A shell is a payload-carrying projectile that, as opposed to shot, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage sometimes includes large solid projectiles properly termed shot. Solid shot may contain a pyrotechnic compound if a spotting charge is used, it was called a "bombshell", but "shell" has come to be unambiguous in a military context. All explosive- and incendiary-filled projectiles for mortars, were called grenades, derived from the pomegranate, so called because the many-seeded fruit suggested the powder-filled, fragmenting bomb, or from the similarity of shape. Words cognate with grenade are still used for an artillery or mortar projectile in some European languages. Shells are large-caliber projectiles fired by artillery, combat vehicles, warships. Shells have the shape of a cylinder topped by an ogive-shaped nose for good aerodynamic performance with a tapering base, but some specialized types are quite different. Solid cannonballs did not need a fuse, but hollow munitions filled with something such as gunpowder to fragment the ball, needed a fuse, either impact or time.
Percussion fuses with a spherical projectile presented a challenge because there was no way of ensuring that the impact mechanism contacted the target. Therefore, shells needed a time fuse, ignited before or during firing and burned until the shell reached its target; the earliest record of shells being used in combat was by the Republic of Venice at Jadra in 1376. Shells with fuses were used at the 1421 siege of St Boniface in Corsica; these were two hollowed hemispheres of bronze held together by an iron hoop. Written evidence for early explosive shells in China appears in the early Ming Dynasty Chinese military manual Huolongjing, compiled by Jiao Yu and Liu Bowen sometime before the latter's death, a preface added by Jiao in 1412; as described in their book, these hollow, gunpowder-packed shells were made of cast iron. At least since the 16th century grenades made of ceramics or glass were in use in Central Europe. A hoard of several hundred ceramic grenades were discovered during building works in front of a bastion of the Bavarian city of Ingolstadt, Germany dated to the 17th century.
Lots of the grenades igniters. Most the grenades were intentionally dumped in the moat of the bastion before the year 1723. An early problem was that there was no means of measuring the time to detonation — reliable fuses did not yet exist and the burning time of the powder fuse was subject to considerable trial and error. Early powder burning fuses had to be loaded fuse down to be ignited by firing or a portfire put down the barrel to light the fuse. Other shells were wrapped in bitumen cloth, which would ignite during the firing and in turn ignite a powder fuse. Shells came into regular use in the 16th century, for example a 1543 English mortar shell was filled with'wildfire'. By the 18th century, it was known that the fuse toward the muzzle could be lit by the flash through the windage between the shell and the barrel. At about this time, shells began to be employed for horizontal fire from howitzers with a small propelling charge and, in 1779, experiments demonstrated that they could be used from guns with heavier charges.
The use of exploding shells from field artillery became commonplace from early in the 19th century. Until the mid 19th century, shells remained as simple exploding spheres that used gunpowder, set off by a slow burning fuse, they were made of cast iron, but bronze, lead and glass shell casings were experimented with. The word bomb encompassed them at the time, as heard in the lyrics of The Star-Spangled Banner, although today that sense of bomb is obsolete; the thickness of the metal body was about a sixth of their diameter and they were about two thirds the weight of solid shot of the same caliber. To ensure that shells were loaded with their fuses toward the muzzle, they were attached to wooden bottoms called sabots. In 1819, a committee of British artillery officers recognized that they were essential stores and in 1830 Britain standardized sabot thickness as a half inch; the sabot was intended to reduce jamming during loading. Despite the use of exploding shell, the use of smoothbore cannons firing spherical projectiles of shot remained the dominant artillery method until the 1850s.
The mid 19th century saw a revolution in artillery, with the introduction of the first practical rifled breech loading weapons. The new methods resulted in the reshaping of the spherical shell into its modern recognizable cylindro-conoidal form; this shape improved the in-flight stability of the projectile and meant that the primitive time fuzes could be replaced with the percussion fuze situated in the nose of the shell. The new shape meant that further, armor-piercing designs could be used. During the 20th Century, shells became streamlined. In World War I, ogives were two circular radius head - the curve was a segment of a circle having a radius of twice the shell caliber. After that war, ogive shapes became more elongated. From the 1960s, higher quality steels were introduced by some countries for their HE shells, this enabled thinner shell walls with less weight of metal and hence a greater weight of explosive. Ogives were further elongated to improve their ballistic performance. Advances in metallurgy in the industrial era allowed for the construction of rifled breech-loading guns that could fire at a much greater muzzle velocity.
After the British artillery was shown up in the Cri
A self-service laundry, coin laundry, laundromat or coin wash is a facility where clothes are washed and dried without much personalized professional help. Laundromats are known in the United Kingdom as launderettes or laundrettes, in the United States, Canada and New Zealand as laundromats or washaterias, it is known. While most homes do have their own washers and driers, laundromats are still popular with some apartment dwellers and those who do not own their own machines, they are used by those who own their own machines, for large bedding and other items that ordinary residential washers cannot accommodate. Most UK households have bedding which are far above the capacity of domestic machines, making launderettes the only means available for cleaning them; some laundries employ staff to provide service for the customers. Minimal service centres may provide an attendant behind a counter to provide change, sell washing powder, watch unattended machines for potential theft of clothing. Others allow customers to drop off clothing to be washed and folded.
This is referred to as fluff & fold, wash-n-fold, drop off, bachelor bundles, a service wash or full-service wash. Some staffed laundry facilities provide dry cleaning pick-up and drop-off. There are over 35,000 laundries throughout the United States. Similar services exist in the United Kingdom where the terms service wash or full-service wash are in use; the evolution of self-serve laundry services have been seen in some "fluff and fold" services provided by various laundromats. These services provide the end user with washing and folding services on a per pound basis; some services offer free pickup and delivery, as well as complimentary laundry bags as part of their customer appreciation. Additionally, dry-cleaning services have been known to utilize the pickup and delivery as a means to help generate additional revenue. On-premise laundromats are found in locations such as hospitals, student residences at universities, or apartment blocks. Facility managers/maintenance staff work directly with machine distributors to supply and maintain washers and dryers.
Use of the machines are reserved for the residents of these facilities. Self-service laundry facilities in the United States are most called laundromats. "Washateria" is not in common use outside of Texas. The term comes from the first laundromat in the United States, known as a Washateria, was opened on April 18, 1934 in Fort Worth, Texas by C. A. Tannahill. Though steam-powered laundry machines were invented in the 19th century, their cost put them out of reach of many. Cantrell and others began renting short-term use of their machines. Most laundromats in the US are automated and coin-operated and unmanned, with many operating 24 hours a day; the invention of the coin-operated laundry machine is ascribed to Harry Greenwald of New York who created Greenwald Industries in 1957. The United States Census Bureau estimates that there are 11,000 of this style of laundromat in the US, employing 39,000 people and generating over $3.4 billion every year. The first UK launderette was opened on 9 May 1949 in Queensway.
UK launderettes are fully automated, coin-operated and are either manned or unmanned. Some may be manned during fewer hours than the operating time each week, they are found only in urban and suburban areas and have been common features of urban life since the 1960s. In the last two decades there has been a decline in the number of launderettes, to 3000 nationally. Rising utility charges, premises rent and a lower purchase cost of domestic machines have been noted as principal reasons for the recent decline. High initial launch costs for commercial washing machines and dryers, have been commented on as reasons for fewer new entrants into the market. Furthermore, machine updates can be prohibitively expensive, which has held back premises investment. Many of the manned operations in the UK have added value services such as ironing, dry cleaning and service washes, which prove popular to busy professionals and senior citizens. Student accommodation blocks have their own unmanned laundries, which are commercially run at a profit by the accommodation provider.
Local directories such as the yellow pages and Thomson only show those laundries that have chosen to pay for an entry in their directories, so trends are difficult to assess. However, cities such as Birmingham, Liverpool and Leeds have significant numbers of launderettes, as do many coastal tourist areas; the main manufacturers serving the UK in this market are IPSO, Electrolux and Maytag. Brands such as Speed Queen and Frigidaire are regularly deployed, with most originating from Belgium and the US. Whilst the future of launderettes in the UK is not assured, domestic machine users experiencing breakdowns in the home, users of large bedding, tourists are potential customers, thereby making the provision valuable to the community. Self service laundries are available and in use by a good percentage of the population. Due to its mild weather, Australia has a much smaller percentage of dryer owners, as the mild weather allows for hanging laundry outside for most of the year, with the exception of a few months.
The brief Australian winter sees a surge in the
Speed Queen (comics)
Speed Queen is a fictional extraterrestrial supervillain published by DC Comics. Speed Queen first appeared in Hawk and Dove vol. 2 #21, was created by Karl Kesel, Barbara Kesel and Steve Erwin. A ruthless thrill-seeker, Speed Queen is a member of the junior Female Furies. Paired with Gilotina, Speed Queen battles Hawk and Dove in competition with Malice Vundabarr and Bloody Mary. Speed Queen is tricked into skating into an explosive boiler, but she survives and attacks the heroes once more; however and Mary are able to win the competition. Speed Queen continues with the Female Furies, battles heroes such as Superboy and Sovereign Seven, she is brutally murdered in Outsiders: Five of a Kind - Martian Manhunter/Thunder by the Infinity-Man, killing the New Gods in the Countdown series. Speed Queen is a speedster, able to move at incredible velocities on her roller blades. Speed Queen appeared in the DC Super Hero Girls TV special "Super Hero High," voiced by Mae Whitman
The Raytheon Company is a major U. S. defense contractor and industrial corporation with core manufacturing concentrations in weapons and military and commercial electronics. It was involved in corporate and special-mission aircraft until early 2007. Raytheon is the world's largest producer of guided missiles. Established in 1922, the company reincorporated in 1928 and adopted its present name in 1959; as of 2017 the company had around 64,000 employees worldwide and annual revenues of US$25.35 billion. More than 90% of Raytheon's revenues were obtained from military contracts and, as of 2012, it was the fifth-largest military contractor in the world; as of 2015, it is the third largest defense contractor in the United States by defense revenue. In 2003, Raytheon's headquarters moved from Massachusetts, to Waltham, Massachusetts; the company had been headquartered in Cambridge, from 1922 to 1928, Massachusetts, from 1928 to 1941, Waltham from 1941 to 1961 and Lexington from 1961 to 2003. In 1922, two former Tufts University School of Engineering roommates Laurence K. Marshall and Vannevar Bush, along with scientist Charles G. Smith, founded the American Appliance Company in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Its focus, on new refrigeration technology, soon shifted to electronics. The company's first product was a gaseous rectifier, based on Charles Smith's earlier astronomical research of the star Zeta Puppis; the electron tube was christened with the name Raytheon and was used in a battery eliminator, a type of radio-receiver power supply that plugged into the power grid in place of large batteries. This made it possible to convert household alternating current to direct current for radios and thus eliminate the need for expensive, short-lived batteries. In 1925, the company changed its name to Raytheon Manufacturing Company and began marketing its rectifier, under the Raytheon brand name, with commercial success. In 1928 Raytheon merged with Q. R. S. Company, an American manufacturer of electron tubes and switches, to form the successor of the same name, Raytheon Manufacturing Company. By the 1930s, it had grown to become one of the world's largest vacuum tube manufacturing companies. In 1933 it diversified by acquiring Acme-Delta Company, a producer of transformers, power equipment, electronic auto parts.
Early in World War II, physicists in the United Kingdom invented the magnetron, a specialized microwave-generating electron tube that markedly improved the capability of radar to detect enemy aircraft. American companies were sought by the US government to perfect and mass-produce the magnetron for ground-based and shipborne radar systems, with support from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Radiation Laboratory, Raytheon received a contract to build the devices. Within a few months of being awarded the contract, Raytheon had begun to mass manufacture magnetron tubes for use in radar sets and complete radar systems. At war's end in 1945 the company was responsible for about 80 percent of all magnetrons manufactured. During the war Raytheon pioneered the production of shipboard radar systems for submarine detection. Raytheon ranked 71st among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts. Raytheon's research on the magnetron tube revealed the potential of microwaves to cook food.
In 1945, Raytheon's Percy Spencer invented the microwave oven by discovering that the magnetron could heat food. In 1947, the company demonstrated the Radarange microwave oven for commercial use. In 1945, the company expanded its electronics capability through acquisitions that included the Submarine Signal Company, a leading manufacturer of maritime safety equipment. With its broadened capabilities, Raytheon developed the first guidance system for a missile that could intercept a flying target. In 1948, Raytheon began to manufacture guided missiles. In 1950, its Lark missile became the first such weapon to destroy a target aircraft in flight. Raytheon received military contracts to develop the air-to-air Sparrow and ground-to-air Hawk missiles—projects that received impetus from the Korean War. In decades, it remained a major producer of missiles, among them the Patriot antimissile missile and the air-to-air Phoenix missile. In 1959, Raytheon acquired the marine electronics company Apelco Applied Electronics, which increased its strength in commercial marine navigation and radio gear, as well as less-expensive Japanese suppliers of products such as marine/weather band radios and direction-finding gear.
In the same year, it changed its name to Raytheon Company. During the post-war years, Raytheon made low- to medium-powered radio and television transmitters and related equipment for the commercial market, but the high-powered market was solidly in the hands of larger, better financed competitors such as Continental Electronics, General Electric and Radio Corporation of America. In the 1950s, Raytheon began manufacturing transistors, including the CK722, priced and marketed to hobbyists. In 1961, the British electronics company A. C. Cossor merged with Raytheon; the new Company's name was Raytheon Cossor. The Cossor side of the organisation is still current in the Raytheon group As of 2010. In 1965, it acquired Amana Inc. a manufacturer of refrigerators and air conditioners. Using the Amana brand name and its distribution channels, Raytheon began selling the first countertop household microwave oven in 1967 and became a dominant manufacturer in the microwave oven business. In 1966, the company entered the educational publ
An apartment, flat or unit is a self-contained housing unit that occupies only part of a building on a single storey. There are many names for these overall buildings; the housing tenure of apartments varies from large-scale public housing, to owner occupancy within what is a condominium, to tenants renting from a private landlord. Both words refer to a self-contained residential unit with its own front door, kitchen and bathroom. In some parts of the world, the word apartment refers to a purpose-built unit in a building, whereas the word flat means a converted unit in an older building a big house. In other places the terms are interchangeable; the term apartment is favored in North America. In the UK, the term apartment is more usual in professional real estate and architectural circles where otherwise the term flat is used but not for an apartment on a single level. In some countries the word "unit" is a more general term referring to both apartments and rental business suites; the word'unit' is used only in the context of a specific building.
"This building has three units" or "I'm going to rent a unit in this building", but not "I'm going to rent a unit somewhere". Some buildings can be characterized as'mixed use buildings', meaning part of the building is for commercial, business, or office use on the first floor or first couple of floors, one or more apartments are found in the rest of the building on the upper floors. Tenement law rents, it may be found combined as in "Messuage or Tenement" to encompass all the land and other assets of a property. In the United States, some apartment-dwellers own their units, either as co-ops, in which the residents own shares of a corporation that owns the building or development. Most apartments are in buildings designed for the purpose, but large older houses are sometimes divided into apartments; the word apartment denotes a residential section in a building. In some locations the United States, the word connotes a rental unit owned by the building owner, is not used for a condominium. In England and Wales, some flat owners own shares in the company that owns the freehold of the building as well as holding the flat under a lease.
This arrangement is known as a "share of freehold" flat. The freehold company has the right to collect annual ground rents from each of the flat owners in the building; the freeholder can develop or sell the building, subject to the usual planning and restrictions that might apply. This situation does not happen in Scotland, where long leasehold of residential property was unusual, is now impossible. Bachelor apartment, one-bedroom, etc.. Apartment buildings are multi-story buildings where three or more residences are contained within one structure; such a building may be called an apartment building, apartment complex, flat complex, block of flats, tower block, high-rise or mansion block if it consists of many apartments for rent. A high-rise apartment building is referred to as a residential tower, apartment tower, or block of flats in Australia. A high-rise building is defined by its height differently in various jurisdictions, it may be only residential, in which case it might be called a tower block, or it might include other functions such as hotel, offices, or shops.
There is no clear difference between a tower block and a skyscraper, although a building with fifty or more stories is considered a skyscraper. High-rise buildings became possible with the invention of the elevator and cheaper, more abundant building materials, their structural system is made of reinforced concrete and steel. A low-rise building and mid-rise buildings have fewer storeys. Emporis defines a low-rise as "an enclosed structure below 35 metres, divided into regular floor levels." The city of Toronto defines a mid-rise as a building between 12 stories. In American English, the distinction between rental apartments and condominiums is that while rental buildings are owned by a single entity and rented out to many, condominiums are owned individually, while their owners still pay a monthly or yearly fee for building upkeep. Condominiums are leased by their owner as rental apartments. A third alternative, the cooperative apartment building, acts as a corporation with all of the tenants as shareholders of the building.
Tenants in cooperative buildings do not own their apartment, but instead own a proportional number of shares of the entire cooperative. As in condominiums, cooperators pay a monthly fee for building upkeep. Co-ops are common in cities such as New York, have gained some popularity in other larger urban areas in the U. S. In British English the usual word is "flat", but apartment is used by property developers to denote expensive'flats' in exclusive and expensive residential areas in, for example, parts of London such as Belgravia and Hampstead. In Scotland, it is called a block of flats or, if it is a traditional sandstone building, a tenement, a term which has a negative connotation elsewhere. Australian English and New Zealand Engli
A washing machine is a device used to wash laundry. The term is applied to machines that use water as opposed to dry cleaning or ultrasonic cleaners; the user adds laundry detergent, sold in liquid or powder form to the wash water. Laundering by hand involves soaking, beating and rinsing dirty textiles. Before indoor plumbing, the washerwoman or housewife had to carry all the water used for washing and rinsing the laundry. Water for the laundry would be hand carried, heated on a fire for washing poured into the tub; that made the warm soapy water precious. Removal of soap and water from the clothing after washing was a separate process. First, soap would be rinsed out with clear water. After rinsing, the soaking wet clothing would be formed into a roll and twisted by hand to extract water; the entire process occupied an entire day of hard work, plus drying and ironing. It is often used in washbasins. Clothes washer technology developed as a way to reduce the manual labor spent, providing an open basin or sealed container with paddles or fingers to automatically agitate the clothing.
The earliest machines were hand-operated and constructed from wood, while machines made of metal permitted a fire to burn below the washtub, keeping the water warm throughout the day's washing. The earliest special-purpose mechanical washing device was the washboard, invented in 1797 by Nathaniel Briggs of New Hampshire. By the mid-1850s steam-driven commercial laundry machinery were on sale in the UK and US. Technological advances in machinery for commercial and institutional washers proceeded faster than domestic washer design for several decades in the UK. In the United States there was more emphasis on developing machines for washing at home, though machines for commercial laundry services were used in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; the rotary washing machine was patented by Hamilton Smith in 1858. As electricity was not available until at least 1930, some early washing machines were operated by a low-speed, single-cylinder hit-and-miss gasoline engine. After the items were washed and rinsed, water had to be removed by twisting.
To help reduce this labor, the wringer/mangle machine was developed. As implied by the term "mangle," these early machines were quite dangerous if powered and not hand-driven. A user's fingers, arm, or hair could become entangled in the laundry being squeezed, resulting in horrific injuries. Safer mechanisms were developed over time, the more hazardous designs were outlawed; the mangle used two rollers under spring tension to squeeze water out of clothing and household linen. Each laundry item would be fed through the wringer separately; the first wringers were hand-cranked, but were included as a powered attachment above the washer tub. The wringer would be swung over the wash tub so that extracted wash water would fall back into the tub to be reused for the next load; the modern process of water removal by spinning did not come into use until electric motors were developed. Spinning requires a constant high-speed power source, was done in a separate device known as an "extractor". A load of washed laundry would be transferred from the wash tub to the extractor basket, the water spun out in a separate operation.
These early extractors were dangerous to use, since unevenly distributed loads would cause the machine to shake violently. Many efforts were made to counteract the shaking of unstable loads, such as mounting the spinning basket on a free-floating shock-absorbing frame to absorb minor imbalances, a bump switch to detect severe movement and stop the machine so that the load could be manually redistributed. What is now referred to as an automatic washer was at one time referred to as a "washer/extractor", which combined the features of these two devices into a single machine, plus the ability to fill and drain water by itself, it is possible to take this a step further, to merge the automatic washing machine and clothes dryer into a single device, called a combo washer dryer. The first English patent under the category of Washing machines was issued in 1691. A drawing of an early washing machine appeared in the January 1752 issue of The Gentleman's Magazine, a British publication. Jacob Christian Schäffer's washing machine design was published 1767 in Germany.
In 1782, Henry Sidgier issued a British patent for a rotating drum washer, in the 1790s Edward Beetham sold numerous "patent washing mills" in England. One of the first innovations in washing machine technology was the use of enclosed containers or basins that had grooves, fingers, or paddles to help with the scrubbing and rubbing of the clothes; the person using the washer would use a stick to press and rotate the clothes along the textured sides of the basin or container, agitating the clothes to remove dirt and mud. This crude agitator technology was hand-powered, but still more effective than hand-washing the clothes. More advancements were made to washing machine technology in the form of the rotative drum design; these early design patents consisted of a drum washer, hand-cranked to make the wooden drums rotate. While the technology was simple enough, it was a milestone in the history of washing machines, as it introduced the idea of "powered" washing drums; as metal drums st
An agitator is a device or mechanism to put something into motion by shaking or stirring. There are several types of agitation machines, including washing machine agitators and magnetic agitators. Agitators can come depending on the application. In general, agitators consist of an impeller and a shaft. An impeller is a rotor located within a conduit attached to the shaft, it helps enhance the pressure in order for the flow of a fluid be done. Modern industrial agitators incorporate process control to maintain better control over the mixing process. In a top load washing machine the agitator projects from the bottom of the wash basket and creates the wash action by rotating back and forth, rolling garments from the top of the load, down to the bottom back up again. There are several types of agitators with the most common being the "straight-vane" and "dual-action" agitators; the "straight-vane" is a one-part agitator with bottom and side fins that turns back and forth. The Dual-action is a two-part agitator that has bottom washer fins that move back and forth and a spiral top that rotates clockwise to help guide the clothes to the bottom washer fins.
The modern agitator, dual-action, was first made in Kenmore Appliances washing machines in the 1980s to present. These agitators are known by the company as dual-rollover and triple-rollover action agitators; this is a device formed by a metallic bar, covered by a plastic layer, a sheet that has underneath it a rotatory magnet or a series of electromagnets arranged in a circular form to create a magnetic rotatory field. The sheet has an arrangement of electric resistances that can heat some chemical solutions. During the operation of a typical magnetic agitator, the agitator bar is moved inside a container such as to dissolve a substance in a liquid; the container must be placed on the sheet, so that the magnetic field influences the agitation bar and makes it rotate. This allows it to mix different substances at high speeds. Impeller Tedder Mixing Mixing paddle 1. Uses of Agitators, June 26, 2012 2. Agitator, May 30, 2016 3. Agitator tank device and drag reduction agent evaluation October, 23, 2018 4.
Slurry Agitators October, 23, 2018 Specific