Potts Point, New South Wales
Potts Point is a small and densely populated suburb in inner eastern suburbs of Sydney, Australia. Potts Point is located 3 kilometres east of the Sydney central business district and is part of the local government area of the City of Sydney. Potts Point sits on a ridge east of Woolloomooloo, west of Elizabeth Bay and Rushcutters Bay and north of Darlinghurst; the suburb has a trapezoidal shape, at its greatest extent is no more than one kilometre long by 200 metres wide. Potts Point's eastern boundary is Macleay Street; the suburb's other boundaries include Darlinghurst Road to the southeast, William Street to the south, Brougham Street and part of Cowper Road to the west. Kings Cross is not an designated suburb of Sydney, but rather a locality encompassed by the suburbs of Potts Point and Elizabeth Bay. Kings Cross is a commercial area, dominated by bars, nightclubs, strip clubs and adult bookstores. Kings Cross railway station is situated beneath Darlinghurst Road and the Garden Island facility of the Royal Australian Navy sits on the north end of Potts Point.
Potts Point is named for Joseph Hyde Potts, employed by the Bank of New South Wales. He purchased six-and-a-half acres of harbourside land in an area known as Woolloomooloo Hill – which he renamed Potts Point. Much of the area that today comprises Potts Point and the adjacent suburb of Elizabeth Bay constituted part of a land grant to Alexander Macleay, the New South Wales Colonial Secretary from 1826-37, for whom Macleay Street is named. NSW Judge Advocate, John Wylde was another 19th-century public servant; the area was further subdivided after Macleay's time, a number of grand Georgian mansions were built along the high point of the suburb's ridge line. Several of these survive, including'Rockwall' and'Tusculum'. Rockwall, located in Rockwall Crescent, is a two-storey sandstone villa with five bays and a verandah that encircles the house, it was one of the earlier homes designed by architect John Verge and was built from 1831-37. It is the only one of these, in private ownership. Tusculum, located in Manning Street, is a two-storey Regency mansion, designed by John Verge.
His client was the merchant A. B. Spark, for whom the house was built in 1831–35, it was a twin to Rockwell House and was enlarged in the 1870s by the addition of verandahs on three sides. The first tenant was Bishop William Broughton. Kenilworth, was built on land, part of the 1831 grant to Thomas Barker and was once a neighbour Barker's house, Rosyln Hall; the Roslyn Hall estate was subdivided into seven lots in 1860 and Roslyn Street was created. Around 1869, Kenilworth was built for Henry Williams, it remained in the hands of its original family until 1944. Manar, in Macleay Street, is a complex of three blocks of flats dating from the original house c.1880 through to the Inter-war Free Classical style buildings of the 1920s. They are two to three stories in height with cement rendered masonry walls and terracotta tiles roofs; the 1920s wings were designed by the architectural practice of Ernest A Scott and Green known as Scott Green and Scott. Residents of Manar have included William Parker who served as Master in Lunacy in the Supreme Court of New South Wales, Sir Mungo William MacCallum, Sydney Ure Smith, Sir Garfield Barwick, Senator John Ignatius Armstrong, Mary McEwen, widow of Sir John McEwen, Mary Bailey-Tart, the only daughter of Sir Earle PageOther heritage buildings in the area include the Mansions Terrace in Bayswater Road.
These buildings are all listed on the Register of the National Estate. In 1871, Edmund Blacket built Stramshall in Macleay Street for the Hordern family of merchants. Thomas Rowe made further additions in 1877; the house was known as Jenner House and was taken over by the Department of Defence, who sold it to the horse breeder Tony Peterson in 1998. Peterson sold the house for $15 million in 2009; the house was listed by the National Trust in 1967. Most of the other mansions, such as Orwell, have survived only as street names; the area boasts many fine Victorian-era terraces. These are chiefly located along Victoria Street, which bisects Potts Point from north to south, is known for its impressive canopy of plane trees. Potts Point was the site of some of Australia's earliest blocks of flats, from the 1920s through to World War II the area was intensively developed along those lines; as a result, it boasts the highest concentration of Art Deco architecture in Australia. Amongst the most notable examples are the "Macleay Regis", "Cahors" and "Franconia" residential buildings in Macleay Street and "Carinthia" and "Carisbrooke" in Springfield Avenue.
Two notable Streamline Moderne buildings in Australia: the Minerva Theatre and the Minerva Building are in Orwell Street. The Metro Theatre was designed by Bruce Dellit and built in 1940, it was the site of the first Australian production of the musical Hair in 1970, is heritage-listed. During the Vietnam War, the Darlinghurst Road precinct, which straddles Potts Point and Elizabeth Bay, became a popular destination for US military personnel on R&R – due chiefly to its proximity to a major naval facility; as a result of this, the area attracted organised crime syndicates and developed an unsavoury
George W. Bush
George Walker Bush is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He had served as the 46th governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000. Bush was born in New Haven and grew up in Texas. After graduating from Yale University in 1968 and Harvard Business School in 1975, he worked in the oil industry. Bush married Laura Welch in 1977 and unsuccessfully ran for the U. S. House of Representatives shortly thereafter, he co-owned the Texas Rangers baseball team before defeating Ann Richards in the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election. Bush was elected President of the United States in 2000 when he defeated Democratic incumbent Vice President Al Gore after a close and controversial win that involved a stopped recount in Florida, he became the fourth person to be elected president while receiving fewer popular votes than his opponent. Bush is a member of a prominent political family and is the eldest son of Barbara and George H. W. Bush, the 41st president of the United States.
He is only the second president to assume the nation's highest office after his father, following the footsteps of John Adams and his son, John Quincy Adams. His brother Jeb Bush, a former Governor of Florida, was a candidate for the Republican presidential nomination in the 2016 presidential election, his paternal grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut; the September 11 terrorist attacks occurred eight months into Bush's first term. Bush responded with what became known as the Bush Doctrine: launching a "War on Terror", an international military campaign that included the war in Afghanistan in 2001 and the Iraq War in 2003, he signed into law broad tax cuts, the Patriot Act, the No Child Left Behind Act, the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, Medicare prescription drug benefits for seniors, funding for the AIDS relief program known as PEPFAR. His tenure included national debates on immigration, Social Security, electronic surveillance, torture. In the 2004 presidential race, Bush defeated Democratic Senator John Kerry in another close election.
After his re-election, Bush received heated criticism from across the political spectrum for his handling of the Iraq War, Hurricane Katrina, other challenges. Amid this criticism, the Democratic Party regained control of Congress in the 2006 elections. In December 2007, the United States entered its longest post-World War II recession referred to as the "Great Recession", prompting the Bush administration to obtain congressional passage of multiple economic programs intended to preserve the country's financial system. Nationally, Bush was both one of the most popular and unpopular U. S. presidents in history, having received the highest recorded presidential approval ratings in the wake of the 9/11 attacks, as well as one of the lowest approval ratings during the 2008 financial crisis. Bush finished his term in office in 2009 and returned to Texas, where he had purchased a home in Dallas. In 2010, he published Decision Points, his presidential library was opened in 2013. His presidency has been ranked among the worst in historians' polls that were published in the late 2000s and 2010s.
However, his favorability ratings with the public have improved after leaving office. George Walker Bush was born on July 6, 1946, at Yale–New Haven Hospital in New Haven, while his father was a student at Yale, he was his wife, Barbara Pierce. He was raised in Midland and Houston, with four siblings, Neil and Dorothy. Another younger sister, died from leukemia at the age of three in 1953, his grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut, his father was Ronald Reagan's vice president from 1981 to 1989 and the 41st U. S. president from 1989 to 1993. Bush has English and some German ancestry, along with more distant Dutch, Irish and Scottish roots. Bush attended public schools in Midland, until the family moved to Houston after he had completed seventh grade, he spent two years at The Kinkaid School, a prep school in Piney Point Village in the Houston area. Bush attended high school at Phillips Academy, a boarding school in Andover, where he played baseball and was the head cheerleader during his senior year.
He attended Yale University from 1964 to 1968. During this time, he was a cheerleader and a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon, serving as the president of the fraternity during his senior year. Bush became a member of the Skull and Bones society as a senior. Bush was a rugby union player and was on Yale's 1st XV, he characterized himself as an average student. His GPA during his first three years at Yale was 77, he had a similar average under a nonnumeric rating system in his final year. In the fall of 1973, Bush entered Harvard Business School, he graduated in 1975 with an MBA degree. He is the only U. S. president to have earned an MBA. Bush was engaged to Cathryn Lee Wolfman in 1967, but the engagement fizzled out. Bush and Wolfman remained on good terms after the end of the relationship. While Bush was at a backyard barbecue in 1977, friends introduced him to Laura Welch, a schoolteacher and librarian. After a three-month courtship, she accepted his marriage proposal and they wed on November 5 of that year.
The couple settled in Texas. Bush left his family's Episcopal Church to join his wife's United Methodist Church. On November 25, 1981, Laura Bush gave birth to fraternal twin daughters and Jenna. Prior to getting married, Bush struggled with multiple episodes of alcohol abuse. In one instance on September 4, 1976, he was pulled over near his fami
Randwick Army Barracks is a military base in Sydney, Australia. It is the base for a number of Australian Army Reserve units. 6th Brigade 19th Chief Engineer Works17th Combat Service Support Brigade Headquarters, 1st Psychology Unit and 1st Health Support Company Headquarters, 17th Combat Service Support Brigade2nd Division Headquarters, 2nd Division 8th Signal Regiment 1st Commando Regiment Regimental Headquarters 301st Signal Squadron
Operation Astute was an Australian-led military deployment to East Timor to quell unrest and return stability in the 2006 East Timor crisis. It was headed by Brigadier Bill Sowry, commenced on 25 May 2006 under the command of Brigadier Michael Slater; the operation was established at the request of East Timor's government, continues under an understanding reached between Australia, East Timor, the United Nations, with the United Nations Integrated Mission in East Timor supporting and helping to develop East Timor's police force. Other countries deploying soldiers to East Timor include Malaysia, New Zealand and East Timor's former colonial power Portugal, operating under independent command; the initial tasks of the operation were to: Allow for the evacuation of foreigners. Restore stability and confine conflict to secured areas. Assess and locate the weapons possessed by conflicting groups. Establish a safe environment for dialogue to resolve the crisis. A forward deployment of 200, including a commando company from the 4th Battalion of the Royal Australian Regiment, secured an entry point for follow-on forces centred on Dili Airport.
The full deployment consisted of a battalion group of about 1,800 personnel drawn from the 3rd Battalion of the Royal Australian Regiment and other Australian and New Zealand Army units. Evacuations were carried out by C-130 Hercules aircraft from the Royal Australian Air Force, using RAAF Base Darwin as a Forward Operating Base. Initial assets deployed included the guided-missile frigate HMAS Adelaide, the replenishment vessel HMAS Success and the amphibious landing/hospital ship HMAS Kanimbla. Landing ships HMAS Tobruk and HMAS Manoora were sent to East Timor with follow-on forces. Operation Astute was established at the request of East Timor's government. Troops from former INTERFET nations including from Malaysia, New Zealand and Portugal have augmented the Australian force. Prior to sending troops, each participating government negotiated a Status of Forces Agreement with the government of East Timor. Malaysian Army forces began arriving on 26 May, by air. 24 May21:59 Acting Prime Minister of Australia, Peter Costello, announced in a press conference that East Timor had requested Australia "send defence forces to East Timor to help in maintaining and re-establishing public order".
Australia would send an advance party including the Vice Chief of Defence force to negotiate conditions of the deployment the following morning.25 May07:00 Prime Minister of Australia John Howard arrives back in Canberra from Dublin early, though not because of the East Timor crisis. 12:30 A RAAF 34SQN Challenger 604 was tasked to fly the Australian Vice Chief of Defence Force from Canberra to Dili via Darwin, to negotiate the rules of engagement of the Australian operation, other conditions of deployment. However, on arrival in Darwin the Chief of the Defence Force ordered the aircraft to remain in Darwin, due to a dramatic increase in violence in Dili. RAAF 37SQN C130J Hercules aircraft arrive at Dili from Darwin with 130 commandos on board, together with 4 Australian Army Black Hawk helicopters; the Vice Chief of Defence Force was on board the C130, after being unable to fly to Dili on the RAAF VIP jet. Dili Airport is now under Australian military control; however the VCDF is unable to leave the airport due to security concerns.
HMAS Adelaide arrives in Dili Harbour. 18:43 Prime Minister John Howard announces in a press conference that the deployment will "go ahead without any conditionality" and that 1300 troops would be in place "in a short order", despite a failure to negotiate conditions of the deployment with the East Timorese Government. He explains waiting for signatures could lead to significant further bloodshed and the East Timorese Government is desperate for Australian troops to arrive; the Royal Australian Air Force commence transporting troops to Dili. A 33SQN Boeing 707 ferries troops between Townsville and Darwin, whilst 36SQN C-130Hs and 37SQN C-130Js transport troops and supplies between Darwin and Dili; the flights commence evacuations of civilians on the return legs. The flights continue throughout the night and the following day to form an air bridge between Darwin and Dili.26 May Malaysian Army soldiers begin arrive in Dili. RAAF aircraft continue to transport troops and equipment. United States Fleet Antiterrorism Security Team platoon arrives in Dili to protect the US Embassy.27 May13:30 A Royal New Zealand Air Force C-130H arrives in Darwin from Townsville, ready to deploy New Zealand soldiers to East Timor.29 MayThe initial deployment of Australian soldiers is completed.
A platoon of 42 New Zealand soldiers arrives in Dili to secure the New Zealand embassy.31 MayDelta Company, 2/1 Battalion, Royal New Zealand Infantry Regiment of 123 New Zealand soldiers arrives in Dili. 2 June8 New Zealand military police arrive in Dili.3 JuneUSAF C-17 Globemaster III aircraft complete their task of ferrying Australian troops and equipment between Townsville and Darwin.7 JuneAustralian Defence Minister Brendan Nelson and New Zealand Defence Minister Phil Goff and Defence Secretary Graham Fortune visit Dili.16 JuneRebel Timorese soldiers begin handing their weapons over to Australian troops.27 JuneIt is announced that a New Zealand soldier fired a warning shot during the week of 18–24 June. This is the first shot fired during the intervention. 1 July50 soldiers from 2/1 RNZIR and other units fly to Timor Leste to replace members of the initial New Zealand force.18 JulyAustralian Prime Minister John Howard visits Timor Leste. During his visit he announced that the Australian force in the country will be reduced.19 JulyHMAS Kanimbla departs Timor Leste for Australia carrying
The Australian Army is Australia's military land force. It is part of the Australian Defence Force along with the Royal Australian Navy and the Royal Australian Air Force. While the Chief of the Defence Force commands the ADF, the Army is commanded by the Chief of Army; the CA is therefore subordinate to the CDF, but is directly responsible to the Minister for Defence. Although Australian soldiers have been involved in a number of minor and major conflicts throughout its history, only in World War II has Australian territory come under direct attack. Formed in March 1901, with the amalgamation of the six separate colonial military forces, the history of the Australian Army can be divided into two periods: 1901–47, when limits were set on the size of the regular Army, the vast majority of peacetime soldiers were in reserve units of the Citizens Military Force, expeditionary forces were formed to serve overseas, Post-1947, when a standing peacetime regular infantry force was formed and the CMF began to decline in importance.
During its history the Australian Army has fought in a number of major wars, including: Second Boer War, First World War, the Second World War, Korean War, Malayan Emergency, Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation, Vietnam War, more in Afghanistan and Iraq. Since 1947 the Australian Army has been involved in many peacekeeping operations under the auspices of the United Nations, however the non-United Nations sponsored Multinational Force and Observers in the Sinai is a notable exception. Australia's largest peacekeeping deployment began in 1999 in East Timor, while other ongoing operations include peacekeeping on Bougainville, in the Sinai, in the Solomon Islands. Humanitarian relief after 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake in Aceh Province, Operation Sumatra Assist, ended on 24 March 2005; the 1st Division comprises a deployable headquarters, while 2nd Division under the command of Forces Command is the main home-defence formation, containing Army Reserve units. 2nd Division's headquarters only performs administrative functions.
The Australian Army has not deployed a divisional-sized formation since 1945 and does not expect to do so in the future. 1st Division carries out high-level training activities and deploys to command large-scale ground operations. It has few combat units permanently assigned to it, although it does command the 2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment as part of Australia's amphibious task group. Forces Command controls for administrative purposes all non-special-forces assets of the Australian Army, it is neither an a deployable command. 1 Brigade – Multi-role Combat Brigade based in Darwin and Adelaide. 3 Brigade – Multi-role Combat Brigade based in Townsville. 6 Brigade – Mixed brigade based in Sydney. 7 Brigade – Multi-role Combat Brigade based in Brisbane. 16 Aviation Brigade – Army Aviation brigade based in Enoggera, Brisbane. 17 Combat Service Support Brigade – Logistic brigade based in Sydney. 2nd Division administers the reserve forces from its headquarters located in Sydney. 4 Brigade – based in Victoria.
5 Brigade – based in New South Wales. 8 Brigade – training brigade with units around Australia 9 Brigade – based in South Australia and Tasmania. 11 Brigade – based in Queensland. 13 Brigade – based in Western Australia. Additionally, Forces Command includes the following training establishments: Army Recruit Training Centre at Kapooka, NSW. Special Operations Command comprises a command formation of equal status to the other commands in the ADF, it includes all of Army's special forces assets. Under a restructuring program known as Plan Beersheba announced in late 2011, the 1st, 3rd and 7th Brigades will be re-formed as combined-arms multi-role manoeuvre brigades with the 2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment forming the core of a future amphibious force; the force will be known as the Amphibious Ready Element and will be embarked on the Navy's new Canberra-class amphibious assault ships. Infantry, some other combat units of the Australian Army carry flags called the Queen's Colour and the Regimental Colour, known as "the Colours".
Armoured units carry Standards and Guidons – flags smaller than Colours and traditionally carried by Cavalry, Light Horse and Mounted Infantry units. The 1st Armoured Regiment is the only unit in the Australian Army to carry a Standard, in the tradition of heavy armoured units. Artillery units' guns are considered to be their Colours, on parade are provided with the same respect. Non-combat units do not have Colours, as Colours are battle flags and so are only available to combat units; as a substitute, many have Banners. Units awarded battle honours have them emblazoned on their Colours and Guidons, they are a memorial to the fallen. Artillery do not have Battle Honours – their single Honour is "Ubique" which means "Everywhere" – although they can receive Honour Titles; the Army is the guardian of the National Flag and as such, unlike the Royal Australian Air Force, does not have a flag or Colours. The Army, has a banner, known as the Army Banner. To commemorate the centenary of the Army, the Governor General Sir William Deane, presented the Army with a new Banner at a parade in front of the Australian War Memorial on 10 March 2001.
The Banner was
Major General Duncan Edward Lewis is the current Director-General of Security of the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation. Prior to that appointment, he held the post of Australian Ambassador to the Kingdom of Belgium, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the European Union and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, he is a retired Australian Army officer, Special Operations Commander Australia, National Security Adviser, Secretary of the Department of Defence. Duncan Lewis graduated from the Royal Military College, Duntroon in 1975. Following graduation, he was assigned to the Royal Australian Infantry Corps, he holds a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of New South Wales and a Graduate Diploma in Defence Studies and Management from Deakin University. He attended the British Army Staff College and the US Army War College. During his military career, Lewis served three postings with the Special Air Service Regiment commanding the Regiment from 1990 to 1991. For this service, Lewis was decorated with the Conspicuous Service Cross.
From 1994 to 1996, Lewis was Australian Army Attache in Jakarta, during the INTERFET period he was appointed the Australian Defence Force spokesman on East Timor. Lewis was promoted to brigadier in January 2000 and appointed Commander Sector West UNTAET in East Timor, where he commanded Australian and New Zealand forces, he was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for his accomplishments with the unit. Lewis assumed his appointment as Commander Special Forces in January 2001, was promoted to the rank of major general on 19 December 2002. In the Australia Day Honours of 2005, Lewis was appointed an Officer of the Order of Australia. Subsequent to his retirement from the army in 2005, Lewis joined the Australian Public Service and was appointed to the position of First Assistant Secretary of the National Security Division in the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. In December 2008 he began serving as National Security Adviser to the Rudd Labor Government. On 5 August 2011 it was announced that he would be appointed the Secretary of the Australian Department of Defence, effective early September.
Lewis was the first former military officer. On 17 September 2012 it was announced that Lewis had been appointed Australia's ambassador to Belgium, the European Union, Luxembourg and NATO, would leave the Department of Defence on 10 October. While newspaper reports suggested that Lewis was unhappy with the government's cuts to defence spending, he stated that "notwithstanding media reporting, I have not been forced out of my current position and I am not departing defence for any reason other than to take up this ambassadorial posting at the request of the prime minister". On 15 May 2014, Foreign Minister Julie Bishop and Attorney-General George Brandis issued a joint media release announcing that Lewis was to stand down as Ambassador to Belgium, the EU, Luxembourg and NATO, would be appointed as Director-General of Security following the retirement of David Irvine in September 2014. ADF Biography ADF Photograph
Chief of Joint Operations (Australia)
The Chief of Joint Operations is a three-star role within the Australian Defence Force, responsible the Joint Operations Command and joint operational deployments, such as United Nations peacekeeping and joint task groups. Until 2007, the Vice Chief of the Defence Force was double hatted, additionally exercising the responsibilities of CJOPS. However, in September 2007 the Minister of Defence, Brendan Nelson announced the formation of a separate CJOPS position based at the Headquarters Joint Operations Command at Bungendore, New South Wales; the Joint Operations Command consists of Headquarters Joint Operations Command, Northern Command, Australian Defence Force elements of the Maritime Border Command. Chief of Joint Operations is a joint position, the incumbent can be appointed from any of the three ADF services; the following list chronologically records those who have held the post of CJOPS, with rank and honours as at the completion of the individual's term. Current senior Australian Defence Organisation personnel