1. Michaela von Habsburg – Otto was de facto stateless, living in Germany with a Spanish diplomatic passport, and was denied both entry to Austria and an Austrian passport. Ottos official name as a German citizen from 1978 was Otto von Habsburg and she is the twin sister of Monika von Habsburg. She married Eric Alba Teran dAntin on 14 January 1984 in Antón, after her divorce she married Count Hubertus von Kageneck, son of Count Franz Joseph von Kageneck and Princess Elisabeth Maria of Bavaria, on 22 October 1994Michaela von Habsburg
2. Marie Antoinette – Marie Antoinette (/ˈmæriˌæntwəˈnɛt/, /ˌɑ̃ːntwə-/, /ˌɑ̃ːtwə-/, US /məˈriː-/, French, born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna, was the last Queen of France and Navarre before the French Revolution. She was born an Archduchess of Austria, and was the fifteenth and second youngest child of Empress Maria Theresa and Francis I, in April 1770, upon her marriage to Louis-Auguste, heir apparent to the French throne, she became Dauphine of France. After eight years of marriage, Marie Antoinette gave birth to a daughter, Marie-Thérèse Charlotte, the Diamond Necklace affair damaged her reputation further. On 10 August 1792, the attack on the Tuileries forced the family to take refuge at the Assembly. On 21 September 1792, the monarchy was abolished, after a two-day trial begun on 14 October 1793, Marie Antoinette was convicted by the Revolutionary Tribunal of high treason, and executed by guillotine on Place de la Révolution on 16 October 1793. Maria Antonia was born on 2 November 1755, at the Hofburg Palace and she was the youngest daughter of Empress Maria Theresa, ruler of the Habsburg Empire, and her husband Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. Her godparents were Joseph I and Mariana Victoria, King and Queen of Portugal, Archduke Joseph, shortly after her birth, she was placed under the care of the Governess of the Imperial children, Countess von Brandeis. Maria Antonia was raised with her older sister Maria Carolina. As to her relationship with her mother, it was difficult, despite the private tutoring she received, results of her schooling were less than satisfactory. At the age of ten she could not write correctly in German or in any language used at court, such as French. Under the teaching of Christoph Willibald Gluck, Maria Antonia developed into a good musician and she learned to play the harp, the harpsichord and the flute. During the familys gatherings in the evenings, she would sing and she also excelled at dancing, had an exquisite poise, and loved dolls. Following the Seven Years War and the Diplomatic Revolution of 1756, Empress Maria Theresa decided to end hostilities with her longtime enemy, on 14 May she met her husband at the edge of the forest of Compiègne. Upon her arrival in France, she adopted the French version of her name, a further ceremonial wedding took place on 16 May 1770 in the Palace of Versailles and, after the festivities, the day ended with the ritual bedding. The lack of consummation of the marriage plagued the reputation of both Louis-Auguste and Marie Antoinette for the seven years. The initial reaction to the marriage between Marie Antoinette and Louis-Auguste was mixed, on the one hand, the Dauphine was beautiful, personable and well-liked by the common people. Her first official appearance in Paris on 8 June 1773 was a resounding success, on the other hand, those opposed to the alliance with Austria, and others, for personal reasons, had a difficult relationship with Marie Antoinette. Madame du Barry, for example, was Louis XVs mistress and had political influence over himMarie Antoinette – Marie Antoinette with the Rose Portrait by Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun, 1783.
3. Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma – Marie Louise was an Austrian archduchess who reigned as Duchess of Parma from 1814 until her death. She was Napoleons second wife and, as such, Empress of the French from 1810 to 1814, a series of military defeats at the hands of Napoleon Bonaparte had inflicted a heavy human toll on Austria and led Francis to dissolve the Holy Roman Empire. The end of the War of the Fifth Coalition resulted in the marriage of Napoleon and Marie Louise in 1810, Marie Louise dutifully agreed to the marriage despite being raised to despise France. She was an obedient wife and was adored by Napoleon, who had been eager to marry a member of one of Europes leading royal houses to cement his relatively young Empire. With Napoleon, she bore a son, styled the King of Rome at birth, later Duke of Reichstadt, Napoleons fortunes changed dramatically in 1812 after his failed invasion of Russia. The European powers, including Austria, resumed hostilities towards France in the War of the Sixth Coalition, the 1814 Treaty of Fontainebleau handed over the Duchies of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla to Empress Marie Louise. She ruled the duchies until her death, Marie Louise married morganatically twice after Napoleons death in 1821. Her second husband was Count Adam Albert von Neipperg, an equerry she met in 1814 and she and Neipperg had three children. After Neippergs death, she married Count Charles-René de Bombelles, her chamberlain, in 1834, Marie Louise died in Parma in 1847. Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria was born at the Hofburg Palace in Vienna on 12 December 1791 to Archduke Francis of Austria and his wife, Maria Theresa of Naples. Her father became Holy Roman Emperor a year later as Francis II, Marie Louise was a great granddaughter of Empress Maria Theresa through both her parents, as they were first cousins. She was also a granddaughter of Queen Maria Carolina of Naples. Marie Louises formative years were during a period of conflict between France and her family and she was brought up to detest France and French ideas. Marie Louise was influenced by her grandmother Maria Carolina, who despised the French Revolution which ultimately caused the death of her sister, Maria Carolinas Kingdom of Naples had also come into direct conflict with French forces led by Napoleon Bonaparte. The War of the Third Coalition brought Austria to the brink of ruin, the Imperial family was forced to flee Vienna in 1805. Marie Louise took refuge in Hungary and later Galicia before returning to Vienna in 1806 and her father relinquished the title of Holy Roman Emperor but remained Emperor of Austria. To make her more marriageable, her parents had her tutored in many languages, in addition to her native German, she became fluent in English, French, Italian, Latin, and Spanish. In 1807, when Marie Louise was 15, her mother died after suffering a miscarriage, less than a year later, Emperor Francis married his first cousin Maria Ludovika Beatrix of Austria-Este, who was four years older than Marie LouiseMarie Louise, Duchess of Parma – Portrait in 1810 by Jean-Baptiste Isabey
4. Anne of Austria – Anne of Austria was queen consort of France and Navarre, regent for her son, Louis XIV of France, and a Spanish and Portuguese Infanta by birth. During her regency, Cardinal Mazarin served as Frances chief minister, born at Benavente Palace in Valladolid, Spain, and baptised Ana María Mauricia, she was the eldest daughter of King Philip III of Spain and his wife Margaret of Austria. She held the titles of Infanta of Spain and of Portugal, in spite of her birth in Spain, she was referred to as Anne of Austria because the rulers of Spain belonged to the House of Austria. Anne was raised mainly at the Royal Alcazar of Madrid, exceptionally for a royal princess, Anne grew up close to her parents, who were very religious. She was raised to be too, and was often taken to visit monasteries during her childhood. In 1611, she lost her mother, who died in childbirth, despite her grief, Anne did her best to take care of her younger siblings, who referred to her with affection as their mother. Anne was betrothed at age eleven to King Louis XIII of France and her father gave her a dowry of 500,000 crowns and many beautiful jewels. For fear that Louis XIII would die early, the Spanish court stipulated that she would return to Spain with her dowry, jewels, and wardrobe if he did die. On 24 November 1615, Louis and Anne were married by proxy in Burgos while Louiss sister, Elisabeth of France, Anne and Elisabeth were exchanged on the Isle of Pheasants between Hendaye and Fuenterrabía. She was lively and beautiful during her youth and she was also a noted equestrian, a taste her son, Louis, would inherit. At the time, Anne had many admirers, including the handsome Duke of Buckingham, Anne and Louis, both fourteen years old, were pressured to consummate their marriage in order to forestall any possibility of future annulment, but Louis ignored his bride. Louiss mother, Marie de Medici, continued to conduct herself as queen of France, Anne, surrounded by her entourage of high-born Spanish ladies-in-waiting, continued to live according to Spanish etiquette and failed to improve her French. During the years he was in the ascendancy, the Duke of Luynes attempted to remedy the formal distance between Louis and his queen, Anne began to dress in the French manner, and in 1619 Luynes pressed the king to bed his queen. Some affection developed, to the point where it was noted that Louis was distracted during an illness of the queen. A series of stillbirths disenchanted the king and served to chill their relations, on 14 March 1622, while playing with her ladies, Anne fell on a staircase and suffered her second stillbirth. Louis blamed her for the incident and was angry with the Duchess of Luynes for having encouraged the queen in what was seen as negligence. Henceforth, the king had less tolerance for the influence that the duchess had over Anne, Louis turned now to Cardinal Richelieu as his advisor. Under the influence of Marie de Rohan-Montbazon, the queen let herself be drawn into political opposition to Richelieu, in 1635, France declared war on Spain, placing the queen in an untenable positionAnne of Austria – Anne of Austria by Peter Paul Rubens
5. Otto von Habsburg – He became the pretender to the former thrones, Head of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, and Sovereign of the Order of the Golden Fleece in 1922, upon the death of his father. He resigned as Sovereign of the Golden Fleece in 2000 and as head of the Imperial House in 2007, with his fathers accession to the thrones in 1916, he was likely to become the Emperor. As his father never abdicated, Otto was considered by himself, his family and he has been described as one of the leaders of the Austrian Resistance. Otto von Habsburg played a role in the revolutions of 1989. Later he was a supporter of the EU membership of central. A noted intellectual, he published books on historical and political affairs. Otto has been described as one of the architects of the European idea and of European integration together with Robert Schuman, Konrad Adenauer, Otto was exiled in 1918 and grew up mostly in Spain. His devout Catholic mother raised him according to the old curriculum of Austria-Hungary, preparing him to become a Catholic monarch. During his life in exile, he lived in Switzerland, Madeira, Spain, Belgium, France, the United States, and from 1954 until his death, finally in Bavaria, in the residence Villa Austria. His funeral took place at St. Stephens Cathedral in Vienna on 16 July 2011, he was entombed in the Imperial Crypt in Vienna, Otto was born at Villa Wartholz in Reichenau an der Rax, Austria-Hungary. His godfather was the Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria, his godmother was his grandmother Infanta Maria Antonia of Portugal, in November 1916, Otto became Crown Prince of Austria, Hungary, Bohemia and Croatia when his father, Archduke Charles, acceded to the throne. However, in 1918, at the end of the First World War, the monarchies were abolished, the Republics of Austria and Hungary founded instead, Hungary did become a kingdom again, but Charles was never to regain the throne. Instead, Miklós Horthy ruled as regent until 1944, in a kingdom without a king, Otto spoke German, Hungarian, Croatian, English, Spanish, French and Latin fluently. In later life, he would write some 40 books in German, Hungarian, French and his mother made him learn many languages because she believed he one day might rule over many lands. Ottos family spent the subsequent years in Switzerland, and on the Portuguese island of Madeira, on his fathers deathbed, his mother, Empress Dowager Zita, told the 9-year-old, your father is now sleeping the eternal sleep—you are now Emperor and King. The family eventually relocated to the Basque town of Lekeitio, where 40 Spanish grandees bought them a villa, meanwhile, the Austrian parliament had officially expelled the Habsburg dynasty and confiscated all the official property. In 1935, he graduated with a PhD degree in Political and Social Sciences from the University of Louvain in Belgium and his thesis was on the right, born of usage and of the peasant law of inheritance, of the indivisibility of rural land ownership in Austria. From his fathers death throughout the remainder of his time in exile, Otto considered himself the emperor of AustriaOtto von Habsburg – Otto von Habsburg in 2004
6. Maria Christina of Austria – Maria Christina Henriette Desideria Felicitas Raineria of Austria, also known as Maria Christina Henrietta Désirée Félicité Rénière was Queen of Spain as the second wife of King Alfonso XII. She was regent during the minority of their son, Alfonso XIII, known to her family as Christa, she was born at Židlochovice Castle, near Brno, in Moravia, a daughter of Archduke Karl Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska of Austria. Her paternal grandparents were Archduke Charles of Austria and Princess Henriette Alexandrine of Nassau-Weilburg, various sources attributed good traits to Maria Christina before her marriage. One states she was tall, fair, sensible, and well educated and she was Princess-Abbess of the Theresian Royal and Imperial Ladies Chapter of the Castle of Prague. She lived a life as queen. During this period, Maria Christina ruled as regent until her child, a son, was born and her chief adviser and head of government was Práxedes Mateo Sagasta. Her role was ceremonial, and her purpose was to preserve the crown for her son until he became an adult. After her sons marriage in 1906, she lost her position as first lady at court, nevertheless, Alfonso XIII continued to look to her on many occasions for advice. She was the 805th Dame of the Royal Order of Queen Maria Luisa, in February 1929, after some weeks of heart disease, she died at the Royal Palace in Madrid and is buried at El Escorial. Sir Charles Petrie, Alfonso XIIIs biographer, maintained that the Queen dowagers death had an effect on her son. Within little more than two years the monarchy had collapsed, campos y Fernández de Sevilla, Francisco-Javier. María Cristina de Habsburgo y la Regencia, 1885–1902, san Lorenzo de El Escorial, Estudios Superiores del Escorial, Real Colegio Universitario María Cristina,1994. The Function of Maria Christina of Austrias Regency, 1885–1902, in Preserving the Spanish Monarchy, figueroa y Torres, Alvaro de, Conde de Romanones. Doña María Cristina de Habsburgo Lorena, la discreta regente de España, diez y seis años de regencia, María Cristina de Hapsburgo-Lorena, 1885–1902. Habsburgs letzte Herrscherin, Maria Christine, Erzherzogin von Österreich, Königin-Regentin von SpanienMaria Christina of Austria – Maria Christina of Austria
7. Archduchess Elisabeth Marie of Austria – She was known to the family as Erzsi, a diminutive of her name in Hungarian. Later nicknamed The Red Archduchess, she was famous for becoming a socialist, Archduchess Elisabeth was born at Schloss Laxenburg on 2 September 1883 to Crown Prince Rudolf and Stéphanie, daughter of King Leopold II of Belgium. The only child of his son, Erzsi was Franz Josephs favorite granddaughter. After Rudolfs death, Franz Joseph took over guardianship of Erzsi, by his order, at a young age she displayed a strong personality, as well as an opposition to the Viennese court. Her grandmother, the capricious Empress Elisabeth, did not enjoy being identified as a grandmother and was not close to any of her grandchildren. The Empress made no secret of her dislike of her prior to the scandal. In 1900 Stéphanie renounced her title of Crown Princess to marry the younger—and Protestant—Hungarian Count Elemer Lonyay, later, following her marriage, Stéphanie retaliated by disinheriting Elisabeth in 1934. Elisabeth was considered a potential bride for several princes in Europe, among them was her cousin Prince Albert, however, King Leopold II vehemently disapproved of Stéphanies recent morganatic marriage to Count Lonyay and thus refused to give Albert his permission. Alberts sister Henriette was horrified at her brothers choice, feeling Elisabeths background was too unstable for the marriage to be a success, in 1900 Elisabeth met Prince Otto Weriand of Windisch-Graetz at a court ball. Ten years her senior, he was below her in rank, nonetheless she importuned her grandfather to be allowed to marry him. Franz Joseph resisted at first, having intended for Elisabeth to marry the German Crown Prince, by many accounts it was Elisabeth alone who wanted the marriage, as Otto was already engaged to another woman and was reportedly dumbfounded when Franz Joseph informed him of his new engagement. Ordered by the Emperor to break his engagement to marry his granddaughter. The couple married at the Hofburg on 23 January 1902 and they had three sons, Prince Franz Joseph, Prince Ernst and Prince Rudolf. Their last child and only daughter, Princess Stephanie, was born at Ploschkowitz, only after the death of Franz Joseph in 1916 and the end of the monarchy in 1918 did the couple officially separate. In 1921 Elisabeth joined the Social Democratic Party, where she met Leopold Petznek from Bruck an der Leitha, then president of the audit office, at one of the election meetings. A teacher and a committed Social Democratic politician who became president of the Lower Austrian Landtag after the war, Petznek came from a modest background, but was highly cultivated. He was also married, his wife, with whom he had a son, was institutionalized at a hospital in Mauer-Ohling. The lengthy legal process dragged on, and it was not until March 1924 that Elisabeth was able to obtain a judicial separation, a sensational custody battle for their four children ensuedArchduchess Elisabeth Marie of Austria – Archduchess Elisabeth Marie
8. Archduchess Gisela of Austria – Her German title was Gisela Louise Marie, Erzherzogin von Österreich, Prinzessin von Bayern. Although christened Gisella, after a 10th-century Habsburg ancestress, she only ever wrote her name with one L, just like her older sister Archduchess Sophie and her brother Crown Prince Rudolf, Gisela was raised by her paternal grandmother, Princess Sophie of Bavaria. A sober nature like her father, she kept a reserved attitude towards her mother and she had a very close relationship with her brother, whose suicide hit her hard. Her father collected some the familys personal items, such as the first pair of shoes worn by each of his children. Among these keepsakes was a written for him by a young Gisela one Christmas - the poem was said to be the most treasured item among this collection. Archduchess Gisela was also known to paint in her later years, on 20 April 1873, at the age of 16, Gisela was married to Prince Leopold of Bavaria in Vienna. Prince Leopold was a son of Prince Regent Luitpold of Bavaria and Auguste Ferdinande of Austria, Leopold had initially fallen for Princess Amalie of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, who, however, Empress Elisabeths younger brother Duke Maximilian Emanuel in Bavaria intended to marry. The empress therefore arranged an encounter of Leopold and Gisela at Gödöllő Palace and it seems he felt he had to secure the only viable candidate to whom he could give Gisela with confidence. Prince Leopold received the dowry of a half a million guilders. Giselas mother remained absent during the wedding celebrations, the young couple was made welcome in Munich by her husbands family, and went on to live in the Palais Leopold residence in Schwabing. The street opposite the Palais was renamed Giselastraße in her honor in 1873, a year after her wedding, she gave birth to her first child and even Empress Elisabeth was present during the baptism. During World War I she ran a hospital in her Palais while her husband was a field marshal on the eastern front. Gisela and her husband celebrated their wedding anniversary in 1923. Her husband died in 1930, and Gisela only survived him by two years and she died aged 76 in Munich on 27 July 1932, and is buried next to Prince Leopold in the Colombarium at the St. Michaelskirche, MunichArchduchess Gisela of Austria – Archduchess Gisela, Princess of Bavaria
9. Archduchess Sophie of Austria – Archduchess Sophie of Austria was the first child and first of three daughters born to the Empress Elisabeth and Franz Joseph, Emperor of Austria. Within two months of her marriage to Franz Joseph, Elisabeth was obviously pregnant, on 5 March 1855, the seventeen year-old Empress of Austria delivered a daughter who was christened the same day Sophie Friederike Dorothea Maria Josepha, after Franz Josephs mother. The infant was christened such without Elisabeth even knowing, on both her mother and her fathers side, Sophie descended from King Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria, as her parents were first cousins. On her fathers side, she descended from the last Holy Roman Emperor, during the next year, Elisabeth delivered another daughter, Archduchess Gisela, a younger sister to Sophie. Elisabeth later commented, No matter how long Elisabeth begged Franz Joseph to discuss the matter with his mother, her cries went unheard, Empress Elisabeth adored Hungary and its people and proposed to her husband that they take a trip to her favourite country, perhaps even tour it. This was a desire she would regret for the rest of her life, Franz Joseph accepted and they left in early spring 1857. While in Budapest, both Sophie and her sister Archduchess Gisela fell ill with diarrhea and had a high fever. However, two-year-old Sophies body could not take it, at 21,15 in the evening, after eleven hours of struggling to survive, Sophie died in her mothers arms, probably from dehydration due to the diarrhea or from convulsions due to the high fever. It was later theorized that Sophie died from fever. Sophies body was brought back to Vienna and buried in the Imperial Crypt, in Ferdinandsgruft, the death of her oldest child would haunt Empress Elisabeth for her entire life. Elisabeth was held responsible for Sophies death by Princess Sophie of Bavaria. She suffered a breakdown and would lock herself in her apartments for days at a time or go riding until she reached a state of exhaustion, Sophies death also settled who got the children. Princess Sophie indisputably took the children as soon as they were born, Elisabeth also started to neglect her surviving daughter, and their relationship was not a close one. One of Elisabeths ladies-in-waiting, Marie Festetics, commented in her diary that the Empress did not even take the time to attend Giselas wedding preparations, Elisabeth also behaved in a similar manner to her only son, Rudolf, Crown Prince of Austria. For the rest of her days, Elisabeth would wear a bracelet with a likeness of her dead daughter. Empress Elisabeth of Austria, The fate of a woman under the yoke of the Imperial Court, Archduchess Sophie at GeneAll. com Archduchess Sophie at thePeerage. comArchduchess Sophie of Austria – Sophie in c. 1856.
10. Archduchess Marie Valerie of Austria – Archduchess Marie Valerie of Austria was the fourth and last child of Emperor Francis Joseph of Austria and Elisabeth of Bavaria. Her given name was Marie Valerie Mathilde Amalie, but she was usually called Valerie, Princess Marie Valerie was born at Ofen in Hungary. Sophie herself wrote to Elisabeths mother Ludovika, Sisi is completely absorbed by her love and she was Elisabeths favorite child by far, and was acidly referred to by some courtiers as Die Einzige because Elisabeth paid so much more attention to her than her siblings. Valerie loved her mother, but according to her diaries, often felt embarrassed and overwhelmed by Elisabeths concentration on her, particularly as she herself was of a modest and this process culminated in their joint coronation in Budapest on 8 June 1867, as King and Queen of Hungary. Valerie was born just over nine months later, Elisabeth deliberately chose Hungary as her childs birthplace, no royal child had been born in Hungary for centuries. Had Valerie been a boy, she would have been named Stephan after Hungarys canonized king, malicious rumors intimated that Valerie was actually the daughter of Elisabeths friend and admirer Gyula Andrássy, the Hungarian prime minister. These persisted into Valeries childhood, hurting her deeply, however, she physically resembled Franz Joseph more than any of her siblings, even more so as she grew older, and eventually the rumors died away. Due to the atmosphere they created, however, Valerie developed an antipathy toward anything to do with Hungary. She was joyful when she was given permission to speak German with her father, in addition, she spoke English, French, and Italian fluently, loved to write plays and poems, and was a talented amateur artist who particularly enjoyed painting flowers. She was a supporter of the Burgtheater in Vienna. In Bad Ischl on 31 July 1890, Valerie married her second cousin Archduke Franz Salvator and they had met in 1886 at a ball, but Valerie waited several years to be sure that her feelings toward Franz Salvator were strong enough to make a successful marriage. It was hoped by many at court that she would marry someone like the Crown Prince of Saxony or the Prince Royal of Portugal, Elisabeth, however, declared that Valerie would be allowed to marry even a chimney sweep if she so desired. Valeries solemn renunciation of her rights to the Austrian throne, which was necessary for the marriage to proceed, the young couples festive wedding followed in the parish church of Bad Ischl on 31 July. The ceremony was conducted by the Bishop of Linz, Franz Maria Doppelbauer, afterwards, Valerie and Franz honeymooned in Italy, Switzerland, and Bavaria. Marie Valerie and Franz Salvator had 10 children, At first, Valerie, on 11 June 1895, the couple purchased Schloss Wallsee on the Danube River from its then owner, Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and completely renovated it. When the renovation was finished, a ceremony marking their moving into the new palace was held on 4 September 1897, there was great celebration of the event in Wallsee due to Valeries popularity. She was known and loved for her generous involvement in local charitable endeavors, in 1900, she became a patron of the Red Cross, for which she founded hospitals and raised considerable sums of money, she was also patron of seven other charities. During World War I, she created a hospital barracks in the castle itself and she was a devout Catholic who also spent much time supporting religious charities and was known to the people as the Angel of WaldseeArchduchess Marie Valerie of Austria – Photograph taken in 1890
11. Maria Theresa of Spain – Maria Theresa of Spain, was by birth Infanta of Spain and Portugal and Archduchess of Austria as member of the Spanish branch of the House of Habsburg and by marriage Queen of France and Navarre. Her marriage in 1660 with King Louis XIV was made with the purpose to end the war between France and Spain. Without any political influence in the French court or government, she died at the age of 44 from complications from an abscess on her arm. Born an Infanta of Spain at the Royal Monastery of El Escorial, she was the daughter of King Philip IV, and his wife Elisabeth of France, as a member of the House of Habsburg, Maria Theresa was entitled to use the title Archduchess of Austria. Unlike France, the kingdom of Spain had no Salic Law, when Maria Theresas brother Balthasar Charles died in 1646, she became heiress presumptive to the vast Spanish Empire and remained such until the birth of Philip Prospero, in 1657. She was heiress presumptive once more between 1 November and 6 November 1661– the death of Prince Philip and the birth of Prince Charles, who would later inherit the thrones of Spain as Charles II. In 1658, as war with France began to wind down, anne of Austria desired an end to hostilities between her native country of Spain and her adopted one, France. However, Spanish procrastination led to a scheme in which Frances prime minister, Cardinal Mazarin, pretended to seek a marriage for his master with Margaret Yolande of Savoy. When Philip IV of Spain heard of a meeting at Lyon between the Houses of France and Savoy in November 1658, he reputedly exclaimed of the Franco-Savoyard union that it cannot be, and will not be. Philip then sent an envoy to the French court to open negotiations for peace. The negotiations for the contract were intense. This was eventually done but, by the skill of Mazarin and his French diplomats, the renunciation and its validity were made conditional upon the payment of a large dowry. As it turned out, Spain, impoverished and bankrupt after decades of war, was unable to pay such a dowry, a marriage by proxy to the French king was held in Fuenterrabia. On 9 June the marriage took place in Saint-Jean-de-Luz at the rebuilt church of Saint Jean the Baptist. After the wedding, Louis wanted to consummate the marriage as quickly as possible, the new queens mother-in-law arranged a private consummation instead of the public one that was the custom. On 26 August 1660, the made the traditional Joyous Entry into Paris. Maria Theresa was very fortunate to have found a friend at court in her mother-in-law and she continued to spend much of her free time playing cards and gambling, as she had no interest in politics or literature. Consequently, she was viewed as not fully playing the part of queen designated to her by her marriage, but more importantly, she became pregnant in early 1661, and a long-awaited son was born on 1 November 1661Maria Theresa of Spain – Portrait of Maria Theresa of Spain as Queen of France
12. Isabella of Austria – Isabella of Austria, also known as Elizabeth, Archduchess of Austria and Infanta of Castile and Aragon, was Queen of Denmark, Sweden and Norway as the wife of King Christian II. She was the daughter of King Philip I and Queen Joanna of Castile and she served as regent of Denmark in 1520. Isabella spent her childhood in the Netherlands under the tutorage of the regent of the Netherlands and her fortune, her succession rights, and her connections made her a valuable pawn in the royal marriage market. Therefore, Isabella was selected for the Danish king, on 11 July 1514, one week short of her 13th birthday, Isabella was married by proxy to King Christian II of Denmark with Emperor Maximilian I, her grandfather, standing in for the king. She remained in the Netherlands, but is said to have fallen in love with her spouse at the sight of his painting, a year after the wedding, the Archbishop of Nidaros was sent to escort her to Copenhagen. The marriage was ratified on 12 August 1515, the Kings Dutch mistress, Dyveke Sigbritsdatter, had been with him since 1507, and he was not about to give her up for a teenager. Dyvekes mother, Sigbrit Willoms, was influential at court. From 1516, Anne Meinstrup was head lady-in-waiting of her court, in 1520, Christian took the throne of Sweden, thereby making Isabella Queen of Sweden. After taking Stockholm, he asked the Swedish representatives to turn it, Isabella served as the regent of Denmark during Christians stay in Sweden. Her husband was deposed as king of Sweden the following year, when King Christian was deposed in 1523 by disloyal noblemen supporting his uncle Duke Frederick, the new king wanted to be on good terms with Isabellas family. He wrote her a letter in her native German, offering her a dowager queens pension. But Isabella wrote back to Duke Frederick in Latin, stating that, ubi rex meus, ibi regnum meum, Isabella left Denmark with her husband and their children after her husband was deposed in 1523 and travelled to the Netherlands. Isabella and Christian travelled around Germany in an attempt to help for Christians restoration to the throne. Isabella made her own negotiations with her relatives, and also accompanied her husband on his travels and they visited Saxony in 1523 and Berlin in 1523–1524. In Berlin, Isabella became interested in the teachings of Luther, the former queen died at the castle of Zwijnaarde near Ghent aged twenty-four. She received both Protestant and Catholic communion, but the Habsburgs declared that she had died a convinced Catholic and her religious sympathies, and whether she was a Protestant or a Catholic after 1524, have been debated. At her deathbed, she gave the cause of her husbands restoration to her aunt and her 15xgreat-granddaughter Princess Isabella of Denmark was named after herIsabella of Austria – Portrait by the Master of the Legend of the Magdalen (c. 1515) Czartoryski Museum, Kraków
13. Isabella Clara Eugenia – Isabella Clara Eugenia was sovereign of the Spanish Netherlands in the Low Countries and the north of modern France, together with her husband Albert VII, Archduke of Austria. In some sources, she is referred to as Clara Isabella Eugenia, by birth, she was an infanta of Spain and Portugal. Isabella Clara Eugenia of Austria was born in the Palacio del bosque de Valsaín, Segovia on 12 August 1566, daughter of Philip II of Spain and her paternal grandparents were Emperor Charles V and Isabella of Portugal. Her maternal grandparents were Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici and her father, Philip II, was reportedly overjoyed at her birth and declared himself to be happier on the occasion than he would have been at the birth of a son. Isabellas mother, Elisabeth of Valois, had originally been betrothed to Don Carlos, despite the significant age difference between them, Philip was very attached to Elisabeth, staying close by her side even when she was ill with smallpox. Elisabeths first pregnancy in 1564 ended in a miscarriage of twin daughters and she later gave birth to Isabella Clara Eugenia on 12 August 1566, and then to Isabellas younger sister Infanta Catherine Michelle of Spain 10 October 1567. Elisabeth miscarried a daughter in 1568 and died the same day, Isabella grew up with her sister Infanta Catherine Michelle of Spain, beloved by her father and her stepmother Anna of Austria, Queen of Spain, Philips fourth wife. Philip ultimately fathered five children by Anna, all of whom died in childhood except his heir. Isabella was also the person whom Philip permitted to help him with his work, sorting his papers. Since 1568, at the age of two, Isabella Clara Eugenia was promised to marry Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, son of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, Maria was a daughter of her paternal grandparents Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and Isabella of Portugal. Isabella Clara Eugenia, however, had to wait for more than 20 years before the eccentric Rudolf declared that he had no intention of marrying anybody, at any rate, Isabella Clara Eugenias mother had ceded any claim to the French crown with her marriage to Philip II. However the Parlement de Paris, in power of the Catholic party and her father decided to cede the Spanish Netherlands to her on condition that she marry her cousin, Albert VII, Archduke of Austria. They were to reign over the Netherlands jointly as duke/count and duchess/countess and it was also stipulated that, should they have no children, the Netherlands would revert to the King of Spain upon the death of either spouse. On 18 April 1599, being 33 years old, she married Albert, Albert was the joint sovereign of the Seventeen Provinces and the former viceroy of Portugal. As Albert also was the Archbishop of Toledo, he had to be released from his religious commitments by Pope Clement VIII before the wedding could take place. Shortly before Philip II died on 13 September 1598, he renounced his rights to the Netherlands in favor of his daughter Isabella and her fiancé. Beginning in 1601, the couple ruled the Spanish Netherlands together, a false anecdote links Isabella, the siege of Ostend, and the horse coat colour isabelline. The reign of Albert and Isabella is considered the Golden Age of the Spanish Netherlands, the reign of the Archduke Albert of Austria and Archduchess Isabella Clara Eugenia is a key period in the history of the Spanish NetherlandsIsabella Clara Eugenia – Portrait by Frans Pourbus the Younger
14. Archduchess Louise of Austria – Louise of Tuscany, was by marriage Crown Princess of Saxony as the wife of the future King Frederick Augustus III. Louise was born on 2 September 1870 as the child of Ferdinand IV. Through her mother, she was a great-great-granddaughter of Charles X of France, finally, in the summer of 1887 at Pillnitz Castle she met Prince Frederick Augustus of Saxony. They married at Vienna on 21 November 1891, in a ceremony which cost the groom the sum of 20,000 marks. As her popularity among the people by far exceeded the rest of the Saxon Royal Family, they made her life difficult with big, soon rumours began to circulated that Louise had an affair with a dentist named OBrian and with French tutor of her children, André Giron. When in desperation, she sent a telegram to Giron, this was intercepted by the secret police, three days after their arrival, the Beeger sisters leave Geneva. In the meantime, André Giron contacted a notary in Brussels to made a track to the Belgian capital. The escape of the Crown Princess of Saxony was the first scandal of the German nobility in the 20th century, especially hurtful for the Saxon Royal Family, who were deeply Catholic. The conservative Baroness Hildegard von Spitzemberg noted in her diary, They were all met as we of the scandals at the Saxon court. Five children, a husband, a throne, all leaving with only 32 years, thus, when the royal women forget themselves and whatever else was considered for decent, noble and catholic, then they take themselves the right of existence. Without consulting his son, King George of Saxony officially declared the divorce of the Crown Princely couple on 11 February 1903 by a special court. One year later, on 15 October 1904, the Saxon monarch died after obliged his son, however, the paternity of her daughter Anna Monika Pia, born on 4 May 1903 at Lindau remained unclear. The Saxon court sent the director of the Dresden maternity hospital, Dr. Leopold, to Lindau to examine the newborn, due to her physical appearance and the bright color of eyes and hair, he declared that the Crown Prince was the father of the child. The doctor, however, refused to further medical opinions. In consequence, Anna Monika Pia was recognized by Frederick Augustus as his own, Louise lived firstly at Ramo Castle near Lyon, then in 1903 at Ventnor Castle in the Isle of Wight. In 1904 she moved with her family seat Wartegg Castle on Lake Constance, on 21 December 1904 she tried to see her older children at the Dresden Taschenbergpalais, but her attempts were unsuccessful because the police had surrounded the building. Later, she traveled in the company of her new lover, Conte Carlo Guicciardi, now, both Louise and her lover wanted to get rid from the 2-years-old Anna Monika Pia. They negotiated with the Saxon court an increase of her allowance from 30,000 to 40,000 marks for the child, in London on 25 September 1907 Louise married the Italian musician Enrico Toselli,12 years younger than herArchduchess Louise of Austria – Luise of Tuscany (about 1911)
15. Maria Leopoldina of Austria – Dona Maria Leopoldina of Austria was an archduchess of Austria, Empress consort of Brazil and Queen consort of Portugal. She was born in Vienna, Austria, as the daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, among her many siblings were Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria and Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma, the wife of Napoleon Bonaparte. She was also the great-niece, through her paternal Grandfather, of the ill-fated Queen Marie Antoinette of France, Leopoldina was born on 22 January 1797 in Schönbrunn Palace, in Vienna, Archduchy of Austria. She was given the name Caroline Josepha Leopoldine Franziska Ferdinanda, according to her biographer Carlos H and she was raised in accordance with the educational principles laid down by her grandfather, Emperor Leopold II. Among these was the habit of exercising her handwriting by writing the text, In addition, she and her sisters were taught to speak French. They were also educated in drawing, piano, riding and hunting and her mother died when she was ten years old and her father went on to remarry Maria Ludovika of Austria-Este. Her late mother was a soprano and Leopoldina had the chance of meeting Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in 1810 and 1812 and her passions included natural sciences, especially botany and mineralogy. She was formed according to the three Habsburg principles, discipline, piety and a sense of duty, on 24 September 1816 it was announced by Leopoldinas father that Pedro of Braganza wished to take a Habsburg princess as his wife. Klemens von Metternich suggested that it should be Leopoldina to go get married, during these weeks Leopoldina compiled and wrote a vade mecum, a unique document the like of which has never been produced by any other Habsburg princess. On 13 May 1817 Leopoldina was married to Dom Pedro per procuram in Vienna, at the ceremony the bridegroom was represented by Leopoldina’s uncle, Archduke Charles. From a distance Pedro initially appeared to Leopoldina to be a perfect, well-educated gentleman, Dom Pedro was a year younger than Leopoldina and sadly rarely measured up to the descriptions given by the matchmakers. His temperament was impulsive and choleric, and his education but modest, even spoken communication between the young married couple proved difficult, as Pedro spoke very little French and his Portuguese could only be described as vulgar. The young married couple took up residence in six small rooms in the Palace of São Cristóvão. The inner courtyard and path to the stables were unpaved and the tropical rainfall quickly turned everything to mud, there were insects everywhere, including in their clothing, for the uniforms and court regalia made of velvet and plush rotted and turned mouldy in the heat and humidity. Maria Leopoldina became Brazils first empress consort and she also played an important role in the process of issuing a Declaration of Independence. On 2 September 1822, a new decree with demands from Lisbon arrived in Rio de Janeiro, Leopoldina, advised by José Bonifácio, and using her power as Princess Regent, met on 2 September 1822 with the Council of Ministers. She decided to send her husband the news along with a letter advising him to declare Brazils independence and warned him, The fruit is ready, Prince Pedro declared the countrys independence upon receiving the letter on 7 September 1822. When his father, João VI, died on 10 March 1826, Pedro inherited the Portuguese throne as King Pedro IV, Maria Leopoldina thus became both Empress consort of Brazil and Queen consort of PortugalMaria Leopoldina of Austria – Leopoldina at age 18, 1815
16. Mary of Hungary (governor of the Netherlands) – Mary of Austria, also known as Mary of Hungary, was queen consort of Hungary and Bohemia as the wife of King Louis II, and was later Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands. The daughter of Queen Joanna and King Philip I of Castile, Mary married King Louis II of Hungary and their marriage was happy but short and childless. Upon her husbands death following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Queen Mary governed Hungary as regent in the name of the new king, her brother, as governor of the Netherlands, Mary faced riots and a difficult relationship with the Emperor. Throughout her tenure she continuously attempted to ensure peace between the Emperor and the King of France, after her final resignation, the frail Queen moved to Castile, where she died. Having inherited the Habsburg lip and not very feminine looks, Mary was not considered physically attractive and her portraits, letters, and comments by her contemporaries do not assign her the easy Burgundian charm possessed by her grandmother, Duchess Mary of Burgundy, and her aunt Margaret. Nevertheless, she proved to be a determined and skillful politician, as well as a patron of literature, music. Born in Brussels on 15 September 1505, between ten and eleven in the morning, Archduchess Mary of Austria was the child of King Philip I. Her birth was difficult, the Queens life was in danger. On 20 September, she was baptized by Nicolas Le Ruistre, Bishop of Arras, and named after her grandmother, Mary of Burgundy. Her godfather was her grandfather, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I. On 17 March 1506, Emperor Maximilian promised to marry her to the first son born to King Vladislaus II of Hungary, at the same time, the two monarchs decided that a brother of Mary would marry Vladislaus daughter Anne. Three months later, Vladislaus wife, Anne of Foix-Candale, gave birth to a son, Queen Anne died in childbirth and the royal physicians made great efforts to keep the sickly Louis alive. After the death of Marys father in September 1506, her mothers health began to deteriorate. Mary, Isabella, and Eleanor were educated together at their aunts court in Mechelen and their music teacher was Henry Bredemers. Mary was summoned to the court of her grandfather Maximilian in 1514, on 22 July 1515, Mary and Louis were married in St. Stephens Cathedral, Vienna. At the same time, Louis sister Anne was betrothed to an as yet unspecified brother of Mary, due to their age, it was decided that the newly married couple would not live together for a few more years. Anne eventually married Marys brother Ferdinand and came to Vienna, where the double sisters-in-law were educated together until 1516 and that year, Marys father-in-law died, making Louis and Mary king and queen of Hungary and Bohemia. Mary moved to Innsbruck, where she was educated until 1521, Maximilian encouraged her interest in hunting, while childhood lessons prompted an interest in musicMary of Hungary (governor of the Netherlands) – Portrait by Jan Cornelisz Vermeyen
17. Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Savoy – Archduchess Margaret of Austria, Princess of Asturias and Duchess of Savoy by her two marriages, was Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands from 1507 to 1515 and again from 1519 to 1530. Margaret was born on 10 January 1480, as the child and only daughter of Maximilian of Austria and Mary of Burgundy. She was named after her stepgrandmother, Margaret of York, Dowager Duchess of Burgundy, who was especially close to Duchess Mary. In 1482, Margarets mother died and her brother, Philip the Handsome. In 1482, her father and the King Louis XI of France signed the Treaty of Arras, the engagement took place in 1483. Margaret, with Franche-Comté and Artois as her dowry, was transferred to the guardianship of King Louis XI of France and she was educated at the French royal court and prepared for her future role as queen of France. She was raised as a fille de France by Madame de Segré, under the supervision of her fiancés sister and regent, several French noble children had their education overseen by Anne as well, amongst which Louise of Savoy, with whom she would later negotiate peace. Margaret developed genuine affection for Charles, however, in the autumn of 1491, he renounced the treaty and married Margarets stepmother Anne, Duchess of Brittany, for political reasons. The French court had ceased treating Margaret as queen early in 1491, the Duchess of Brittany had been married to Margarets father by proxy but their marriage was annulled. Margaret was not returned to her stepgrandmothers court until June 1493, Margaret was hurt by Charless action and was left with a feeling of enduring resentment towards France. Margaret left the Netherlands for Spain late in 1496, the marriage took place in 1497. John died after six months, on 4 October. Margaret was left pregnant, but on 2 April 1498 she gave birth to a stillborn daughter. The Dowager Princess of Asturias returned to the Netherlands early in 1500, in 1501, Margaret married Philibert II, Duke of Savoy. This marriage was childless as well, and he died three years. A grief-stricken Margaret threw herself out of a window, but was saved, after being persuaded to bury her husband, she had his heart enbalmed so she could keep it with her forever. She vowed never to marry again and her court historian and poet Jean Lemaire de Belges gave her the title Dame de deuil. During a remarkably successful career lasting from 1506 until her death in 1530, after the early death of her brother Philip of Spain, in November 1506 she became the only woman elected as its ruler by the representative assembly of Franche-ComtéMargaret of Austria, Duchess of Savoy – Portrait of Margaret as a widow painted by Bernard van Orley
18. Eleanor of Austria – She also held the Duchy of Touraine as dower. She is called Leonor in Spanish and Portuguese and Eléonore or Aliénor in French, Eleanor was born in Louvain as the eldest child of Philip of Austria and Joanna of Castile, who would later become co-sovereigns of Castile. Her siblings were Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I, Queen Isabella of Denmark, Queen Mary of Hungary, when she was young, Eleanors relatives tried to marry her to the future King of England, Henry VIII, to whom she was betrothed. However, when Henrys father died and he became King, Henry decided to marry Eleanors aunt, Catherine of Aragon, who was the widow of King Henrys older brother, Arthur, Prince of Wales. Her relatives also tried to marry her to the French Kings Louis XII or Francis I or to the Polish King Sigismund I, Eleanor was also proposed as a marriage candidate for Antoine, Duke of Lorraine, in 1510. In 1517 Eleanor may have had an affair with Frederick II. Her brother Emperor Charles once discovered her reading a letter from Frederick. Charles forced Eleanor and Frederick to swear in front of an attorney that they were not secretly married and she followed her brother to Spain in 1517. Eleanor married her uncle by marriage, King Manuel I of Portugal, after a marriage with her cousin the Crown Prince. Her brother Charles arranged the marriage between Eleanor and the King of Portugal to avoid the possibility of Portuguese assistance for any rebellion in Castile, Manuel had previously been married to two of Eleanors maternal aunts. Manuel and Eleanor married on 16 July 1518 and they had two children, the Infante Charles and the Infanta Maria. She became a widow on 13 December 1521, when Manuel died of the plague, as Queen Dowager of Portugal, Eleanor returned to the court of Charles in Spain. Eleanors sister Catherine later married Eleanors stepson, King John III of Portugal, in July 1523, Eleanor was engaged to Charles III, Duke of Bourbon, in an alliance between Charles and Bourbon against France, but the marriage never took place. In 1526, Eleanor was engaged to King Francis I of France during his captivity in Spain, in 1529, by the treaty called La Paz de las Damas, it was stipulated that the marriage should take place. She was married to Francis on 4 July 1530, Eleanor left Spain in the company of her future stepsons, who were now to be released having been held hostage by her brother. The group met Francis at the border, where Eleanor and Francis were married, Eleanor was crowned Queen of France in Saint-Denis on 31 May 1531. She was dressed in purple velvet at her coronation, Eleanor was ignored by Francis, who seldom performed his marital obligations and preferred his lover Anne de Pisseleu dHeilly. At the official entrance of Eleanor to Paris, Francis displayed himself openly to the public in a window with his lover Anne for a period of two hoursEleanor of Austria – Eleanor of Austria
19. Mariana of Austria – Mariana of Austria was Queen consort of Spain as the second spouse of King Philip IV, who was also her maternal uncle. At the death of her husband in 1665, Queen Mariana became regent for her son Charles II, the last Spanish Habsburg, born as Maria Anna on 24 December 1634 in Wiener Neustadt, Austria, she was the granddaughter of Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II. Her parents were Ferdinand III and Maria Anna of Spain, the sister of Maria Annas future husband, King Philip IV of Spain. Her father, who would become emperor in 1637, was as yet only King of Hungary and Bohemia and her grandfather Emperor Ferdinand II died when she was 3 and her father became Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III. Maria Anna, was the second of six children, three of which died in early childhood and her oldest brother, Ferdinand IV of Hungary died young. Only Maria Anna and her brother, the future Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I. Maria Anna was destined from her years to continue the policy of intermarriage between the two branches of the Habsburg family, the Austrian and the Spanish. In 1646 Maria Anna, then eleven years old, was engaged to her Spanish Habsburg first cousin Balthasar Charles, Prince of Asturias, however, he died only three months later age 16. With Balthasar Charless death, Philip IV was left without a male heir, Philip was a widower, as his beautiful and beloved French wife, Elisabeth of France, had just died a few years prior. The forty-four-year-old Philip decided to marry his fourteen-year-old niece himself, after a marriage by proxy, they were wedded on 7 October 1649 in Navalcarnero, near Madrid, and spent their wedding night at El Escorial. From then on, she went by her name in Spanish, Mariana and Philips marriage was not a happy one due to both Philips infidelities and the age difference between them. Mariana had nothing to do with governance while her husband reigned, instead she buried herself in religion to an extent that was excessive even for her time and place. Mariana and Philips marriage produced five children, however, only two lived into adulthood. Their first child was Margaret Theresa, who was born on 12 July 1651, just as her mother did, she went on to marry her own maternal uncle Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor. In 1655, Mariana then had another daughter, Maria Ambrosia de la Concepción, during this time, there were those at court who wanted Philip to officially name his eldest daughter, Maria Theresa, as his heir, as she was already heir presumptive according to Spanish tradition. Mariana began feeling the pressure to have a son, eventually, her first son, Philip Prospero, was born on 28 November 1657, who was joyously received. She then gave birth to the Infante Ferdinand Thomas in 1658, sadly, her son Philip Prospero died in 1661. But that same year, Mariana gave birth to her last child, Charles was born physically and mentally disabledMariana of Austria – Mariana in 1652 by Velázquez, Prado Museum, Madrid.
20. Anne of Austria, Queen of Poland – Anne of Austria was queen consort of Poland and Sweden by marriage to King Sigismund III Vasa. Anne was a daughter of Charles II of Austria and Maria Anna of Bavaria and her paternal grandparents were Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and Anne of Bohemia, daughter of King Ladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary and his wife Anne of Foix-Candale. Anne became the first wife of Sigismund of Poland on 31 May 1592 and this marriage was opposed by many nobles of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, who were opposed to the alliance with the Austrian Habsburgs that Sigismund pursued. Anne evaded the guards, arrived in Kraków and was crowned in May 1592 by Primas Karnkowski as the Queen of Poland, in 1594, she followed her spouse to Sweden, where she was crowned as the Queen of Sweden in Uppsala the 19 February. 19 April 1594, she gave birth to a daughter, whose baptism was celebrated at the Swedish court. During her stay in Sweden, she involved in a conflict with Dowager Queen Gunilla Bielke. She accused Gunilla for having stolen valuables from the Royal Palace and she was regarded as quite polite but distant and depressive during her stay. She did not speak Swedish, and she regarded the Swedish people as heretics and rebels, at her departure from Sweden in July 1594, she was granted Linköping, Söderköping and Stegeborg on the condition that she respect the Protestant belief within these feifs. Anne and Sigismund fell in love and Anne gained the friendship and respect of many of her enemies with her politeness. Sigismund III then married her sister Constance Renate of Habsburg, http, //runeberg. org/sqvinnor/0024. html Europe in the sixteenth-century, Andrew Pettegree,2002, ISBN 0-631-20704-X Den svenska historien. Riket formas, Gunvor Grenholm, Jan Cornell, Jerker Rosén, Sten Carlsson and Svenolov Ehrén,1978, ISBN 91-0-042667-9Anne of Austria, Queen of Poland – Anna of Austria in Spanish dress, portrait by Martin Kober
21. Constance of Austria – Constance of Austria was queen of Poland as the second wife of King Sigismund III Vasa and the mother of King John II Casimir. Constance was a daughter of Charles II of Austria and Maria Anna of Bavaria and her paternal grandparents were Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and Anna of Bohemia and Hungary. Anne was the daughter of King Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary. Her maternal grandparents were Albert V, Duke of Bavaria and Anne Habsburg of Austria, Constance was also a younger sister of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, Margaret of Austria, Leopold V of Austria and Anna of Austria. Her older sister Anna was the first wife of king Sigismund III Vasa, after her death Constance and Sigismund were married on December 11,1605. They had seven children, John Casimir, John Casimir, who reigned during 1648–1668 as John II Casimir. Queen Constance was an ambitious politician, immediately after the wedding, she made efforts to influence policy. She built a strong faction of followers by arranging marriages between her handmaidens and powerful nobles and she represented the interests of the Habsburg family in Poland, and influenced the appointments of positions in the court, government and church. Her closest confidant was Urszula Meyerin, Constance was proficient in Spanish, Latin and Italian. She learned Polish after the wedding but rarely used it and she was very religious and went to Mass twice a day. She also was a patron of clerics, painters and architects and she financed the buildings of several palaces for her children, but she was also described as an economic person. In 1623 Constance bought Żywiec from Mikołaj Komorowski, which was forbidden by law to the members of the Royal Family, some time later she made it forbidden for Jews to settle in the city. Constance wished to secure the succession of her own son to the rather than the son of her sister. Urszula Meyerin Golub-Dobrzyń The Stockholm Roll, Entry of the Wedding Procession of Constance of Austria and Sigismund III into Kraków in 1605Constance of Austria – Portrait by Pieter Soutman
22. Cecilia Renata of Austria – Archduchess Cecilia Renata of Austria was Queen of Poland as consort to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealths King Władysław IV Vasa. Cecilia Renata was a daughter of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, of the House of Habsburg, born in 1611 in Graz, she was chosen as bride by the Polish nobility. She married Władysław on 9 August in Vienna by proxy, and then in Warsaw in person on 12 September 1637, and this was the first royal coronation outside of Kraków, the historic, former capital of Poland, and this greatly angered the Polish nobility. A law was instigated to reserve coronations to Kraków in 1638, young and energetic, she soon began organising the royal court to her liking. She was popular, especially for her politeness, one noble wrote in his memoirs that she insisted other women sit with her, even though she was queen. Cecilia could not remove her husbands mistress, Hedwig Łuszkowska, by herself, in 1638, Cecilia and Władysław visited Vienna. Cecilia advocated the Habsburg and pro-Catholic point of view and allied herself with the faction of chancellor Jerzy Ossoliński. Her political opponent at the court was the faction of Adam Kazanowski, whose influence over King Władysław, his childhood friend, Kazanowski was allied with Chancellor Piotr Gembicki, who thus became one of her opponents. Her influence was strong for the first 2–3 years of marriage, after 1638/1639 when Władysław realised that Habsburgs were prepared to give him little assistance, her power waned, and he started to disregard her advice. Cecilia kept in contact with her brothers and continued an attachment with them. On 23 March 1644 Cecilia Renata gave birth her third child and she died next day as a consequence of an infection, likely related to her recent childbirth. Following her sudden death, Cecilia Renata was deeply mourned by both Władysław and the Royal Polish court and she also left a good impression on the public, mostly for her piety and good will. The Significance of the Crown Portrait of King Sigismund II Augustus by Peter Danckerts de RijCecilia Renata of Austria – Cecilia Renata of Austria
23. Maria Carolina of Austria – Maria Carolina of Austria was Queen of Naples and Sicily as the wife of King Ferdinand IV & III. She was a proponent of enlightened absolutism until the advent of the French Revolution, born an Austrian archduchess, the thirteenth child of Empress Maria Theresa and Emperor Francis I, she married Ferdinand as part of an Austrian alliance with Spain, where Ferdinands father was king. Following the birth of an heir in 1775, Maria Carolina was admitted to the Privy Council. Thereafter, she dominated it until 1812, when she was sent back to Vienna, like her mother, Maria Carolina took pains to make politically advantageous marriages for her children. Maria Carolina promoted Naples as a centre of the arts, patronising painters Jacob Philipp Hackert and Angelica Kauffman and academics Gaetano Filangieri, Domenico Cirillo and Giuseppe Maria Galanti. Maria Carolina, abhorring her sister Marie Antoinettes treatment by the French, allied Naples with Britain and Austria during the Napoleonic, as a result of a failed Neapolitan invasion of French-occupied Rome, she fled to Sicily with her husband in December 1798. One month later, the Parthenopean Republic was declared, which repudiated Bourbon rule in Naples for six months. Deposed as Queen of Naples for a time by French forces, in 1806, Maria Carolina died in Vienna in 1814. Her godparents were King Louis XV of France and his wife, Maria Carolina was the daughter who resembled her mother most. Maria Carolina formed a close bond with her youngest sister. From very early on they shared the same governess Countess Lerchenfeld, a testament to their closeness is the fact that when one caught an illness the other did too. In August 1767 Maria Theresa separated the two girls, hitherto raised together under the auspices of Countess Marie von Brandis, because of their bad behaviour. Soon after in October of the year, Maria Carolinas sister Maria Josepha, destined to marry Ferdinand IV of Naples as part of an alliance with Spain. Anxious to save the Austro-Spanish alliance Charles III of Spain, father of Ferdinand IV, the Empress offered the court of Madrid, negotiating on behalf of that of Naples, Maria Amalia or Maria Carolina. Because Maria Amalia was five years older than his son Charles III opted for the latter, Maria Carolina reacted badly to her engagement, crying, entreating and saying that Neapolitan marriages were unlucky. Her objections, however, did not delay her preparation for her new role as Queen of Naples by the Countess of Lerchenfeld, nine months later, on 7 April 1768, Maria Carolina married Ferdinand IV of Naples by proxy, her brother Ferdinand representing the bride-groom. The fifteen-year-old Queen of Naples journeyed at leisure from Vienna to Naples, making stops at Mantua, Bologna, Florence and she entered the Kingdom of Naples on 12 May 1768, disembarking at Terracina, where she took leave of her native attendants. To the Countess of Lerchenfeld, she wrote, I love him only out of duty, Ferdinand, too, was not taken with her, declaring, after their first night together, She sleeps like the dead and sweats like a pigMaria Carolina of Austria – Maria Carolina, Queen of Naples and Sicily, by Martin van Meytens, ca. 1770.
24. Marie Henriette of Austria – Marie Henriette of Austria was queen consort of the Belgians. She was married to King Leopold II of Belgium, marie Henriette was one of five children from the marriage of Archduke Joseph, Palatine of Hungary, and Duchess Maria Dorothea of Württemberg. Marie Henriette was a cousin of Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria, when she was 16, she married 18-year-old Prince Leopold of Belgium, the heir to the throne, on 22 August 1853. The marriage was arranged to strengthen the status of the Belgian Monarchy, Henriette was a vivid and energetic person interested in riding. Pauline de Metternich wrote that theirs was a marriage between a stable-boy and a nun, and by nun I mean the Duke of Brabant, Henriette is said to have had a terrible temperament. The marriage became unhappy, and the couple lived more or less separate lives, after the death of their son in 1869, the couple separated completely after having made a last attempt to have another son, which, however, resulted in their daughter Clementine. She gave her daughters a very strict upbringing and her main interest was in her Hungarian horses. She lived most of her unhappy and discontented. In 1895 she retreated to Spa, her youngest daughter Clementine replaced her as first lady at the Court in Brussels for the remainder of her husbands life. Marie Henriette died at the Hôtel du Midi in Spa, she had bought the house in 1895 after separating with her husband and she was buried in the Royal Crypt at the Church of Our Lady of Laeken in Brussels. Her husband later married his mistress Caroline Delacroix and she was the 607th Dame of the Royal Order of Queen Maria Luisa. Marie Henriette also held the Royal Order of Victoria and AlbertMarie Henriette of Austria – Queen Marie Henriette.
25. Catherine of Austria, Queen of Portugal – Catherine of Austria was Queen of Portugal as wife of King John III, and regent during the minority of her grandson, King Sebastian, from 1557 until 1562. An Infanta of Castile and Archduchess of Austria, Catherine was the daughter of King Philip I by Queen Joanna of Castile. Catherine was born in Torquemada and named in honor of her maternal aunt and she remained with her mentally unstable mother until her eldest siblings, Eleanor and the future Emperor Charles V, arrived at Spain, coming from Flanders. All of her five siblings, except Ferdinand, were born in the Low Countries and had been put into the care of their aunt Margaret of Austria. Catherine actually stayed with her mother during imprisonment at Tordesillas during her grandfather Ferdinand of Aragons time as regent, when the time came for her to marry, Catherine was released from the custody that her mother was to endure until her death. On 10 February 1525, Catherine married her first cousin, King John III of Portugal and they had nine children, but only two survived early childhood. After the death of her husband in 1557, she was challenged by her daughter-in-law and niece, Joan of Austria, over the role of regent for her grandchild, the infant King Sebastian. Mediation by Charles V resolved the issue in favour of his sister Catherine over his daughter Joan and she then served as the regent of Portugal from 1557 until 1562. In 1562, she turned over the regency to Henry of Portugal, Catherine had one of the earliest and finest Chinese porcelain collections in Europe due to her position as both the youngest sister of Emperor Charles V and the Queen of Portugal. Her collection became the first kunstkammer on the Iberian Peninsula and she was following a tradition established earlier by the Portuguese King Manuel I of Portugal who had purchased porcelain for his wife, Maria of Castile, who was Catherines aunt. Catherine has no descendants today, as both her grandchildren died childless and her line of descent became extinct within six months of her death, as the only descendant of hers that survived her, King Sebastian of Portugal, died in August 1578Catherine of Austria, Queen of Portugal – Catherine of Portugal; Anthonis Mor, 1552.
26. Joanna of Austria, Princess of Portugal – Joanna of Austria was the mother of Sebastian of Portugal, and later regent of Spain for her brother, Philip II of Spain. She was born in Madrid to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and her siblings were King Philip II of Spain and Maria, Holy Roman Empress. Among others, Joanna held the titles of an Archduchess of Austria, Infanta of Castile and of Aragon, joannas only child, Sebastian of Portugal, was born posthumously in 1554, a couple of weeks after her husbands death at the age of 16. Shortly after Sebastians birth, Joanna was called back to Madrid by her brother Philip to act as regent during his absence in England and she filled this role with intelligence and efficiency. Joanna never remarried and never returned to Portugal and she never saw her son Sebastian again, although she sent him letters and had portraits of him painted at various ages so she could see what he looked like. This convent is now a monument and holds an art collection. It was founded in the palace where Joanna was born. Joanna repeatedly intervened in favor of the new order of the Jesuits, in 1555, she is reputed to have been admitted surreptitiously to the male-only Jesuit order under the name of a pseudonym, Mateo SánchezJoanna of Austria, Princess of Portugal – Joanna of Austria; Sánchez Coello, 1557.
27. Karl von Habsburg – Born in Starnberg, Germany in 1961, he is the son of Otto von Habsburg and Princess Regina of Saxe-Meiningen, and the grandson of the last Austrian emperor, Charles I. He served as a Member of the European Parliament for the Austrian Peoples Party 1996–1999, like his father, he is known as an advocate for the Pan-European movement. Since 1986, Karl von Habsburg has been president of the Austrian branch of the Paneuropean Union, after studying law for 12 years, in 1992/1993, he hosted a TV game show with Austrian public TV broadcaster ORF, called Who Is Who. In October 1996, he was elected to the European Parliament for the Austrian Peoples Party and his father exacerbated the controversy when he complained that his son was being attacked unfairly and drew a parallel between the name Habsburg and a yellow badge. ÖVP did not nominate Karl von Habsburg again for the 1999 elections, in 2004, Karl von Habsburg paid 37,000 euros to the new World Vision Austria branch. On 19 January 2002, he was appointed Director General of UNPO by the UNPO Steering Committee, since 7 December 2008, he is the President of the Association of National Committees of the Blue Shield. In 1961, his father Otto von Habsburg renounced all claims to the Austrian throne, as a necessary legal condition to being allowed to return to Austria. On 30 November 2000, Karls father transferred over to him the position of head and sovereign of the Order of the Golden Fleece and in 2008 he also became the Grand Master of the Order of St. George. In 2005, Karl von Habsburg filed a lawsuit before Austrias constitutional court after a failed attempt to have former properties of the Habsburg family returned. The familys estates had been expropriated by the First Republic, this had in part been reverted under Austrofascism, the family tried to get their former property returned under rules for victims of the Nazi regime. The attempt failed because the law of expropriation still has constitutional status, on 1 January 2007, his father relinquished his position as the head of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, a status which then devolved on Karl. Karl von Habsburg is one of the three co-founders of BG Privatinvest, a Vienna-based investment company, in December 2010 the company acquired the two most important Bulgarian daily newspapers, Dneven Trud and 24 Chasa. After ongoing conflicts with Bulgarian partners, BG Privatinvest sold the newspapers in April 2011, since 2009, Karl von Habsburg is a shareholder in a media group in the Netherlands, consisting of radio stations, a magazine and a music television channel. Karl von Habsburg was born in Germany and he was baptised in Pöcking, Bavaria, as Archduke Karl of Austria, the name entered in the baptismal records. At the time of his birth, his father was de facto stateless and possessed a Spanish diplomatic passport, like his father and siblings, he was banished from Austria for the first years of his life. The Austrian Republic was later forced to repeal the banishment of him and his family and he has lived in Salzburg, Austria, since 1981. He resides in Casa Austria, formerly called Villa Swoboda, in Anif, Karl and Francesca separated in 2003. The diadem belonged to his wife who intended to wear it at a wedding ceremonyKarl von Habsburg – Karl von Habsburg
28. Margaret of Austria, Queen of Spain – Margaret of Austria was Queen consort of Spain and Portugal by her marriage to King Philip III and II. Margaret was the daughter of Archduke Charles II of Austria, the son of Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I and Anne of Bohemia, Margarets mother was Maria Anna of Bavaria. Her elder brother was the Archduke Ferdinand, who succeeded as Emperor in 1619, two of her sisters, Anna and Constance, through their subsequent marriages to King Sigismund III Vasa, became Queens of Poland. Margaret married Philip III of Spain, her first cousin, once-removed, on 18 April 1599, Philip had an affectionate, close relationship with Margaret, and paid her additional attention after she bore him a son in 1605. Margaret was also a great patroness of the arts and she was considered by contemporaries to be a very pious Catholic and astute and very skillful in her political dealings. They emphasised Spains status as a Catholic power acting in the interest of Catholic Europe and they were successful, for example, in convincing Philip to provide financial support to Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II. Queen Margaret was melancholic and unhappy about the influence of the Duke, whom she considered corrupt, over her husband, the Duke of Lerma was eventually removed from power in 1618, though only after Margarets death. Margaret died while giving birth to her youngest child, Alfonso and her husband never remarried and died ten years later. Sánchez, Pious and Political Images of a Habsburg Woman at the Court of Philip III, in, Magdalena S. Sánchez and Alain Saint-Saëns, Spanish women in the golden age, images and realitiesMargaret of Austria, Queen of Spain – Margaret of Austria, 1609, by Bartolomé González y Serrano
29. Infanta Catherine Michelle of Spain – Catherine Michelle of Spain was a Duchess consort of Savoy by marriage to Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy, she also served as Regent of Savoy several times during the absence of her spouse. She was the youngest surviving daughter of Philip II of Spain and Elisabeth of Valois, she was also the sister of Isabella Clara Eugenia, catherine Michelle was described as beautiful, intelligent, arrogant and well aware of her high social status. She had a relationship with her father and exchanged letters with him after her marriage. Charles Emmanuel I suggested the marriage as a way of gaining Spanish support for his plans to expand Savoy on the coast of the then weakened France, the wedding took place in Zaragoza on 11 March 1585 and the couple made their entrance to Turin in Savoy 10 August 1585. Catherine Michelle was initially unpopular because of her arrogance and attempts to introduce Spanish pomp, ceremony, however, she soon gained respect because of her political and diplomatic skill, which she used to defend the autonomy of Savoy against Spain. She refused the Spanish offer to install a Spanish garrison in Turin from Milan with the excuse of giving her a life guard and she is reported to have had great influence on Charles Emmanuel I and to have reformed him for the better. She also served as regent several times during the absence of the duke on military campaigns, catherine Michelle died near the end of 1597, she had miscarried earlier that year. Her father died the following year and her sister Isabella married Albert VII, Archduke of Austria, and later became Governess of the Netherlands. In 1584, she married Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy and this marriage produced ten children, Philip Emanuel Victor Amadeus Emanuel Filibert of Savoy, Spanish Viceroy of SicilyInfanta Catherine Michelle of Spain – Infanta Catherine Michelle
30. Maria Christina, Duchess of Teschen – Maria Christina, Duchess of Teschen, was the fifth child of Maria Theresa of Austria and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. Married in 1766 with Prince Albert of Saxony, they received the Duchy of Teschen and also was appointed Governor of the Austrian Netherlands jointly with her husband during 1781–1789, after two expulsions from the Netherlands, she lived with her husband in Vienna until her death. The fifth child and fourth daughter, Maria Christina was born on the 25th birthday of her mother, on 13 May 1742 at Vienna, Austria. The next day she was baptized in the Hofburg with the names Maria Christina Johanna Josepha Antonia, however, at the Viennese court and she was Maria Theresas favourite child, as can be seen in the letters that the Empress wrote to her. Little is known about her early childhood, in a letter dated 22 March 1747 the Prussian ambassador in Vienna, Count Otto Christoph von Podewils, described the then five-year-old Maria Christina as pretty and witty. The Archduchess, capricious and spirited in her youth, received a particularly loving education from her parents, Maria Christina, too, understood herself very badly with her governess, Princess Maria Charlotte Trautson. However, the Empress only agreed with her desire to change her governess only in 1756, Maria Christinas relationship with her was much better, and a few years later Countess Vasquez was even named Obersthofmeisterin on Maria Christinas household. Beautiful, highly intelligent but also gifted, Maria Christina enjoyed a conscientious education. The Jesuit Father Lachner taught her several languages and history, the Archduchess learned, among other things, perfect Italian and French, which, according to Podewils, she particularly liked to speak, as well as quite good English. She also proved very early as a talented painter, in Schönbrunn Palace were exhibited drawings of the imperial family who testify her great artistic talent. She painted some family members including herself and also copy Genre painting of Dutch and French masters, in early January 1760 arrived to the Imperial court Princes Albert and Clemens of Saxony and both were warmly received by the Emperor and Empress. Prince Albert met the lovely Archduchess on the occasion of a concert, in which she participated, at the end of January 1760, Albert and Clemens returned from Vienna. In the following years, Maria Christina developed a friendship with Princess Isabella of Parma. Among other things, the two women often played together. While her husband loved her deeply, she was cold towards him. On the contrary, for Maria Christina she had a heartfelt affection, Maria Christina made a formal description of Isabella, in which she portrayed here as amiable, kind, and generous, but she also did not spare her weaknesses. The early demise of her sister-in-law on 27 November 1763 following childbirth complications, in December 1763, Prince Albert of Saxony returned to Vienna to showed his condolences to the Imperial family for Isabella of Parmas death. He became a friend of the late Isabella after her marriage with the future Joseph II and, as he noted in his diaryMaria Christina, Duchess of Teschen – Maria Christina
31. Margaret Theresa of Spain – Margaret Theresa of Spain, was by marriage Holy Roman Empress, German Queen, Archduchess consort of Austria, Queen consort of Hungary and Bohemia. Margaret Theresa was born on 12 July 1651 in Madrid as the first child of King Philip IV of Spain born from his marriage with his niece Archduchess Mariana of Austria. Because of this marriage, Margarets mother was nearly thirty years younger than her father. On her fathers side, Margarets grandparents were King Philip III of Spain, on her mothers side her grandparents were Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor and his wife Infanta Maria Anna of Spain. The marriage of her parents was purely made for reasons, mainly the search for a new male heir for the Spanish throne after the early death of Balthasar Charles. Besides him, the only surviving child of Philip IVs first marriage was the Infanta Maria Theresa. After Margaret, between 1655 and 1661, four children were born from the marriage between Philip IV and Mariana of Austria, but only one survived infancy, the future King Charles II of Spain. Margaret didnt develop the health issues and disabilities that her younger brother showed since his birth. During her childhood she was seriously ill, but survived. According to contemporaries, Margaret had an appearance and lively character. Her parents and close friends called her the little angel and she grew up in the Queens chambers in the Royal Alcazar of Madrid surrounded by many maids and servants. The Infanta loved candies, which she hid from the physicians who cared for the health of her teeth. Margarets father and maternal grandfather Emperor Ferdinand III love her deeply, in his private letters King Philip IV called her my joy. At the same time, Margaret was brought up in accordance with the etiquette of the Madrid court. In the second half of the 1650s at the court in Vienna the necessity developed for another dynastic marriage between the Spanish and Austrian branches of the House of Habsburg. The union was needed to strengthen the position of countries, especially against the Kingdom of France. At first the proposals were for Maria Theresa, the eldest daughter of Philip IV, to marry the heir of the Holy Roman Empire, then began discussion about a marriage between Margaret and the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I. However, the Madrid court hesitated to agree with this proposal, Philip IV already planned to give his younger daughter in marriage to King Charles II of England, in order to prevent his marriage with Catherine of BraganzaMargaret Theresa of Spain – Margarita Teresa in 1667, by Jan Thomas van Ieperen, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna
32. Maria Josepha of Austria – Maria Josepha of Austria was born an Archduchess of Austria, and from 1711 to 1717 was heir presumptive to the Habsburg Empire. By her marriage to Augustus III of Poland she was the Electress of Saxony, Maria Josepha was born in Vienna, an Archduchess of Austria as the eldest child of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor, and Princess Wilhelmina Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg. A marriage between Maria Josepha and Frederick Augustus II, Elector of Saxony had been suggested by Fredericks father, August II the Strong, the fact that Maria Josepha was not allowed to marry a non-Catholic, however, prevented the marriage. When Augustus converted to Catholicism in 1712, the negotiations became serious, on 20 August 1719, Maria Josepha and Frederick Augustus married. The couples eldest surviving son, Frederick Christian, eventually succeeded his father as Elector of Saxony, in Saxony, the couple lived at Dresden Castle. The marriage has been described as happy, and Augustus was apparently never unfaithful, in 1733, Frederick Augustus was elected King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth as August III the Saxon. Maria Josepha was crowned 20 January 1734, Queen Maria Josepha was described as ambitious, intelligent and religious. She founded many churches and convents and gave her support to the Polish Jesuits. As queen of Poland and electress of Saxony, she divided her time between the two nations and she learned to speak Polish, and was often present during the assemblies of the Polish parliament. She shared an interest of music, art and hunting with her spouse and she was devoted to Catholicism and especially worshipped saint Francis Xavier, and was actively involved in the building of the Catholic Hofkirche in Dresden. Her personal confessor, the Jesuit Fr, despite her personal strict moral, she was reportedly not a prude and got along quite nicely with the illegitimate half siblings of her spouse. She was rivalled in her influence over her spouse by Heinrich von Brühl, Queen Maria Josepha was politically active and, though not formally proclaimed regent during the absence of her spouse, she informally acted as his representative. It was known and acknowledged by the court that she participated in the affairs of state, and she also managed a large diplomatic correspondence. Maria Josepha was reportedly not on terms with her eldest son Frederick Christian. During the War of the Austrian Succession in 1740, she claimed the throne on behalf of her spouse and she relinquished her claim in favor of her sister, Maria Amalias spouse, and in 1742 made an alliance with Austria. During the seven years war, Maria Josepha stayed behind in Dresden with Frederick Christian and his spouse Maria Antonia and she remained in Dresden when the city was taken by the Prussian army. She, as well as Frederick Christian and his spouse Maria Antonia, were all placed under house arrest at the palace of Dresden guarded by a Prussian commandant, on 4 April 1757, her Mistress of the Chamber, Countess Ogilvy, was arrested. Her last letter of 6 September was sent to the Austrian empress through her son, in which she also mentions that this would be her lastMaria Josepha of Austria – Maria Josepha of Austria
33. Maria Anna of Spain – Maria Anna of Spain, was by birth Infanta of Spain and by marriage Holy Roman Empress and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia as the wife of Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor. Of her seven siblings, only four survived infancy, Anna, Philip IV of Spain, Charles, Maria Annas parents had a close kinship, her father was her mothers first cousin once-removed. From early childhood, Maria Anna has played an important role in the projects of her father. London and Madrid began active negotiations, the possible marriage between the Prince of Wales and the Spanish Infanta, was known in history under the name Spanish Match, and caused an internal political crisis in both England and Scotland. In 1623 the Prince of Wales, accompanied by George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, however, Maria Anna did not wish to marry a Protestant and Charles would not convert to Catholicism. At the end, the wedding never took place not only for political reasons, Charles eventually married Henrietta Maria of France. At the end of 1626 Maria Anna was betrothed to the brother of her first fiance, Ferdinand. The formal engagement was preceded by a series of negotiations which were conducted in 1625 and that same year, Prince Ferdinand was crowned King of Hungary, and in 1627 King of Bohemia. In the negotiations were included all the aspects of the Infanta at the court of her future spouse. Despite the desire of the groom that Maria Annas confessor would be the Jesuit Ambrosio Penalosa, Maria Anna had left Madrid for Vienna in December 1629. The travel took more than a year, enroute by sea, in Genoa complications arose due to an epidemic of the plague that erupted in the Italian Peninsula. For this reason, the cortege was unable to stop in Bologna, the cortege moved to Naples, where Maria Anna finally received the award. Leaving the Kingdom of Naples, the Infanta crossed the Papal States, on this section of her journey Maria Anna was accompanied by Roman aristocracy, led by another nephew of Pope Urban VIII, Taddeo Barberini, Prince of Palestrina. On 26 January 1631 she arrived in Trieste, where she met Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria, her future brother-in-law and that day, Maria Anna was married to King Ferdinand of Hungria-Bohemia per procura with Archduke Leopold Wilhelm serving as the proxy. Before the official wedding, King Ferdinand, not trusting the previous portraits that he had seen of the Infanta, the Royal oberhofmeister asked for an audience with Maria Anna, on this visit, he was accompanied by some nobles, among whom was her groom. Struck by the beauty of the Infanta, King Ferdinand immediately revealed his identity, the love and respect that the future emperor felt for his wife lasted through all their marriage. He was never unfaithful to her or had illegitimate children, in Vienna on 20 February 1631 Maria Anna was formally married with King Ferdinand of Hungary-Bohemia, with festivities lasting a month. The marriage was described as friendly, Maria Anna was described as happy-tempered, friendly, and intelligent, and she able to ease the feelings of the melancholic FerdinandMaria Anna of Spain – ' Infanta Maria Anna of Austria, future Empress ' by Velazquez, 1630.
34. Archduchess Marie Astrid of Austria – Her godparents were King Leopold III of Belgium and Grand Duchess Charlotte of Luxembourg. In her youth, as one of the few eligible royal princesses from European reigning houses, she was considered a candidate by match makers for marriage to Charles. Media reports in the 1970s regularly speculated about the prospects of such a marriage and it has been since suggested that the marriage rumours were a result of efforts to detect a leaker in the Privy Council. In reality, a marriage between the British heir and the Roman Catholic princess was unlikely, as the terms of the Act of Settlement 1701 would have had to have been repealed or modified, the archduchess studied in Luxembourg and also in Belgium. She received her diploma as a nurse in 1974, and finished her education in 1977. She has been the President of the Red Cross for Luxembourg Youth since 1970 and they have three sons, Count Léopold Menno Philippe Gabriel François-Xavier Marie Joseph Ghislain de Limburg-Stirum. Archduke Imre Emanuel Simeon Jean Carl Marcus dAviano of Austria married on 8 September 2012 Kathleen Walker in Washington and they have two daughters, Archduchess Maria-Stella Elizabeth Christiana Yolande Alberta of Austria. Archduchess Magdalena Maria Alexandra Zita Charlotte of Austria, Archduke Christoph Henri Alexander Maria Marcus dAviano of Austria he married Adélaide Drapé Frisch on 28 December 2012 and 29 December 2012. They have a daughter, Archduchess Katarina Marie-Christine Fabiola of Austria Archduke Alexander Hector Marie Karl Leopold Marcus dAviano of Austria, Archduchess Gabriella Maria Pilar Yolande Joséphine Charlotte of Austria. Marie-Astrid is also godmother to Guillaume, Hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Archduke Joseph of Austria, Archduchess Marie-Astrid and her family live quietly, occasionally appearing at royal weddings and similar events. Marie Astrids two eldest grandchildren are the children of Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia and her grandson is the heir-apparent to Imperial throne of Prussia, iran, Commemorative Medal of the 2500th Anniversary of the founding of the Persian Empire. Spain, Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Isabella the CatholicArchduchess Marie Astrid of Austria – Grand Ducal Family of Luxembourg
35. Elisabeth of Austria, Queen of France – Elisabeth of Austria was Queen of France from 1570 to 1574 as the wife of King Charles IX. A member of the House of Habsburg, she was the daughter of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, Elisabeth was the fifth child and second daughter of her parents sixteen children, of whom eight survived infancy. During her childhood, she lived with her older sister Anna and younger brother Matthias in a pavilion in the gardens of the newly built Stallburg and they enjoyed a privileged and secluded childhood, and were raised in the Roman Catholic religion. Her father Maximilian visited her often and Elisabeth seems to have been his favorite child and she resembled him, not only in appearance but also in character, Elisabeth was just as intelligent and charming as her father. With her flawless skin, long blond hair and perfect physique. She was also regarded as demure, pious, and warmhearted but naive, Elisabeths brothers were educated by the Flemish writer and diplomat Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq. The curious princess soon joined and even overshadowed them in their studies, very early, around 1559, a match between Elisabeth and the Duke of Orléans, the future King Charles IX of France was suggested. In 1562, the Maréchal de Vieilleville, a member of the French delegation sent to Vienna, after seeing the princess, exclaimed, Your Majesty. Only in 1569, after the failure of plans with Frederick II of Denmark and Sebastian of Portugal. Elisabeth was first married by proxy on 22 October 1570 in the cathedral of Speyer, her uncle, Archduke Ferdinand of Further Austria-Tyrol, after long celebrations, on 4 November she left Austria accompanied by high-ranking German dignitaries, including the Archbishop-Elector of Trier. Before reaching her destination, Elisabeth stayed in Sedan, where her husbands two younger brothers Henry, Duke of Anjou and François, Duke of Alençon, greeted her, Charles was reportedly delighted with the sight of her. King Charles IX of France and Archduchess Elisabeth of Austria were formally married on 26 November 1570 in Mézières, Charles, Cardinal de Bourbon, the occasion was celebrated with immense pomp and extravagance, despite the dire state of French finances. The new queens wedding gown was of cloth of silver sprinkled with pearls, because of the difficult journey and the cold weather, at the beginning of 1571 Elisabeth fell ill. Since the wedding took place far away from Paris, it was only in the spring that the German-French alliance was celebrated again with magnificent feasts in the capital. On 25 March 1571, Elisabeth was consecrated as Queen of France by the Archbishop of Reims at the Basilica of St Denis, the new queen officially entered Paris four days later, on 29 March. Then, she disappeared from public life, Elisabeth was so delighted about her husband that she, to general amusement, did not hesitate to kiss him in front of others. However, the couple had a warm and supportive relationship. Charles realised that the ways of the French Court might shock Elisabeth and, along with his motherElisabeth of Austria, Queen of France – Painting by François Clouet, ca. 1571.
36. Maria Antonia of Austria – Maria Antonia of Austria was the eldest daughter and only surviving child of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I and his wife Margaret Theresa of Spain. She became Electress of Bavaria when she married in 1685, and her birth was the result of the inbreeding chronic in the Habsburg family during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Her father Leopold was her mothers uncle and paternal first cousin once removed. Also, her grandparents, King Philip IV of Spain and Queen Mariana, were uncle. Since her childhood, Maria Antonia was an intelligent and cultivated girl, the last Habsburg king of Spain, Charles II, never fathered any children. During her childhood, it was decided that she would marry her uncle, Charles II. As an alternative, she became a candidate for marriage to Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia, the Duke of Savoy, Maria Antonia finally did marry Maximilian II, the Elector of Bavaria, on 15 July 1685 in Vienna. Their marriage was unhappy, but they did have three children, all of whom died in childhood. Joseph Ferdinands death before that of Charles II, the last Habsburg king of Spain, if he had survived Charles, the European powers likely would have permitted him to accede to the throne of Spain. Leopold Ferdinand of Bavaria died at birth, anton of Bavaria died at birth. Joseph Ferdinand of Bavaria Friedrich Weissensteiner, Liebeshimmel und Ehehöllen - Heyne Taschenbuchverlag 1999 - ISBN 3-453-17853-XMaria Antonia of Austria – Maria Antonia of Austria
37. Kunigunde of Austria – Kunigunde of Austria was an Austrian Archduchess member of the House of Habsburg and by marriage Duchess of Bavaria-Munich and since 1503 over all Bavaria. She was the daughter of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor and his wife Eleanor of Portugal, born in Wiener Neustadt, Kunigunde was the fourth of five children born to the Imperial couple, however, only she and her older brother Maximilian survived to adulthood. She grew up in an informal and open atmosphere, without rigid court etiquette, contrary to former practice, she learned not only to read, write, and embroider, but also received instruction in riding and hunting, astronomy and mathematics. Like most daughters of families, since her early years Kunigunde was involved in the political intrigues of her time. In 1470 King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary requested her hand, however, at the age of fifteen, in 1480, Kunigunde made her formal presentation in Vienna during the visit of George, Duke of Bavaria, called the Rich to Frederick IIIs court. Kunigunde married Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria-Munich in 1487 against the will of her own father, in spite of her resignation from court life, she tried to influence the politics of the state as she acted in favour of the rights of her younger sons. She was in contact with her brother, Emperor Maximilian I. With Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria-Munich she had Seven children, betrothed to Louis V, Elector Palatine, she died before the wedding took place. Sibylle, married in 1511 to Louis V, Elector Palatine, sabina, married in 1511 to Duke Ulrich I of Württemberg. Ernest, an official in Passau, Archbishop in Salzburg. Susanna, married firstly in 1518 to Margrave Casimir of Brandenburg and secondly in 1529 to Otto Henry, Count Palatine of Neuburg, after the death of Albert in 1508 she later joined the Convent of Püttrich which she favoured and lived there until her death in 1520. Women in power Cloister of Püttrich Biography Article in the Biographische Lexikon des Kaiserthums ÖsterreichKunigunde of Austria – Kunigunde of Austria
38. Archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria – Maria Amalia of Austria was the Duchess of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla by marriage. Maria Amalia was a daughter of Empress Maria Theresa and Emperor Francis I and she was thus younger sister to Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor and older sister to Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor, Maria Carolina, Queen of Naples and Marie Antoinette, Queen of France. She was the child of Empress Maria Theresa of Austria and Emperor Francis I. Born at the Hofburg Imperial Palace, she was raised in the Habsburg Viennese court in winter and at Schönbrunn, as her siblings, she was regularly interviewed by her mother. Maria Amalia, as her sisters, was raised to be an ideal consort and taught the arts and how to be obedient, dutiful. Because of her age and the fact that the siblings were raised separated by gender and she did not have a good relationship with her mother, in fact, of all her daughters, Maria Theresa was said to have the worse relationship with Amalia. When she debuted as an adult in the society life in Vienna, one of her paintings, St. Therese and the child Jesus, still exists today in a private collection. Against her will, Amalia was married to Ferdinand of Parma, the marriage was supported by the future Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II, whose first beloved wife had been Ferdinands sister, Princess Isabella of Parma. The Archduchesss marriage to the Duke of Parma was part of a series of contracts that married off Maria Theresas daughters to the King of Naples and Sicily. All three sons-in-law were members of the House of Bourbon, Maria Theresa, however, forbade this and forced her to enter an arranged marriage. This caused a permanent conflict between the Empress and Maria Amalia, who never forgave her mother, Maria Amalia left Austria on 1 July 1769, accompanied by her brother, Joseph II, and married Ferdinand on 19 July, at the Ducal Palace of Colorno. The Duchy of Parma was by this time ruled more or less as a French puppet state by minister Guillaume du Tillot, Du Tillot kept Ferdinand out of politics, and was favored by the maternal grandfather of Duke Ferdinand, Louis XV of France. The marriage had been arranged by Austria and Spain to end the policy in Parma and replace it with an Austrian. Upon her arrival, Maria Amalia was expected to submit to the wishes of Du Tillot, who regarded her with suspicion, which immediately caused a conflict. In 1772, the year after, Maria Amalia fired Jose del Llano and replaced him with an Italian prime minister, after her dismissal of Jose del Llano in 1772, Maria Amalia secured that Parma would not become a Spanish puppet state. In 1773, her mother Empress Maria Theresa appointed count Rosenberg her ambassador in Parma with the task to act as Maria Amalias adviser. Maria Amalia, however, freed Parma also from Austrian influence as she had from French and Spanish, after this, the diplomatic ties with Austria and Spain was cut. As the ruler of Parma, Maria Amalia was referred to by the public as La Signora, from the beginning of her stay in Parma, Maria Amalia caused a scandal with her personal lifestyleArchduchess Maria Amalia of Austria – Maria Amalia by Martin van Meytens
39. Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria (governor) – Maria Anna was born at the Hofburg Imperial Palace in Vienna. Her birth was not well received by her father and she and her sister Maria Theresa were the only children of Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, and Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel to survive into adulthood. The two sisters were raised in the Kaiserhof in Vienna, during her youth she met her future brother in law, Francis Stephen of Lorraine and his younger brother Charles Alexander of Lorraine. The two princes were staying in Austria having an education, their mother Élisabeth Charlotte dOrléans was in France. In 1725, negotiations with the Queen of Spain, Elisabeth Farnese had Maria Anna as a wife of Philip, Duke of Parma. This match was supposed to smooth relations with Spain. An alliance of Spain and Austria was signed on 30 April 1725 and thus guaranteed the Pragmatic Sanction of the Habsburgs, based on the terms of the treaty, the Austrian Empire relinquished all claims to the Spanish throne. It also agreed that Spain would invade Gibraltar with the help of the Austrians, despite this, the Anglo-Spanish War stopped the ambitions of Elisabeth of Parma and with the signing of the Treaty of Seville saw the abandonment of the Austro-Spanish marriage plans. She fell in love with Charles Alexander of Lorraine, the brother of Maria Theresas husband. There was considerable resistance to their marriage, not least the wish of her father for a more important son-in-law. It was only after their fathers death that Elizabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel gave the approval for the marriage, the marriage was recognised by Letters Patent signed on 8 January. Weeks after the marriage, the couple were appointed governors of the Austrian Netherlands in succession of their aunt Archduchess Maria Elisabeth of Austria, who had died in 1741. The couple left Vienna on 3 February and arrived in Westwezel, Karl Ferdinand was a member of the Supreme council of the Netherlands and had to receive Prince Charles and Maria Anna due to etiquette. Their arrival was greeted with much celebration, a ceremony had been organised for their arrival, this included a Te Deum and a collection of balls and banquets. Charles left officially on 4 May, while alone in Brussels, Maria Anna was helped by the Austrian statesman Count Wenzel Anton Kaunitz-Rietberg. In October 1744 Maria Anna went into labour and gave birth to a stilborn child, both were buried in the Imperial Crypt in Vienna. Charles would remain the Governor until his death in 1780 and he was a very popular governor and died in Brussels like his wifeArchduchess Maria Anna of Austria (governor) – Portrait by Johann Gottfried Auerbach
40. Archduchess Maria Elisabeth of Austria (governor) – Archduchess Maria Elisabeth of Austria, was the governor of the Austrian Netherlands between 1725 and 1741. Maria Elisabeth was a daughter of Emperor Leopold I and Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg and she well educated and fluent in Latin, German, French and Italian. In 1725, she was appointed Prince Eugene of Savoys successor as the regent governor of the Austrian Netherlands by her brother, Maria Elisabeth was described as a forceful administrator and a popular regent. Her independent politics, however, were not always appreciated in Vienna and she suspended the Ostend Company in 1727 and closed it in 1731. She had enough financial means at her disposal to uphold an elaborate court which stimulated culture, among others, she patronized Jean-Joseph Fiocco, her maestro di cappella who dedicated several oratorios to her between 1726 and 1738. The architect Jean-Andre Anneessens designed the palace Mariemont for her, where she spent her summers and she died suddenly and unexpectedly at Mariemont, upon which she was displayed at a public Lit-de-parade in Brussels 29 August. When she died at the age of 61, she was first buried in Brussels, but moved to Vienna in 1749, in, Nouvelle Biographie nationale de Belgique, BdArchduchess Maria Elisabeth of Austria (governor) – Maria Elisabeth of Austria
41. Maria Anna of Austria – Maria Anna of Austria was an Archduchess of Austria and Queen consort of Portugal. She was also Regent of Portugal from 1742 until 1750 during the illness of her husband King John V of Portugal, born Maria Anna Josepha, she was a daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I and Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg. Maria Anna was a sister of Holy Roman Emperors Joseph I, through her brother Charles, she was an aunt of Maria Theresa, Austrias first queen regnant. On 27 October 1708 Maria Anna of Austria married John V and she would cease to be the Queen Consort of Portugal on 31 July 1750, when her husband died. During her time as Queen Consort of Portugal, she acted as regent during times of her husbands illness, once she was head of her household, Maria Anna reformed her court and its customs to follow the traditions and costumes of the traditional Queens of Portugal. Her greatest influence on the court, and Portuguese nobility as a whole, was the increase of segregation between men and women, as well as servants and masters. Like John, Maria Anna had an exubrant taste, and this was best shown in her famous parties, in 1742 Maria Anna took over power as regent after her husband suffered a stroke, which left him partially paralyzed. When John V died on 31 July 1750 she gave up power to their eldest son Joseph I of Portugal and she died while in residence in the Palace of Belém in 1754. After her death, she was buried in Lisbon, but her heart was brought to Vienna, on 27 October 1708 she married her maternal first cousin John V of Portugal to become Queen consort of Portugal. She was the mother of six children, Barbara of Portugal, married Ferdinand VI of Spain, pedro of Portugal, Prince of Brazil, died in infancy. Joseph I of Portugal, married Mariana Victoria of Spain, infante Carlos of Portugal, died in infancy. Peter III of Portugal married Maria I, Queen regnant of Portugal, had issue, infante Alexandre of Portugal, died in infancy. Maria Anna, along with her husband and children, is a character in José Saramagos novel Baltasar. Reis de Portugal, D. João V. Lisbon, Temas & DebatesMaria Anna of Austria – Maria Anna of Austria
42. Adelaide of Austria – Adelaide of Austria was the Queen of Sardinia by marriage to Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia, future King of Italy, from 1849 until 1855 when she died as a result of childbirth. She was the mother of Umberto I of Italy and she was born at the Royal Palace of Milan to Rainer Joseph of Austria and his wife Elisabeth of Savoy. Named Adelaide, or known as Adele in the family, she held the title of Archduchess of Austria and her father was the Viceroy of Lombardy-Venetia and was a son of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria Luisa of Spain. Her mother was a member of the House of Savoy and a daughter of the Prince of Carignano and her younger brother Archduke Rainer Ferdinand later acted as Minister President of Austria. Both of her brothers contracted morganatic marriages, on 12 April 1842, at the Palazzina di caccia di Stupinigi, she married Victor Emmanuel of Savoy. The marriage was used to cement relations between the House of Savoy and that of the House of Habsburg but was viewed by people of the time to increase Austrian power in Italy. Victor Emmanuel was her first cousin and heir apparent to the King of Sardinia and he was styled the Duke of Savoy prior to succession. Adelaide thus took on the style of Duchess of Savoy and she maintained her style of Imperial & Royal Highness till she became Queen. Her husbands mother Maria Theresa of Austria retained great influence over her son throughout his life and her mother-in-law was also her first cousin, both she and Adelaide being grandchildren of Emperor Leopold II. Adelaide and her husband of thirteen years had eight children, four of these went on to have further progeny. Her husband had various extramarital affairs throughout the marriage, Adelaide was a quiet and pious woman and had had a strict upbringing. She was a wife and frequently would give to charity. In March 1849 her father-in-law King Charles Albert abdicated after the events of the Revolutions of 1848 and her husband succeeded as Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia. During her tenure as queen consort she had three children all of which died in infancy. On 8 January 1855 she gave birth to a son who was styled the Count of Genevois, days later Queen Maria Theresa died on 12 January 1855. Adelaide went to the queens funeral on 16 January and returning to the palace caught a cold. She died four days later at the Royal Palace of Turin having had an attack of Gastroenteritis. Another story says that Adelaide died of her burns after stepping on a match set fire to her clothesAdelaide of Austria – Portrait by Benoit Hermogaste Molin
43. Archduchess Clementina of Austria – Clementina of Austria was an Archduchess of Austria and Princess of Salerno upon her marriage to Prince Leopold of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Prince of Salerno. Maria Clementina was a sister of Marie Louise, Empress of France, Ferdinand I of Austria. She was also a sister of Marie Caroline, Crown Princess of Saxony, Archduke Franz Karl of Austria. Henri was the surviving son of King Louis-Philippe of France and his wife Princess Maria Amalia of Naples. Through their daughter, Maria Clementina and Leopoldo had seven grandchildren, however, neither of these grandchildren married or produced children of their own. Maria Clementina died 3 September 1881 at the Chateau de Chantilly, France and she was eighty-three years old, all her descendants having predeceased her. She was buried at the Basilica of Santa Chiara in Naples, Princess Maria Carolina Augusta of the Two Sicilies married Henri dOrléans, Duke of Aumale and had issue, Louis Philippe Marie Léopold dOrléans, Prince of Condé. Henri Léopold Philippe Marie dOrléans, Duke of Guise, françois Paul dOrléans, Duke of Guise. François Louis Philippe Marie dOrléans, Duke of Guise, Prince Lodovico Carlo of The Two Sicilies died in infancy. Spain, The 172nd Dame of the Royal Order of Queen Maria Luisa, media related to Archduchess Marie Clementine of Austria at Wikimedia CommonsArchduchess Clementina of Austria – Clementina of Austria