A Special Interest Group is a community within a larger organization with a shared interest in advancing a specific area of knowledge, learning or technology where members cooperate to affect or to produce solutions within their particular field, may communicate and organize conferences. The term was used in 1961 by the Association for Computing Machinery, an academic and professional computer society. SIG was popularized on CompuServe, an early online service provider, where SIGs were a section of the service devoted to particular interests; the ACM includes many SIGs, some starting as smaller "Special Interest Committees" and formed the first group in 1961. ACM supports further subdivision within SIGs for more impromptu informal discussion groups at conferences which are called Birds of a Feather. ACM's Special Interest Groups represent major areas of computing, addressing the interests of technical communities that drive innovation. SIGs offer a wealth of conferences and activities focused on specific computing sub-disciplines.
They enable members to share expertise and best practices. The Mathematical Association of America has 14 SIGs ranging from the Arts to the Web. Organizations that are not technical may have Special Interest Groups, which are focused on a mutual interest or shared characteristic of a subset of members of the organization. An important example for this are trade unions. For identity-based advocacy groups, see identity politics; the Japan Association for Language Teaching has several SIGs. Together they organize a Pan-SIG conference each year; these interest groups lobby for areas of special need. For example, the Sierra Club focuses on protecting the environment as well as the wild places on earth, they focus on the education of people on preservation of the environment. Groups like this advocate for their special interests and form a base of support that will assist them in moving along their public issue; these political "entrepreneurs" are the classic view of the policy maker. And much needed by these special interest groups is the patron.
These patrons provide capital as well as support for the interest groups. The cause has to be one that many support and can get behind due to the quantity of other causes that lobby their patrons for support. Many of these dominant groups have sub-supporting groups that lobby for more specific issues, but assist in the overall cause. Birds of a feather Interest versus express advocacy Linux User Group Lobbying Organizational structure ACM: Special Interest Groups MAA: Special Interest Groups
Étienne Didot is a French former professional footballer who played as a centre midfielder. His brother Sylvain Didot is a football player. Didot made over 400 appearances in Ligue 1 playing for Stade Rennais F. C. Toulouse FC, En Avant de Guingamp. Born in Paimpol, Côtes-d'Armor, Didot began his career playing for his hometown club Stade Paimpolais, before moving to Rennes in 1997. After performing on the youth level, he was promoted to the senior squad during the winter break of the 2001–02 season and subsequently made his debut in a Coupe de France match against Le Havre, he made his league debut just four days against Paris Saint-Germain coming on as a substitute in a 1–2 loss. Over the next two seasons, he was integrated into the side appearing in 20 matches during the 2002–03 season and making 28 appearances during the 2003–04 season; the 2004–05 season was Didot's best season to date making 33 league appearances and scoring his first league goal against RC Strasbourg in a 4–0 win. The club finished fourth in the league and qualified for the UEFA Cup, a first in the club's history.
Didot's 2005–06 league campaign was limited due to injury. After featuring in 19 of the first 20 league matches, he was forced out of the squad after separating his shoulder, he did not play in the league again that season. In his last appearance before suffering the injury, he scored the game-winning goal against rivals Nantes in the Brittany derby. After to the departure of Olivier Monterrubio to RC Lens in 2007, Didot was named captain of the squad for the 2007–08 season. However, despite being captain and pre-selected by Raymond Domenech to France's squad in August, the season was off par by Didot's standards due to the firing of manager Pierre Dréossi, replaced by Guy Lacombe. Didot appeared on and off in the squad usually being dropped by Lacombe due to injuries and bad play, he made. On 18 June 2008, it was announced; the transfer fee was priced at €3 million. He made his debut in their opening league match against Olympique Lyonnais losing 0–3. However, Toulouse responded by going undefeated in their next seven matches.
Toulouse finished the season fifth in the standings, despite finishing 17th the previous season, made it to the Coupe de France semi-finals with Didot making 34 total appearances and scoring two goals. On 18 April 2014, Didot signed a new three-year deal with the le Téfécé side, keeping him contracted until June 2017. On 1 July 2016, Didot joined French club En Avant de Guingamp. Didot has earned caps with all of France's youth teams beginning with the U-15s, he was a regular with the under-21 squad scoring no goals. As stated, in August 2007, he was pre-selected among 40 other players to the senior national team, he has yet to make an appearance, though. Étienne Didot – French league stats at LFP Étienne Didot at Soccerway EA Guingamp Profile
David Rigsbee is an American poet, contributing editor and regular book reviewer for The Cortland Review, literary critic. Rigsbee is the author including eleven full-length poetry collections. In addition to his poems, he has published critical works on Carolyn Kizer and Joseph Brodsky, he has coedited two anthologies, including Invited Guest: An Anthology of Twentieth Century Southern Poetry, a ‘notable book’ selection of the American Library Association and the American Association of University Professors, was featured on C-Span’s Booknotes program. His work has appeared in many journals, including AGNI, American Poetry Review, the Georgia Review, the Iowa Review, the New Yorker, the Ohio Review, Prairie Schooner, Sewanee Review, the Southern Review. Winner of a 2012 Pushcart Prize, the 2009 Black River Poetry Prize, the Vachel Lindsay Poetry Award and the Pound Prize, Rigsbee was 2010 winner of the Sam Ragan Award for contribution to the arts in North Carolina, as well as winner of the Oscar Young Award for the best book by a North Carolina author and the Black River Chapbook Poetry Prize for 2009.
He has received two creative writing fellowships from the NEA, as well as fellowships from the NEH, the Fine Arts Work Center in Provincetown, the Virginia Commission on the Arts. He has received residencies from the Djerassi Foundation and Jentel Foundation. Rigsbee's most recent books are a collection of essays on contemporary poetry, Not Alone in My Dancing: Essays and Reviews, published by Black Lawrence Press in 2016 and This Much I Can Tell You by Black Lawrence Press, in 2017. Rigsbee was married to artist Jill Bullitt for eighteen years. "This Much I Can Tell You, Black Lawrence Press, 2017 "Not Alone in My Dancing: Essays and Reviews" Black Lawrence Press, 2016 "School of the Americas" Black Lawrence Press, 2012 "The Red Tower: New and Selected Poems" NewSouth Books Two Estates Cherry Grove Collections, 2009 Cloud Journal Turning Point Books, 2008 The Dissolving Island BkMk Press, University of Missouri at Kansas City, 2003 Invited Guest: An Anthology of Twentieth Century Southern Poetry University of Virginia Press, 2001 Styles of Ruin: Joseph Brodsky and the Postmodernist Elegy Greenwood Press, 1999 A Skeptic's Notebook: Longer Poems St. Andrews Press, 1997 Trailers The University of Virginia Press, 1996 Your Heart Will Fly Away The Smith, 1992 An Answering Music: On the Poetry of Carolyn Kizer Ford-Brown & Co. 1990 The Hopper Light L'Epervier Press, 1988 The Ardis Anthology of New American Poetry Ardis, 1977 Stamping Ground Ardis Publishers, 1976 "The Pilot House Black Lawrence Press, 2009 Seen From Above, Philip Govedare, Francine Cedars Gallery, Seattle, 2008 Sonnets to Hamlet Pudding House, 2004 Greatest Hits: 1975 - 2000 Pudding House, 2001 Scenes on an Obelisk Pudding House, 2000 To Be Here Coraddi Chapbook, 1980 "Only Heaven," Willow Springs Broadsheet, 1993 “Crickets,” Georgia Review broadside, 1985 Poetry-in-Motion #7, Nobodaddy Press, 1977 Collected Poems in English.
2000 by Joseph Brodsky, edited by Ann Kjellberg, Straus & Giroux, 2000A Part of Speech by Joseph Brodsky, Straus & Giroux,1980Poems of Mikhail Lermontov in Russian Romanticism Ardis, 1984 The Poetry Foundation National Endowment for the Arts Black Lawrence Press David Rigsbee reads for The Cortland Review at AWP 2008 in New York. The Cortland Review
Léo Collard was a Belgian politician in the Belgian Socialist Party who served as minister of public education and Mayor of Mons. In 1955, Collard tried to defund non-state schools and reverse an increase in teachers' pay brought in by the previous Christian Social Party government, while massively expanding state-owned schools; this led to the most violent phase of political conflict over educational funding in post-war Belgium, known as the Second School War, in which the Christian Social Party and the Catholic Church pressed for parity between free and state-run education. Collard introduced a requirement that all teachers be certified, making many priests and members of religious orders working as teachers ineligible for the positions they held. In 1963 Leo Collard was appointed Minister of State. 40 Hurt In Brussels Riot, British Pathé YouTube Channel
Referendums in Costa Rica are regulated by law. The main juridical body that regulates is the Law of Referendum or Law 8492. To this date the only nation-wide referendum done since the current Constitution and the afore mentioned referendum regulatory law is in place was the 2007 Costa Rican Dominican Republic – Central America Free Trade Agreement referendum. To submit a bill to Referendum, the petition has to be made into the Tribunal Supremo de Elecciones, which would transfer the bill to Technical Services which would report if the bill can be submitted to referendum according to the current legislation. If allowed the TSE would allow the recollection of signatures that has to be at least 5% of the electoral census for a period of nine months extendable to one extra month if requested once. If the signatures are gathered in time, the TSE will establish a date for the referendum that cannot coincide with a presidential election. In order for the referendum to be binding it has to have at least 30% of voters participation in common laws and 40% in constitutional reforms and international treaties.
Besides, bills regarding taxes, administrative matters and budgets can't be subject of referendums according to the law, nor can be any legislation regarding Human Rights as established by a Constitutional Court's ruling. The Municipal Code allows for the realization of local referendums and cabildos; these require two thirds of the votes from the municipality's City Council or 5% of residents signatures gathered. Costa Rica's only referendum to this date on the modern era has been the 2007 Costa Rican Dominican Republic – Central America Free Trade Agreement referendum. Promoted by CAFTA opponent José Miguel Corrales Bolaños as an strategy to take the discussion out of the Legislative Assembly were pro-CAFTA parties had majority, the Referendum split public opinion and polarized voters with the main political parties taking positions in favor or against; the “yes” won over the “no” with 51% over 48%. The Civil Unions Act referendum promoted by conservative and religious groups in 2008 to stop the approval on Parliament of the Civil Unions Act which would legalized same-sex civil partnerships was green-lighted by TSE and had the support of conservative parties, the Catholic Church and evangelical churches.
The tentative date for the referendum was set on December 5, 2010. However the Citizens' Action Party, the Ombudsman Office and the LGBT-organization Diversity Movement appealed the decision presenting an amparo in the Constitutional Court, or Fourth Chamber; the Court's ruled in favor of the plaintiffs and declared the referendum unconstitutional as Human Rights matters ca't be submitted to referendum as minorities will be in a disadvantage over the votes of majorities. Same-sex unions including marriage were approved by a Supreme Court ruling on 2018. Another similar case was the Animal Welfare Act which meant to harden the penalties for animal cruelty and was discussed in the Parliament but advanced in part because of the opposition and filibusterism of the Libertarian Movement that opposed it. Frustrated by it slow advance, in 2016 animal rights activists promoted the submitting of the bill to referendum; the TSE allowed the recollection of signatures, achieved on record time, but a constitutional check made by deputies opposing the bill which found out constitutional frictions on the bill caused the TSE to disallow the referendum arguing that it was unconstitutional.
The law was approved by the Legislative Assembly a year later. The Constituent Assembly Convocation Act promoted by the movement New Constitution for Costa Rica lead by ex deputy Alex Solís and other political figures, seeks to have a new Constituent Assembly to draft and approve a new constitution The amparo was presented by scholar and researcher Esperanza Tasies arguing that the current Referendum Law does not allows for total changes in the Constitution, only for partial ones; the Constitutional Court sustained the argument and declared that a Constituent Assembly can only be convened by legislative act. On of the many public monopolies of Costa Rica in on oil refination on the exclusive hands of the Costa Rican Oil Refinery. On mid 2016 the TSE allowed the citizen group No More RECOPE to gathered signatures for the referendum on ending RECOPE's monopoly; the Chamber of Fuel Enterprises presented an appeal into the Constitutional Court against the referendum arguing it will increase oil prices, however it was rejected in 2018.
Two referendums initiatives were green-lighted by the TSE but are under study of the Supreme Court of Justice's Constitutional Chamber due to the amparos presented by citizens. These are: the Vital Minimal Wage Act, promoted by some of the labor unions and would take into account the living costs for the calculation of minimal wage. An amparo was presented against it by the Costa Rican Union of Chambers; the National Energetic Resources Advantage Act promoted by Costa Rica Institute of Technology's teacher Carlos Roldán and seeks to finish the ban on oil exploration and exploitation the country has. An amparo was presented by deputy Paola Vega of the ecologist Citizens' Action Party, it was unanimously rejected by the TSE the realization of referendums for recall elections against the President and the deputies, one presented in 2015 and two presented in 2018, in all cases the TSE argued that the current legislation and Constitution do not allow recall elections except for mayors. A request to submit to referendum Costa Rica's signature of the Global Compact for Migration was rejected arguing that administrative decisions can't be subject of referendum according to current laws.
Mayors in Costa Rica can be submitted to recall elections. This requires at least a two-thirds vote
Chiara Rosa is a female shot putter from Italy. She was 2nd at Universiade, two times 3rd at Mediterranean Games and five times 3rd at European Cup Winter Throwing, she was 3rd in Bergen 2010 at European Team Championships. Her personal best throw is 19.15 metres, achieved in June 2007 in Milan. Chiara Rosa has won 26 times the individual national championship. 15 wins in the shot put 11 wins in the shot put indoor Italian Athletics Championships - Multi winners Italian all-time lists - Shot put Chiara Rosa at FIDAL Chiara Rosa at World Athletics Chiara Rosa at the International Olympic Committee Chiara Rosa at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com