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A speckle pattern is produced by the mutual interference of a set of coherent wavefronts. Although this phenomenon has been investigated by scientists since the time of Newton, speckles have come into prominence since the invention of the laser, they have been used in a variety of applications in microscopy and optical manipulation. Speckle patterns occur in diffuse reflections of monochromatic light such as laser light; such reflections may occur on materials such as paper, white paint, rough surfaces, or in media with a large number of scattering particles in space, such as airborne dust or in cloudy liquids. The term speckle pattern is commonly used in the experimental mechanics community to describe the pattern of physical speckles on a surface, useful for measuring displacement fields via digital image correlation; the speckle effect is a result of the interference of many waves of the same frequency, having different phases and amplitudes, which add together to give a resultant wave whose amplitude, therefore intensity, varies randomly.

If each wave is modeled by a vector it can be seen that if a number of vectors with random angles are added together, the length of the resulting vector can be anything from zero to the sum of the individual vector lengths—a 2-dimensional random walk, sometimes known as a drunkard's walk. In the limit of many interfering waves the distribution of intensities becomes exponential P = 1 ⟨ I ⟩ exp ⁡, where ⟨ I ⟩ is the mean intensity; when a surface is illuminated by a light wave, according to diffraction theory, each point on an illuminated surface acts as a source of secondary spherical waves. The light at any point in the scattered light field is made up of waves which have been scattered from each point on the illuminated surface. If the surface is rough enough to create path-length differences exceeding one wavelength, giving rise to phase changes greater than 2π, the amplitude, hence the intensity, of the resultant light varies randomly. If light of low coherence is used, a speckle pattern will not be observed, because the speckle patterns produced by individual wavelengths have different dimensions and will average one another out.

However, speckle patterns can be observed in polychromatic light in some conditions. When a rough surface, illuminated by a coherent light is imaged, a speckle pattern is observed in the image plane, it is called "subjective" because the detailed structure of the speckle pattern depends on the viewing system parameters. If the position of the imaging system is altered, the pattern will change and will be unrelated to the original speckle pattern; this can be explained. Each point in the image can be considered to be illuminated by a finite area in the object; the size of this area is determined by the diffraction-limited resolution of the lens, given by the Airy disk whose diameter is 2.4λu/D, where λ is the wavelength of the light, u is the distance between the object and the lens, D is the diameter of the lens aperture. The light at neighboring points in the image has been scattered from areas which have many points in common and the intensity of two such points will not differ much. However, two points in the image which are illuminated by areas in the object which are separated by the diameter of the Airy disk, have light intensities which are unrelated.

This corresponds to a distance in the image of 2.4λv/D where v is the distance between the lens and the image. Thus, the "size" of the speckles in the image is of this order; the change in speckle size with lens aperture can be observed by looking at a laser spot on a wall directly, through a small hole. The speckles will be seen to increase in size; when laser light, scattered off a rough surface falls on another surface, it forms an "objective speckle pattern". If a photographic plate or another 2-D optical sensor is located within the scattered light field without a lens, a speckle pattern is obtained whose characteristics depend on the geometry of the system and the wavelength of the laser; the speckle pattern in the figure was obtained by pointing a laser beam at the surface of a mobile phone so that the scattered light fell onto an adjacent wall. A photograph was taken of the speckle pattern formed on the wall. Speaking, this has a second subjective speckle pattern but its dimensions are much smaller than the objective pattern so it is not seen in the image.

The light at a given point in the speckle pattern is made up of contributions from the whole of the scattering surface. The relative phases of these scattered waves vary across the scattering surface, so that the resulting phase on each point of the second surface varies randomly; the pattern is the same regardless of. The "size" of the speckles is a function of the wavelength of the light, the size of the laser beam which illuminates the first surface, the distance between this surface and the surface where the speckle pattern is formed; this is the case b

Edwin Max "Ed" Leidel, Jr. was a bishop of the Episcopal Church who served as Bishop of Eastern Michigan from 1996 to 2006 and as the Provisional Bishop of Eau Claire from 2010 to 2013. A native of Milwaukee, Leidel became an ordained deacon at Christ Episcopal Church in Whitefish Bay, Wisconsin in 1963; the following year, Leidel became an ordained priest at St. Luke's Episcopal Church, Chapel and Rectory in Racine and was commissioned an officer and military chaplain in the United States Navy Reserve. From 1967 to 1970, he served as a rector at St. Stephen's Episcopal Church in Racine. In 1970, he returned to Christ Episcopal Church in Whitefish Bay. From 1975 to 1986, Leidel was a rector at St. Timothy's Episcopal Church in Indiana. However, he spent a year of that time in Darwin, Northern Territory in Australia as Acting Dean of the Anglican Cathedral there. In 1986, Leidel became a rector at St. Christopher's Episcopal Church in Minnesota. In 1990, Leidel completed his Doctor of Ministry Degree at the School of Theology of the University of the South.

From 1996 to 2006, Leidel served as the first bishop of the newly created Episcopal Diocese of Eastern Michigan. In 2007, he was named Congregation Coach of the Anglican Diocese of Huron, he was elected to his current position in 2010. Leidel and his wife, Ira Leidel, reside in Wisconsin, he is a published author of two books. University of Wisconsin–Madison Nashotah House University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee Sewanee: The University of the South Leidel holds honorary degrees from Nashotah House and Huron University College

The taillight shark is a little-known species of shark in the family Dalatiidae and the only member of its genus. It is known from only four specimens collected from deep oceanic waters in the southern Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean. A small shark with a laterally compressed body and a bulbous snout, this species has unusual adaptations that indicate a specialized lifestyle: its pectoral fins are paddle-like and may be used for propulsion, unlike other sharks and it has a pouch-like gland on its abdomen that emits clouds of luminescent blue fluid; this shark is aplacental viviparous and a formidable predator for its size. The International Union for Conservation of Nature presently lacks sufficient data to assess its conservation status; the first specimen of the taillight shark was collected by the Cape Town trawler Arum in 1963 and was identified as a longnose pygmy shark before being recognized as a hitherto unknown species. The genus name Euprotomicroides comes from this shark's resemblance to the pygmy shark.

The specific epithet zantedeschia is derived from Zantedeschia aethiopica, a species of arum lily for which the trawler Arum was named. Phylogenetic analysis based on dentition indicates that the taillight shark is the most basal member of its family and is sister to the clade containing all other dalatiid species. Although no definitive fossil remains have been found, the taillight shark may have evolved in the early Paleocene epoch, as part of a larger adaptive radiation of dogfish sharks into midwater habitats; the teeth of the extinct shark Paraphorosoides ursulae, found in early Campanian deposits in Germany resemble those of the taillight shark. The four specimens of the taillight shark were caught off South Africa in a trawl operating at a depth of 458–641 m, off Uruguay in a trawl operating at a depth of 195–205 m and off Chile, near Juan Fernandez Islands; these records suggest. However, whether the known specimens were captured near the sea bottom where the trawls operated or from midwater as the nets were being retrieved is unclear.

The taillight shark is laterally compressed, with large oval eyes. The mouth is large, containing 34 tooth rows in the lower jaw; the upper teeth are small and needle-like, while the lower teeth are large and triangular, with their bases interlocking to form a continuous cutting surface. The lips are fringed, though not modified to be suctorial; the five pairs of gill slits increase in size from the first to the last. The two dorsal fins lack spines; the pectoral fins are enlarged into rounded paddles. The pelvic fins originate at the level of the second dorsal fin; the caudal fin has a long upper lobe with a prominent notch near the tip. The body is covered by non-overlapping dermal denticles; the body is dark brown black below, with light margins on the fins. Small, light-emitting photophores are scattered over the body; the first specimen was an immature female 17.6 cm long, the second was a mature male 41.6 cm long, the third was a mature male 45.5 cm long and the fourth specimen was a mature female 51.5 cm.

The muscular, lobe-like pectoral fins of the taillight shark suggest they may be used for propulsion, in a manner more akin to that of chimaeras than other sharks or at least for hovering in the water column. Its built jaws and teeth allow it to tackle large prey. On the belly in front of the cloaca is a pouch-like groove devoid of denticles and lined with a luminescent tissue formed into numerous packed papillae; the entrance to the pouch is a slit lined with folds of skin. In life, the pouch emits a glowing blue fluid of unknown function. Reproduction is aplacental viviparous as in the other members of its family; the taillight shark is not caught by any fishery due to its small size and habitat preferences. The International Union for Conservation of Nature has assessed its conservation status as least concern

Erin Moriarty is an American actress. She has had recurring roles on the television series One Life to Live and True Detective, was a series regular on Red Widow and Jessica Jones, has appeared in supporting roles in several films; as of 2019, Moriarty is part of the main cast of Amazon Prime Video's original series The Boys based on the comic book series of the same name, playing Annie January/Starlight. She was raised in New York City, New York. Moriarty began acting as young as 11 years old, starring as Annie in a 2005 Community theater production of Annie Get Your Gun. Upon graduation from high school, she deferred attending college to act, she is related to fellow actress Cathy Moriarty. Moriarty's first roles were in The Kings of Summer, she had a recurring role on season 1 of True Detective as Audrey Hart, the problem child of Woody Harrelson's character. She appeared in a 2016 film starring Mel Gibson, her role as Gibson's daughter in Blood Father received praise from critics such as Manohla Dargis of The New York Times, Alonso Duralde of TheWrap, Owen Gleiberman of Variety, but Ignatiy Vishnevetsky of The A.

V. Club felt she was unconvincing and Allen Salkin of the New York Daily News felt she was overshadowed by the likes of Gibson and William H. Macy. In September 2014, Erin Moriarty was named one of the best actors under twenty years of age by IndieWire. In Captain Fantastic, she plays the love interest of George MacKay's character. In season one of Jessica Jones, Moriarty played a college student with a difficult life. In June 2016, she was cast in the LD Entertainment feature film The Miracle Season along with Danika Yarosh and Helen Hunt. In December 2017, she was cast as Annie January / Starlight in The Boys, Amazon Studios adaptation of Garth Ennis and Darick Robertson's comic book of the same name; the series was released July 2019, was renewed for a second season. In 2019, Moriarty had a starring role in the film Driven about the sting operation which brought down auto mogul John DeLorean. Erin Moriarty on IMDb Erin Moriarty at TV.com

David Michael Garibaldi is an American performance painter. His specialty is his "Rhythm and Hue" stage act in which he creates paintings of notable rock musicians. Garibaldi was born in California, he attended Sheldon High School in Northern California, where he dropped out and didn't graduate. In July 2006 he was invited to the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame and Museum in Cleveland, where he painted a portrait of Mick Jagger. In September 2008 he was the opening act for Blue Man Group's tour in the United States, he has opened for Snoop Dogg. During the halftime of a Golden State Warriors basketball game in November 2007, Garibaldi painted Carlos Santana, after which the musician unexpectedly greeted Garibaldi and signed the creation. On April 11, 2009, he painted a portrait of Jesus. On July 29, 2010, he painted his first self-portrait during a benefit performance at the 11th Annual Sacramento Film and Music Festival at the Crest Theatre, following the world premiere of Walking Dreams, a documentary about his work directed by Chad Ross.

On April 20, 2012, Garibaldi painted Jeremy Lin during halftime of the New York Knicks game. Garibaldi appeared in the seventh season of America's Got Talent, he went to the finals with David Garibaldi and His CMYK's, finishing in fourth place. Garibaldi's work is derivative of the work of artists Denny Dent and Jean-Pierre Blanchard. On February 17, 2017, Garibaldi was invited by Matthew Patrick to guest-star on GTLive on YouTube. Garibaldi created several paintings. In 2019, Garibaldi appeared as the opening act for KISS on their End of the Road World Tour. Official website Picture of Jeremy Lin Cook, Ashley. "Artist inspires with music and paint". Temecula Valley News. Retrieved 2008-09-22. "Artist Update". Art Business News. 23 January 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-22

Antonio Krsticevic is an Australian politician, the Liberal member for Carine in the Western Australian Legislative Assembly. He was elected at the 2008 election. Born in Zagreb, Krsticevic emigrated to Australia at the age of three with his family a few years after his father established himself, became a citizen at age 10. After completing a Bachelor of Business with a major in Accounting and Computing, he worked for 20 years at the Australian Taxation Office in Perth, he served on the Ethnic Communities Council's management committee and was a founding member and the first chair of the Croatian Community Council, as well as coaching the local junior soccer team in Balcatta. He joined the Liberal Party in January 2008 after being asked to nominate for Carine after the incumbent member, Katie Hodson-Thomas, announced her retirement, his parliamentary maiden speech referred to his Catholic beliefs, was identified by Amanda O'Brien of the Australian newspaper as part of a four-member "god squad" in WA politics.

After the 2017 election defeat of the Barnet Government he became a contender to lead the parliamentary Liberal party from opposition