1. San Francisco – San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is also the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Airbnb, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Yelp, Pinterest, Twitter, Uber, Lyft, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings. The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849. The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships, saloons and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, prostitution, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold RushSan Francisco – San Francisco and the Golden Gate Bridge from Marin Headlands
2. Apple Inc. – Apple is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services. Apples consumer software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the media player, the Safari web browser. Its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store and Mac App Store, Apple Music, Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell personal computers. It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc. in January 1977, Apple joined the Dow Jones Industrial Average in March 2015. In November 2014, Apple became the first U. S. company to be valued at over US$700 billion in addition to being the largest publicly traded corporation in the world by market capitalization. The company employs 115,000 full-time employees as of July 2015 and it operates the online Apple Store and iTunes Store, the latter of which is the worlds largest music retailer. Consumers use more than one billion Apple products worldwide as of March 2016, Apples worldwide annual revenue totaled $233 billion for the fiscal year ending in September 2015. This revenue accounts for approximately 1. 25% of the total United States GDP.1 billion, the corporation receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors and its environmental and business practices, including the origins of source materials. Apple was founded on April 1,1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, the Apple I kits were computers single-handedly designed and hand-built by Wozniak and first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. The Apple I was sold as a motherboard, which was less than what is now considered a personal computer. The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666.66, Apple was incorporated January 3,1977, without Wayne, who sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800. Multimillionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple, during the first five years of operations revenues grew exponentially, doubling about every four months. Between September 1977 and September 1980 yearly sales grew from $775,000 to $118m, the Apple II, also invented by Wozniak, was introduced on April 16,1977, at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differed from its rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because of its character cell-based color graphics. While early Apple II models used ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1/4 inch floppy disk drive and interface called the Disk II. The Apple II was chosen to be the platform for the first killer app of the business world, VisiCalc. VisiCalc created a market for the Apple II and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II. Before VisiCalc, Apple had been a distant third place competitor to Commodore, by the end of the 1970s, Apple had a staff of computer designers and a production lineApple Inc. – Apple Campus (1 Infinite Loop, Cupertino, California)
3. Abner Doubleday – Abner Doubleday was a career United States Army officer and Union general in the American Civil War. He fired the first shot in defense of Fort Sumter, the battle of the war. Gettysburg was his finest hour, but his relief by Maj. Gen. George G. Meade caused lasting enmity between the two men, in San Francisco, after the war, he obtained a patent on the cable car railway that still runs there. In his final years in New Jersey, he was a prominent member and later president of the Theosophical Society, Doubleday has been historically credited with inventing baseball, although this is untrue. Doubleday, the son of Ulysses F. Doubleday and Hester Donnelly, was born in Ballston Spa, New York, in a house on the corner of Washington. As a child, Abner was very short, the family all slept in the attic loft of the one-room house. His paternal grandfather, also named Abner, had fought in the American Revolutionary War and his maternal grandfather Thomas Donnelly joined the army at 14 and was a mounted messenger for George Washington. His great grandfather Peter Donnelly was a Minuteman and his father, Ulysses F. Doubleday, fought in the War of 1812, published newspapers and books, and represented Auburn, New York for four years in the United States Congress. Abner spent his childhood in Auburn and later was sent to Cooperstown to live with his uncle and he practiced as a surveyor and civil engineer for two years before entering the United States Military Academy in 1838. He graduated in 1842, 24th in a class of 56 cadets, in 1852, he married Mary Hewitt of Baltimore. Doubleday initially served in garrisons and then in the Mexican–American War from 1846 to 1848. In 1858 he was transferred to Fort Moultrie in Charleston Harbor serving under Colonel John L. Gardner, by the start of the Civil War, he was a captain and second in command in the garrison at Fort Sumter, under Major Robert Anderson. He aimed the cannon fired the first return shot in answer to the Confederate bombardment on April 12,1861. He subsequently referred to himself as the hero of Sumter for this role and he was appointed brigadier general of volunteers on February 3,1862, and was assigned to duty in northern Virginia while the Army of the Potomac conducted the Peninsula Campaign. His first combat assignment was to lead the 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, Doubleday again led the division, now assigned to the I Corps of the Army of the Potomac, after South Mountain, where Hatch was wounded again. At Antietam, he led his men into the fighting in the Cornfield and the West Woods. Remarkably cool and at the front of battle. He was wounded when a shell exploded near his horseAbner Doubleday – Abner Doubleday, Major General USA
4. Accordion – Accordions are a family of box-shaped musical instruments of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone type, colloquially referred to as a squeezebox. A person who plays the accordion is called an accordionist, the concertina and bandoneón are related, the harmonium and American reed organ are in the same family. The instrument is played by compressing or expanding the bellows while pressing buttons or keys, causing pallets to open and these vibrate to produce sound inside the body. Valves on opposing reeds of each note are used to make the instruments reeds sound louder without air leaking from each reed block. The performer normally plays the melody on buttons or keys on the manual. The accordion is widely spread across the world, nevertheless, in Europe and North America, some popular music acts also make use of the instrument. Additionally, the accordion is used in cajun, zydeco, jazz music. The piano accordion is the official city instrument of San Francisco, the oldest name for this group of instruments is harmonika, from the Greek harmonikos, meaning harmonic, musical. Today, native versions of the accordion are more common. These names refer to the type of accordion patented by Cyrill Demian, accordions have many configurations and types. Similar to a bow, the production of sound in an accordion is in direct proportion to the motion of the player. The bellows is located between the right- and left-hand manuals, and is made from pleated layers of cloth and cardboard, with added leather and metal. It is used to pressure and vacuum, driving air across the internal reeds and producing sound by their vibration. These boxes house reed chambers for the right- and left-hand manuals, each side has grilles in order to facilitate the transmission of air in and out of the instrument, and to allow the sound to better project. The grille for the manual is usually larger and is often shaped for decorative purposes. The right-hand manual is used for playing the melody and the left-hand manual for playing the accompaniment. The manual mechanism of the instrument either enables the air flow, or disables it, the different types have varying components. All instruments have reed ranks of some format, the most typical accordion is the piano accordion, which is used for many musical genresAccordion – A piano accordion (top) and a Russian bayan (bottom)
5. Abbreviation – An abbreviation is a shortened form of a word or phrase. It consists of a group of letters taken from the word or phrase, a contraction is an abbreviation, but an abbreviation is not necessarily a contraction. Acronyms and initialisms are regarded as subsets of abbreviations and they are abbreviations that consist of the initial letters or parts of words. Abbreviations have a history, created so that spelling out a whole word could be avoided. This might be done to time and space, and also to provide secrecy. Shortened words were used and initial letters were used to represent words in specific applications. In classical Greece and Rome, the reduction of words to single letters was common, in Roman inscriptions, Words were commonly abbreviated by using the initial letter or letters of words, and most inscriptions have at least one abbreviation. However, some could have more than one meaning, depending on their context, Abbreviations in English were frequently used from its earliest days. Manuscripts of copies of the old English poem Beowulf used many abbreviations, for example 7 or & for and, the standardisation of English in the 15th through 17th centuries included such a growth in the use of abbreviations. At first, abbreviations were sometimes represented with various suspension signs, for example, sequences like ‹er› were replaced with ‹ɔ›, as in ‹mastɔ› for master and ‹exacɔbate› for exacerbate. While this may seem trivial, it was symptomatic of an attempt by people manually reproducing academic texts to reduce the copy time, an example from the Oxford University Register,1503, Mastɔ subwardenɔ y ɔmēde me to you. And wherɔ y wrot to you the last wyke that y trouyde itt good to differrɔ thelectionɔ ovɔ to quīdenaɔ tinitatis y have be thougħt me synɔ that itt woll be thenɔ a bowte mydsomɔ. The Early Modern English period, between the 15th and 17th centuries, had abbreviations like ye for Þe, used for the word the, hence, by later misunderstanding, during the growth of philological linguistic theory in academic Britain, abbreviating became very fashionable. The use of abbreviation for the names of J. R. R. Tolkien and his friend C. S. Lewis, but before that, many Britons were more scrupulous at maintaining the French form. In French, the period follows a abbreviation if the last letter in the abbreviation is not the last letter of its antecedent. Like many other cross-channel linguistic acquisitions, many Britons readily took this up and followed this rule themselves, while the Americans took a simpler rule and applied it rigorously. Over the years, however, the lack of convention in some style guides has made it difficult to determine which two-word abbreviations should be abbreviated with periods and which should not. The U. S. media tend to use periods in two-word abbreviations like United States, many British publications have gradually done away with the use of periods in abbreviationsAbbreviation – Example of Latin text with abbreviations
6. Aleister Crowley – Aleister Crowley was an English occultist, ceremonial magician, poet, painter, novelist, and mountaineer. He founded the religion of Thelema, identifying himself as the prophet entrusted with guiding humanity into the Æon of Horus in the early 20th century, a prolific writer, he published widely over the course of his life. Born to a wealthy Plymouth Brethren family in Royal Leamington Spa, Warwickshire and he was educated at the University of Cambridge, where he focused his attentions on mountaineering and poetry, resulting in several publications. Some biographers allege that here he was recruited into a British intelligence agency, in 1898 he joined the esoteric Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, where he was trained in ceremonial magic by Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers and Allan Bennett. Moving to Boleskine House by Loch Ness in Scotland, he went mountaineering in Mexico with Oscar Eckenstein, before studying Hindu and Buddhist practices in India. Announcing the start of the Æon of Horus, The Book declared that its followers should Do what thou wilt, in 1907, he and George Cecil Jones co-founded a Thelemite order, the A∴A∴, through which they propagated the religion. Thelemite groups were established in Britain, Australia, and North America, in 1920 he established the Abbey of Thelema, a religious commune in Cefalù, Sicily where he lived with various followers. His libertine lifestyle led to denunciations in the British press, and he divided the following two decades between France, Germany, and England, and continued to promote Thelema until his death. Crowley gained widespread notoriety during his lifetime, being a recreational drug experimenter, bisexual and he was denounced in the popular press as the wickedest man in the world and a Satanist. Crowley has remained an influential figure over Western esotericism and the counter-culture. In 2002, a BBC poll ranked him as the seventy-third greatest Briton of all time, Crowley was born as Edward Alexander Crowley at 30 Clarendon Square in Royal Leamington Spa, Warwickshire, on 12 October 1875. His father, Edward Crowley, was trained as an engineer and his mother, Emily Bertha Bishop, came from a Devonshire-Somerset family and had a strained relationship with her son, she described him as the Beast, a name that he revelled in. The couple had married at Londons Kensington Registry Office in November 1874. Crowleys father was particularly devout, spending his time as a preacher for the sect and reading a chapter from the Bible to his wife. Following the death of their daughter in 1880, in 1881 the Crowleys moved to Redhill. At the age of 8, Crowley was sent to H. T, habershons evangelical Christian boarding school in Hastings, and then to Ebor preparatory school in Cambridge, run by the Reverend Henry dArcy Champney, whom Crowley considered a sadist. In March 1887, when Crowley was 11, his father died of tongue cancer, Crowley described this as a turning point in his life, and he always maintained an admiration of his father, describing him as his hero and his friend. Inheriting a third of his fathers wealth, he began misbehaving at school and was punished by ChampneyAleister Crowley – Aleister Crowley, c. 1912
7. American Chinese cuisine – American Chinese cuisine is a style of Chinese cuisine developed by Americans of Chinese descent. The dishes served in many North American Chinese restaurants are adapted to American tastes, of the various regional cuisines in China, Cantonese cuisine has been the most influential in the development of American Chinese food, especially that of Toisan, the origin of most early immigrants. Chinese immigrants arrived in the United States to work as miners, as the large groups of Chinese immigrants arrived, laws were put in place preventing them from owning land. They mostly lived together in ghettos, individually referred to as Chinatown, here the immigrants started their own small businesses, including restaurants and laundry services. By the 19th century, the Chinese community in San Francisco operated sophisticated, the restaurants in smaller towns served food based on what their customers requested, anything ranging from pork chop sandwiches and apple pie, to beans and eggs. Many of these small-town restaurant owners were self-taught family cooks who improvised on different cooking methods and these smaller restaurants were responsible for developing American Chinese cuisine, where the food was modified to suit a more American palate. First catering to miners and railroad workers, they established new eateries in towns where Chinese food was unknown, adapting local ingredients. Even though the new flavors and dishes meant they were not strictly Chinese cuisine, along the way, cooks adapted southern Chinese dishes such as chop suey and developed a style of Chinese food not found in China. Restaurants provided a niche for small businesses at a time when the Chinese people were excluded from most jobs in the wage economy by ethnic discrimination or lack of language fluency. By the 1920s, this cuisine, particularly chop suey, became popular among middle-class Americans, however, after World War II it began to be dismissed for not being authentic. Late 20th century tastes have been more accommodating, take away food became popular amongst Americans, Chinese food becoming a favourite take out option. By this time it became evident that Chinese restaurants no longer catered mainly for Chinese customers, products and ingredients needed to recreate these adapted dishes are imported into China. They include Philadelphia cream cheese, Skippy peanut butter, cornflakes and these Chinese families developed new styles and used readily available ingredients, especially in California. The types of Chinese American cooking served in restaurants was different from the foods eaten in Chinese American homes, among the common differences is to treat vegetables as a side dish or garnish, while traditional cuisines of China emphasize vegetables. This can be seen in the use of carrots and tomatoes, cuisine in China makes frequent use of Asian leaf vegetables like bok choy and kai-lan and puts a greater emphasis on fresh meat and seafood. Stir frying, pan frying, and deep frying tend to be the most common Chinese cooking techniques used in American Chinese cuisine, the food also has a reputation for high levels of MSG to enhance the flavor. Market forces and customer demand have encouraged many restaurants to offer MSG Free or No MSG menus, American Chinese cuisine takes advantage of ingredients not native to and very rarely used in China. One such example is the use of western broccoli instead of Chinese broccoli in American Chinese cuisineAmerican Chinese cuisine – A Chinese buffet restaurant in the United States
8. Archimedes – Archimedes of Syracuse was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer. Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the scientists in classical antiquity. He was also one of the first to apply mathematics to physical phenomena, founding hydrostatics and statics and he is credited with designing innovative machines, such as his screw pump, compound pulleys, and defensive war machines to protect his native Syracuse from invasion. Archimedes died during the Siege of Syracuse when he was killed by a Roman soldier despite orders that he should not be harmed. Cicero describes visiting the tomb of Archimedes, which was surmounted by a sphere and a cylinder, unlike his inventions, the mathematical writings of Archimedes were little known in antiquity. Archimedes was born c.287 BC in the city of Syracuse, Sicily, at that time a self-governing colony in Magna Graecia. The date of birth is based on a statement by the Byzantine Greek historian John Tzetzes that Archimedes lived for 75 years, in The Sand Reckoner, Archimedes gives his fathers name as Phidias, an astronomer about whom nothing is known. Plutarch wrote in his Parallel Lives that Archimedes was related to King Hiero II, a biography of Archimedes was written by his friend Heracleides but this work has been lost, leaving the details of his life obscure. It is unknown, for instance, whether he married or had children. During his youth, Archimedes may have studied in Alexandria, Egypt and he referred to Conon of Samos as his friend, while two of his works have introductions addressed to Eratosthenes. Archimedes died c.212 BC during the Second Punic War, according to the popular account given by Plutarch, Archimedes was contemplating a mathematical diagram when the city was captured. A Roman soldier commanded him to come and meet General Marcellus but he declined, the soldier was enraged by this, and killed Archimedes with his sword. Plutarch also gives an account of the death of Archimedes which suggests that he may have been killed while attempting to surrender to a Roman soldier. According to this story, Archimedes was carrying mathematical instruments, and was killed because the thought that they were valuable items. General Marcellus was reportedly angered by the death of Archimedes, as he considered him a valuable asset and had ordered that he not be harmed. Marcellus called Archimedes a geometrical Briareus, the last words attributed to Archimedes are Do not disturb my circles, a reference to the circles in the mathematical drawing that he was supposedly studying when disturbed by the Roman soldier. This quote is given in Latin as Noli turbare circulos meos. The phrase is given in Katharevousa Greek as μὴ μου τοὺς κύκλους τάραττεArchimedes – Archimedes Thoughtful by Fetti (1620)
9. Airline – An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines utilize aircraft to supply services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for codeshare agreements. Generally, airline companies are recognized with an air operating certificate or license issued by a governmental aviation body, Airlines vary in size, from small domestic airlines to full-service international airlines. Airline services can be categorized as being intercontinental, domestic, regional, or international, the largest airline currently is American Airlines Group. DELAG, Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-Aktiengesellschaft was the worlds first airline and it was founded on November 16,1909 with government assistance, and operated airships manufactured by The Zeppelin Corporation. The first fixed wing scheduled air service was started on January 1,1914 from St. Petersburg, Florida to Tampa, the four oldest non-dirigible airlines that still exist are Netherlands KLM, Colombias Avianca, Australias Qantas, and the Czech Republics Czech Airlines. The earliest fixed wing airline in Europe was the Aircraft Transport and Travel, using a fleet of former military Airco DH. 4A biplanes that had been modified to carry two passengers in the fuselage, it operated relief flights between Folkestone and Ghent. On 15 July 1919, the company flew a proving flight across the English Channel, flown by Lt. H Shaw in an Airco DH.9 between RAF Hendon and Paris - Le Bourget Airport, the flight took 2 hours and 30 minutes at £21 per passenger. On 25 August 1919, the company used DH. 16s to pioneer a regular service from Hounslow Heath Aerodrome to Le Bourget, the airline soon gained a reputation for reliability, despite problems with bad weather and began to attract European competition. In November 1919, it won the first British civil airmail contract, six Royal Air Force Airco DH. 9A aircraft were lent to the company, to operate the airmail service between Hawkinge and Cologne. In 1920, they were returned to the Royal Air Force, the first French airline was Société des lignes Latécoère, later known as Aéropostale, which started its first service in late 1918 to Spain. The first German airline to use heavier than air aircraft was Deutsche Luft-Reederei established in 1917 which started operating in February 1919, in its first year, the D. L. R. Operated regularly scheduled flights on routes with a length of nearly 1000 miles. Network was more than 3000 km long, and included destinations in the Netherlands, Scandinavia, another important German airline was Junkers Luftverkehr, which began operations in 1921. It was a division of the aircraft manufacturer Junkers, which became a company in 1924. It operated joint-venture airlines in Austria, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Norway, Poland, Sweden, the Dutch airline KLM made its first flight in 1920, and is the oldest continuously operating airline in the world. Established by aviator Albert Plesman, it was awarded a Royal predicate from Queen Wilhelmina. Its first flight was from Croydon Airport, London to Amsterdam, using a leased Aircraft Transport and Travel DH-16, in 1921, KLM started scheduled servicesAirline – Boeing 767-300ER of Delta Air Lines at Frankfurt Airport
10. Adobe Systems – Adobe Systems Incorporated /əˈdoʊbiː/ is an American multinational computer software company. The company is headquartered in San Jose, California, United States, Adobe has historically focused upon the creation of multimedia and creativity software products, with a more recent foray towards rich Internet application software development. It is best known for Photoshop, an image editing software, Acrobat Reader, Adobe was founded in February 1982 by John Warnock and Charles Geschke, who established the company after leaving Xerox PARC in order to develop and sell the PostScript page description language. In 1985, Apple Computer licensed PostScript for use in its LaserWriter printers, as of 2015, Adobe Systems has about 13,500 employees, about 40% of whom work in San Jose. The name of the company, Adobe, comes from Adobe Creek in Los Altos, California, Adobes corporate logo features a stylized A and was designed by the wife of John Warnock, Marva Warnock, who is a graphic designer. Adobes first products after PostScript were digital fonts, which released in a proprietary format called Type 1. Apple subsequently developed a standard, TrueType, which provided full scalability and precise control of the pixel pattern created by the fonts outlines. In the mid-1980s, Adobe entered the software market with Illustrator. Illustrator, which grew from the firms in-house font-development software, helped popularize PostScript-enabled laser printers, Adobe Systems entered NASDAQ in 1986. Its revenue has grown from roughly $1 billion in 1999 to roughly $4 billion in 2012, Adobes fiscal years run from December to November. For example, the 2007 fiscal year ended on November 30,2007, in 1989, Adobe introduced what was to become its flagship product, a graphics editing program for the Macintosh called Photoshop. Stable and full-featured, Photoshop 1.0 was ably marketed by Adobe, in 1993, Adobe introduced PDF, the Portable Document Format, and its Adobe Acrobat and Reader software. PDF is now an International Standard, ISO 32000-1,2008, in December 1991, Adobe released Adobe Premiere, which Adobe rebranded as Adobe Premiere Pro in 2003. In 1992, Adobe acquired OCR Systems, Inc, in 1994, Adobe acquired Aldus and added PageMaker and After Effects to its product line later in the year, it also controls the TIFF file format. In 1995, Adobe added FrameMaker, the long-document DTP application, in 1996, Adobe Systems Inc added Ares Software Corp. In 2002, Adobe acquired Canadian company Accelio, on December 12,2005, Adobe acquired its main rival, Macromedia, in a stock swap valued at about $3. Adobe released Adobe Media Player in April 2008, on April 27, Adobe discontinued development and sales of its older HTML/web development software, GoLive in favor of Dreamweaver. Adobe offered a discount on Dreamweaver for GoLive users and supports those who still use GoLive with online tutorials, on June 1, Adobe launched Acrobat. com, a series of web applications geared for collaborative workAdobe Systems – Adobe Systems headquarters in San Jose, California
11. Anthroposophy – Anthroposophy aims to attain in its study of spiritual experience the precision and clarity attained by the natural sciences in their investigations of the physical world. The philosophy has double roots in German idealism and German mysticism and was expressed in language drawn from Theosophy. The Anthroposophical Society has its center at the Goetheanum in Dornach. Modern critics, particularly Michael Shermer, have termed anthroposophys application in such as medicine, biology. Anthroposophy has also been termed the most important esoteric society in European history, the early work of the founder of anthroposophy, Rudolf Steiner, culminated in his Philosophy of Freedom. Here, Steiner developed a concept of free will based on inner experiences, by the beginning of the twentieth century, Steiners interests turned to explicitly spiritual areas of research. His work began to interest others interested in ideas, among these was the Theosophical Society. From 1900 on, thanks to the reception given to his ideas. During the years of his leadership, membership increased dramatically, from a few individuals to sixty-nine Lodges, by 1907, a split between Steiner and the mainstream Theosophical Society had begun to become apparent. While the Society was oriented toward an Eastern and especially Indian approach, Steiner was trying to develop a path that embraced Christianity, the split became irrevocable when Annie Besant, then president of the Theosophical Society, began to present the child Jiddu Krishnamurti as the reincarnated Christ. Steiner strongly objected and considered any comparison between Krishnamurti and Christ to be nonsense, many later, Krishnamurti also repudiated the assertion. By this time, Steiner had reached considerable stature as a spiritual teacher and he spoke about what he considered to be his direct experience of the Akashic Records, thought to be a spiritual chronicle of the history, pre-history, and future of the world and mankind. In a number of works, Steiner described a path of development he felt would let anyone attain comparable spiritual experiences. In 1912, the Anthroposophical Society was founded, after World War I, the Anthroposophical movement took on new directions. Projects such as schools, centers for those with needs, organic farms and medical clinics were established. As a spiritual basis for the movement, Steiner wrote a Foundation Stone Meditation which remains a central meditative expression of anthroposophical ideas. Steiner died just over a year later, in 1925, by 2007, national branches of the Anthroposophical Society had been established in fifty countries, and about 10,000 institutions around the world were working on the basis of anthroposophy. In the same year, the Anthroposophical Society was called the most important esoteric society in European history, anthroposophy is an amalgam of the Greek terms ἄνθρωπος and σοφίαAnthroposophy – Rudolf Steiner
12. Adam Carolla – Adam Carolla is an American comedian, radio personality, television host, actor, podcaster, author and director. He hosts The Adam Carolla Show, a show distributed as a podcast which set the record as the most downloaded podcast as judged by Guinness World Records in 2011. Carolla co-hosted the syndicated radio call-in program Loveline from 1995 to 2005 as well as the television incarnation on MTV from 1996 to 2000. He was the co-host and co-creator of the television program The Man Show, and the co-creator and he hosted The Adam Carolla Project, a home improvement television program which aired on TLC in 2005 and The Car Show on Speed TV in 2011. Carolla has also appeared on the reality television programs Dancing with the Stars. His book In Fifty Years Well All Be Chicks debuted on The New York Times Best Seller list in 2010, Adam Carolla was born in North Hollywood, Los Angeles, California. His father, Jim Carolla, was a psychologist of Italian heritage, the two separated when Adam was young. Carolla was not given a name by his parents, on his drivers license application he listed his middle name as Lakers as a joke. The application was processed without notice, and the name appears as Adam Lakers Carolla to this day. His maternal step-grandfather was screenwriter László Görög, who wrote The Mole People, Adam was raised in the North Hollywood neighborhood of Los Angeles. He attended Colfax Elementary School, Walter Reed Junior High, Carolla did not receive his high school diploma until years later as it was held by the school until a library fine was paid. Carolla can be seen paying off the book and receiving his diploma in an episode of his 2005 television show, during his earlier years, Carolla played Pop Warner football for seven years, he later suggested that being involved in sports saved him from a chaotic home life. During his senior year at North Hollywood High School, Carolla distinguished himself in football, in December 1981, he was named to the First Team Offensive Line, Central Valley League, one of 8 leagues at the time in the LA City Section of the California Interscholastic Federation. He began living on his own at the age of 18, although broke, Carolla, his friends, and roommates owned a 1963 Cadillac limousine. In the early 1990s, Carolla studied improvisational comedy with The Groundlings and was a member of the ACME Comedy Theatre troupe, in 1994, Carolla volunteered his services as a boxing trainer to prepare Jimmy Kimmel for a bout being staged by KROQ-FMs morning radio program Kevin and Bean. Kimmel was a regular on the show as Jimmy the Sports Guy, Carolla parlayed this opportunity into a long-running friendship and business partnership with Kimmel as well as a recurring role on Kevin and Bean as cranky woodshop teacher, Mr. Birchum. In October 1995, after being signed to the William Morris Agency by Mark Itkin and his co-hosts were the physician Drew Pinsky and Riki Rachtman. Carolla received the offer after Pinsky heard him on Kevin and Bean Loveline is broadcast on KROQ-FM in Los Angeles and is syndicated nationwide on the Westwood One radio network, in contrast to the reserved, thoughtful Pinsky, Carolla served as the loud, funny side of the showAdam Carolla – Carolla in Seattle, Washington in 2007
13. Atari Jaguar – The Atari Jaguar is a home video game console that was developed by Atari Corporation. The console was the sixth and last programmable console to be developed under the Atari brand, controversially, Atari marketed the Jaguar as being the first 64-bit video game console, while competing with the existing 16-bit consoles and the 32-bit 3DO Interactive Multiplayer platform. With development of the Jaguar running ahead of schedule, the Panther was cancelled, and it was originally released to test markets in New York City and San Francisco in November 1993, and to the general public in 1994, with Cybermorph as the pack-in launch game. The consoles multi-chip architecture made game development for the console difficult and this, in addition to the lack of internal development at Atari, led to a limited games library, comprising only 67 licensed titles. With the release of the Sega Saturn and Sonys PlayStation in 1995, sales of the Jaguar continued to fall, the Jaguar was deemed a commercial failure, and prompted Atari to leave the home video game console market. After Hasbro Interactive bought out Atari in the late 1990s, the patents to the Jaguar were released into the public domain, since then, the Jaguar has gained a cult following, with a developer base that produces homebrew games for the console. The Jaguar was developed by the members of Flare Technology, a formed by Martin Brennan. The team had claimed that they could not only make a superior to the Genesis or the Super NES. Impressed by their work on the Konix Multisystem, Atari persuaded them to close Flare and form a new company called Flare II, Flare II initially set to work designing two consoles for Atari Corp. The Jaguar was unveiled in August 1993 at the Chicago Consumer Entertainment Show, the Jaguar was introduced in 1993 at a price of $249.99, under a $500 million manufacturing deal with IBM. The system was available only in the test markets of New York City and San Francisco, under the slogan Do the Math. A U. S. -wide release followed six months later, the Atari Jaguar struggled to attain a substantial user base. In 1993, Atari reported that it had shipped 17,000 units as part of the initial test market. By the end of 1994, Atari reported that it had sold approximately 100,000 systems and had reduced the price to improve the competitive nature of the console. By the end of 1995, Sony and Sega had entered the marketplace with competing consoles, the lack of titles was attributable to two main factors, the Jaguars questionable long-term prospects among third-party game-publishers and the problematic nature of developing games for the Jaguar. In addition, the Jaguars underlying hardware was crippled by a flaw in the CPUs memory controller, less severe defects included a buggy UART. The memory controller flaw could have been mitigated by a mature code-development environment, Jaguars development tools left much to the programmers own implementation, as documentation was incomplete. Writing game-code was often an exercise in the tedious assemblerAtari Jaguar – The Jaguar utilized a multi-chip architecture that was difficult for most developers to use.
14. Arthur Jensen – Arthur Robert Jensen was a professor of educational psychology at the University of California, Berkeley. Jensen was known for his work in psychometrics and differential psychology and he was a major proponent of the hereditarian position in the nature and nurture debate, the position that genetics play a significant role in behavioral traits, such as intelligence and personality. He was the author of over 400 scientific papers published in refereed journals and sat on the boards of the scientific journals Intelligence and Personality. He was rated as one of the 50 most eminent psychologists of the 20th century and he was also a controversial figure, largely for his conclusions regarding the causes of race-based differences in intelligence. Jensen was born August 24,1923, in San Diego, California, the son of Linda Mary and Arthur Alfred Jensen and his paternal grandparents were Danish immigrants and his mother was of half Polish Jewish and half German descent. From 1956 through 1958, he did research at the University of London. He received tenure at Berkeley in 1962 and was given his first sabbatical in 1964 and he concentrated much of his work on the learning difficulties of culturally disadvantaged students. In 2003, he was awarded the Kistler Prize for original contributions to the understanding of the connection between the genome and human society. In 2006, the International Society for Intelligence Research awarded Jensen its Lifetime Achievement Award, Jensen has had a lifelong interest in classical music and was, early in his life, attracted by the idea of becoming a conductor himself. At 14, he conducted a band that won a nationwide contest held in San Francisco, later, he conducted orchestras and attended a seminar given by Nikolai Sokoloff. Soon after graduating from Berkeley, he moved to New York and he was also deeply interested in the life and example of Gandhi, producing an unpublished book-length manuscript on his life. During Jensens period in San Diego he spent time working as a worker with the San Diego Department of Public Welfare. Jensens interest in learning differences directed him to the testing of school children. The results led him to distinguish between two types of learning ability. Level I, or associative learning, may be defined as retention of input and rote memorization of simple facts, Level II, or conceptual learning, is roughly equivalent to the ability to manipulate and transform inputs, that is, the ability to solve problems. Later, Jensen was an important advocate in the acceptance of the general factor of intelligence. The general factor, or g, is an abstraction that stems from the observation that scores on all forms of cognitive tests correlate positively with one another. Jensen claimed, on the basis of his research, that cognitive ability is essentially an inherited traitArthur Jensen – Arthur Jensen, 2002 at ISIR
15. Alameda, California – Alameda is a city in Alameda County, California, United States. It is located on Alameda Island and Bay Farm Island, and is adjacent to and south of Oakland and east of San Francisco across the San Francisco Bay. Bay Farm Island, a portion of which is known as Harbor Bay Isle, is not actually an island. The citys estimated 2016 population was 79,277, Alameda is a charter city, rather than a general law city, allowing the city to provide for any form of government. Alameda became a city and adopted a council–manager government in 1916. The island Alameda occupies what was originally a peninsula connected to Oakland, much of it was low-lying and marshy, but on higher ground than the peninsula and adjacent parts of what is now downtown Oakland were home to one of the largest coastal oak forests in the world. The area was therefore called Encinal, Spanish for forest of evergreen oak, Alameda is Spanish for grove of poplar trees or tree-lined avenue, and was chosen in 1853 by popular vote. The inhabitants at the time of the arrival of the Spanish in the late 18th century were a band of the Ohlone tribe. The peninsula became part of the vast Rancho San Antonio granted in 1820 to Luis Peralta by the Spanish king who claimed California, the grant was later confirmed by the new Republic of Mexico upon its independence from Spain. Over time, the became known as Bolsa de Encinal or Encinal de San Antonio. The city was founded on June 6,1853, and the town contained three small settlements. Eventually, the Central Pacifics ferry pier became the Alameda Mole, the first post office opened in 1854. The first school, Schmermerhorn School, was opened in 1855, the San Francisco and Alameda Railroad opened the Encinal station in 1864. The Encinal area was known as Fasskings Station in honor of Frederick Louis Fassking. Encinals own post office opened in 1876, was renamed West End in 1877, the West End area was originally called Bowmans Point in honor of Charles G. Bowman, an early settler. The Alameda Terminal was the site of the arrival of the first train via the First Transcontinental Railroad into the San Francisco Bay Area on September 6,1869, the transcontinental terminus was switched to the Oakland Mole two months later, on November 8,1869. The borders of Alameda were made coextensive with the island in 1872, mark Twain described Alameda as being The Garden of California. In 1917, an attraction called Neptune Beach was built in the now known as Crab CoveAlameda, California – City Hall
16. Barry Bonds – Barry Lamar Bonds is an American former professional baseball left fielder who played 22 seasons in Major League Baseball with the Pittsburgh Pirates and San Francisco Giants. Bonds received seven NL MVP awards and 14 All-Star selections, and is considered to be one of the greatest baseball players of all time, Bonds was regarded as an exceptional hitter, and finished his regular season career with a very high on-base percentage and isolated power. He holds many MLB hitting records, including most career runs, most home runs in a single season. He also received eight Gold Gloves for his defense in the outfield and he is ranked second in career Wins Above Replacement among all major league position players by both Fangraphs and Baseball-Reference. com, behind only Babe Ruth. Bonds led a career, notably as a central figure in baseballs steroids scandal. In 2007, he was indicted on charges of perjury and obstruction of justice for lying to the grand jury during the federal governments investigation of BALCO. The perjury charges against Bonds were dropped, and he was initially convicted of obstruction of justice. Bonds has not been elected into the National Baseball Hall of Fame in his first four years of eligibility, in the 2016 season, Bonds served as the hitting coach for the Miami Marlins. He played on the varsity team during his freshman year. He batted for a.467 batting average his senior year, Bonds attended Arizona State University, hitting.347 with 45 home runs and 175 runs batted in. In 1984 he batted.360 and had 30 stolen bases, in 1985, he hit 23 home runs with 66 RBIs and a.368 batting average. He was a Sporting News All-American selection that year and he tied the NCAA record with seven consecutive hits in the College World Series as sophomore and was named to All-Time College World Series Team in 1996. He graduated from Arizona State in 1986 with a degree in criminology and he was named ASU On Deck Circle Most Valuable Player, other winners include Dustin Pedroia, Willie Bloomquist, Paul Lo Duca, and Ike Davis. During college, he played part of one summer in the amateur Alaska Baseball League with the Alaska Goldpanners, the Pittsburgh Pirates drafted Bonds as the sixth overall pick of the 1985 Major League Baseball draft. He joined the Prince William Pirates of the Carolina League and was named July 1985 Player of the Month for the league, in 1986, he hit.311 in 44 games for the Hawaii Islanders of the Pacific Coast League. Before Bonds made it to the leagues in Pittsburgh, Pirate fan attendance was low. Bonds made his league debut on May 30,1986. In 1986, Bonds led National League rookies with 16 home runs,48 RBI,36 stolen bases and 65 walks and he played center field in 1986, but switched to left field with the arrival of centerfielder Andy Van Slyke in 1987Barry Bonds – Bonds in 2006
17. Barcelona – Founded as a Roman city, in the Middle Ages Barcelona became the capital of the County of Barcelona. Barcelona has a cultural heritage and is today an important cultural centre. Particularly renowned are the works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner. The headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean is located in Barcelona, the city is known for hosting the 1992 Summer Olympics as well as world-class conferences and expositions and also many international sport tournaments. It is a cultural and economic centre in southwestern Europe, 24th in the world. In 2008 it was the fourth most economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union, in 2012 Barcelona had a GDP of $170 billion, it is leading Spain in both employment rate and GDP per capita change. In 2009 the city was ranked Europes third and one of the worlds most successful as a city brand, since 2011 Barcelona has been a leading smart city in Europe. During the Middle Ages, the city was known as Barchinona, Barçalona, Barchelonaa. Internationally, Barcelonas name is abbreviated to Barça. However, this refers only to FC Barcelona, the football club. The common abbreviated form used by locals is Barna, another common abbreviation is BCN, which is also the IATA airport code of the Barcelona-El Prat Airport. The city is referred to as the Ciutat Comtal in Catalan. The origin of the earliest settlement at the site of present-day Barcelona is unclear, the ruins of an early settlement have been excavated in the El Raval neighbourhood, including different tombs and dwellings dating to earlier than 5000 BC. The founding of Barcelona is the subject of two different legends, the first attributes the founding of the city to the mythological Hercules. In about 15 BC, the Romans redrew the town as a castrum centred on the Mons Taber, under the Romans, it was a colony with the surname of Faventia, or, in full, Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino or Colonia Julia Augusta Faventia Paterna Barcino. It enjoyed immunity from imperial burdens, the city minted its own coins, some from the era of Galba survive. Some remaining fragments of the Roman walls have incorporated into the cathedral. The cathedral, also known as the Basilica La Seu, is said to have founded in 343Barcelona – Central business district, Sagrada Família, Camp Nou stadium, The Castle of the Three Dragons, Palau Nacional, W Barcelona hotel and beach
18. Brian Boitano – Brian Anthony Boitano is an American figure skater from Sunnyvale, California. He is the 1988 Olympic champion, the 1986 and 1988 World Champion, and he turned professional following the 1988 season. He returned to competition in 1993 and competed at the 1994 Winter Olympics, Brian Boitano was born in Mountain View, California, and as an adult has lived in San Francisco. Boitano is a graduate of Marian A. Peterson High School in Sunnyvale, Brian Boitano first made his mark on the international scene when he won the bronze medal at the 1978 World Junior Figure Skating Championships, beating future rival Brian Orser for that medal. In 1982 Boitano became the first American to land a triple axel, in 1987 he introduced his signature jump, the Tano triple lutz in which the skater raises his left arm above his head. He attempted a quadruple jump throughout the 1986–87 season and at the 1988 World Figure Skating Championships, Boitano was known primarily as a jumper early in his career and he, along with several other skaters, helped push the technical envelope of mens skating. It was not until his failure to defend his World title in 1987 that he focused specifically on improving his artistry, Boitano placed second at the 1984 United States Figure Skating Championships, earning himself a trip to the 1984 Winter Olympics. He placed 5th at the Olympics, setting the stage for his success over the four years. Following the 1984 Olympics, several skaters emerged as likely medal hopes following the retirement of Scott Hamilton, Boitano won the 1985 United States Figure Skating Championships, the first of his four titles. At the first World Championships of the era in 1985, Alexander Fadeev won, with Brian Orser finishing 2nd. He had injured tendons in his ankle a few weeks before the 1986 U. S. Championships but went on to win his national title. At the 1986 World Championships, Boitano took the title, while Fadeev had a free skate despite having been in an excellent position to win. The 1987 World Championships were held in Cincinnati, giving defending World champion Boitano a home-field advantage, the outcome of the event would set the tone for the 1988 Olympics. At Worlds, Boitano fell on his quadruple toe loop attempt, after losing the world title to Orser at home, Boitano and his coach Linda Leaver decided that some changes needed to be made if Boitano was to become the Olympic champion. Boitano had always been good at the requirements, but he was weak on the artistic. He was a self-described jumping robot, in order to help his growth as an artist, he hired choreographer Sandra Bezic to choreograph his programs for the 1987–1988 Olympic season. Bezic choreographed two programs that featured clean lines and accentuated the skating abilities of the 511 Boitano, the short program was based on Giacomo Meyerbeers ballet Les Patineurs in which Boitano plays a cocky young man showing off his tricks, using movements dating back to the 19th centuryBrian Boitano – Boitano in San Francisco in 2010
19. Bob Wills – James Robert Bob Wills was an American Western swing musician, songwriter, and bandleader. Considered by music authorities as the co-founder of Western swing, he was known as the King of Western Swing. The band played regularly on a Tulsa, Oklahoma radio station and added Leon McAuliffe on steel guitar, pianist Al Stricklin, drummer Smokey Dacus, and a horn section that expanded the bands sound. Wills and the Texas Playboys recorded with several publishers and companies, including Vocalion, Okeh, Columbia, in 1950, he had two Top 10 hits, Ida Red Likes The Boogie and Faded Love, which were his last hits for a decade. Throughout the 1950s, he struggled with health and tenuous finances. Wills had an attack in 1962 and a second one the next year. The Country Music Hall of Fame inducted Wills in 1968 and the Texas State Legislature honored him for his contribution to American music, in 1972, Wills accepted a citation from the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers in Nashville. He was recording an album with fan Merle Haggard in 1973 when a stroke left him comatose until his death in 1975, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inducted Wills and the Texas Playboys in 1999. He was born on a farm near Kosse, Texas, in Limestone County near Groesbeck, to Emma Lee Foley and John Tompkins Wills. His father was a champion fiddle player and the Wills family was either playing music, or someone was always wanting us to play for them. In addition to picking cotton, the young Jim Bob learned to play the fiddle, both a sister and several brothers played musical instruments, while another sister played piano. The Wills family frequently held country dances in their home, while living in Hall County, Texas, they also played at ranch dances which were popular in both North Texas and eastern New Mexico. African Americans were his playmates, and his father enjoyed watching him jig dance with black children, the family moved to Hall County in the Texas Panhandle in 1913, and in 1919 they bought a farm between the towns of Lakeview and Turkey. At the age of 16, Wills left the family and hopped a freight train. In his 20s he attended school, got married, and moved first to Roy, New Mexico. He alternated barbering and fiddling even when he moved to Fort Worth after leaving Hall County in 1929, there he played in minstrel and medicine shows, and, as with other Texas musicians such as Ocie Stockard, continued to earn money as a barber. He wore blackface makeup to appear in comedy routines, something that was common at the time and he was playing his violin and singing. There were two guitars and a player with himBob Wills – Wills circa 1946
20. Berkeley, California – Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern Alameda County, California. It is named after the 18th-century Anglo-Irish bishop and philosopher George Berkeley and it borders the cities of Oakland and Emeryville to the south and the city of Albany and the unincorporated community of Kensington to the north. Its eastern border with Contra Costa County generally follows the ridge of the Berkeley Hills, the 2010 census recorded a population of 112,580. It also has the Graduate Theological Union, one of the largest religious studies institutions in the world and it is one of the most politically liberal cities in the United States. The site of todays City of Berkeley was the territory of the Chochenyo/Huchiun band of the Ohlone people when the first Europeans arrived, other artifacts were discovered in the 1950s in the downtown area during remodeling of a commercial building, near the upper course of the creek. The first people of European descent arrived with the De Anza Expedition in 1776, today, this is noted by signage on Interstate 80, which runs along the San Francisco Bay shoreline of Berkeley. The De Anza Expedition led to establishment of the Spanish Presidio of San Francisco at the entrance to San Francisco Bay, luis Peralta was among the soldiers at the Presidio. For his services to the King of Spain, he was granted a vast stretch of land on the east shore of San Francisco Bay for a ranch, luis Peralta named his holding Rancho San Antonio. The primary activity of the ranch was raising cattle for meat and hides, eventually, Peralta gave portions of the ranch to each of his four sons. What is now Berkeley lies mostly in the portion that went to Peraltas son Domingo, with a little in the portion that went to another son, no artifact survives of the Domingo or Vicente ranches, but their names survive in Berkeley street names. However, legal title to all land in the City of Berkeley remains based on the original Peralta land grant, the Peraltas Rancho San Antonio continued after Alta California passed from Spanish to Mexican sovereignty after the Mexican War of Independence. The lands of the brothers Domingo and Vicente were quickly reduced to reservations close to their respective ranch homes, the rest of the land was surveyed and parceled out to various American claimants. Politically, the area that became Berkeley was initially part of a vast Contra Costa County, on March 25,1853, Alameda County was created from a division within Contra Costa County, as well as from a small portion of Santa Clara County. The area of Berkeley was at this period mostly a mix of land, farms and ranches. It was not yet Berkeley, but merely the part of the Oakland Township subdivision of Alameda County. In 1866, Oaklands private College of California looked for a new site, according to the Centennial Record of the University of California, In 1866…at Founders Rock, a group of College of California men watched two ships standing out to sea through the Golden Gate. Although the philosophers name is pronounced bark-lee, the pronunciation of the name has evolved to suit American English as burk-lee. The College of Californias College Homestead Association planned to raise funds for the new campus by selling off adjacent parcels of land, to this end, they laid out a plat and street grid that became the basis of Berkeleys modern street planBerkeley, California – Downtown Berkeley viewed from the Berkeley Hills.
21. Book of Common Prayer – The original book, published in 1549, in the reign of Edward VI, was a product of the English Reformation following the break with Rome. Prayer books, unlike books of prayers, contain the words of structured services of worship, the work of 1549 was the first prayer book to include the complete forms of service for daily and Sunday worship in English. It also set out in full the propers, the collects, the 1549 book was soon succeeded by a more reformed revision in 1552 under the same editorial hand, that of Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury. It was used only for a few months, as after Edward VIs death in 1553, in 1604, James I ordered some further changes, the most significant of these being the addition to the Catechism of a section on the Sacraments. Following the tumultuous events leading to and including the English Civil War, a Book of Common Prayer with local variations is used in churches inside and outside the Anglican Communion in over 50 different countries and in over 150 different languages. In many parts of the world, other books have replaced it in weekly worship. Like the King James Version of the Bible and the works of Shakespeare, many words, the forms of parish worship in the late medieval church in England, which followed the Latin Roman Rite, varied according to local practice. By far the most common form, or use, found in Southern England was that of Sarum. There was no book, the services that would be provided by the Book of Common Prayer were to be found in the Missal, the Breviary, Manual. The chant for worship was contained in the Roman Gradual for the Mass, in his early days Cranmer was somewhat conservative, an admirer, if a critical one, of John Fisher. It may have been his visit to Germany in 1532 which began the change in his outlook, then in 1538, as Henry began diplomatic negotiations with Lutheran princes, Cranmer came face to face with a Lutheran embassy. The Exhortation and Litany, the earliest English-language service of the Church of England, was the first overt manifestation of his changing views. It was no mere translation from the Latin, its Protestant character is made clear by the reduction of the place of saints. It was only on Henrys death in 1547 and the accession of Edward VI that revision could proceed faster. Cranmer finished his work on an English Communion rite in 1548, the ordinary Roman Rite of the Mass had made no provision for any congregation present to receive communion in both species. So, Cranmer composed in English an additional rite of congregational preparation and communion, to be undertaken immediately following the communion, although the work is commonly attributed to Cranmer, its detailed origins are obscure. A group of bishops and divines met first at Chertsey and then at Windsor in 1548, Cranmer collected the material from many sources, even the opening of Preface was borrowed. He borrowed much from German sources, particularly from work commissioned by Hermann von Wied, Archbishop of Cologne, the Church Order of Brandenberg and Nuremberg was partly the work of the latterBook of Common Prayer – Cranmer's 1549 Book of Common Prayer
22. Bill Bixby – Wilfred Bailey Everett Bill Bixby III was an American film and television actor, director, and frequent game-show panelist. His career spanned more than three decades, including appearances on stage, in films, and on television series, david Banner on the CBS science-fiction drama series The Incredible Hulk. An only child, Bixby was born a fourth-generation Californian of English descent, in San Francisco and his father, Wilfred Everett Bixby II, was a store clerk and his mother, Jane Bixby, was a senior manager at I. Magnin & Co. In 1942, When Bixby was eight years old, his father enlisted in the Navy during World War II, while in the seventh grade, Bixby attended Grace Cathedral and sang in the churchs choir. In one notable incident, he shot the bishop using a slingshot during one service and was kicked out of the choir, in 1946, his mother encouraged him to take ballroom dance lessons and from there he started dancing all around the city. While dancing, he attended Lowell High School, where he perfected his oratory, though he received average grades, he also competed in high-school speech tournaments regionally. Bixby and Meriwether later worked together on an episode of Barnaby Jones, later, he attended the University of California, Berkeley, his parents alma mater. Just four credits short of earning a degree, Bixby dropped out of college and was drafted into the Marines and he then moved to Hollywood, California, where he had a string of odd jobs that included bellhop and lifeguard. He organized shows at a resort in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, in 1959, he was hired to work as a model and to do commercial work for General Motors and Chrysler. In 1961, Bixby was in the musical The Boy Friend at the Detroit Civic Theater, returning to Hollywood to make his television debut on an episode of The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis. He became a highly regarded character actor and guest-starred in many 1960s TV series, including Ben Casey, The Twilight Zone, The Andy Griffith Show, Dr. Kildare, Straightaway and he also joined the cast of The Joey Bishop Show in 1962. In 1963, he played a sailor with a Napoleon tattoo in the movie Irma La Douce, Bixby took the role of young reporter Tim OHara in the 1963 CBS sitcom, My Favorite Martian, in which he co-starred with Ray Walston. By 1966, though, high production costs forced the series to come to an end after 107 episodes. After the cancellation of Martian, Bixby starred in five movies, Ride Beyond Vengeance, Doctor, Youve Got to Be Kidding. and two of Elvis Presleys movies, Clambake, and Speedway. He turned down the role as Marlo Thomass boyfriend in the successful That Girl, though he later guest-starred on the show, in 1969, Bixby starred in his second high-profile television role, as Tom Corbett in The Courtship of Eddies Father, a comedy-drama on ABC. The series concerned a widowed father raising a son, managing a major syndicated magazine. This series was in the vein of other 1960s and 1970s sitcoms that dealt with widowerhood, such as The Andy Griffith Show, eddie was played by novice actor Brandon Cruz. The pair developed a rapport that translated to an off-camera friendshipBill Bixby – Bixby as The Magician, 1973
23. Bela Lugosi – Béla Ferenc Dezső Blaskó, better known as Bela Lugosi, was a Hungarian-American actor, famous for portraying Count Dracula in the 1931 film and for his roles in various other horror films. He had been playing small parts on the stage in his native Hungary before making his first film in 1917 and he had roles in several films in Weimar Germany before arriving in the United States as a seaman on a merchant ship. In 1927, he appeared as Count Dracula in a Broadway adaptation of Bram Stokers novel and he later appeared in the classic 1931 film Dracula by Universal Pictures. Meanwhile, he was paired with Boris Karloff, who was able to demand top billing. To his frustration, Lugosi was increasingly restricted to minor parts, by this time, Lugosi had been receiving regular medication for sciatic neuritis, and he became addicted to morphine and methadone. This drug dependence was noted by producers, and the offers eventually dwindled down to a few parts in Ed Woods low-budget movies, Lugosi was married five times, and had one son, Bela George Lugosi. Lugosi was a member of the American Screen Actors Guild. Lugosi, the youngest of four children, was born Béla Ferenc Dezső Blaskó in Lugos in the Kingdom of Hungary, not far from Transylvania, to István Blaskó, a banker and he later based his last name on his hometown. He and his sister Vilma were raised in a Roman Catholic family, at the age of 12, Lugosi dropped out of school. He began his career probably in 1901 or 1902. His earliest known performances are from provincial theatres in the 1903–04 season, playing roles in several plays. He went on to Shakespeare plays and other major roles, moving to Budapest in 1911, he played dozens of roles with the National Theatre of Hungary between 1913–19. Although Lugosi would later claim that he became the actor of Hungarys Royal National Theatre. During World War I, he served as an infantryman in the Austro-Hungarian Army from 1914-16, There he rose to the rank of captain in the ski patrol and was awarded the Wound Medal for wounds he suffered while serving on the Russian front. Due to his activism in the union in Hungary during the time of the Hungarian Revolution of 1919. He first went to Vienna and then settled in Berlin in the Langestrasse where he continued acting, eventually, he travelled to New Orleans, Louisiana, US as a crewman aboard a merchant ship. He took the name Lugosi, in 1903, to honor his birthplace, Lugosis first film appearance was in the movie Az ezredes. When appearing in Hungarian silent films, he used the stage name Arisztid Olt, Lugosi made 12 films in Hungary between 1917 and 1918 before leaving for GermanyBela Lugosi – Bela Lugosi in The Devil Bat (1940)
24. Casino – A casino is a facility which houses and accommodates certain types of gambling activities. The industry that deals in casinos is called the gaming industry, casinos are most commonly built near or combined with hotels, restaurants, retail shopping, cruise ships or other tourist attractions. There is much debate whether or not the social and economic consequences of casino gambling outweigh the initial revenue that may be generated. Some casinos are also known for hosting live entertainment events, such as comedy, concerts. The term casino is a confusing linguistic false friend for translators, Casino is of Italian origin, the root casa originally meant a small country villa, summerhouse, or social club. In modern-day Italian, the term designates a bordello, while the gambling house is spelled casinò with an accent. Not all casinos were used for gaming, the Copenhagen Casino was a theatre, known for the mass public meetings often held in its hall during the 1848 Revolution, which made Denmark a constitutional monarchy. Until 1937, it was a well-known Danish theatre, the Hanko Casino in Hanko, Finland—one of that towns most conspicuous landmarks—was never used for gambling. Rather, it was a hall for the Russian nobility which frequented this spa resort in the late 19th century and is now used as a restaurant. In military and non-military usage in German and Spanish, a casino or kasino is an officers mess, in Italian—the source-language of the word—a casino is either a brothel, a mess, or a noisy environment, while a gaming house is called a casinò. The precise origin of gambling is unknown and it is generally believed that gambling in some form or another has been seen in almost every society in history. From the Ancient Greeks and Romans to Napoleons France and Elizabethan England and it was closed in 1774 as the city government felt it was impoverishing the local gentry. In American history, early gambling establishments were known as saloons, the creation and importance of saloons was greatly influenced by four major cities, New Orleans, St. Louis, Chicago and San Francisco. It was in the saloons that travelers could find people to talk to, drink with, during the early 20th century in America, gambling became outlawed and banned by state legislation and social reformers of the time. However, in 1931, gambling was legalized throughout the state of Nevada, Americas first legalized casinos were set up in those places. In 1976 New Jersey allowed gambling in Atlantic City, now Americas second largest gambling city, most jurisdictions worldwide have a minimum gambling age. Customers gamble by playing games of chance, in cases with an element of skill, such as craps, roulette, baccarat, blackjack. Most games played have mathematically determined odds that ensure the house has at all times an overall advantage over the players and this can be expressed more precisely by the notion of expected value, which is uniformly negativeCasino – Slot machines in Atlantic City. Slot machines are a standard attraction of casinos
25. California – California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon, Nevada, and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California also has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire then claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence. The western portion of Alta California then was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, government, real estate services, technology, and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups also were diverse in their organization with bands, tribes, villages. Trade, intermarriage and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years later English explorer Francis Drake also explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565California – A forest of redwood trees in Redwood National Park
26. Courtney Love – Courtney Michelle Love is an American singer, actress, writer, and visual artist. Prolific in the punk and grunge scenes of the 1990s, Love has enjoyed a career that spans four decades and she rose to prominence as the frontwoman of the alternative rock band Hole, which she formed in 1989. Love has drawn attention for her uninhibited live performances and confrontational lyrics. The daughter of Hank Harrison and psychotherapist Linda Carroll, Love had an itinerant early life and she spent her formative years in San Francisco and Portland, Oregon, where she was in a series of short-lived bands before being cast in two films by British director Alex Cox. After forming Hole in 1989, she received attention from underground rock press for the groups debut album. Holes second release, Live Through This, gave her high-profile renown with critical accolades, in 1995, Love returned to acting, earning a Golden Globe Award nomination for her performance as Althea Leasure in Miloš Formans The People vs. Larry Flynt, which established her as a mainstream actress, the following year, she saw further mainstream success with the release of Holes third album, Celebrity Skin, which was nominated for multiple Grammy Awards. Love continued to work as an actress into the early 2000s, appearing in pictures such as Man on the Moon and Trapped, before releasing her first solo album, Americas Sweetheart. That project became Nobodys Daughter, which was released in 2010 as a Hole album, between 2014 and 2015, she released two solo singles and returned to acting in the network series Sons of Anarchy and Empire. Love has also had endeavors in writing, co-creating and co-authoring three volumes of a manga, Princess Ai, between 2004 and 2006, as well as a memoir, Dirty Blonde, The Diaries of Courtney Love. In 2012, she premiered an exhibit of mixed media visual art titled And Shes Not Even Pretty. Love was born Courtney Michelle Harrison on July 9,1964 in San Francisco, California, the daughter of Linda Carroll and Hank Harrison, Loves godfather is the founding Grateful Dead bassist Phil Lesh. Her mother, who was adopted as a child, was revealed to be the biological daughter of novelist Paula Fox. Loves great-grandmother was screenwriter Elsie Fox, Love is of Cuban, English, German, Irish, and Welsh descent. Loves mother, who was studying to be a psychologist, had her in therapy by the age of two. In 1970, her mother moved the family to the community of Marcola, Oregon. She described her parents household as being full of hairy, wangly-ass hippies running around naked Gestalt therapy and my mom was also adamant about a gender-free household, no dresses, no patent leather shoes, no canopy beds, nothing. Love attended a Montessori school in Eugene, where she struggled academically and had trouble making friends, at age nine, a psychologist noted that she exhibited signs of autismCourtney Love – Love performing at Austin, Texas, in 2010.
27. Foreign relations of Colombia – Colombia seeks diplomatic and commercial relations with all countries, regardless of their ideologies or political or economic systems. For this reason, the Colombian economy is open, relying on international trade. Regional relations have also improved under the Santos Administration. The FARC numbers have diminished in the last decade to an estimated 5. In 2002, the Ecuadorian government closed its border crossing with Colombia. Ecuador continues to voice its concerns over an influx of émigré stemming from guerilla activity at its borders, returning Ecuadorian émigré have faced re-entry restrictions. In 2012, relations with Nicaragua and Venezuela were tested over territorial island disputes, Bilateral committees are negotiating the dispute with Venezuela over waters in the Gulf of Venezuela. In 1969, Colombia formed what is now the Andean Community along with Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, in addition, it has signed free trade agreements with Chile, Mexico, and Venezuela. Colombia has traditionally played a role in the United Nations. Former President César Gaviria became Secretary General of the OAS in September 1994 and was reelected in 1999, Colombia regularly participates in international fora, including CICAD, the Organization of American States body on money laundering, chemical controls, and drug abuse prevention. Colombia subsequently withdrew some of its reservations, most notably a reservation on extradition, maritime boundary dispute with Venezuela in the Gulf of Venezuela, territorial disputes with Nicaragua over Archipelago de San Andrés y Providencia and Quita Sueño Bank. The United States disputes sovereignty with Colombia over the Serranilla Bank, Quita Sueño Bank is claimed by the United States to be a submerged reef, and thus does not recognize the sovereignty of any nation over the bank. An OAS observer has monitored the governments peace process with the paramilitaries, the United States helps Colombia secure favorable treatment from the IMF. Regional treaties include the Andean Pact, now known as the Andean Community, which also includes Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru, Colombia has signed free-trade agreements with Chile, Mexico, and Venezuela. Its recent trade agreements with Korea, China and Japan, have focused on Economic, within the regional Caribbean Community and Common Market, Colombia has also deepened Economic and Medical Science Research collaboration agreements. Colombia has also signed and ratified 105 international treaties or agreements relating to the protection of the environment and it has signed, but not ratified, the Antarctic-Environmental Protocol and conventions on Law of the Sea and Marine Dumping. Colombia also has signed the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, by 1975 signatories to the 1974 Declaration of Ayacucho, of which Colombia was one, had decided on limitations to nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons. Gaining all 186 votes, Colombia served on the U. N. Security Council from 2011-2012 representing Latin American, Colombia is also a member of the International Criminal Court with a Bilateral Immunity Agreement of protection for the United States-militaryForeign relations of Colombia – Embassy of Colombia in Washington, D.C.
28. Commuter rail – Trains operate following a schedule, at speeds varying from 50 to 200 km/h. Distance charges or zone pricing may be used and they primarily serve lower density suburban areas, and often share right-of-way with intercity or freight trains. Some services operate only during peak hours and others uses fewer departures during off peak hours, average speeds are high, often 50 km/h or higher. These higher speeds better serve the longer distances involved, some services include express services which skip some stations in order to run faster and separate longer distance riders from short-distance ones. The general range of commuter trains distance varies between 15 and 200 km, sometimes long distances can be explained by that the train runs between two or several cities. Distances between stations may vary, but are much longer than those of urban rail systems. In city centers the train either has a station or passes through the city centre with notably fewer station stops than those of urban rail systems. Toilets are often available on trains and in stations. Their ability to coexist with freight or intercity services in the same right-of-way can drastically reduce system construction costs, however, frequently they are built with dedicated tracks within that right-of-way to prevent delays, especially where service densities have converged in the inner parts of the network. Most such trains run on the standard gauge track. Some light rail systems may run on a narrower gauge, some countries, including Finland, India, Pakistan, Russia, Brazil and Sri Lanka, as well as San Francisco in the USA and Melbourne and Adelaide in Australia, use broad gauge track. The fact that the terminology is not standardised across countries further complicates matters, most S-bahns typically behave like commuter rail with most trackage not separated from other trains, and long lines with trains running between cities and suburbs rather than within a city. The distances between stations however, are usually short, in larger systems there is usually a high frequency metro-like central corridor in the city center where all the lines converge into. Typical examples of large city S-Bahns include Munich and Frankfurt, S-Bahns do also exist in some mid-size cities like Rostock and Magdeburg but behave more like typical commuter rail with lower frequencies and very little exclusive trackage. A similar network exists in Copenhagen called the S-tog, in Hamburg and Copenhagen, other, diesel driven trains, do continue where the S-Bahn ends. Regional rail usually provides rail services between towns and cities, rather than purely linking major population hubs in the way inter-city rail does, Regional rail operates outside major cities. Unlike Inter-city, it stops at most or all stations between cities and it provides a service between smaller communities along the line, and also connections with long-distance services at interchange stations located at junctions or at larger towns along the line. Alternative names are local train or stopping train, examples include the former BRs Regional Railways, Frances TER, Germanys DB Regio and South Koreas Tonggeun servicesCommuter rail – The Long Island Rail Road operates electric and diesel service into New York City along with Metro-North Railroad and New Jersey Transit Rail.
29. Charles Farrar Browne – Charles Farrar Browne was a United States humor writer, better known under his nom de plume, Artemus Ward. He is considered to be Americas first stand-up comedian, at birth, his surname was Brown, he added the e after he became famous. Browne was born in Waterford, Maine and he began his career as a compositor and occasional contributor to the daily and weekly journals. In 1858, he published in The Plain Dealer the first of the Artemus Ward series, brownes companion at the Plain Dealer George Hoyt wrote his desk was a rickety table which had been whittled and gashed until it looked as if it had been the victim of lightning. His chair was a fit companion thereto, a wabbling, unsteady affair, sometimes with four and sometimes with three legs. But Browne saw neither the table, nor the chair, nor any person who might be near, nothing, in fact, when writing, his gaunt form looked ridiculous enough. One leg hung over the arm of his chair like a hook, while he would write away, sometimes laughing to himself. In 1860, he became editor of Vanity Fair, a humorous New York weekly, about the same time, he began to appear as a lecturer and, by his droll and eccentric humor, attracted large audiences. In 1863, Browne came as Artemus Ward to San Francisco to perform, on November 13,1863, he performed to a packed crowd at Platts Music Hall. Ward played the part of Artemus as an illiterate rube but with Yankee common sense, Artemus Ward was the favorite author of U. S. President Abraham Lincoln. Before presenting The Emancipation Proclamation to his Cabinet, Lincoln read to them the latest episode, Outrage in Utiky, Browne was also known as a member of the New York Bohemian set which included leader Henry Clapp Jr. Walt Whitman, Fitz Hugh Ludlow, and actress Adah Isaacs Menken, Ward met Mark Twain when Ward performed in Virginia City, Nevada and the two became friends. In his correspondences with Twain, Browne called him My Dearest Love, Browne recommended Twain to the editors of the New York Press and urged him to journey to New York. In 1866, Ward visited England, where he became popular both as a lecturer and as a contributor to Punch. In the spring of the year, Wards health gave way. After initially being buried at Kensal Green Cemetery, Wards remains were removed to the United States on May 20,1868 and he is buried at Elm Vale Cemetery in Waterford, Maine. Artemus Ward, a biography and bibliographyCharles Farrar Browne – "Artemus Ward"
30. Cape Town – Cape Town is a coastal city in South Africa. It is the second-most populous urban area in South Africa after Johannesburg and it is also the capital and primate city of the Western Cape province. As the seat of the Parliament of South Africa, it is also the capital of the country. It forms part of the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality, the city is famous for its harbour, for its natural setting in the Cape Floristic Region, and for such well-known landmarks as Table Mountain and Cape Point. As of 2014, it is the 10th most populous city in Africa and it is one of the most multicultural cities in the world, reflecting its role as a major destination for immigrants and expatriates to South Africa. The city was named the World Design Capital for 2014 by the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design, in 2014, Cape Town was named the best place in the world to visit by both the American New York Times and the British Daily Telegraph. Located on the shore of Table Bay, Cape Town was first developed by the Dutch East India Company as a station for Dutch ships sailing to East Africa, India. Jan van Riebeecks arrival on 6 April 1652 established the first permanent European settlement in South Africa, Cape Town quickly outgrew its original purpose as the first European outpost at the Castle of Good Hope, becoming the economic and cultural hub of the Cape Colony. Until the Witwatersrand Gold Rush and the development of Johannesburg, Cape Town was the largest city in South Africa, the earliest known remnants in the region were found at Peers Cave in Fish Hoek and date to between 15,000 and 12,000 years ago. It was later renamed by John II of Portugal as Cape of Good Hope because of the optimism engendered by the opening of a sea route to India. Vasco da Gama recorded a sighting of the Cape of Good Hope in 1497, in the late 16th century, Portuguese, French, Danish, Dutch and English but mainly Portuguese ships regularly stopped over in Table Bay en route to the Indies. They traded tobacco, copper and iron with the Khoikhoi in exchange for fresh meat, the settlement grew slowly during this period, as it was hard to find adequate labour. This labour shortage prompted the authorities to import slaves from Indonesia, many of these became ancestors of the first Cape Coloured communities. Some of these, including grapes, cereals, ground nuts, potatoes, apples and citrus, had an important, the Dutch Republic being transformed in Revolutionary Frances vassal Batavian Republic, Great Britain moved to take control of its colonies. Britain captured Cape Town in 1795, but the Cape was returned to the Dutch by treaty in 1803, British forces occupied the Cape again in 1806 following the Battle of Blaauwberg. In the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814, Cape Town was permanently ceded to Britain and it became the capital of the newly formed Cape Colony, whose territory expanded very substantially through the 1800s. With expansion came calls for independence from Britain, with the Cape attaining its own parliament. Suffrage was established according to the non-racial, but sexist Cape Qualified Franchise, the discovery of diamonds in Griqualand West in 1867, and the Witwatersrand Gold Rush in 1886, prompted a flood of immigrants to South AfricaCape Town – Clockwise from top: Cape Town CBD, Strand, Clifton beach, Table Mountain, Port of Cape Town, Cape Town City Hall