Paris as a city of culture and art. Paris also needed a large, free library, as one did not exist at this time. At first the debate concerned Les Halles, but as the settled, in 1968. A year later in 1969, the new president adopted the Beaubourg project, in the process of developing the project, the IRCAM was also housed in the complex. By the mid-1980s, the Centre Pompidou was becoming the victim of its huge and unexpected popularity, its activities. By 1992, the Centre de Création Industrielle was incorporated into the Centre Pompidou, since re-opening in 2000 after a three-year renovation, the Centre Pompidou has improved accessibility for visitors. Now they can access the escalators if they pay to enter the museum. The Centre was designed by Italian architect Renzo Piano, British architect Richard Rogers, the project was awarded to this team in an architectural design competition, the results of which were announced in 1971. It was the first time in France that international architects were allowed to participate, world-renowned architects Oscar Niemeyer, Jean Prouvé and Philip Johnson made up the jury which would select one design out of the 681 entries. National Geographic described the reaction to the design as love at second sight, an article in Le Figaro declared Paris has its own monster, just like the one in Loch Ness. The Pritzker jury said the Pompidou revolutionised museums, transforming what had once been elite monuments into popular places of social and cultural exchange, the Centre was built by GTM and completed in 1977. The building cost 993 million 1972 French francs, renovation work conducted from October 1996 to January 2000 was completed on a budget of 576 million 1999 francs. The black-painted mechanical sculptures are by Tinguely, the works by de Saint-Phalle. Video footage of the fountain appeared frequently throughout the French language telecourse, the Place Georges Pompidou in front of the museum is noted for the presence of street performers, such as mimes and jugglersCentre Georges Pompidou – Centre Georges Pompidou
16. Highgate Cemetery – Highgate Cemetery is a place of burial in north London, England. It is designated Grade I on the Historic England Register of Parks and it is divided into two parts, named the East and West cemetery. There are approximately 170,000 people buried in around 53,000 graves at Highgate Cemetery, Highgate Cemetery is notable both for some of the people buried there as well as for its de facto status as a nature reserve. The cemetery is located on both sides of Swains Lane in Highgate, N6, next to Waterlow Park, the main gate is located just north of Oakshott Avenue. There is another disused gate on Chester Road, the cemetery is in the London Boroughs of Camden, Haringey and Islington. The nearest transport link is Archway tube station, the initial design was by architect and entrepreneur Stephen Geary. On Monday 20 May 1839, Highgate Cemetery was dedicated to St. James by the Right Reverend Charles James Blomfield, fifteen acres were consecrated for the use of the Church of England, and two acres set aside for Dissenters. Rights of burial were sold for either limited period or in perpetuity, the first burial was Elizabeth Jackson of Little Windmill Street, Soho, on 26 May. Highgate, like the others of the Magnificent Seven, soon became a place for burials and was much admired and visited. The Victorian attitude to death and its presentation led to the creation of a wealth of Gothic tombs and it occupies a spectacular south-facing hillside site slightly downhill from the top of the hill of Highgate itself, next to Waterlow Park. In 1854 the area to the east of the area across Swains Lane was bought to form the eastern part of the cemetery. This part is used today for burials, as is the western part. Most of the open unforested area in the new addition still has fairly few graves on it, the cemeterys grounds are full of trees, shrubbery and wildflowers, most of which have been planted and grown without human influence. The grounds are a haven for birds and small animals such as foxes, the Egyptian Avenue and the Circle of Lebanon feature tombs, vaults and winding paths dug into hillsides. For its protection, the oldest section, which holds a collection of Victorian mausoleums and gravestones, plus elaborately carved tombs. The eastern section, which contains a mix of Victorian and modern statuary, the tomb of Karl Marx, the Egyptian Avenue and the Columbarium are Grade I listed buildings. Because of the Karl Marx association a variety of Socialist leaders and thinkers are buried within the cemetery grounds, Highgate Cemetery was featured in the popular media from the 1960s to the late 1980s for its so-called occult past, particularly as being the alleged site of the Highgate Vampire. In 1984 they published Highgate Cemetery, Victorian Valhalla by John Gay, the most famous burial in the East cemetery is arguably that of Karl Marx, whose tomb was the site of attempted bombings on 2 September 1965 and in 1970Highgate Cemetery – Highgate Cemetery East (2010)
17. Paddington – Paddington is an area within the City of Westminster, in central London. Formerly a metropolitan borough, it was integrated with Westminster and Greater London in 1965, a major project called Paddington Waterside aims to regenerate former railway and canal land between 1998 and 2018, and the area is seeing many new developments. However, the provenance is much later and likely to have been forged after the 1066 Norman conquest. There is no mention of the place in the Domesday Book of 1086, a more reliable 12th-century document cited by the cleric Isaac Maddox establishes that part of the land was held by brothers Richard and William de Padinton. In the later Elizabethan and early Stuart era, the rectory, manor, Nicholas Small was a clothworker who was sufficiently well connected to have Holbein paint a portrait of his wife, Jane Small. Nicholas died in 1565 and his wife married again, to Nicholas Parkinson of Paddington who became master of the Clothworkers company. Jane Small continued to live in Paddington after her husbands death, and her manor house was big enough to have been let to Sir John Popham. They let the building that became in this time Blowers Inn, as the regional population grew in the 17th century, Paddingtons ancient Hundred of Ossulstone was split into divisions, Holborn Division replaced the hundred for most administrative purposes. By 1773, a contemporary historian felt and wrote that London may now be said to include two cities, one borough and forty six antient villages. Roman roads formed the parishs north-eastern and southern boundaries from Marble Arch, Watling Street and, Uxbridge road, known by the 1860s in this neighbourhood as Bayswater Road. They were toll roads in much of the 18th century, before, by 1801, the area saw the start-point of an improved Harrow Road and an arm of the Grand Junction Canal - these remain. The district formed the centrepiece of an 1824 masterplan by Samuel Pepys Cockerell to redevelop the Tyburn Estate into an area to rival Belgravia. Despite this, Thackeray described the district of Tyburnia as the elegant, the prosperous, the polite Tyburnia. Derivation of the name is uncertain, speculative explanations include Padre-ing-tun, Pad-ing-tun, and Pæding-tun the last being the cited suggestion of the Victorian Anglo-Saxon scholar John Mitchell Kemble. There is another Paddington in Surrey, recorded in the Domesday Book as Padendene, a lord named Padda is named in the Domesday Book, associated with Brampton, Suffolk. An 18th-century dictionary gives the definition Paddington Fair Day, an execution day, Tyburn being in the parish or neighbourhood of Paddington. To dance the Paddington frisk, to be hanged, public executions were abolished in England in 1868. Paddington station is the terminus for services to the west of London and mainline services to Oxford, South-West EnglandPaddington – St Mary's Hospital
18. Victoria and Albert Museum – The Victoria and Albert Museum, London, is the worlds largest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 4.5 million objects. It was founded in 1852 and named after Queen Victoria and Prince Albert and these include the Natural History Museum, the Science Museum and the Royal Albert Hall. The museum is a public body sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media. Like other national British museums, entrance to the museum has been free since 2001, the V&A covers 12.5 acres and 145 galleries. Its collection spans 5,000 years of art, from ancient times to the present day, from the cultures of Europe, North America, Asia and North Africa. The museum owns the worlds largest collection of sculpture, with the holdings of Italian Renaissance items being the largest outside Italy. The departments of Asia include art from South Asia, China, Japan, Korea, the East Asian collections are among the best in Europe, with particular strengths in ceramics and metalwork, while the Islamic collection is amongst the largest in the Western world. Overall, it is one of the largest museums in the world, New 17th- and 18th-century European galleries were opened on 9 December 2015. These restored the original Aston Webb interiors and host the European collections 1600–1815, at this stage the collections covered both applied art and science. Several of the exhibits from the Exhibition were purchased to form the nucleus of the collection, by February 1854 discussions were underway to transfer the museum to the current site and it was renamed South Kensington Museum. In 1855 the German architect Gottfried Semper, at the request of Cole, produced a design for the museum, but it was rejected by the Board of Trade as too expensive. The site was occupied by Brompton Park House, this was extended including the first refreshment rooms opened in 1857, the official opening by Queen Victoria was on 22 June 1857. In the following year, late night openings were introduced, made possible by the use of gas lighting, in these early years the practical use of the collection was very much emphasised as opposed to that of High Art at the National Gallery and scholarship at the British Museum. George Wallis, the first Keeper of Fine Art Collection, passionately promoted the idea of art education through the museum collections. From the 1860s to the 1880s the scientific collections had been moved from the museum site to various improvised galleries to the west of Exhibition Road. In 1893 the Science Museum had effectively come into existence when a director was appointed. The laying of the stone of the Aston Webb building on 17 May 1899 was the last official public appearance by Queen Victoria. It was during this ceremony that the change of name from the South Kensington Museum to the Victoria, the exhibition which the museum organised to celebrate the centennial of the 1899 renaming, A Grand Design, first toured in North America from 1997, returning to London in 1999Victoria and Albert Museum – Entrance to the Victoria and Albert Museum
19. Hadleigh, Suffolk – Hadleigh is an ancient market town and civil parish in South Suffolk, East Anglia, situated, next to the River Brett, between the larger towns of Sudbury and Ipswich. The headquarters of Babergh District Council are located in the town, skeat, in his 1913 The Place-Names of Suffolk, says this, Spelt Hadlega, R. B. Hadleigh, Ipm. Hædleage, in a chapter, Thorpe, Diplomat,527, Headlega, Annals of St Neot, quoted in Plummers ed. of the A. S. Chronicle. In D. B. the t stands for th, charter, dated 849, as hæðleage with reference to Headley Heath in Birch, C. S. ii. 40, see Duignan, Placenames of Worcs, in a similar way the A. S. ð has become t in Hatfield which means heath-field, Guthrum, King of the Danes, is said to be buried in the grounds of St Marys Church in the town. He was defeated by King Alfred at the battle of Edington in 878, Hadleigh received its market charter in 1252. In 1438 administration was passed from control to trustees. The market was sold to Babergh District Council in the late 20th century. Hadleigh was one of the East Anglian towns that derived its prosperity from its wool and it has a 15th-century timber-framed Guildhall and many fine examples of timber and brick listed buildings, some with highly detailed 17th century plasterwork or pargeting. Most of these buildings can be found in the High Street, Angel Street, Benton Street, the town has a total of 246 listed buildings. The Georgian East House, on George Street, has designated a Grade II listed building since 26 April 1950. In March 2013 plans by Babergh District Council to redevelop the site, the property was once used for a range of community events and activities. Opponents of the plan had argued that the adjacent land had been used as a green for the last 20 years. Originating in the 14th century, the Grade II* listed Toppesfield Bridge, the Anglican church of St Mary the Virgin is an active parish church in the archdeaconry of Ipswich in the Diocese of St Edmundsbury and Ipswich. Its earliest parts date from medieval times, on 26 April 1950 the church was designated a Grade I listed building by English Heritage. The Grade I designation is the highest of the three grades and is for buildings that are of exceptional interest, sometimes considered to be internationally important. According to the Annals of St Neots, a chronicle compiled in Bury St Edmunds, king Guthrum was buried at Headleage, which is usually identified as HadleighHadleigh, Suffolk – Signpost in Hadleigh
20. Expressionism – Expressionism was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Its typical trait is to present the world solely from a subjective perspective, Expressionist artists sought to express the meaning of emotional experience rather than physical reality. Expressionism was developed as an avant-garde style before the First World War and it remained popular during the Weimar Republic, particularly in Berlin. The style extended to a range of the arts, including expressionist architecture, painting, literature, theatre, dance, film. The term is sometimes suggestive of angst, in a general sense, painters such as Matthias Grünewald and El Greco are sometimes termed expressionist, though in practice the term is applied mainly to 20th-century works. The Expressionist emphasis on individual perspective has been characterized as a reaction to positivism, though an alternate view is that the term was coined by the Czech art historian Antonin Matějček in 1910, as the opposite of impressionism, An Expressionist wishes, above all, to express himself. Immediate perception and builds on more complex psychic structures, in 1905, a group of four German artists, led by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, formed Die Brücke in the city of Dresden. This was arguably the founding organization for the German Expressionist movement, a few years later, in 1911, a like-minded group of young artists formed Der Blaue Reiter in Munich. The name came from Wassily Kandinskys Der Blaue Reiter painting of 1903, among their members were Kandinsky, Franz Marc, Paul Klee, and Auguste Macke. However, the term Expressionism did not firmly establish itself until 1913, though mainly a German artistic movement initially and most predominant in painting, poetry and the theatre between 1910–30, most precursors of the movement were not German. Expressionism is notoriously difficult to define, in part because it overlapped with other major isms of the modernist period, with Futurism, Vorticism, Cubism, Surrealism, more explicitly, that the expressionists rejected the ideology of realism. The term refers to a style in which the artist seeks to depict not objective reality but rather the subjective emotions. It is arguable that all artists are expressive but there are examples of art production in Europe from the 15th century onward which emphasize extreme emotion. Expressionism has been likened to Baroque by critics such as art historian Michel Ragon, according to Alberto Arbasino, a difference between the two is that Expressionism doesnt shun the violently unpleasant effect, while Baroque does. Expressionism throws some terrific fuck yous, Baroque doesnt, brazil, Anita Malfatti, Cândido Portinari, Di Cavalcanti, Iberê Camargo and Lasar Segall. Estonia, Konrad Mägi, Eduard Wiiralt Finland, Tyko Sallinen, Alvar Cawén, Juho Mäkelä, there were a number of groups of expressionist painters, including Der Blaue Reiter and Die Brücke. Der Blaue Reiter was based in Munich and Die Brücke was based originally in Dresden, Die Brücke was active for a longer period than Der Blaue Reiter, which was only together for a year. The Expressionists had many influences, among them Edvard Munch, Vincent van Gogh and they were also aware of the work being done by the Fauves in Paris, who influenced Expressionisms tendency toward arbitrary colours and jarring compositionsExpressionism – The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893), which inspired 20th-century Expressionists
21. Deborah Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire – Deborah Vivien Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire, DCVO was an English aristocrat, writer, memoirist and socialite. She was the youngest and last surviving of the six Mitford sisters, known to her family as Debo, Deborah Mitford was born in Asthall Manor, Oxfordshire, England. Her parents were Baron Redesdale, son of Algernon Freeman-Mitford, 1st Baron Redesdale and she married Lord Andrew Cavendish, younger son of the 10th Duke of Devonshire, in 1941. When Cavendishs older brother, William, Marquess of Hartington, was killed in action in 1944, Cavendish became heir to the dukedom, in 1950, on the death of his father, the Marquess of Hartington became the 11th Duke of Devonshire. The Duchess was the public face of Chatsworth for many decades. Recognising the commercial imperatives of running a home, she took a very active role and was known to man the Chatsworth House ticket office herself. She also supervised the development of the Cavendish Hotel at Baslow, near Chatsworth, in 1999, the Duchess was appointed a Dame Commander of the Royal Victorian Order by Queen Elizabeth II, for her service to the Royal Collection Trust. Upon the death of her husband in 2004, her son Peregrine Cavendish became the 12th Duke of Devonshire and she became the Dowager Duchess of Devonshire at this time. They have three children and ten grandchildren, Isabella Tennant, married Piers Hill, son of Simon Hill and they have three children, Rosa Hill Victor Hill Lily Hill Edward Tobias Tennant, married Emma Bridgeman in 2000. They have three children, Harry Tobias Tennant Georgia Rose Tennant Isla May Tennant Stella Tennant, married David Lasnet on 22 May 1999, Peregrine Cavendish, 12th Duke of Devonshire, married Amanda Heywood-Lonsdale on 28 June 1967. They have three children and eight grandchildren, an unnamed child Lord Victor Cavendish Lady Mary Cavendish Lady Sophia Louise Sydney Cavendish, married Anthony Murphy on 20 October 1979 and they were divorced in 1987. She remarried Alastair Morrison, 3rd Baron Margadale on 19 July 1988 and she remarried again William Topley on 25 November 1999. She was an aunt of Max Mosley, former president of the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile. Her death, at the age of 94, was announced on 24 September 2014, the Duchess was survived by three of her seven children, eight grandchildren and eighteen great-grandchildren. Her funeral took place on 2 October 2014 at St Peters Church, Edensor in Derbyshire and it was attended by various family members and friends, as well as six hundred staff and the Prince of Wales and Duchess of Cornwall. She was interviewed on her experience of sitting for a portrait for painter Lucian Freud in the BBC series Imagine in 2004, shortly before ending the interview, Preston asked her to choose with whom she would have preferred to have tea, American singer Elvis Presley or Hitler. Looking at the interviewer with astonishment, she answered, Well, in 2010, the BBC journalist Kirsty Wark interviewed the Duchess for Newsnight. In it, the Duchess talked about life in the 1930s and 1940s, Hitler, the Chatsworth estate, and she was also interviewed on 23 December by Charlie Rose for PBSDeborah Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire – The Duchess of Devonshire, 1938
22. Turner Prize – The Turner Prize, named after the English painter J. M. W. Turner, is an annual prize presented to a British visual artist under the age of 50. Awarding the prize is organised by the Tate gallery and staged at Tate Britain, since its beginnings in 1984 it has become the UKs most publicised art award. As of 2004, the award was established at £40,000. There have been different sponsors, including Channel 4 television and Gordons Gin, a prominent event in British culture, the prize has been awarded by various distinguished celebrities, in 2006 this was Yoko Ono, and in 2012 it was presented by Jude Law. The prize was named after Turner because while he is now considered one of the countrys greatest artist, while he was active his work was controversial. While he is now looked at as a traditionalist, his new approach to landscape painting changed the course of art history, each year after the announcement of the four nominees and during the build-up to the announcement of the winner, the Prize receives intense attention from the media. Much of this attention is critical and the question is often asked, artists are chosen based upon a showing of their work that they have staged in the preceding year. Nominations for the prize are invited from the public, although this was considered to have negligible effect—a suspicion confirmed in 2006 by Lynn Barber. The exhibition remains on view until January, the prize is officially not judged on the Tate show, however, but on the earlier exhibition for which the artist was nominated. The exhibition and prize rely on commercial sponsorship, by 1987, money for the prize was provided by Drexel Burnham Lambert, its withdrawal after its demise led to the cancellation of the prize for 1990. Channel 4, an independent television channel, stepped in for 1991, doubling the money to £20,000. In 2004, they were replaced as sponsors by Gordons Gin, doubling the money to £40,000, with £5,000 going to each of the shortlisted artists. Tate Director Sir Nicholas Serota has been the Chair of the jury since his tenure at the Tate, there are conflicting reports as to how much personal sway he has over the proceedings. Most of the artists nominated for the prize selection become known to the public for the first time as a consequence. Some have talked of the difficulty of the media exposure. Sale prices of the winners have generally increased, Chris Ofili, Anish Kapoor and Jeremy Deller later became trustees of the Tate. Some artists, notably Sarah Lucas, have declined the invitation to be nominated, the first Turner Prize was awarded to Malcolm Morley, an English artist living in the United States. Other nominees included sculptor Richard Deacon, graphic-styled collaborative duo Gilbert & George, abstract painter Howard Hodgkin, Howard Hodgkin is awarded the Turner Prize for A Small Thing But My OwnTurner Prize – Tate Britain: a venue for the Turner Prize.
23. Walter Sickert – Walter Richard Sickert was an English painter and printmaker who was a member of the Camden Town Group in London. He was an important influence on distinctively British styles of art in the 20th century. Sickert was a cosmopolitan and eccentric who often favoured ordinary people and his oeuvre also included portraits of well-known personalities and images derived from press photographs. He is considered a prominent figure in the transition from Impressionism to Modernism, the young Sickert was sent to University College School from 1870 to 1871, before transferring to Kings College School, where he studied until the age of 18. Though he was the son and grandson of painters, he first sought a career as an actor, he appeared in parts in Sir Henry Irvings company. After less than a years attendance at the Slade School, Sickert left to become a pupil, Sickerts earliest paintings were small tonal studies painted alla prima from nature after Whistlers example. In 1883, he travelled to Paris and met Edgar Degas, whose use of pictorial space and he developed a personal version of Impressionism, favouring sombre colouration. Following Degas advice, Sickert painted in the studio, working from drawings, in 1888 Sickert joined the New English Art Club, a group of French-influenced realist artists. Sickerts first major works, dating from the late 1880s, were portrayals of scenes in London music halls. Sickerts rendering was denounced as ugly and vulgar, and his choice of subject matter was deplored as too tawdry for art, the painting announced what would be Sickerts recurring interest in sexually provocative themes. In the late 1880s, Sickert spent much of his time in France, especially in Dieppe, which he first visited in mid-1885, and where his mistress, during this period Sickert began writing art criticism for various publications. The models for many of the Venetian paintings are believed to have been prostitutes, Sickerts fascination with urban culture accounted for his acquisition of studios in working-class sections of London, first in Cumberland Market in the 1890s, then in Camden Town in 1905. The latter location provided an event that would secure Sickerts prominence in the realist movement in Britain, on 11 September 1907, Emily Dimmock, a prostitute cheating on her partner, was murdered in her home at Agar Grove, Camden. After sexual intercourse the man had slit her throat open while she was asleep, the Camden Town murder became an ongoing source of prurient sensationalism in the press. And the first in the series, Summer Afternoon and these and other works were painted in heavy impasto and narrow tonal range. Sickerts best known work, Ennui, reveals his interest in Victorian narrative genres, just before World War I he championed the avant-garde artists Lucien Pissarro, Jacob Epstein, Augustus John and Wyndham Lewis. At the same time he founded, with artists, the Camden Town Group of British painters. This group had been meeting informally since 1905, but was established in 1911Walter Sickert – Walter Sickert, photograph by George Charles Beresford, 1911
24. Last Tango in Paris – It stars Marlon Brando, Maria Schneider, and Jean-Pierre Léaud. The films raw portrayal of violence and emotional turmoil led to international controversy. Upon release in the United States, the most graphic scene was cut, after revisions were made to the MPAA ratings code, in 1997 the film was re-classified NC-17 for some explicit sexual content. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer released a censored R-rated cut in 1981, Paul, a middle-aged American hotel owner mourning his wifes suicide, meets a young, engaged Parisian woman named Jeanne at an apartment that both are interested in renting. Paul takes the apartment after they begin a sexual relationship there. He insists that neither of them must share any personal information, the affair continues until one day, Jeanne arrives at the apartment and finds that Paul has packed up and left without warning. Paul later meets Jeanne on the street and says he wants to renew the relationship and he tells her of the recent tragedy of his wife. As he tells his story, they walk into a tango bar. The loss of anonymity disillusions Jeanne about their relationship and she tells Paul she does not want to see him again. Paul, not wanting to let Jeanne go, chases her back to her apartment, Jeanne takes a gun from a drawer. She tells Paul her name and shoots him, Paul staggers out onto the balcony, mortally wounded, and collapses. Bernardo Bertolucci developed the film from his fantasies, He once dreamed of seeing a beautiful nameless woman on the street. The screenplay was by Bertolucci, Franco Arcalli, and Agnès Varda and it was later adapted as a novel by Robert Alley. The film was directed by Bertolucci with cinematography by Vittorio Storaro, Bertolucci originally intended to cast Dominique Sanda, who developed the idea with him, and Jean-Louis Trintignant. Trintignant refused and, when Brando accepted, Sanda was pregnant, an art lover, Bertolucci drew inspiration from the works of the Irish-born British artist Francis Bacon for the opening sequence of cast and crew credits. According to American artist Andy Warhol, the Last Tango film was based on Warhols own Blue Movie film released a few years earlier in 1969, the film contains a scene in which Brandos character engages in anal rape using butter as a lubricant. In a 2006 interview, Schneider said that the scene was not in the script, and nobody can force someone to do something not in the script. In 2007, Schneider recounted feelings of sexual humiliation pertaining to the scene, They only told me about it before we had to film the sceneLast Tango in Paris – Theatrical release poster
25. Modern art – Modern art includes artistic work produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the style and philosophy of the art produced during that era. The term is associated with art in which the traditions of the past have been thrown aside in a spirit of experimentation. Modern artists experimented with new ways of seeing and with ideas about the nature of materials. A tendency away from the narrative, which was characteristic for the traditional arts, more recent artistic production is often called contemporary art or postmodern art. Matisses two versions of The Dance signified a key point in his career and in the development of modern painting, analytic cubism was jointly developed by Picasso and Georges Braque, exemplified by Violin and Candlestick, Paris, from about 1908 through 1912. Synthetic cubism is characterized by the introduction of different textures, surfaces, collage elements, papier collé, the notion of modern art is closely related to modernism. Although modern sculpture and architecture are reckoned to have emerged at the end of the 19th century, the beginnings of modern painting can be located earlier. The date perhaps most commonly identified as marking the birth of art is 1863. Earlier dates have also proposed, among them 1855 and 1784. In the words of art historian H, harvard Arnason, Each of these dates has significance for the development of modern art, but none categorically marks a completely new beginning. A gradual metamorphosis took place in the course of a hundred years, the strands of thought that eventually led to modern art can be traced back to the Enlightenment, and even to the 17th century. The important modern art critic Clement Greenberg, for instance, called Immanuel Kant the first real Modernist but also drew a distinction, The Enlightenment criticized from the outside. The French Revolution of 1789 uprooted assumptions and institutions that had for centuries been accepted with little question and this gave rise to what art historian Ernst Gombrich called a self-consciousness that made people select the style of their building as one selects the pattern of a wallpaper. The pioneers of art were Romantics, Realists and Impressionists. By the late 19th century, additional movements which were to be influential in art had begun to emerge. The advocates of realism stood against the idealism of the academic art that enjoyed public. The most successful painters of the day worked either through commissions or through public exhibitions of their own work. There were official, government-sponsored painters unions, while governments regularly held exhibitions of new fineModern art – Pablo Picasso, Dejeuner sur l'Herbe
26. Goldsmiths, University of London – Goldsmiths, University of London, is a public research university in London, England, specialising in the arts, design, humanities, and social sciences. It is a constituent college of the University of London and it was founded in 1891 as Goldsmiths Technical and Recreative Institute by the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths in New Cross, London. It was acquired by the University of London in 1904 and was renamed Goldsmiths College, the word College was dropped from its branding in 2006, but Goldsmiths College, with the apostrophe, remains the institutions formal legal name. Nearly 20% of students come from outside the UK, and 52% of all undergraduates are mature students, around a third of students at Goldsmiths are postgraduate students. In 1891, the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths, one of the City of London Livery Companies, founded Goldsmiths Technical, the Goldsmiths Company was established in the 12th century as a medieval guild for goldsmiths, silversmiths and jewellers. The original Institute was based in New Cross at the former Royal Naval School building, in 1904, the Institute was merged with the University of London and was re-established as Goldsmiths College. At this point Goldsmiths was the largest teacher training institution in the country, training functions were later expanded to include refresher courses for teachers, the University Postgraduate Certificate in Education and an Art teachers Certificate course. The College also ran its own Nursery School, shortly after the merger, in 1907, Goldsmiths added a new Arts building, designed by Sir Reginald Blomfield, at the back of the main building. During the 1960s Goldsmiths experienced an expansion in student numbers. It is during this period that Goldsmiths began to establish its reputation in the arts and social science fields, the university also acquired a number of historic buildings in the surrounding area, including the splendid former Deptford Town Hall and Laurie Grove Baths buildings. The Richard Hoggart Building, Deptford Town Hall and the Laurie Grove Baths all retain Grade II listed building status, in 1988, Goldsmiths became a full College of the University of London and in 1990 received its Royal Charter. Among its wardens have been Richard Hoggart, Andrew Rutherford and Ben Pimlott, the current Warden is Pat Loughrey. Goldsmiths is situated in New Cross, a populated area of south-east London with a considerable art. The area is served by London Overground trains at New Cross, the main building, the Richard Hoggart Building, was originally designed as a school by the architect John Shaw, Jr. The former Deptford Town Hall Building, designed by Henry Vaughan Lanchester and Edwin Alfred Rickards, acquired in 1998, is used for academic seminars, the library, or the Rutherford Building, has three floors and gives students access to an extensive range of printed and electronic resources. The third-floor library is believed to house the largest collection of material in the UK. Goldsmiths students, like all students in the University of London, have full access to the collections at Senate House Library at Bloomsbury in central London. The seven-storey Ben Pimlott Building on New Cross Road, complete with its distinctive scribble in the sky has become a signature of modern GoldsmithsGoldsmiths, University of London – The Richard Hoggart Building
27. Ian Holm – Sir Ian Holm CBE is an English actor known for his stage work and many film roles. He won the 1981 BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role for his role as athletics trainer Sam Mussabini in Chariots of Fire, for which he was also nominated for an Academy Award. Holm was born Ian Holm Cuthbert on 12 September 1931 in Goodmayes, in Essex, to Scottish parents, Jean Wilson and James Harvey Cuthbert. His mother was a nurse, and his father was a psychiatrist who worked as the superintendent of the West Ham Corporation Mental Hospital and was one of the pioneers of electric shock therapy and he had an older brother, Eric, who died in 1943. Holm was educated at the independent Chigwell School in Essex and his parents retired to Mortehoe, Devon and then Worthing where he joined an amateur dramatic society. They were then interrupted a second time when he volunteered to go on an tour of the United States in 1952. Holm was a star of the Royal Shakespeare Company before making an impact on television. In 1965, he played Richard III in the BBC serialisation of The Wars of The Roses, based on the RSC production of the plays, what a Lovely War, Nicholas and Alexandra, Mary, Queen of Scots and Young Winston. In 1967, he won a Tony Award for Best Featured Actor in a Play as Lenny in The Homecoming by Harold Pinter, in 1977, Holm appeared in the TV mini-series Jesus of Nazareth as the Sadducee Zerah, and a villainous Moroccan in March or Die. The following year he played J. M. Barrie in the award-winning BBC TV series The Lost Boys, in 1981 he played Frodo Baggins in the BBC radio adaptation of J. R. R. Tolkiens Lord of the Rings. Holms first film role to have an impact was that of the treacherous android, Ash. His portrayal of Sam Mussabini in Chariots of Fire, earned him an award at the Cannes Film Festival. Back home in England, he won a BAFTA award, for Best Supporting Actor, for Chariots, in the 1980s, he had memorable roles in Time Bandits, Greystoke, The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes and Terry Gilliams Brazil. He played Lewis Carroll, author of Alice in Wonderland in the Dennis Potter-scripted fantasy Dreamchild, in 1989 Holm was nominated for a BAFTA award for the TV series Game, Set and Match. Based on the novels by Len Deighton, this tells the story of an officer who discovers that his own wife is an enemy spy. He continued to perform Shakespeare, and appeared with Kenneth Branagh in Henry V, Holm was reunited with Kenneth Branagh in Mary Shelleys Frankenstein, playing the father of Branaghs Victor Frankenstein. Holm raised his profile in 1997 with two prominent roles, as the stressed but gentle priest Vito Cornelius in The Fifth Element, in 2001 he starred in From Hell as the physician Sir William Withey Gull. He reappeared in the trilogy in The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King and he reprised his role as the elder Bilbo Baggins in the movie The Hobbit, An Unexpected Journey and The Hobbit, The Battle of the Five ArmiesIan Holm – Holm in Edinburgh, August 2004
28. Frank Auerbach – Frank Helmut Auerbach is a German-British painter. Born in Germany, he has been a naturalised British citizen since 1947, Auerbach was born in Berlin, the son of Max Auerbach, a patent lawyer, and Charlotte Nora Burchardt, who had trained as an artist. Aged seven, Auerbach left Germany via Hamburg on 4 April 1939, left behind in Germany, Auerbachs parents later died in a concentration camp in 1942. In Britain, Auerbach became a pupil at Bunce Court School, near Faversham in Kent, indeed, he almost became an actor, even taking a small role in Peter Ustinovs play House of Regrets at the Unity Theatre in St Pancras, at the age of 17. But his interest in art proved a stronger draw and he began studying in London, first at St Martins School of Art from 1948 to 1952, and at the Royal College of Art from 1952 to 1955. From 1955, he began teaching in schools, but quickly moved into the visiting tutor circuit at numerous art schools, including Ravensbourne, Ealing, Sidcup. However, he was most frequently to be teaching at Camberwell School of Art. This show then toured, with additional works, to the Museum Folkwang, Essen. Exhibitions were also held at the Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam, in 1989, the Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, in 1991, and the National Gallery, London, in 1995. Auerbach was the subject of a film entitled Frank Auerbach, To the Studio, directed by Hannah Rothschild. This was first broadcast on the arts programme Omnibus on 10 November 2001, david Bowie bought and owned Auerbachs Head of Gerda Boehm as part of his private collection. After Bowies death in 2016, this piece was among many put up for auction in November 2016, Auerbach is a figurative painter, who focuses on portraits and city scenes in and around the area of London in which he lives, Camden Town. Although sometimes described as expressionistic, Auerbach is not an expressionist painter, in this the experience of the world is seen as essentially chaotic with the role of the artist being to impose an order upon that chaos and record that order in the painting. This ambition with the results in Auerbach developing intense relationships with particular subjects, particularly the people he paints. Speaking on this in 2001 he stated, If you pass something every day and it has a little character, it begins to intrigue you. This simple statement belies the intensity of the relationship develops between Auerbach and his subjects, which results in an astonishing desire to produce an image the artist considers right. It is in fact applied in a short space of time. Again a similar obsession with specific subjects, and a desire to return to them to try again is discernable in this use of the same models, a strong emphasis in Auerbachs work is its relationship to the history of artFrank Auerbach – Frank Auerbach
29. Howard Hodgkin – Sir Gordon Howard Eliot Hodgkin CH CBE was a British painter and printmaker. His work is most often associated with abstraction, during the Second World War, Eliot Hodgkin was an RAF officer, rising to Wing Commander, and was assistant to Sefton Delmer in running his black propaganda campaign against Nazi Germany. His maternal grandfather Gordon Hewart, 1st Viscount Hewart was a journalist, lawyer, MP and Lord Chief Justice, on returning, he was educated at Eton College and then at Bryanston School in Dorset. He had decided on a career in art in early childhood and he studied at the Camberwell Art School and later at the Bath Academy of Art in Corsham, where Edward Piper studied drawing under him. Hodgkins first solo show was in London in 1962, in 1984, Hodgkin represented Britain at the Venice Biennale, in 1985 he won the Turner Prize, and in 1992 he was knighted. In 1995, Hodgkin printed the Venetian Views series, which depict the view of Venice at four different times of day. Venice, Afternoon – one of the four prints – uses 16 sheets, or fragments, in a hugely complex printing process creates a colourful. This piece was given to the Yale Centre of British Art in June 2006 by its Israeli family owners in order to complement the museums collection of Hodgkins. A major exhibition of his work was mounted at Tate Britain, London, also in 2006, The Independent declared him one of the 100 most influential gay people in Britain, as his work has helped many people express their emotions to others. Before his death on 9 March 2017 he was working on two UK exhibitions, one at The Hepworth Wakefield, and another at The National Portrait Gallery and his prints were hand-painted etchings and he worked with the master printer Jack Shirreff at 107 Workshop. Hodgkin was awarded the CBE in 1977, and he was knighted in 1992 and he received an honorary fellowship from the London Institute in 1999. In 2000, he was awarded an honorary DLitt by the University of Oxford and he was made a Companion of Honour in the 2003 New Year Honours for his services to art. In 1955, Hodgkin married Julia Lane, by whom he had two children, Hodgkin knew he was gay, even when he married, and later left his wife. In 2009, The Independent reported that he had been with his partner and they lived in a four-storey Georgian house in Bloomsbury, near the British Museum. On 9 March 2017, Hodgkin died at the age of 84 in a hospital in London, tributes to him were made by several figures in British art, including Tate director Nicholas Serota. Michael Auping, John Elderfield, Susan Sontag, Marla Price, official website Artchive information Artcyclopedia information An audio interview with Hodgkin by Edward Lucie Smith Exhibition at Tate Britain, London,14 June –10 September 2006Howard Hodgkin – 'Dinner at Smith Square', 1975-1979. Oil painting on board and wood support.
30. Louis le Brocquy – Louis le Brocquy was an Irish painter born in Dublin. His work received many accolades in a career spanned some seventy years of creative practice. The same year he married the Irish painter Anne Madden and left London to work in the French Midi, the artists work is represented in numerous public collections from the Guggenheim, New York to the Tate Modern, London. In Ireland, he is honoured as the first and only painter to be included during his lifetime in the Permanent Irish Collection of the National Gallery of Ireland. The Head Image, IMMA Series, with a contribution by Louis le Brocquy ‘The Human Head, Notes on painting, ISBN 0-946641-58-7 Madden le Brocquy, Anne, Louis le Brocquy, A Painter Seeing his Way,317 pp.118 duotones. Limited to 250 numbered copies, signed and numbered by the artist, bound in dark grey cloth, black Morocco spine, stamped in silver, housed in publishers matching slip-case, Kennys Bindery, Galway. ISBN 0-946641-29-3 Morgan, George, Louis le Brocquy, Procession, ISBN 0-907085-13-X London, Gimpel Fils, Louis le Brocquy, Watercolours,20 May –14 June 1947. Dublin, The Victor Waddington Galleries, Paintings and Tapestries by Louis le Brocquy, December 1951 Los Angeles, Esther Robles Gallery, Zürich, Galerie Leinhard, Louis le Brocquy, January 1961. London, Gimpel Fils, Louis le Brocquy,12 September –10 October 1961, Dublin, Municipal Gallery of Modern Art, Louis le Brocquy, A Retrospective Selection of Oil Paintings 1939 –1966,8 November –11 December 1966. Texts by Francis Bacon, Anne Crookshank Louis le Brocquy, Jacques Dupin The Paintings of 1964 –1966, belfast, Ulster Museum, Louis le Brocquy, A Retrospective Selection of Oil Paintings 1939 –1966,19 December –1 January 1967. ASIN, B0006CH5G4 Zürich, Gimpel & Hanover Galerie, Louis le Brocquy, texts by Anne Crookshank, Jacques Dupin, Herbert Read, Robert Melville. New York, Gimpel Weitzenhoffer, Louis le Brocquy,27 April –15 May 1971, st. Paul, Fondation Maeght, Louis le Brocquy,9 March –8 April 1973. Texts by Claude Esteban ‘Histoire Calcinée’, Jacques Dupin ‘Louis le Brocquy’, London, Gimpel Fils Gallery, Louis le Brocquy, 1–26 October 1974. Text by John Montague ‘The Later le Brocquy’, ASIN, B0007AJR34 Dublin, Dawson Gallery, Louis le Brocquy, Studies Towards an Image of W. B. Yeats,26 November –13 December 1975. Text by le Brocquy ‘Studies Towards an Image of W. B. Yeats’, Paris, Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville, Louis le Brocquy, A la Recherche de W. B. Yeats. Cent Portraits Imaginaires,15 October –28 November 1976, texts by Jacques Lassaigne, John Montague ‘Les visages de Yeats’, le Brocquy ‘A la recherche de Yeats’. Genoa, Galleria d’Arte San Marco dei Giustiniani, Genova, Louis le Brocquy, texts by le Brocquy ‘Studies towards an Image of James Joyce’, John Montague ‘Jawseyes’. ASIN, B0007BIC1G New York, Gimpel Weitzenhoffer, Louis le Brocquy, Studies Towards an Image of James Joyce, montreal, Waddington Galleries, Louis le Brocquy, Studies Towards an Image of James Joyce, November 1978Louis le Brocquy – Medb relieving herself (1969) by le Brocquy
31. Francis Bacon (artist) – Francis Bacon was an Irish-born British figurative painter known for his bold, grotesque, emotionally charged and raw imagery. Bacon was a bon vivant and gambler who took up painting in his early 20s and he drifted as an interior decorator in his 20s and 30s, he admitted that his artistic career was delayed because he spent too long looking for subject matter that could sustain his interest. His abstracted figures are typically isolated geometrical spaces, set against flat, Bacon said that he saw images in series, and his work typically focused on a single subject or format for sustained periods, often in triptych or diptych formats. These were followed by his early 1960s variations on crucifixion scenes, from the mid-1960s he mainly produced portraits of friends and drinking companions, either as single or triptych panels. Following the 1971 suicide of his lover George Dyer, his art became more sombre, inward-looking and preoccupied with the passage of time, the climax of this later period is marked by masterpieces, including his 1982s Study for Self-Portrait and Study for a Self-Portrait—Triptych, 1985–86. Francis Bacon was the subject of two Tate retrospectives and a showing in 1971 at the Grand Palais. Since his death his reputation and market value have grown steadily, in the late 1990s a number of major works, previously assumed destroyed, including early 1950s popes and 1960s portraits, reemerged to set record prices at auction. In 2013 his Three Studies of Lucian Freud set the record as the most expensive piece of art sold at auction. Francis Bacon was born in a home in the heart of old Georgian Dublin at 63 Lower Baggot Street. His father, Captain Anthony Edward Mortimer Bacon was born in Adelaide, South Australia to an English father and an Australian mother. His father, a veteran of the Boer War, was a trainer, while his mother, Christina Winifred Firth, known as Winnie, was heiress to a Sheffield steel business. His father was a descendant of Sir Nicholas Bacon, elder half-brother of Sir Francis Bacon. His great-great-grandmother, Lady Charlotte Harley, was acquainted with Lord Byron. When Bacons paternal grandfather was given the chance to revive the title of Lord Oxford by Queen Victoria, Bacon had an older brother, Harley, two younger sisters, Ianthe and Winifred, and a younger brother, Edward. He was brought up by the nanny, Jessie Lightfoot, from Cornwall, known as Nanny Lightfoot. In the 1940s, she helped him in keeping gambling houses in London, the family moved house often, moving back and forth between Ireland and England several times, leading to a feeling of displacement which remained with the artist throughout his life. They returned to Ireland after the First World War, as a child Bacon was shy and enjoyed dressing up. This, coupled with his manner, upset his fatherFrancis Bacon (artist) – Centre panel, Study for a Self-Portrait—Triptych, 1985–86
32. Anna Freud – Anna Freud was an Austrian-British psychoanalyst. She was the 6th and last child of Sigmund Freud and Martha Bernays and she followed the path of her father and contributed to the field of psychoanalysis. Compared to her father, her work emphasized the importance of the ego, a Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Freud as the 99th most cited psychologist of the 20th century. Anna Freud was born in Vienna, Austria-Hungary on 3 December 1895 and she was the youngest daughter of Sigmund Freud and Martha Bernays. She grew up in comfortable bourgeois circumstances and she had difficulties getting along with her siblings, specifically with her sister Sophie Freud. It seems that in general, she was competitive with her siblings. The close relationship between Anna and her father was different from the rest of her family and she was a lively child with a reputation for mischief. Freud wrote to his friend Wilhelm Fliess in 1899, Anna has become downright beautiful through naughtiness, Freud is said to refer to her in his diaries more than others in the family. Later on Anna Freud would say that she didn’t learn much in school, instead she learned from her father and this was how she picked up Hebrew, German, English, French and Italian. At the age of 15, she started reading her father’s work, commentators have noted how in the dream of little Anna. little Anna only hallucinates forbidden objects. Anna finished her education at the Cottage Lyceum in Vienna in 1912, suffering from a depression and anorexia, she was very insecure about what to do in the future. In 1914 she passed the test to work as an apprentice at her old school. From 1915 to 1917, she worked as an apprentice for third, fourth. She finally quit her career in 1920, due to multiple episodes of illness. Her first analysis was conducted by her father Sigmund Freud from 1918 to 1922, jacques Van Rillaer describes this incestuous analysis. She presented the paper Beating Fantasies and Daydreams to the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society, in 1923, Anna Freud began her own psychoanalytical practice with children and two years later she was teaching at the Vienna Psychoanalytic Training Institute on the technique of child analysis. From 1925 until 1934, she was the Secretary of the International Psychoanalytical Association while she continued child analysis and seminars and it became a founding work of ego psychology and established Freud’s reputation as a pioneering theoretician. In 1938 the Freuds had to flee from Austria as a consequence of the Nazis intensifying harassment of Jews in Vienna following the Anschluss by GermanyAnna Freud – Freud in 1957
33. L. S. Lowry – Laurence Stephen Lowry RBA RA was an English artist. Many of his drawings and paintings depict Pendlebury, Lancashire, where he lived and worked for more than 40 years, Lowry is famous for painting scenes of life in the industrial districts of North West England in the mid-20th century. He developed a style of painting and is best known for his urban landscapes peopled with human figures often referred to as matchstick men. He painted mysterious unpopulated landscapes, brooding portraits and the unpublished marionette works, a large collection of Lowrys work is on permanent public display in The Lowry, a purpose-built art gallery on Salford Quays named in his honour. Lowry rejected five honours during his life, including a knighthood in 1968, on 26 June 2013 a major retrospective opened at the Tate Britain in London, his first at the Tate, and in 2014 his first solo exhibition outside the UK was held in Nanjing, China. Lowry was born on 1 November 1887 at 8 Barrett Street and it was a difficult birth, and his mother Elizabeth, who hoped for a girl, was uncomfortable even looking at him at first. Later she expressed envy of her sister Mary, who had three splendid daughters instead of one clumsy boy, Lowrys father Robert, who was of northern Irish descent, worked as a clerk for the Jacob Earnshaw and Son Property Company and was a withdrawn and introverted man. Lowry once described him as a fish and realised he had a life to live. After Lowrys birth, his mothers health was too poor for her to continue teaching and she is reported to have been talented and respected, with aspirations of becoming a concert pianist. She was an irritable, nervous woman brought up to high standards by her stern father. Like him, she was controlling and intolerant of failure and she used illness as a means of securing the attention and obedience of her mild and affectionate husband and she dominated her son in the same way. Lowry maintained, in interviews conducted later in his life, that he had an unhappy childhood, although his mother demonstrated no appreciation of her sons gifts as an artist, a number of books Lowry received as Christmas presents from his parents are inscribed to Our dearest Laurie. At school he made few friends and showed no academic aptitude and his father was affectionate towards him but was, by all accounts, a quiet man who was at his most comfortable fading into the background as an unobtrusive presence. Here the landscape comprised textile mills and factory chimneys rather than trees, Lowry later recalled, At first I detested it, and then, after years I got pretty interested in it, then obsessed by it. One day I missed a train from Pendlebury - I had ignored for seven years —, the huge black framework of rows of yellow-lit windows standing up against the sad, damp charged afternoon sky. I watched this scene — which Id looked at times without seeing — with rapture. After leaving school, Lowry began a career working for the Pall Mall Company and he would spend some time in his lunch hour at Buile Hill Park and in the evenings took private art lessons in antique and freehand drawing. In 1905, he secured a place at the Manchester School of Art, in 1915 he moved on to the Royal Technical Institute, Salford where his studies continued until 1925 There he developed an interest in industrial landscapes and began to establish his own styleL. S. Lowry – Lowry at work.
34. Marc Quinn – Marc Quinn is a contemporary visual artist. He is a member of the group known as the Young British Artists. Quinn has used not only conventional sculpture material, but also blood, ice and faeces, quinns oeuvre displays a preoccupation with the mutability of the body and the dualisms that define human life—spiritual and physical, surface and depth, cerebral and sexual. Quinn was born in London in 1964 and he studied history and the history of art at Robinson College, Cambridge. He worked as an assistant to the sculptor Barry Flanagan, Quinn began to exhibit in the early 1990s. He was the first artist represented by Jay Jopling, and his work was exhibited in Charles Saatchis Sensation, Quinn has exhibited exhibitions including Sonsbeek 93, Arnhem, Give and Take, Victoria and Albert Museum, London, Statements 7, 50th Venice Biennale and Gwangju Biennale. Quinns White Elephant was purchased by art collector and artist Amanda Eliasch, in 1999, Quinn began a series of marble sculptures of amputees as a way of re-reading the aspirations of Greek and Roman statuary and their depictions of an idealised whole. Self is a sculpture of the artists head made from 5 litres of his own blood, taken from his body over a period of five months. Described by Quinn as a moment on lifesupport, the work is carefully maintained in a refrigeration unit. Quinn makes a new version of Self every five years, each of which documents Quinn’s own aging and it was purchased by Charles Saatchi in 1991 for £13,000, who displayed it in the Sensation exhibit at the Royal Academy of Arts in 1997. There were rumors that the piece had melted, but Saatchi dispelled those rumors when he exhibited it at his new gallery in London in 2003. In April 2005 he sold it to Steven A. Cohen, Cohen displayed it at his hedge funds headquarters in Stamford, Connecticut. The National Portrait Gallery in London acquired Self 2006, purchased through The Art Fund and his next important piece in terms of his public profile was the frozen garden he made for Miuccia Prada in 2000, installed at Fondazione Prada in Milan, Italy. A whole garden full of plants which could never grow together kept in cryogenic suspension, in interview, Quinn explained how this worked, When working with the frozen material, it’s like doing an experiment—different things come out of it. When you freeze something, it dries up. To avoid that, you have to stop the air from getting to the object and you can do this by casing it in silicone. His portrait of John E. Sulston, who won the Nobel prize in 2002 for sequencing the genome on the Human Genome Project, is in the National Portrait Gallery. It consists of bacteria containing Sulstons DNA in agar jelly, the portrait was made by our standard methods for DNA cloning, writes SulstonMarc Quinn – Marc Quinn
35. Clement Freud – Sir Clement Raphael Freud was a British broadcaster, writer, politician and chef. He was elected as a Liberal Member of Parliament in 1973, retaining his seat until 1987, in 2016, seven years after he died, three women made public allegations of child sexual abuse and rape by Freud, which led to police investigations. He was born Clemens Rafael Freud in Berlin, the son of Jewish parents Ernst L. Freud and he was the grandson of psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud and the brother of artist Lucian Freud. His family fled to Britain from Nazi Germany and his forenames were anglicised to Clement Raphael and he spent his later childhood in Hampstead where he attended the Hall School, Hampstead, a preparatory school. He also attended two independent schools, he boarded at Dartington Hall, and also went to St Pauls School and he naturalised as a British subject on 4 September 1939, three days after the outbreak of World War II. During the war Freud joined the Royal Ulster Rifles and served in the ranks and he acted as an aide to Field Marshal Montgomery. He worked at the Nuremberg Trials and in 1947 was commissioned as an officer and he married June Flewett in 1950, and the couple had five children. Flewett had taken the stage name Jill Raymond in 1944, Freud became an Anglican at the time of his marriage. Freud was one of Britains first celebrity chefs, he worked at the Dorchester Hotel and he appeared in a series of dog food advertisements in which he co-starred with a bloodhound called Henry which shared his trademark hangdog expression. In 1968, he wrote the childrens book Grimble, followed by a sequel, Grimble at Christmas, whilst running a nightclub, he met a newspaper editor who gave him a job as a sports journalist. From there he became a food and drink writer, writing columns for many publications. His departure from Parliament was marked by the award of a knighthood, Ladbrokes quoted me at 33-1 in this three-horse contest, so Ladbrokes paid for me to have rather more secretarial and research staff than other MPs, which helped to keep me in for five parliaments. His autobiography, Freud Ego, recalls his election win, and shortly after and he wrote It suddenly occurred to me that after nine years of fame I now had something solid about which to be famous. During his time as a Member of Parliament, he visited China with a delegation of MPs, including Winston Churchill, the grandson of the wartime prime minister. When Churchill was given the best room in the hotel, on account of his lineage, towards the end of the five-year term was a March 1979 Vote of No Confidence against Callaghans government and Freud was expected to follow his party and vote with the Opposition. He declined the offer and voted as stated by his party, after the lapse of the Lib-Lab pact, otherwise the government could have continued until October 1979. For many, Freud was best known as a panellist on the long-running Radio 4 show Just a Minute, Freud performed a small monologue for the Wings 1973 album Band on the Run and appeared on the albums cover. In 1974, he was elected Rector of the University of Dundee, a generation later, in 2002, he was elected Rector of the University of St Andrews, beating feminist and academic Germaine Greer and local challenger Barry Joss, holding the position for one termClement Freud – Sir Clement Freud
36. Dartington Hall – The Trust currently runs 16 charitable programmes, including Schumacher College and the Dartington International Summer School. In addition to developing and promoting arts and educational programmes, the Trust hosts other groups, the hall itself is a Grade I listed building. The gardens are Grade II* listed in the National Register of Historic Parks, the Dartington Hall Trust is based on a 1,200 acres estate near Dartington in south Devon. The medieval hall was built between 1388 and 1400 for John Holand, Earl of Huntingdon, half-brother to Richard II, after John was beheaded, the Crown owned the estate until it was acquired in 1559 by Sir Arthur Champernowne, Vice-Admiral of the West under Elizabeth I. The Champernowne family then lived in the Hall for 366 years until 1925, the hall was mostly derelict by the time it was bought by Leonard and Dorothy Elmhirst in 1925. They commissioned architect William Weir to renovate the buildings and restored the Great Halls hammerbeam roof, in 1935, the Dartington Hall Trust, a registered charity, was set up in order to run the estate. In North Devon, the Beaford Centre, set up as a centre by the Trust in the 1960s to bring employment and culture to a rurally depressed area. Until June 2010, prior to the contentious merger with University College Falmouth. The Hall and medieval courtyard functions in part as a centre and wedding venue and provides bed and breakfast accommodation for people attending courses. The Barn Cinema and the White Hart Bar and Restaurant are used by estate dwellers, residents from the surrounding countryside, in May 2010, Sothebys sold a group of 12 paintings by Rabindranath Tagore, which had been given by Tagore to his friend Leonard Elmhirst. In Autumn 2011, The Trust proposed the sale of artworks by Ben Nicholson, Christopher Wood, Alfred Wallis and others. The sale generated some criticism from people, who voiced concerns about deaccessioning of the Trusts art assets. Dartington Hall held by the MARTIN FAMILY between the early 12th and mid 14th centuries and on the death of Lord William Martin in 1326, Dartington International Summer School is a department of The Dartington Hall Trust. The Summer School is both a festival and a music school, participants, both amateur musicians and advanced students, spend the daytime studying a variety of different musical courses, and the evenings attending concerts. In addition to instrumental and vocal masterclasses, there are courses at various levels on subjects such as composition, opera, chamber music, conducting, courses include choirs, orchestras, individual masterclasses, and non classical music such as Jazz, Salsa and Gamelan. Composition teachers have included Luciano Berio, Luigi Nono, Bruno Maderna, Harrison Birtwistle, Peter Maxwell Davies, Brian Ferneyhough, Witold Lutosławski and Elliott Carter. There is an ancient yew tree reputed to be nearly 2000 years old and rumour has it that Knights Templar are buried in the graveyard there, Dartington Hall School, founded in 1926, offered a progressive coeducational boarding life. When it started there was a minimum of formal classroom activity and the children learnt by involvement in estate activities. ”With time more academic rigour was imposed, a noted alumnus was Lord Young, a founder of Which. and the Open UniversityDartington Hall – Dartington Hall.
37. Andrew Cavendish, 11th Duke of Devonshire – He was a minister in the government of Prime Minister Harold Macmillan, but is best known for opening Chatsworth House to the public. He was educated at Eton College and Trinity College, Cambridge, Cavendish served in the British Army during World War II. Having attended an Officer Cadet Training Unit, he was commissioned into the Coldstream Guards as a lieutenant on 2 November 1940. On 7 December 1944, while holding the rank of acting captain, he was awarded the Military Cross in recognition of gallant, the action took place on 27 July 1944 when his company was cut off for 36 hours in heavy combat near Strada, Italy. He held the rank of major at the end of the war, in later life, he took on a number of honorary positions within the military. On 2 December 1953, he was appointed Honorary Colonel of a Territorial Army unit of the Royal Regiment of Artillery, on 2 October 1981, he was appointed Honorary Colonel of the Manchester and Salford Universities Officers Training Corps. He relinquished this appointment on 2 January 1985, Cavendish ran unsuccessfully as a National Liberal candidate for Chesterfield in the 1945 general election and as a Conservative for the same seat in 1950. He was Mayor of Buxton from 1952 to 1954 and he once said that these appointments by his uncle, Harold Macmillan, the then-prime minister, were the greatest act of nepotism ever. He joined the Social Democratic Party shortly after its foundation in 1981 and he then sat as a crossbencher during his rare appearances in the House of Lords. His autobiography, Accidents of Fortune, was published just before his death in 2004, the duke had many disputes over the years with the ramblers who used the paths near Chatsworth. Eventually though, in 1991, he signed an agreement with the Peak National Park Authority opening 1,300 acres of his estate to walkers and he said that everyone was welcome in my back garden. The dukes real estate holdings were vast, in addition to Chatsworth he also owned Lismore Castle in Ireland and Bolton Abbey in North Yorkshire. He also owned the bookshop Heywood Hill and the gentlemans club Pratts and he was a major collector of contemporary British art, known especially for his patronage of Lucian Freud. The duke was listed at number 73 in the Sunday Times Sunday Times Rich List of the richest people in Great Britain in 2004, in 1941 Cavendish married the Hon. Deborah Mitford, one of the Mitford sisters. The Duke, however, claimed much of his marriages success was due to the Duchesss tolerance. The Duchess, as chatelaine, was responsible for the success of Chatsworth as a commercial endeavour. Cavendish and his wife had six children, three of whom died in infancy, the three surviving children were a son, Peregrine Cavendish, 12th Duke of Devonshire, and two daughters, Lady Emma Cavendish and Lady Sophia Topley. Mark Cavendish Lady Emma Cavendish, married Hon. Tobias Tennant, son of Christopher Grey Tennant and they have three children and ten grandchildren, Isabella Tennant she married Piers Hill, son of Simon Hill, on 9 August 1997Andrew Cavendish, 11th Duke of Devonshire – Portrait by Allan Warren
38. David Hockney – David Hockney, OM, CH, RA is an English painter, draughtsman, printmaker, stage designer and photographer. An important contributor to the pop art movement of the 1960s, Hockney was born in Bradford, England, to Laura and Kenneth Hockney, the fourth of five children. He was educated at Wellington Primary School, Bradford Grammar School, Bradford College of Art and the Royal College of Art in London, while there, Hockney said he felt at home and took pride in his work. At the Royal College of Art, Hockney featured in the exhibition Young Contemporaries—alongside Peter Blake—that announced the arrival of British Pop art and he was associated with the movement, but his early works display expressionist elements, similar to some works by Francis Bacon. When the RCA said it would not let him graduate in 1962 and he had refused to write an essay required for the final examination, saying he should be assessed solely on his artworks. Recognising his talent and growing reputation, the RCA changed its regulations, after leaving the RCA, he taught at Maidstone College of Art for a short time. The artist moved to Los Angeles in 1964, returned to London in 1968, in 1974 he began a decade-long personal relationship with Gregory Evans who moved with him to the US in 1976 and as of 2017 remains a business partner. In 1978 he rented the house in which he lived when he moved to Los Angeles. He also owned a 1, 643-square-foot beach house at 21039 Pacific Coast Highway in Malibu, Hockney is openly gay, and unlike Andy Warhol, whom he befriended, he openly explored the nature of gay love in his portraiture. Sometimes, as in We Two Boys Together Clinging, named after a poem by Walt Whitman, already in 1963, he painted two men together in the painting Domestic Scene, Los Angeles, one showering while the other washes his back. In summer 1966, while teaching at UCLA he met Peter Schlesinger, an art student who posed for paintings and drawings, Elliott was a first- and second-team player for Bridlington rugby club. It was reported that Hockneys partner drove Elliott to Scarborough General Hospital where he later died, the inquest returned a verdict of death by misadventure and Hockney was never implicated. In November 2015 Hockney sold his house in Bridlington, a five-bedroomed former guesthouse, for £625,000 and he retains a studio in London and a house in Malibu, California. Hockney has smoked cigarettes for over 60 years but has been teetotal since 1990 when he had a heart-attack and he holds a California Medical Marijuana Verification Card, which enables him to buy cannabis for medical purposes. He has used hearing aids since 1979, but realised he was going deaf long before that and he swims for half an hour each day and can stand for six hours at the easel. Hockney made prints, portraits of friends, and stage designs for the Royal Court Theatre, Glyndebourne, La Scala, born with synaesthesia, he sees synesthetic colours in response to musical stimuli. Hockney painted portraits at different periods in his career, from 1968, and for the next few years he painted friends, lovers, and relatives just under lifesize and in pictures that depicted good likenesses of his subjects. Hockneys own presence is implied, since the lines of perspective converge to suggest the artists point of viewDavid Hockney – We Two Boys Together Clinging (1961)