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Specie Circular

The Specie Circular is a United States presidential executive order issued by President Andrew Jackson in 1836 pursuant to the Coinage Act. It required payment for government land to be in silver; the Specie Circular was a reaction to the growing concerns about excessive speculations of land after the Indian removal, done with soft currency. The sale of public lands increased five times between 1834 and 1836. Speculators paid for these purchases with depreciating paper money. While government law demanded that land purchases be completed with specie or paper notes from specie-backed banks, a large portion of buyers used paper money from state banks not backed by hard money. On July 11, 1836, Jackson ordered Secretary of the Treasury Levi Woodbury to issue the Specie Circular under federal law whereby the government refused to take anything but gold and silver specie for sales of public lands of over 320 acres after August 15, 1836, it did make a special exception to accept certain types of Virginia scrip.

The executive order allowed legitimate settlers to use paper until December 15, 1836. Because the order was one of Jackson's last acts in office, most of its consequences occurred during and were attributed to the Presidency of Martin van Buren; the devaluation of paper currency only increased with Jackson's proclamation. This sent inflation and prices upwards. Many at the time blamed the Specie Circular for the rise in prices and the following Panic of 1837. Cries of "Rescind the circular!" went up and former President Jackson sent word to Van Buren asking him not to rescind the order. Jackson believed. Lobbying efforts by bankers, increased in Washington in an attempt to revoke the Specie Circular. Others, like Nicholas Biddle, believed that Jackson's defeat of the Second Bank of the United States was directly responsible for the irresponsible creation of paper money by the state banks which had precipitated this crisis; the restrictions on credit caused by the order resulted in numerous bankruptcies and the failure of smaller banks.

In the South the resulting recession drove down cotton prices well into the 1840s. Small farmers who had bought land on credit were unable to meet their loan repayments with their income from staple crops cut by a half; when they defaulted, "heir land and slaves were repossessed and sold at auction to well-established slaveholders.... Some farmers were able to eke out a living as lesser yeomen, but many fell into tenancy and sharecropping. When the cotton market recovered, affluent slaveholders held nearly all the South’s best land." The Democratic party split in two ways regarding the order. Some, like Thomas Hart Benton, supported the use of sound money; the Locofoco wing of the party agreed with Benton. Senators Nathaniel P. Tallmadge and William C. Rives supported the other side of the party, in favor of paper money. In the United States House of Representatives, John Bell challenged his own party member, James K. Polk, for his position as Speaker of the House of Representatives over the issue.

Specie Payment Resumption Act

2008 Pekan Olahraga Nasional

2008 Pekan Olahraga National or the Indonesia National Games XVII were a major multi-sport event in Indonesia which took place in Samarinda, East Kalimantan, from July 5–17, 2008. A total of 7,946 athletes participated in the biggest-ever Pekan Olahraga Nasional and the first on the island of Borneo; these games make Samarinda the second city to host Pekan Olahraga Nasional outside of the island of Java and Sumatra, after Makassar hosted the 1957 Pekan Olahraga Nasional. Samarinda was awarded the right to host the games over three competitors, Pekanbaru and Semarang. Pekanbaru was chosen to be the host of eighteenth edition of the games in 2012. Mascots for the games are three endangered species of the East Kalimantan province and representing three elements: land and air. Hornbill Mahakam dolphin Orangutan Although Samarinda is the main host for the games, several sports played in other cities in East Kalimantan, they are: Balikpapan Berau Bontang Kutai Kartanegara Tarakan Situs web resmi Jadwal pertandingan PON XVII Kaltim PON XVII Terancam Dipindah Jumlah peserta menurut provinsi dari Sekretariat PON XVII-2008

Rube Currie

George Reuben "Rube" Currie was an American pitcher and manager in Negro league baseball. Born in Kansas City, Currie made his debut for the Chicago Union Giants in 1919 before coming back to his hometown to star for the Kansas City Monarchs. Newspaper references of the day spelled his last name "Currie". In 1918, 19 year-old Curry registered for the WWI draft, he lists his occupation as "Laborer" for the Armour or Armourdale Company in Kansas. He lists his address as 1723 Woodland Avenue in Kansas City, Missouri, a location, about two blocks from today's Negro Leagues Baseball Museum, he lists his nearest relative as Nelson Curry, living at the same address. Known for his curveball and control, Currie is rated among the best pitchers of his day, played in all four of the Negro World Series. Currie managed in years, coaching the East team in the 1936 East–West game. Negro league baseball statistics and player information from, or Baseball-Reference

Nicholas Meregali

Nicholas Meregali is a 2x Brazilian Jiu Jitsu World Champion. He is well known for winning a gold medal in his first year as a black belt at the 2017 World Jiu-Jitsu Championship by beating Leandro Lo, one of the greatest BJJ competitors of all time, in the final; the next year, Meregali won a gold medal in the Super Heavyweight category at Brazilian National Jiu-Jitsu Championship submitting his opponent from the back in the final. In 2019, he won the national title again and added the open weight class title to earn "double gold." Meregali began training. He was a prolific competitor at the coloured belts level winning the IBJJF worlds at both purple belt and brown belt. Meregali trains at the Alliance Jiu Jitsu academy in Porto Alegre under coach Mario Reis. In interviews he has described himself as a perfectionist. Nicholas has been described as having a "complete game," and he is known for his outstanding guard his innovative use of the De La Riva position, chokes from the back

Paul Dyster

Paul A. Dyster is an American politician who served as the 30th mayor of Niagara Falls, New York from 2008 to 2019, he is a member of the Democratic Party. Having served in the Niagara Falls City Council from 2000 to 2003, he was first elected mayor in 2007 and was reelected in 2011 and 2015, he chose not to seek reelection for a fourth term in 2019. Dyster was born April 21, 1954 in Niagara Falls, New York, the oldest of 10 children, to Dr. Melvin B. Dyster and the late Mary C. Dyster, both of whom were community activists. Dyster graduated from Bishop Duffy High School in Niagara Falls, New York in 1972, he was valedictorian and Student Council president, was active on the school's Debate Team and the soccer team. He graduated summa cum laude in 1976 from the University at Buffalo with a B. A. was a member of the Phi Beta Kappa honor society. He graduated from Johns Hopkins University in 1979 with an M. A. majoring in Political Science. He obtained a PhD in 1984 in International Relations and Law.

He serves on the Board of Directors for the Environmental Leadership Institute at Niagara University in Lewiston, New York. He served as Director of the Graduate Program in International Affairs at The Pentagon from September 1989 to August 1994, assistant professor for the Department of Politics from 1985 to December 1993 at Catholic University of America. Dyster was a Fellow of International Affairs for the Council on Foreign Relations from 1987 to 1988. Dyster was a program coordinator and lecturer from September 1980 to May 1981 at Johns Hopkins University. Dyster was Beer Trade Association's newspaper, he is a nationally certified beer judge, owns Niagara Tradition, a homebrewing supply store in Tonawanda, New York. He is a Board Emeritus for the Buffalo-Niagara Riverkeeper and a spokesman for the Niagara River Environmental Coalition, he is a member of the Oversight Board for Culture Buffalo Niagara. He is a founding spokesman for the Niagara Waterfront Revitalization Task Force, he sits on the Board of Directors for the Niagara Arts and Cultural Center in the Former Niagara Falls High School, served as the Board President from 2005 to 2007.

He is the Board President for the Niagara Experience Center. Dyster is a member of the advisory committee for Save Our Sites Niagara, he served as the Assistant Scoutmaster for Boy Scouts of America Troop 801 Niagara Falls from 1996 to 2004 and as the Scoutmaster from 2004 to 2005, as a basketball coach for the Whirlpool Park Little League from 1995 to 1996. Dyster is a group leader for the Life Workshops program at SUNY Buffalo, is a member of the Niagara River Anglers Association. Dyster was named Citizen of the Year in 2006 by the Niagara Gazette, the Conservationist of the Year by the Adirondack Mountain Club's Niagara Frontier Chapter in 2006, was presented with the Good Neighbor Award by the Niagara Falls Memorial Medical Center in 2006. Dyster became a city councilman in 2000 under Mayor Irene Elia, he gave up his council seat after one term to run for mayor and was one of four Democratic candidates, who were Dyster, Niagara County Legislator Sam Granieri, Niagara Falls Water Board employee Glenn Choolokian, City Councilman Vince Anello.

Anello won the primary narrowly and went on to win in a landslide against then-Mayor Irene Elia, running for a second term. In the Democratic Primary in September 2007, Dyster won by a narrow margin over Councilman Lewis Rotella, considered the favorite to win the primary. Then-Mayor Anello could not run for reelection due to his violation of state election law by having volunteers who were not in his political party nor registered to vote pass out petitions. Anello went on to be indicted on charges of conspiracy, obstruction of justice and scheme to defraud and was sentenced to federal prison in January 2011 for a separate charge of filing false documents. On Election Day in 2008, Dyster won the city election by a landslide defeating by more than 70 percent Republican Former City Councilwoman Candra Thomason. Under the Dyster Administration, a new courthouse and public safety building was finished and received LEED certification, a new Niagara Falls Amtrak station was constructed, the historic customhouse was restored and a project to demolish the Niagara Scenic Parkway viaduct and create a new Niagara Gorge State Park began.

In December 2010, Dyster announced that he would seek re-election in 2011. Dyster ran in the primary against former Niagara Falls lawmaker and insurance executive John Accardo, community activist Carnell Burch, former United States Postal Service employee Norton Douglas. In May 2011, the Niagara Falls Democratic Committee endorsed Dyster. In the September 13, 2011 Democratic Primary, he had a resounding victory, garnering 56% of the vote in a four-person field. In the general election, Dyster defeated Republican challenger Johnny G. Destino and Conservative Party candidate John Accardo, the latter of whom he had defeated in the primary and had not campaigned since the primary, winning 52% of the vote against 45% of the vote going to Destino; the remaining 3% went to Accardo. Dyster was the first mayor after a succession of four one-term mayors spanning from 1991 to 2007 to win re-election. *Appointed by a previous administration He married Rebecca Ann Lucchetti in 1980 and has two sons Ian and Bert.

He is friends with local San Antonio resident Matthew Reyna. His nickname is Dysie

Hawkman (Katar Hol)

Hawkman is a DC Comics superhero. He is Bronze Age and New 52 Hawkman. Created by Gardner Fox and Joe Kubert, he first appeared in The Brave and the Bold #34. There are two versions of Katar Hol, the Silver Age/Pre-Crisis version and the post-Hawkworld/Post-Crisis version; the Silver Age Hawkman was first introduced in The Brave and the Bold #34 by artist Joe Kubert and writer Gardner Fox. At this time DC had rebooted many of its characters such as the Flash and Green Lantern. Hawkman's first appearance spawned five more tryout issues in The Brave and the Bold. During these issues, he teamed up with his wife, Hawkgirl, to battle foes on earth as well as on his home planet Thanagar. After Hawkman had concluded his appearances in The Brave and the Bold, he starred in a side strip within Mystery in Space, he appeared in four issues of this series, teamed up with Adam Strange in some of these adventures. In 1964, Hawkman was given a bi-monthly solo title. Murphy Anderson took over the art for this series with Gardner Fox continuing as writer.

Hawkman teamed up with The Atom and Adam Strange in his title. Together and Hawkgirl battled such enemies as the Matter Master, the Shadow Thief and Lion-Mane. Hawkman's comic book would continue for less than five years before it was canceled at issue #27. After declining sales forced the cancellation of his solo magazine, Hawkman teamed up with the Atom and starred in The Atom and Hawkman for seven issues; this series was canceled as well. During the 1970s and early 1980s, Hawkman continued to appear as a member of the Justice League of America, which he had joined back in 1964, he made regular appearances in World's Finest Comics and Detective Comics, along with a three-issue story in the pages of Showcase. It was not until the mid-1980s. In 1986, DC published. Due to the decent sales of this series, Hawkman received another monthly solo series, it lasted seventeen issues and one Special before it, was cancelled. In 1989, Timothy Truman decided to reboot the Silver Age Hawkman in a three-book series titled Hawkworld.

This was the start of the post-Hawkworld version of Katar Hol. While this series was meant to just be a retold origin of Hawkman, it spawned yet another Hawkman series. In 1990 DC created the Hawkworld monthly series; this series had two volumes, but was canceled. During the mid 1990s–2010s Hawkman would have more on-and-off series. However, none of them were of much importance. With all of the different series, Hawkman had been part of, his origin and story had become rather complicated and confusing. At the end of his 3rd series, Hawkman was physically dissolved into nothing. Hawkman came back, but this time, rather than being the alien policeman that he was in the previous series, he was Carter Hall, the reincarnated Egyptian prince; however this added more complexity to Hawkman, the series was canceled. In 2011, the Silver Age Hawkman was rebooted again as part of The New 52 reboot, his new comic book was titled The Savage Hawkman. Although this Hawkman was the most simple version of the complex character, the series sold poorly and ended after twenty issues.

In 2016, Hawkman returned again as part of the DC Rebirth relaunch, in a series titled The Death of Hawkman, which concluded after six issues. A new Hawkman title, by Robert Venditti and Bryan Hitch, debuted in June 2018; however this series concerned Carter Hall the reincarnated Egyptian prince version of Hawkman rather than Katar Hol, or Silver Age version of the character. Katar Hol was the imperial prince of his home planet of Thanagar, his father was renowned ornithologist and inventor. When Katar Hol was eighteen, an alien race called the Manhawks invaded Thanagar and began looting the planet. Paran sent young Katar Hol to bring back information on the aliens. Using this information, Paran created a hawk-like battle suit containing advanced technology like his "Nth metal". Katar used Paran's advanced weaponry to drive the Manhawks away from Thanagar. That, was not the end of the problem; some Thanagarians had learned the concept of stealing from the Manhawks. Due to the amount of crime, the Thanagarian government created a police force.

In honor of Paran Katar and his achievements, the new police force began using his hawk-suit and equipment. Paran headed this new police force, named the Hawk-Police, his son became one of the first recruits. Katar soon became one of the most skilled of the Hawk-Police; when a group called the Rainbow Robbers began committing crimes, Katar was teamed up with rookie Shayera Thal to track and apprehend the criminals. During the case, Shayera saved Katar's life, the two soon fell in love. A few weeks Katar proposed to Shayera and the two got married, working together as partners-for-life in the Hawk-Police. After ten years of marriage and in the force, the pair were sent to Earth to capture the shape-shifting Thanagarian criminal Byth. During their mission, they meet George Emmett, commissioner of the Midway City Police Department, told him their alien origin. With Emmett's help, the pair took over his retiring brother Ed's place as museum curators, they adopt the identities as Shiera Hall. After capturing him and sending him back to Thanagar, they elected to remain on Earth to work with authorities to learn human police methods.

The two acted publicly as the heroes Hawkgirl. The rest of Hawkman's supporting cast consist of Mavis Trent, museum naturalist and diorama artist who flirts with Katar.