Abdallah Wafy is a Nigerien civil servant and diplomat and the United Nations Secretary-General's Deputy Special Representative for the Democratic Republic of the Congo of the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. He is in command of the Rule of Law department, he was appointed to this position by United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon on 26 June 2013. He succeeded Leila Zerrougui from Algeria. Wafy obtained his master's degree in law from the Université du Bénin and graduated from the Ecole nationale supérieure de police in France, he held a range of high-ranking positions in the Government of Niger, including as Senior Security Adviser to the Minister for Interior, Public Safety and Decentralization. Prior to this appointment, Wafy served as Deputy Special Representative for the Rule of Law in the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in Democratic Republic of the Congo ad interim since September 2012, he was the missions's Police Commissioner.
He was with the United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire from 2006 to 2007, was Deputy Head of the Police component of the United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 2009. He is married and has five children
United Nations Operation in Somalia I
United Nations Operation in Somalia I was the first part of a United Nations sponsored effort to provide and secure humanitarian relief in Somalia, as well as to monitor the first UN-brokered ceasefire of the Somali Civil War conflict in the early 1990s. The operation was established in April 1992 and ran until its duties were assumed by the Unified Task Force mission in December 1992. Following the dissolution of UNITAF in May 1993, the subsequent UN mission in Somalia was known as UNOSOM II. Following the eruption and escalation of the civil war in Somalia in 1991, the UN and the Organization of African Unity intervened, citing the war and starvation. Of the Somali population of 10 million people, over half were in severe danger of starvation and malnutrition-related disease in the drought-stricken rural areas. Another 1.5 million were judged at moderate risk of malnutrition. Three hundred thousand people died outright in the early months of 1992 and another 3 million fled the country as refugees.
The UN was engaged in Somalia from early in 1991. UN personnel were withdrawn on several occasions during sporadic flare-ups of violence. A series of Security Council resolutions and diplomatic visits helped impose a ceasefire between the two key factions, signed at the end of March 1992; these efforts were aided by other international bodies, such as the Organisation for African Unity, the League of Arab States and the Organisation of the Islamic Conference. The UN, with the active support of all rebel faction leaders, felt that some sort of peacekeeping force would be required to uphold the ceasefire and assist the humanitarian relief effort, in conjunction with other relief agencies and NGOs. By the end of April 1992, the Security Council adopted Resolution 751; this provided for the establishment of a security force of 50 UN troops in Somalia to monitor the ceasefire. This detachment would be known as the United Nations Operation in Somalia and it existed at the consent of those parties, represented in the ceasefire.
The resolution allowed for an expansion of the security force, with a number of around 500 troops discussed. The first group of ceasefire observers arrived in Mogadishu in early July 1992. Despite the UN's efforts, all over Somalia the ceasefire was ignored, fighting continued, continued to increase, putting the relief operations at great risk; the main parties to the ceasefire, General Mohamed Farrah Aidid and "President" Ali Mahdi Muhammad, once again showing the difficult and troubled relations between the warlords, proved to be difficult negotiating partners and continually frustrated attempts to move the peacekeepers and supplies. In August 1992 the Security Council endorsed the sending of another 3,000 troops to the region to protect relief efforts. However, most of these troops were never sent. Over the final quarter of 1992, the situation in Somalia continued to get worse. Factions in Somalia were splintering again. Agreements for food distribution with one party were worthless when the stores had to be shipped through the territory of another.
Some elements were opposing the UNOSOM intervention. Troops were shot at, aid ships attacked and prevented from docking, cargo aircraft were fired upon and aid agencies and private, were subject to threats and extortion. Meanwhile, hundreds, if not thousands of poverty stricken refugees were starving to death every day. By November 1992, General Mohamed Farrah Aidid had grown confident enough to formally defy the Security Council and demand the withdrawal of peace keepers, as well as declaring hostile intent against any further UN deployments. In November 1992, the United States of America offered to establish a multinational force under its own leadership to secure the humanitarian operation; this offer was accepted by the Security Council, what became known as the Unified Task Force was authorized to utilize "all necessary means" to ensure the protection of the relief efforts. Accordingly, the Security Council suspended any further significant strengthening of UNOSOM as UN affairs in Somalia were subsumed by UNITAF.
With only a handful of the 3,000 plus troops envisaged for UNOSOM put in place, the Security Council left it to “the discretion of the Secretary General” as to what should be done with the abortive mission. UNITAF was composed of forces from 24 different countries, with the vast bulk contributed by the United States. UNITAF soon secured the relief operations which were being coordinated and carried out by UNOSOM, attempting to negotiate a political end to the conflict. Indeed, although UNOSOM had been replaced by UNITAF, it was technically still in operation and would remain ready to resume its function when UNITAF had met its goals of creating a secure environment for humanitarian relief; the Secretary-General convened a meeting in early 1993 in which 14 important Somalia political and rebel factions agreed to hand over all of their weapons to UNITAF and UNOSOM, over $130 million was pledged by donors at an aid conference that year to assist in reconstruction. However, Somalia continued the stumble, in March the UN decided to transform the UNITAF mission into what came to be known as UNOSOM II.
The mandate of UNOSOM II stipulated that the operation was to secure continued relief efforts and, more to restore peace and rebuild the Somali state and economy. In the few months of its operation, 54 military observers and 893 military personnel served with UNOSOM I, supported by international civilian and local staff; the mission suffered six fatalities. Contributing nations were: Australia, Belgiu
Martti Oiva Kalevi Ahtisaari is a Finnish politician, the tenth President of Finland, a Nobel Peace Prize laureate, a United Nations diplomat and mediator noted for his international peace work. Ahtisaari was a United Nations special envoy for Kosovo, charged with organizing the Kosovo status process negotiations, aimed at resolving a long-running dispute in Kosovo, which declared its independence from Serbia in 2008. In October 2008, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize "for his important efforts, on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts"; the Nobel statement said that Ahtisaari has played a prominent role in resolving serious and long-lasting conflicts, including ones in Namibia, Aceh and Iraq. Martti Ahtisaari was born in Finland, his father, Oiva Ahtisaari took Finnish citizenship in 1929 and Finnicized his surname from Adolfsen in 1936. The Continuation War took Martti's father to the front as an NCO army mechanic, while his mother, moved to Kuopio with her son to escape immediate danger from the war.
Kuopio was where Ahtisaari spent most of his childhood attending the Kuopion Lyseo high school. In 1952, Martti Ahtisaari moved to Oulu with his family to seek employment. There he continued his education in high school, graduating in 1952, he joined the local YMCA. After completing his military service, he began to study through a distance-learning course at Oulu teachers' college, he was able to live at home while attending the two-year course which enabled him to qualify as a primary-school teacher in 1959. Besides his native language, Ahtisaari speaks Swedish, French and German. In 1960, he moved to Karachi, Pakistan, to lead the Swedish Pakistani Institute's physical education training establishment, where he became accustomed to a more international environment. In addition to managing the students' home, Ahtisaari's job involved training teachers, he returned to Finland in 1963, became active in non-governmental organizations responsible for aid to developing countries. He joined the international students' organisation AIESEC, where he discovered new passions about diversity and diplomacy.
In 1965, he joined the Ministry for Foreign Affairs in its Bureau for International Development Aid becoming the assistant head of the department. In 1968, he married Eeva Irmeli Hyvärinen; the couple has Marko Ahtisaari, a technology entrepreneur and musician. Ahtisaari spent several years as a diplomatic representative from Finland, he served as Finland's Ambassador to Tanzania from 1973 to 1977. As UN Deputy Secretary-General 1977–1981 and as United Nations Commissioner for Namibia from 1976 to 1981, working to secure the independence of Namibia from the Republic of South Africa. Between 1982–1983 Ahtisaari was the Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations. Following the death of a UN Commissioner for Namibia, Bernt Carlsson, on Pan Am Flight 103 on 21 December 1988 – on the eve of the signing of the Tripartite Accord at UN Headquarters – Ahtisaari was sent to Namibia in April 1989 as the UN Special Representative to head the United Nations Transition Assistance Group; because of the illegal incursion of SWAPO troops from Angola, the South African appointed Administrator-General, Louis Pienaar, sought Ahtisaari's agreement to the deployment of SADF troops to stabilize the situation.
Ahtisaari took advice from British prime minister Margaret Thatcher, visiting the region at the time, approved the SADF deployment. A period of intense fighting ensued. In July 1989, Glenys Kinnock and Tessa Blackstone of the British Council of Churches visited Namibia and reported: "There is a widespread feeling that too many concessions were made to South African personnel and preferences and that Martti Ahtisaari was not forceful enough in his dealings with the South Africans."Perhaps because of his reluctance to authorise this SADF deployment, Ahtisaari was alleged to have been targeted by the South African Civil Cooperation Bureau. According to a hearing in September 2000 of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission, two CCB operatives were tasked not to kill Ahtisaari, but to give him "a good hiding". To carry out the assault, Barnard had planned to use the grip handle of a metal saw as a knuckleduster. In the event, Ahtisaari did not attend the meeting at the Keetmanshoop Hotel, where Le Roux and Barnard lay in wait for him, thus Ahtisaari escaped injury.
After the independence elections of 1989, Ahtisaari was appointed an honorary Namibian citizen. South Africa gave him the O R Tambo award for "his outstanding achievement as a diplomat and commitment to the cause of freedom in Africa and peace in the world". Ahtisaari served as UN undersecretary general for administration and management from 1987 to 1991 causing mixed feelings inside the organisation during an internal investigation of massive fraud; when Ahtisaari revealed in 1990 that he had secretly lengthened the grace period allowing UN officials to return misappropriated taxpayer money from the original three months to three years, the investigators were furious. The 340 officials found guilty of fraud were able to return money after their crime had been proven; the harshest punishment was the firing of twenty corrupt officials. Ahtisaari's presidential campaign in Finland began when he was still a member of the council de
Pramila Patten is a Mauritian-British barrister, women's rights activist, United Nations official, who serves as the United Nations Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict and Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations. Her office was established by Security Council Resolution 1888, introduced by Hillary Clinton, she succeeded Margot Wallström and Zainab Bangura, she served as a member of the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women from 2003 to 2017, was the committee's vice chairperson. Pramila Patten obtained a Bachelor of Laws at the University of London, a Diploma in Criminology at Kings College, Cambridge, a Master of Laws at the University of London and was called to the bar in England as a member of Gray's Inn, she practised as a barrister in England from 1982 to 1986 before she returned to Mauritius, where she served as a judge at a district court between 1987 and 1988, from 1987 to 1992 as a lecturer at the Faculty of Law of the University of Mauritius.
Since 1995 she headed the law firm Co Chambers. She was a member of the International Women's Rights Action Watch between 1993 and 2002, from 2000 to 2004 she was a consultant to the Ministry of Women's Rights, Child Development and Family Welfare, she was elected as a member of the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women in 2003. At times she was the committee's vice chairperson. In 2017, she resigned from the committee, on 12 April 2017 she was appointed by UN Secretary-General António Guterres as Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict with the rank of Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations. In November 2017 she visited Bangladesh to interview survivors of the 2016 Rohingya persecution in Myanmar. In November 2017 she welcomed the Elsie Initiative to help increase women’s participation in peacekeeping operations in a joint statement with fellow UN Under-Secretary-General and Executive Director of UN Women Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka
Tadamichi Yamamoto is a diplomat, serving as UN Secretary-General's Special Representative for Afghanistan and head of the UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan. He was serving as the Secretary-General’s Deputy Special Representative for Afghanistan since November 2014, he served as Ambassador of Japan to Hungary from 2012 and was the special representative of the Government of Japan for Pakistan and Afghanistan from 2010 to 2012. Yamamoto coordinated a ministerial-level international conference on Afghan development, held in Tokyo, Japan in July 2012, he completed his Bachelor of Science degree in engineering from the Tokyo Institute of Technology and a bachelor’s degree from the University of Oxford
David Nabarro is a medical doctor, international civil servant and diplomat, who served as special adviser to the United Nations Secretary-General on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and Climate Change. He led the UN's response to the cholera epidemic in Haiti and served as the special envoy on Ebola. In September 2016, Nabarro was nominated by the UK to stand for the post of director-general of the World Health Organization. Nabarro is the son of the late Sir John David Nunes Nabarro – consultant endocrinologist at University College Hospital and Middlesex Hospital, London, he attended Oundle School in Northamptonshire, leaving in the summer of 1966. In a gap year between school and university, Nabarro was a community service volunteer, he spent a year as the organiser of York. A BBC television documentary was made about his volunteer work. Nabarro studied at University of Oxford and University of London, qualified as a physician in 1973, he is a member of the Royal College of Physicians by distinction.
Nabarro worked as a medical officer in North Iraq for Save the Children, before joining the United Kingdom's National Health Service for a short time. From 1976 to 1978, Nabarro worked as District Child Health Officer in Dhankuta District, Nepal, he moved to the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, in 1982, he became Regional Manager for the Save the Children Fund in South Asia, based in the region. In 1985 he joined the University of Liverpool Medical School as senior lecturer in International Community Health, he moved to the Overseas Development Administration as a strategic adviser for health and population in East Africa, based in Nairobi, in 1989. Nabarro took up the post of chief health and population adviser at the Overseas Development Administration in 1990, moved on to become director of human development in 1997. Nabarro joined the WHO in January 1999, as project manager of Roll Back Malaria moved to the Office of the DG as executive director in March 2000. In this capacity, he worked with DG Gro Harlem Brundtland for two years on a variety of issues, including the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, Health Systems Assessments and the creation of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.
Nabarro transferred to the Sustainable Development and Healthy Environments cluster in 2003 and was appointed representative of the DG for health action in crises in July 2003. Nabarro was stationed in the Canal Hotel in Baghdad, when it was bombed on the afternoon of 19 August 2003; the blast targeted the UN, which had used the hotel as its headquarters in Iraq since 1991. He has coordinated support for health aspects of crisis response operations in Darfur, in countries affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and Tsunami. In September 2005, Nabarro was seconded from WHO and appointed senior UN system coordinator for avian and human influenza by secretary-general of the UN Kofi Annan to ensure that the UN system makes an effective and coordinated contribution to the global effort to control the epidemic of avian influenza. In January 2009, Nabarro took on the responsibility of coordinating the UN system's High-Level Task Force on Global Food Security; the HLTF brought together 23 different organizations, funds and other entities from within the UN family, as well as the Bretton Woods Institutions, the World Trade Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, tasked them with establishing a common strategy for addressing food and nutrition insecurity in a more sustainable and comprehensive way.
Nabarro was succeeded by Giuseppe Fantozzi. In September 2010, Nabarro was appointed coordinator of Scaling Up Nutrition. SUN brings together government officials, civil society, the UN, donors and researchers in a collective effort to improve nutrition. Nabarro was responsible for leading a high-level advisory group to guide reform of WHO's response to outbreaks and emergencies, prepare reports based on the group's recommendations and advise on the manner of their implementation. In 2016 Nabarro was tapped to lead the UN's response to Haiti's cholera epidemic. Cholera has killed more than 10,000 Haitians since the disease was introduced by UN peacekeepers in 2010. After UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon issued a long overdue apology for the UN's "role" in the epidemic, Nabarro oversaw efforts to raise $400 million from UN member states to fund the Secretary General's proposed "New Approach" to cholera in Haiti. Nabarro was the second UN appointee to work on the cholera crisis in Haiti. Pedro Modrano Rojas served as a senior coordinator for the cholera effort, but left at the end of an 18-month term, stating that he was disappointed by the international community's "failure to acknowledge the fact that we have in Haiti the largest epidemic in the western hemisphere."
Nabarro's efforts were no more successful—as a result of a lack of support from the UN Secretary General and from member states, Nabarro was only been able to raise $2.7 million of the promised $400 million before being replaced by Josette Sheeran—though Sheeran will face the same obstacles as Nabarro. In November 2009 UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appointed Nabarro as special representative on food security and nutrition; as special representative, Nabarro's role is to: Align UN system action on people's food security, livelihood resilience and sustainable agriculture in the face of changing climates Suppo
John Gerard Ruggie is the Berthold Beitz Professor in Human Rights and International Affairs at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government. He is an Affiliated Professor in International Legal Studies at Harvard Law School. Ruggie was born in Graz, son of Josef and Margaret Ruggie, he was raised in Canada. Ruggie has a BA in politics and history from McMaster University in Canada, he married Mary Zacharuk in 1965, with whom he has one son, Andreas Ruggie, who attended Columbia University and MIT Sloane. He moved to the United States in 1967 to attend graduate school, he earned a PhD in political science from the University of Berkeley. Ruggie taught for many years at Columbia University becoming Dean of the School of International and Public Affairs, he has taught at the University of California's Berkeley and San Diego campuses and directed the UC system-wide Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation. He has twice served as a senior official in the United Nations. From 1997 to 2001, he served as United Nations Assistant Secretary-General for Strategic Planning, a post created for him by Secretary-General Kofi Annan.
He was one of the principal architects of the United Nations Global Compact. In 2005, he was appointed as the UN Secretary-General's Special Representative for Business and Human Rights, he developed a set of principles, the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, which have been adopted by multiple international agencies. Ruggie is considered to be one of his generation's most influential political scientists, he introduced the concepts of international regimes and epistemic communities into the international relations field. A survey in Foreign Policy magazine has named him as one of the 25 most influential international relations scholars in the United States and Canada. Ruggie has a Doctor of Laws from McMaster. A fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Ruggie is a recipient of the International Studies Association's Distinguished Scholar Award and the American Political Science Association's Hubert Humphrey Award for outstanding public service by a political scientist.
He is a recipient of a Guggenheim Fellowship. Foreign Policy magazine has named him as one of the 25 most influential international relations scholars in the United States and Canada. In 2014, he received the Harry LeRoy Jones Award of the Washington Foreign Law Society, honoring "an individual who has made an outstanding contribution to the development and application of international law" for developing the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. Previous recipients have included, among others, Supreme Court Justices Sandra Day O’Connor, Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Stephen Breyer, Member of the International Court of Justice Thomas Buergenthal, Secretary of State James Baker, Senator George Mitchell, Ambassador Thomas Pickering, IMF Managing Director Christine Lagarde, Transparency International founder Peter Eigen, he was awarded the Global Environment Award of the International Association for Impact Assessment. International relations theory Constructivism in international relations John Ruggie's personal website